2016年8月22日 (月)

露トルコ急接近 米欧の安保秩序に影を落とす

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Rapid Russia-Turkey rapprochement casts shadow on West’s security order
露トルコ急接近 米欧の安保秩序に影を落とす

If Turkey, a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, becomes excessively close to Russia, it would affect the security order led by the United States and Europe. The current situation is serious.
 北大西洋条約機構(NATO)加盟国のトルコがロシアに過度に接近すれば、米欧主導の安全保障秩序に影響しよう。深刻な事態である。

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has held talks in Russia with Russian President Vladimir Putin, in which they agreed to mend the bilateral relations strained after the shooting down of a Russian military jet by Turkey in November.
 トルコのエルドアン大統領がロシアでプーチン大統領と会談し、昨年11月のトルコによる露軍機撃墜以降、悪化している関係を修復することで合意した。

Stating that Erdogan apologized for the downing of the plane in June, Russia is set to gradually lift economic sanctions on Turkey, including restrictions on sightseeing trips to the country and an import ban on Turkish livestock and agricultural products. During his latest visit to Russia, Erdogan even described Putin as his “dear friend.”
 ロシアは、エルドアン氏が今年6月に撃墜を謝罪したとして、トルコへの観光旅行の制限や、トルコ産農産物の禁輸など、経済制裁を段階的に解除する。エルドアン氏は今回の訪露で、プーチン氏を「親友」とまで呼んだ。

The easing of tensions between the two nations can be a positive move conducive to preventing the regional situation from becoming complicated. What is worrying is that the rapid formation of a closer relationship between the two countries noticeably points to their ulterior motive of restraining the United States and European nations.
 緊張緩和は地域情勢の複雑化を避ける上で評価できる。懸念されるのは、両国の急接近に米欧牽制けんせいの思惑が目立つことである。

Erdogan escalated a purge of opponents after an abortive coup took place in July. The president has demanded Washington extradite a religious leader living in the United States whom Erdogan regards as the mastermind of the coup attempt. He is also considering reinstating the death penalty, a move the European Union opposes.
 エルドアン氏は、7月のクーデター未遂事件後、反対勢力の粛清をエスカレートさせた。事件の黒幕とみなす在米宗教指導者の引き渡しを米国に要求し、欧州連合(EU)が反対する死刑制度の復活も検討している。

Erdogan’s efforts to forge a highly amicable relationship with Russia without listening to U.S. and European criticism directed at him may indicate his determination to adhere to an iron-fisted regime, even by abandoning his country’s long-cherished aim of gaining accession to the EU.
 米欧の批判に耳を貸さず、ロシアとの蜜月を演出したのは、長年の目標であるEU加盟を断念してでも、強権統治を貫くという意思の表れではないか。

Maintain dialogue with EU

Turkey has also hinted at suspending a measure to accept Syrian refugees remaining in Greece. If Turkey’s accord reached with the EU in March is scrapped, there would inevitably be a renewed rise in the number of refugees who are smuggled into European countries.
 トルコは、ギリシャに滞留するシリア難民を受け入れる措置の停止もちらつかせている。今年3月のEUとの合意が白紙になれば、欧州への密航者が再び増加するのは避けられまい。

It is important for Turkey and the EU to maintain their dialogue so common ground can be found in their positions, a task necessary to steadily implement the agreement.
 合意の着実な履行に向けて、トルコとEUは対話を維持し、接点を探ることが肝要である。

Russia has been at odds with the United States and European nations over the Ukraine situation and other issues. Russia’s acceptance of Turkey’s calls for improving their ties at this juncture may signify an attempt to shake NATO and take the initiative in dealing with the Syrian situation.
 ウクライナ情勢などを巡って、ロシアは米欧と対立を続けている。この時期にトルコとの関係改善に応じたのは、NATOを揺さぶり、シリア情勢の主導権を握る狙いがあるのだろう。

Russia joins Iran in supporting the government of Syrian President Bashar Assad. In mid-August, Russian forces for the first time used an air base in Iran to conduct air strikes in Syria.
 ロシアはイランと共に、シリアのアサド政権の後ろ盾となっている。ロシア軍は今月半ば、初めてイランの空軍基地を利用し、シリア空爆も行った。

Given that Turkey, as a member of the U.S. and European camp, is supporting Syria’s antigovernment forces, the mending of ties between Moscow and Ankara seems to have been intended to keep the Assad administration in place by drawing Turkey closer to the Russian side.
 米欧側の一員として反体制派を支援するトルコをロシア側に引き寄せることで、政権温存につなげようとしているのではないか。

The U.S. military is conducting air strikes on the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant militant group in Syria using an air base in Turkey from which to send planes. If Turkey continues to cozy up to Russia, it would adversely affect the U.S. operations. That could also hinder peace talks over Syria.
 米軍は、トルコの空軍基地を拠点に、シリアで過激派組織「イスラム国」に対する空爆を行っている。トルコの対露接近が続けば、作戦にも悪影響が出る。シリア和平協議の障害にもなろう。

U.S. Vice President Joe Biden will soon visit Turkey. His visit must serve as an opportunity to find out about Erdogan’s true motives while also rebuilding relations between their nations.
 米国のバイデン副大統領は近くトルコを訪問する。エルドアン氏の真意を探り、関係を立て直す契機とせねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 21, 2016)

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2016年8月21日 (日)

核先制不使用 首相はオバマ氏に力を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 19
EDITORIAL: Abe should be backing Obama’s ‘no first use’ nuclear proposal
(社説)核先制不使用 首相はオバマ氏に力を

The nuclear “no first use” principle means a country will not use nuclear weapons unless it is first attacked by an enemy using nuclear arms.
 敵の核攻撃がない限り、核兵器を先に使わない。それが「核の先制不使用」だ。

U.S. President Barack Obama is said to be considering adopting this policy. But Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has conveyed his opposition to such a move to Adm. Harry Harris Jr., head of the U.S. Pacific Command, according to a recent report by The Washington Post.
 オバマ米大統領が検討しているとされるこの政策について、安倍首相がハリス米太平洋軍司令官に反対姿勢を示したと米紙ワシントン・ポストが報じた。

The report said Abe expressed concerns that if Obama declares a “no first use” policy, deterrence against North Korea will suffer and the risks of conflict will rise.
 同紙によると首相は、北朝鮮に対する抑止力が弱まり、紛争の危険が高まるという趣旨の懸念を伝えたという。

The Japanese government has made no official comment on the report, and it is not clear if Abe really made these remarks.
 報道に対し日本政府の公式な説明はなく、首相が本当にこうした発言をしたのかは不明だ。

The Japanese government’s traditional position has been that it cannot support the “no first use” policy because it would undermine deterrence of the nuclear umbrella.
ただ日本政府はこれまで、先制不使用は「核の傘」の抑止力を損なうもので賛同しがたいとの立場をとってきた。

Talking to The Asahi Shimbun about the report, a senior Foreign Ministry official said: “If the U.S. administration declares no first use of nuclear weapons, there can be no extended deterrence provided by the United States to protect Japan. That’s not going to happen.”
 今回も外務省幹部は朝日新聞の取材に、「もし米政権が核の先制不使用を宣言すれば、日本を守る米国の拡大抑止は成立しなくなる。あり得ない話だ」と述べている。

For Japan, which once suffered nuclear devastation, this stance is too backward-looking to take.
 被爆国・日本として、あまりにも後ろ向きな姿勢と言わざるをえない。

There can be no winner or loser in a nuclear war.
 核戦争には、勝者も敗者もない。

And the risk of nuclear warfare cannot be eliminated as long as nations depend on nuclear deterrence for their security.
核抑止論に立つ限り、核戦争の危険はなくせない。

A major nuclear power’s attempt to reduce the role of nuclear arms in national security is a boost to efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation.
核の拡散を防ぐためにも、世界有数の核保有国が核の役割を減らす姿勢を示すことは意義がある。

A harsh assessment of the security environment is necessary. But many experts argue that conventional weapons of the U.S. military offer sufficient deterrence against North Korea and other countries.
 安保環境を厳しく見る必要はあるが、米軍の通常戦力だけでも北朝鮮などへの抑止は機能しているという見方も有力だ。

In his speech in Hiroshima three months ago, Obama said, “We must have the courage to escape the logic of fear and pursue a world without them (nuclear weapons).”
 「核兵器のない世界を追求する勇気を」。

Abe, who stood beside Obama in Hiroshima, should cooperate actively with the president in his bid to promote the policy of “no first use.”
3カ月前、広島でそう呼びかけたオバマ氏に同行した安倍首相は、むしろ積極的にオバマ氏に協力し、先制不使用を後押しすべきだ。

In addition to Japan, South Korea, which is also protected by the U.S. nuclear umbrella, and two nuclear powers--Britain and France--have communicated their concerns about the change in the U.S. nuclear-weapons policy, according to The Washington Post.
 ワシントン・ポストによれば日本と同様、米国の「核の傘」に入る韓国のほか、核保有国の英国やフランスも政策転換に反対しているという。

On the other hand, a group of former government officials of Asia-Pacific countries, including former Foreign Minister Yoriko Kawaguchi and former Australian Foreign Minister Gareth Evans, recently released a joint statement calling on the Obama administration to pledge never to be the first to use nuclear weapons and urging Japan and other U.S. allies to support the policy.
 一方で、川口順子元外相や豪州のエバンズ元外相らアジア太平洋地域の元閣僚らは最近、オバマ政権に先制不使用を求め、日本を含む米国の同盟国に支持を促す声明を出した。

Japan, which has first-hand experiences of the ravages of nuclear attacks, should never take action that hinders any global trend toward a world without nuclear weapons.
 核の惨禍を身をもって知る日本が、非核への歩を進めようという世界の潮流を阻むことがあってはならない。

Japan’s foreign policy should be focused on efforts to realize a security system not dependent on the nuclear umbrella. Tokyo should declare its will to pursue that goal and hold serious negotiations with Washington to achieve it.
 「核の傘」に頼らぬ安全保障をめざし、その意志と目標を掲げ、米国と協議を進めることこそ日本外交にはふさわしい。

Such efforts would enhance Japan’s moral position and contribute to stability and peace in the region.
 それが結果として日本の道義的な立場を高め、地域の安定と平和にも資するはずだ。

In Hiroshima, Abe pledged to “continue to make efforts” to realize a world without nuclear weapons.
 首相は広島で、核兵器のない世界に向けて「絶え間なく努力を積み重ねていく」と誓った。

Abe needs to offer a clear vision and take concrete actions to deliver on his promise.
 そのために何をするのか、具体的なビジョンと行動が問われている。

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2016年8月20日 (土)

中国と南シナ海 行動規範を骨抜きにするな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Beijing mustn’t undermine code of conduct for South China Sea
中国と南シナ海 行動規範を骨抜きにするな

To rein in backlash from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, China has agreed to hold negotiations on international rules. But it seems to be making a self-centered effort to render any agreement toothless.
 国際ルールの協議に応じることで、東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)の反発を抑え、内容を骨抜きにする。中国はそんな独善的な筋書きを描いているのではないか。

In a bid to work out a code of conduct to prevent any conflict in the South China Sea, China has agreed with ASEAN to hold formal negotiations among high-ranking officials with the aim of reaching a framework agreement by the middle of next year.
 南シナ海での紛争防止を図る「行動規範」の策定に向けて、中国とASEANが公式高官協議を開き、来年半ばまでに枠組み合意を目指すことで一致した。

China had been cautious about the establishment of such a code. But Beijing has likely changed its tack based on the belief that international criticism would be directed toward it during a meeting of Group of 20 major economies to be chaired by China early next month.
 中国は行動規範の策定に慎重だった。これ以上、期限を決めなければ、来月初めに中国が議長として開く主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議で国際社会の批判が自国に集中すると考えたのだろう。

However, it cannot be overlooked that China has expressed its intention of not taking up the South China Sea issue during the G-20 meeting. It has become all the more important for leaders of participating countries to discuss the matter.
 その中国が南シナ海問題を扱わない方針を示しているのは看過できない。各国首脳が緊張緩和について議論する重要性は、むしろ高まる一方である。

A code of conduct would legally restrict the actions of China, the Philippines and other countries involved in territorial disputes in the South China Sea. Such a code is supposed to incorporate respect for the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea and the establishment of a system to oversee the behaviour of the countries concerned.
 行動規範は、領有権を争う中国やフィリピンなど関係国の行動を法的に拘束するものだ。本来は、国連海洋法条約の尊重や各国の行動を監視する仕組みの創設などを盛り込むことを想定している。

But the administration of Chinese President Xi Jinping seems to have the intention of weakening the binding power of a code of conduct as much as possible in the process of forthcoming negotiations with ASEAN countries so that its moves to militarize man-made islands will not be restricted.
 だが、習近平政権は今後のASEANとの協議で、行動規範の拘束力をできる限り弱め、人工島の軍事拠点化の動きが制約されないようにする目論見もくろみではないか。

Intl pressure vital

China has not accepted an international court ruling in July that wholly denied China’s sovereignty claims in the South China Sea, dismissing the ruling as a “piece of wastepaper.” It is impossible to think that China, which disregards international law, can fulfill its responsibilities in working out international rules.
 中国は南シナ海を巡る主権の主張を全面否定した7月の仲裁裁判所の判決を「紙くず」と言い放ち、受け入れていない。国際法を蔑ないがしろにする中国が国際ルール作りに責任を果たすとは思えまい。

Japan and the United States, in cooperation with the likes of ASEAN member countries and Australia, must ramp up pressure on Beijing as much as possible to make the planned code of conduct practically effective.
 日米は、ASEAN各国、豪州などと連携して対中圧力を強め、実効性のある行動規範にしていかねばならない。

Problematic in this respect is that China has emphasized “the need to prevent outside intervention” in South China Sea affairs, thus clarifying its stance of excluding Japan and the United States.
 問題なのは、中国が南シナ海情勢について「外部の介入を防ぐ必要がある」と強調し、日米排除の姿勢を鮮明にしたことである。

China has recently been accelerating moves to strengthen its effective control in the Spratly Islands and elsewhere.
 中国は最近も、スプラトリー(南沙)諸島などで、実効支配強化の動きを加速させている。

Analysis released by a U.S. policy research institute this month says that China has been pushing ahead with the construction of hangars capable of accommodating such aircraft as fighter jets and airborne early warning and control systems (AWACS) planes on artificial islands it has built.
 米国の政策研究機関は今月、中国が造成した複数の人工島で、戦闘機や早期警戒管制機などを収容できる格納庫の建設が進んでいるとの分析を明らかにした。

The Chinese military has also been conducting patrol flights of its new bomber over areas near the Scarborough Shoal close to the Philippines.
 中国軍はフィリピンに近いスカボロー礁付近で、新型爆撃機などの巡視飛行も繰り返している。

These moves represent nothing but China’s expansionist attempt to bring under control by large military power almost all of the South China Sea, while turning its back on the principle of the rule of law.
 「法の支配」に背を向け、南シナ海のほぼ全域を強大な軍事力で支配しようとする中国の膨張主義の表れにほかならない。

To ensure stability in the South China Sea, it is indispensable that the United States continues seaborne and airborne surveillance activities to secure “freedom of navigation and flight,” as well as to establish a monitoring system with other countries concerned.
 南シナ海の安定には、米国が「航行と飛行の自由」を確保するための艦艇と航空機の巡視活動を続けるだけでなく、関係国と監視態勢を築くことが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 19, 2016)

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2016年8月19日 (金)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡 子どもがいなくても

July 31, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Stand tall, women without children
香山リカのココロの万華鏡 子どもがいなくても

Japan's decreasing birthrate has reached grave levels. Meanwhile, mothers face a whole range of serious problems, from "maternity harassment" while they're pregnant to postpartum depression and the many stresses of raising children. There is no question that building a society where people can feel confident and at ease about having and bringing up kids is one of the most urgent tasks facing Japan today.
 いまの日本にとって少子化は深刻な事態だ。また、妊娠中の女性へのハラスメントや出産後のうつ状態、育児ストレスと、子どもを持つ女性たちはさまざまな問題に直面しなければならない。「安心して産み、育てることのできる社会」をつくることが急務であるのは間違いない。

However, there are women in every era who don't have children. There are those who want to have kids but, for various reasons, can't. And then there are those who chose not to have children for reasons of their own. These women may not insist that they are having a tough time, but they do indeed have their own specific problems and worries. I have written a book called "Non-mama to iu ikikata" (A non-mother's way of life) aimed at these very people, based not just on my experiences as a practicing psychiatrist but also on my personal life as a woman without children.
 ただ、いつの時代も「子どもを持たない女性」もいる。いろいろな事情で子どもがほしくてもそうできなかった人もいれば、自分の意思であえてその選択をしなかった人もいるだろう。そういう女性たちはあえて「私たち、たいへんなんです」とはあまり言わないが、その人たちならではの困難もあれば悩みもある。子どもを持って「ママ」にならなかった女性たちにスポットをあて「ノンママという生き方」という本にまとめてみた。診察室での経験と同時に、子どもを持たない女性のひとりである自分のことも書いた。

Patients seeing me about their child-reading worries will often ask me, "Do you have children, doctor?" I answer honestly and directly, "No, I don't." On many occasions, the patient has replied, "Oh, well then you can't understand my problems." A senior doctor once told me, "Psychiatrists only truly come to understand people's feelings when they have kids of their own." In all honesty, it hurt to hear that, and it made me wonder if I was doomed to remain forever incomplete as a psychiatrist.
 私の場合、子育ての悩みを語る患者さんに「先生はお子さんがいますか?」ときかれ、「いえ、いません」と正直に答えて「じゃ、私の悩みはわからないですよね」と言われたことが何度かある。先輩から「精神科医もわが子を育ててはじめて人の気持ちがわかる」と言われ、「私は一生、精神科医として未熟なままなのだろうか」とひそかに傷ついたこともある。

I admit I have sometimes been a little envious when listening to an old school friend talk happily about their kids. However, as I've built up various kinds of experience, I have come to think that the fact I don't have children gives me the ability to consider people's feelings and the problems of child rearing from a perspective not available to parents. And I think that's a good thing about me.
もちろん、楽しそうに子育ての話をする学校時代の同級生を見ながら、「ちょっと寂しいな」と思ったこともある。ただ、いろいろな経験を積む中で、「子どもがいないからこそ、親とは別の視点から育児や人の気持ちを考えることもできているはず。私はこれでよかったんだ」といまの自分に自信を持てるようになった。

Women without kids who come to my office often feel guilty somewhere in their hearts, and it saps their confidence. Some of them end up burning out from overwork after taking on the responsibilities of other women at their workplaces who have taken parental leave. To these tired women I always say, "You are always you, whether you have kids or not. Give what you can do your utmost effort, and don't be shy about refusing things you can't do."
 診察室で子どものない女性たちは、どこか後ろめたさを感じ、自信を失っている。職場でいつも子育て中の女性の仕事を引き受け、過労で倒れそうになっている人もいる。私はいつもそういう女性たちに、「子どもがいてもいなくても自分は自分。できることを精いっぱいやればいいし、できないことは遠慮なく断ればいい」と伝えている。

Having kids and raising them to adulthood is a wonderful thing, but that does not mean that not having kids is somehow less wonderful.
子どもを産み、育てるのはすばらしいことだが、だからといってその逆、「子どもがいないのはすばらしくない」が正しいというわけではないのだ。

Women who choose not to have children face various circumstances and many worries, but there are also things that only they can do and be proud of. I believe in my heart that everyone should be able to stand tall and say, "I am me."
 子どもを持たない人生を選んだ女性たちには、事情もあれば迷いもあり、彼女たちにしかできないことや誇りもある。誰もが胸を張って「私は私」と言えたらいいな、と心から思う。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist) (精神科医)

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2016年8月18日 (木)

タイ新憲法 国民和解につなげられるのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can Thailand’s new constitution lead to national reconciliation?
タイ新憲法 国民和解につなげられるのか

One would have to conclude that Thailand has opted for prolonging the life of the junta. Is it possible to pave the way for national reconciliation, which is Thailand’s biggest challenge?
 軍事政権の延命が図られたということだろう。タイの最大の懸案である国民和解に道筋をつけられるのか。

To obtain the trust of the international community, the junta must put all its efforts into realizing a full transition to civilian rule.
 国際社会の信頼を得るには、軍政は全面的な民政移管に力を尽くさねばならない。

A draft of a new constitution compiled under the military rule was endorsed by a majority of votes in a referendum. As the constitution was designed to ensure the military’s political influence, the content of the new basic law is far from democratic.
 軍政下でまとめられた新憲法草案が国民投票の結果、賛成多数で承認された。軍が政治的な影響力を行使できる仕掛けが施され、民主的な内容にはほど遠い。

Under the new constitution, the prime minister is not required to be a lower house member, making it possible for military personnel to assume the post. As a provisional measure in the initial five years, the junta can appoint anyone it wants to the upper house. The referendum also approved granting the upper house the right to nominate a prime minister.
 新憲法は、下院議員でなくても首相になれるようにし、軍人首相に道を開いた。経過措置として最初の5年間は、軍政の意に沿う人物を上院議員に任命できる。その上院にも、首相の指名権を与えることが国民投票で認められた。

An electoral system that makes it difficult for any single party to win a majority will be introduced in the lower house. Behind this move is the junta’s aim to block the reinstatement of the political force led by former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, which is strong in elections with its support base of farmers in rural areas and low-income earners in urban areas. A general election will be held by the end of next year.
 下院では、1党が単独で過半数を獲得しにくい選挙制度を導入する。地方の農民や都市の低所得者を支持層とし、選挙に強いタクシン元首相派の復権を阻止する軍政の狙いを反映したものだろう。総選挙は来年中に実施される。

There has been a fierce confrontation in Thailand for more than 10 years between the Thaksin forces and anti-Thaksin forces. The anti-Thaksin forces mainly comprise groups with vested interests, including military personnel and bureaucrats.
 タイでは10年以上にわたり、タクシン派と、軍人や官僚などの既得権益層を中心とする反タクシン派が激しい対立を続けてきた。

Behind the approval of the new constitution is the public’s hopes for a stable society even under the military rule amid expectations that the new constitution will be a step forward toward a return to civilian rule.
 新憲法承認の背景には、国民が軍政下であっても安定を望んだ面や、民政復帰の一歩となることへの期待があろう。

No legitimacy

However, for whatever reason, it is clear that the junta, which ignored democratic procedures and took power in a coup, has no legitimacy.
 しかし、いかなる理由であれ、民主的な手続きを無視し、クーデターで政権を奪取した現在の軍政に正統性がないのは明らかだ。

It is worrisome that the junta is clamping down on free speech and stifling opposing opinions with an iron fist.
 懸念されるのは、現政権が言論統制を強めるなど、強権で異論を抑え込んでいることである。

The junta has repeatedly temporarily detained students opposing the new constitution, and politicians and reporters who have criticized the junta. It also totally prohibited systematic campaigns seeking discussions of the pros and cons of the new constitution.
 新憲法に反対する学生や、軍政に批判的な発言をした政治家、記者の一時的な拘束を繰り返した。有権者に賛否を呼びかける組織的な運動も全面的に禁止した。

National reconciliation cannot be realized with such a governing method. After the referendum, there was a series of explosions in the central part of the country, where Thai royal family palaces are located, and in resorts in the south. The junta suspects that opponents of the new constitution were involved in the incidents.
 こんな統治手法では、国民和解は実現しまい。国民投票後には、タイ王室の宮殿がある中部や南部のリゾート地で連続爆発事件が起きた。軍政は新憲法に不満を持つ勢力が関与したと見ている。

It is feared that continued uncertainty in the political situation will affect the economy, curbing foreign investment and profits from tourism. Thailand is an important production base for Japanese companies, such as automobile manufacturers.
 今後も、不透明な政情が続くようなら、外国企業の投資や観光収入など経済に及ぼす影響が心配される。タイは自動車メーカーなど日系企業の大切な製造拠点だ。

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is shaken by the issue of the South China Sea. The stability of Thailand — one of the association’s main member countries — is also important for ASEAN unity.
 東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)は南シナ海問題で揺れている。主要国タイの安定はASEANの結束にとっても重要である。

In response to the referendum, interim Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha issued a statement that said he would employ every possible means to eliminate public concern. It is indispensable for him to sincerely make efforts to overcome the nation’s divided society as mentioned in the statement.
 国民投票を受けて、プラユット暫定首相は「国民の懸念を払拭するため、あらゆる手を尽くすつもりだ」との声明を発表した。その言葉通り、社会の分断の克服に真摯しんしに努めることが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 17, 2016)

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2016年8月17日 (水)

Olympics: Japan rebounds to take bronze in women's team table tennis

Olympics: Japan rebounds to take bronze in women's team table tennis

Japan's Ai Fukuhara, left, Kasumi Ishikawa, and Mima Ito wave after receiving the Bronze medal in women's team gold medal team table tennis at the Summer Olympic games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on Aug. 16, 2016. (AP Photo/Petros Giannakouris)

    RIO DE JANEIRO (Kyodo) -- Japan did not take its semifinal defeat to Germany very well. So the Japanese let it all out against Singapore on Tuesday, when they won 3-1 to finish Rio 2016 with a bronze medal in the women's team event.

        "I wanted to finish the competition with a smile on my face," said 15-year-old Mima Ito, who beat world No. 4 Feng Tianwei 3-0 in the decisive fourth match.

        "There was nothing we could do about the loss to Germany. Our only option was to let out all our frustrations in today's third-place match."

        "I've cried after winning in the past, but today was the first time I couldn't control myself," Ai Fukuhara said. "It's been the toughest four years I've had, and the toughest Olympics I've had."

        "As the oldest player and captain of the team, I couldn't allow myself to be rattled. I swore to myself that I wouldn't cry afterward, but I couldn't hold on."

    Mika Ito, right, , Kasumi Ishikawa, center, and Ai Fukuhara of Japan celebrate after their win against Singapore during their women's team table tennis bronze medal match at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on Aug. 16, 2016. Japan won Singapore 3-1.(AP Photo/Petros Giannakouris)

        Fukuhara dropped the first match 3-2, but Kasumi Ishikawa righted the ship for Japan with a 3-0 victory over Feng behind a come-from-behind 12-10 win in the first game.

        Fukuhara and Ito went on to beat Zhou Yihan and Yu Mengyu 3-1 in the doubles before Ito secured Japan's place on the podium with a cogent win against Feng, who could not capture a single game on the afternoon.

        Coach Yasukazu Murakami said trying to move on from Sunday's crippling 3-2 loss against Germany was not easy, a result that denied Japan a second successive trip to the Olympic final.

        Four of the five matches went to five games, including the first, which Ito lost despite being ahead 9-3 in the final game.

        "It was difficult getting ready for this match," Murakami said. "This team hasn't lost much and we lost a match that was there for the taking against Germany."

        "If we didn't have the one day in between, I don't think we would have been able to win today. We used yesterday to regroup mentally, and practiced a little."

        "Gold, silver would have been better but if we didn't win this bronze, it was going to haunt us for the next four years."

        Four-time Olympian Fukuhara was bawling after the match, saying she let down the team with her performance in the first match against Yu.

        The 27-year-old veteran also wanted to win a medal for Ito, a fellow prodigy who Fukuhara has taken under her wing and has been mentoring throughout the Games.

        "This is my third Olympics (team event), but I know all too well that there is a huge difference between going home with a medal and going home without one," Fukuhara said. "I'm relieved and gratified to have won this medal."

        "If we missed out on a medal, I know it would have eaten Mima up for the next four years, more than it would have me or Kasumi. So I was determined to win a medal today."

        Ito, however, might be maturing faster than Fukuhara thinks. Ito kept her composure in both matches and was never in danger of relinquishing control against Feng.

        "She continues to surprise me," Murakami said. "She wasn't even focused at the start. She only switched on from the second game. She's not your average player."

        With Ishikawa -- the bedrock of the women's team who on this day underlined her quality in beating Feng -- and Ito, Japan appears to be in good hands at home for 2020.

        "Laugh or cry, this was it so I gave it everything I had," Ito said. "We wanted to win a silver here at the least, but were reminded just how difficult it is to win an Olympic medal. You never know what can happen. But we won a medal of some kind so I'm happy."

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    2016年8月16日 (火)

    終戦の日 確かな「平和と繁栄」を築こう

    The Yomiuri Shimbun
    War-end anniversary start for constructive peace, prosperity
    終戦の日 確かな「平和と繁栄」を築こう

     ◆世界に伝える日米の新たな和解◆

    Today marks the 71st anniversary of the end of World War II. This day offers an opportunity to mourn the 3.1 million people who died in the war and renew our vow for peace.
     71回目の終戦の日を迎えた。先の大戦で亡くなった310万の人々を追悼し、平和への誓いを新たにする日である。

    A government-sponsored memorial service for the war dead will be held at the Nippon Budokan hall in Tokyo’s Kitanomaru Park.
     東京・北の丸公園の日本武道館では、政府主催の全国戦没者追悼式が行われる。

    Aug. 15 has long been established as the anniversary of the war’s end, marking the same day in 1945 when Emperor Showa told the people of the war’s termination.
     昭和天皇が国民に終戦を伝えた8月15日が、日本では長く終戦記念日として定着している。

    Strictly speaking, however, the end of all combative activities was formalized on Sept. 2 that year. Aboard the USS Missouri, which was anchored in Tokyo Bay, representatives of Japan and the Allied Powers signed an instrument of surrender on that day.
     ただし、戦闘の終結が確定したのは、厳密には9月2日である。東京湾に停泊する米戦艦ミズーリ号上で、日本と連合国の代表が降伏文書に調印した。

    Pearl Harbor, Hiroshima
     ◆真珠湾と広島で発信を

    The Battleship Missouri, preserved at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, is open for public viewing. Located at the bottom of the sea nearby, the USS Arizona, the battleship that was sunk during the Japanese surprise attack on the harbor, is the resting place of more than 1,100 officers and sailors.
     戦艦ミズーリは現在、ハワイ・ホノルルの真珠湾に係留され、一般公開されている。近くの海底には、日本の奇襲攻撃で撃沈された戦艦アリゾナが、1100人を超える将兵とともに眠る。

    The cry of “No more Hiroshimas” can be answered with “Remember Pearl Harbor!” The atomic bombings and the Pearl Harbor attack are thorns in an unfortunate piece of Japan-U.S. history.
     「ノーモア・ヒロシマ」と叫べば、「リメンバー・パールハーバー」と反論される。「原爆投下」と「真珠湾攻撃」は、日米の不幸な歴史のトゲのような存在だ。

    During a visit to Pearl Harbor in 1997, then Chinese President Jiang Zemin made a speech in which he said the Chinese and the Americans had “stood side by side in the fight against the fascist invasion.” His speech was intended to emphasize cooperation between the United States and China, and thereby drive a wedge into the Japan-U.S. alliance.
     1997年に中国の江沢民国家主席が真珠湾を訪問した際、「ファシストの侵略に対して中米両国民は肩を並べて戦った」などと演説したこともあった。米中の連携を強調し、日米同盟に楔くさびを打ち込もうとしたものだ。

    However, both Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima are being transformed into a theater of reconciliation.
     しかし、真珠湾も広島も、和解の舞台へと変わりつつある。

    Since 2013, a tiny folded paper crane has been displayed in a corner of the USS Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor. The origami crane, produced by the late Sadako Sasaki, a survivor of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, was donated by her bereaved family to the memorial. The Children’s Peace Monument in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park is modeled on Sasaki.
     真珠湾のアリゾナ記念館の一角には、小さな折り鶴が2013年から展示されている。広島平和記念公園内にある「原爆の子の像」のモデル、佐々木禎子さんが折った1羽を、遺族が寄贈した。

    The city government in Nagaoka, Niigata Prefecture — birthplace of Isoroku Yamamoto, commander in chief of the prewar Combined Fleet, who led the Pearl Harbor raid — has conducted exchange activities with Honolulu since the two cities established a sister-city relationship in 2012.
     真珠湾攻撃を指揮した連合艦隊司令長官・山本五十六の出身地、新潟県長岡市は12年の姉妹都市提携以来、ホノルル市と交流を続ける。

    In a memorial ceremony held in August 2015, the 70th year of the postwar period, fireworks from Nagaoka were set off in Pearl Harbor’s night sky, accompanied by a prayer for peace.
    戦後70年の15年8月の追悼式典では、平和を祈念する長岡の花火が真珠湾の夜空を飾った。

    A visit to Hiroshima by U.S. President Barack Obama in May was the result of a wise decision made despite persistent opinion in the United States that the atomic bombings were justified. His 17-minute remarks went right to the hearts of many people. Although the Japanese side has not accepted this inhumane action, it has not demanded an apology from the United States.
     今年5月のオバマ米大統領の広島訪問は、米国で原爆投下を正当化する意見が根強い中での英断であり、17分間に及ぶ声明は多くの人の心を打った。日本側も、非人道的な行為を容認したわけではないが、謝罪を求めなかった。

    Obama’s historic visit symbolized the mature nature of Japan-U.S. relations. This has been founded on a relationship of trust built over the years by the two allies, which share such values as freedom, democracy and human rights.
     成熟した日米関係を象徴する歴史的な訪問だった。その土台には、自由や民主主義、人権といった価値観を共有する同盟国が長年築いてきた信頼関係がある。

    Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s statement last August expressing anew “remorse and apology” for Japan’s wartime actions has been taken positively by the United States and many other countries.
     先の大戦への反省とお詫わびを改めて表明した昨年8月の安倍首相談話は、米国をはじめ、多くの国に肯定的に受け止められた。

    The current stable bilateral relations between Japan and the United States should be developed further.
     今日の安定した日米関係を、さらに発展させたい。

    In contrast to the United States, China continues to use the historical perception issue as a diplomatic card. When Obama visited Hiroshima, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said bluntly that “Nanjing should not be forgotten and deserves even more attention.”
     米国とは対照的に、歴史を外交カードにし続けているのが中国である。オバマ氏の広島訪問の際、王毅外相は「南京は更に忘れるべきではない」と言い放った。

    China against intl order
     ◆秩序に挑むのは中国だ

    China has unilaterally asserted that 300,000 people were killed during the Nanjing Incident and has had “Documents of the Nanjing Massacre” added to the UNESCO’s Memory of the World list.
     中国は、南京事件で30万人が殺されたと一方的に主張し、「南京大虐殺の文書」のユネスコ世界記憶遺産登録を実現させた。

    On the anniversary of the country’s “victory” in the “War of Resistance Against Japan” last September, China held a military parade in front of about 30 heads of state and leaders of the world, emphasizing China as a “victorious nation” in World War II.
     昨年9月の「抗日戦勝記念日」には、約30か国の元首・首脳の前で軍事パレードを披露し、中国が「戦勝国」であると誇示した。

    Yet China’s foreign policies as a “victor country,” in which it proclaims that it backed the international order, while trying to change the international maritime order in the East and South China seas through force, has not won empathy from the international community.
     だが、東・南シナ海で力による海洋秩序の変更を試みる一方、自らが国際秩序の側にあるように喧伝けんでんする「戦勝国外交」は、国際社会の共感を得ていない。

    South Korea, which had attempted to join hands with China in addressing issues related to historical perception, has shifted its stance to improve its relationship with Japan, following the bilateral deal Japan and South Korea reached late last year on the issue of the so-called comfort women. Japan will contribute ¥1 billion to a foundation set up by South Korea to support former comfort women as early as this month.
     中国と“歴史共闘”を進めてきた韓国は、慰安婦問題を巡る昨年末の日韓合意を機に、対日関係の改善に転じた。日本は月内にも、元慰安婦を支援する韓国の財団に10億円を拠出する方針だ。

    Yet a support group for former comfort women and others have not relaxed their stance of opposing the foundation. Also, a comfort woman statue was unveiled at a ceremony in Australia early this month, following similar ceremonies in the United States. The misperception that these women were forcibly taken by the now-defunct Imperial Japanese Army prevails in the world even today.
     ただ、元慰安婦支援団体などは、財団に反対する姿勢を崩していない。米国に続いてオーストラリアでも今月上旬、慰安婦像の除幕式が行われた。慰安婦は旧日本軍に強制連行されたという誤解が今なお、世界に広がっている。

    Refute distortions
     ◆史実の歪曲に反論せよ

    The Japanese government must continue to appropriately refute distortions of various historical facts related to the war. It is also important to urge China and other countries to abide by the rules of the international community.
     日本政府は、戦争に関する様々な史実の歪曲わいきょくに対し、的確な反論を続けねばならない。国際社会のルールの順守を中国などに働きかけることも大切だ。

    Efforts must also be made to resolve the issue of the northern territories with Russia.
     ロシアとの北方領土問題の解決にも力を入れる必要がある。

    A more strategic approach is required for Japan to resolve pending postwar issues with Russia, which remain unsettled even after the passage of 71 years since the end of the war, and conclude a peace treaty.
     71年を経ても未解決の戦後処理問題を決着させ、日露平和条約を締結するには、一段と戦略的なアプローチが求められる。

    After Russia’s annexation of Crimea in March 2014, European countries and the United States continue to impose sanctions against that country. In the meantime, Abe has been exploring ways to resolve the territorial issues through repeated talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Abe will visit Russia’s Far East early next month at the soonest.
     14年3月のロシアのクリミア併合以降、欧米諸国は対露制裁を続けるが、安倍首相は、プーチン大統領との会談を重ね、領土問題の打開の道を探っている。来月上旬にも、ロシア極東を訪れる。

    By pursuing constructive relations with other countries, the peace and prosperity that Japan has been building since the end of the war should be made more solid. Such efforts will also contribute to responding to hopes of those who lost their lives during the war.
     各国との建設的な関係を追求して、戦後日本が築いてきた平和と繁栄をより確かなものとしたい。先の大戦で犠牲となった戦没者の思いに応えることにもなろう。

    (From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 15, 2016)

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    2016年8月15日 (月)

    Olympics: Nishikori beats Nadal for Japan's 1st tennis medal in 96 yrs

    Olympics: Nishikori beats Nadal for Japan's 1st tennis medal in 96 yrs

    Kei Nishikori, of Japan, smiles as he holds up his bronze medal in men's singles at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on Aug. 14, 2016. (AP Photo/Charles Krupa)

        RIO DE JANEIRO (Kyodo) -- Kei Nishikori defeated Rafael Nadal 6-2, 6-7(1), 6-3 to win bronze at the Rio Olympics on Sunday for Japan's first tennis medal in almost a century.

          World No. 7 Nishikori, as he's been known to do, did it the hard way in becoming the first Japanese tennis medalist since Ichiya Kumagai (silver) at the 1920 Games in Antwerp. The victory was only Nishikori's second against Beijing 2008 champion Nadal in 11 career meetings.

          Nishikori cruised through the first set and was well on his way to making quick work of Nadal. But from 5-2 down, Nadal showed the heart of a champion, winning five of the next six games to trigger a third set.

          Yet Nishikori, who lost in the quarterfinals four years ago in London, did well to regroup from the forgettable second set to win an exhausting 2 hour, 49 minute affair.

          "I'm exhausted but I pushed myself today," Nishikori said. "I lost the second set in a bad way, but I managed to come back in the final set. Rafa had beaten me a couple of times this season and I managed to shake that off."

      Japan's Kei Nishikori returns to Spain's Rafael Nadal during the bronze medal match of the men's tennis competition at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on Aug. 14, 2016. (AP Photo/Vadim Ghirda)

          "I'm very happy to get a medal today. Even though it's third place, it means a lot to me to beat Rafa. I knew if I played good, solid tennis I had a chance to get a medal."

          "I was playing for my country and this is something different from the tour. For sure, this experience will help with my confidence and future."

          Nadal tipped his hat to Nishikori.

          "He played great during the whole match. During the whole match I was a little bit too tired," the Spaniard said. "If you don't play 100 percent tennis against a player like Kei, it's almost impossible. I want to congratulate Kei. I tried my best, I fought to the end."

          A day after being taken to school by Briton Andy Murray, Nishikori was far more competitive against a tired Nadal, who, counting the men's doubles he won with Marc Lopez, was playing in his 11th match at Rio.

          Fifth-ranked Nadal lost to Argentina's Juan Martin del Potro in a three-set semifinal on Saturday.

          Nishikori pounced on the second break-point opportunity he saw of the match to go up 3-2 in the first set. In Nadal's next service game, he shot himself in the foot with a double fault that set up another break point, which Nishikori promptly capitalized on.

          Nishikori aced his first set point to win 6-2.

          The resilient legs Nadal has used to build a distinguished career were nowhere to be found early in the second set, Nishikori winning his third break point in the third game.

          At 4-2 with Nadal serving, Nishikori converted a fourth break point to win the game. In the following game, Nadal finally broke his opponent on the fourth chance and converted another to even the score 5-5, thanks to a Nishikori double fault.

          With Nadal appearing to have found his second wind, the 14-time Grand Slam champion held serve after deuce to move in front. Nishikori won the next game, but the Japanese continued to self-destruct, managing just one point in the tiebreak as Nadal captured the set.

          Nishikori admitted he felt pressed being on the brink of winning the match.

          "I was uptight. He was starting to play better and that was half the reason. But I started to think about the medal, and was rushing my serves and shots," he said.

          Nadal got the crowd behind him with the comeback, and Nishikori drew the jeers after a lengthy bathroom break that seemed to irritate Nadal ahead of the final set.

          Nishikori won his fifth break point to lead 3-1, a critical game that Nadal could not find a way back from. Nishikori, determined not to suffer another meltdown, held on for Japan's 15th bronze medal of these Games.

          "I'm just glad I won today," he said. "I broke him first (in the last set) and that gave me a bit of breathing room. I went back to playing the aggressive tennis I played in the first set."

          "He was coming at me from the very first game. I had to work hard to keep my serve and I couldn't let him keep doing what he was doing. He made a few mistakes, I defended well and managed to break him. Remembering what he did to me in the previous set from 5-2, I tried to stay as focused as possible."

          "I feel like I've improved (from 2012), not only the result, but the performance, too. I'm playing with a lot more confidence compared to four years ago, when I was pretty happy just to have reached the quarterfinals. I don't know where I'll be in four years, but I hope to be better and stronger."

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      2016年8月14日 (日)

      タイ新憲法 軍主導では安定しない

      英訳版がまだ出ていないので、大切な部分のみ英訳しておきました。
      民主化という観点からは、タイの民主化はお先真っ暗な状態ですが、現政権のやりかたで、安心して暮らせています。
      日々の平和が何よりです。ステープ氏の黄色デモがなくなっただけでも、その価値は大きい。
      現首相は、国民の幸せのために努力されていると感じています。

      毎日新聞社説
      タイ新憲法 軍主導では安定しない
      The army-led new constitution in Thailand, unstable under military control
         
       タイの国民投票で新憲法案が承認された。2014年のクーデターで権力を握った軍事政権から民政復帰するための新憲法だというが、民主的とは言えない内容だ。
      New constitution draft has been approved in the referendum of Thailand. It is said to be a new constitution for the restoration of democracy from a military regime that came to power in a 2014 coup d'etat , but it's far from the content to be democratic.

       新憲法は、軍が政治に関与する余地を大きく残している。
      In the New constitution, the military has left a large room to be involved in politics.

       上院(250議席)は、軍が議員を指名する。下院(500議席)の総選挙は来年後半にも行うが、中小政党を優遇する制度とされた。軍の対抗勢力となりうる大政党の出現を阻むことを狙っている。
      Senate (250 seats), the army is to appoint the lawmakers. General election of the House of Representatives (500 seats) is also performed in the second half of next year, but has been with the system to favor small and medium-sized party. It is aiming to prevent the emergence of a large political party that can be a military counterweight.

       新憲法案と一緒に承認された追加条項によって、首相の選出方法も変わる。従来は下院議員だけの投票だったが、新憲法施行から5年間は上院議員も投票する。軍が、票の3分の1を握るということだ。
      By additional terms that have been approved in conjunction with the new constitution draft, also change election method of the prime minister. Conventionally, was a vote of only congressman, five (5) years from the enforcement new constitution senator also vote. Military, but that hold one-third of the vote.

       新憲法の主眼は、選挙に強いタクシン元首相派の封じ込めにある。
      The focus of the new Constitution aims at containing Thaksin faction who is strong to the election.

       タクシン派政党は、01年に行われた民主的憲法の下での総選挙に勝利した。支持基盤である貧しい農村部を優遇する政策を進めたタクシン政権に、軍や官僚に代表される都市エリート層は「ばらまきだ」と主張して強く反発した。

       軍は06年のクーデターでタクシン政権を崩壊させた。その後、タクシン派に不利な内容を盛り込んだ憲法を作って民政復帰したにもかかわらず、タクシン派は選挙に勝って復権した。

       そして軍は14年に再びタクシン派政権を力で倒した。タクシン派は依然として農村部を中心に強い支持を誇るが、軍は、今度こそ復権を許さないつもりなのだろう。

       タイ社会に深刻な分断と混乱をもたらしているのは、タクシン政権下で政治意識を強めた農村部や貧困層と、それまで既得権益を独占してきた都市エリート層の対立だ。10年には、タクシン派デモ隊を軍が鎮圧する過程で日本人カメラマンを含む約90人が死亡する惨事が起きた。

       新憲法案承認の背景には、そうした混乱を避けたいという思いがうかがえる。そのためには、不十分な内容でも民政復帰を急ぐべきだという現実的な判断があったとみられる。

       しかし、そもそも今回の国民投票はとても公正とは言えず、今後に大きな不安を残すものだった。
      However, in the first place, it can not be said that the referendum this time is fair, leaving a great anxiety in the future.

       国民投票では、政府機関が賛成を呼びかける以外のキャンペーンは禁じられ、反対の立場を取ったタクシン派のテレビ局は放送停止を命じられた。新憲法案を批判するパンフレットなどを配った学生や政治家が拘束される事件も起きた。
      In the referendum, campaign other than government agencies call the favor is forbidden, television station supporting Thaksinwas ordered to stop broadcasting. Such incidents are observed that students and politicians who were handing out pamphlets to criticize the new constitution draft is seized.

       新憲法でタクシン派を封じ込めようと考えるのは過ちだ。民主化を求める動きを力で止めてはならない。軍主導の「民政復帰」で対立を解消することはできない。
      It is a mistake to containing the Thaksin faction in the new constitution. It is wrong to control the movement to seek democracy by force. It is not possible to solve the conflict in a military-led "restoration of democracy".

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      2016年8月13日 (土)

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