2016年9月28日 (水)

American College Students Know Little of World Events

September 27, 2016 from VOA   
American College Students Know Little of World Events

Young people in the United States do not have a strong understanding of the world and their place in it.

Two U.S.-based groups, the Council on Foreign Relations and the National Geographic Society, commissioned an online survey earlier this year. They wanted to know what young people educated in American colleges knew about geography, U.S. foreign policy, recent international events, and economics.

In general, the results were not very good.

The bad news

The survey was given to over 1,200 Americans between the ages of 18 and 26 years. All of them currently attend, or formerly attended, a 2- or 4-year college or university.

The average test score, out of 75 total possible answers, was 55 percent.

The study identifies a few important questions that American students did not know about their own country.

For example, less than 30 percent knew that a treaty requires the United States to protect Japan if it is attacked. Only 30 percent knew that the only part of the U.S. government that can declare war is Congress.

The online survey produced findings that are similar to the findings of other recent studies.

The Internet

Part of the problem, say the organizers of the survey, is the Internet. They say it is becoming harder to get good information about what is happening in the world today.

Susan Goldberg is with the National Geographic Society. She says people never have to see anything that differs from their understanding of the world; many get their news from a newsfeed.

Forty-three percent of those questioned said they read about national and international news on Facebook.

Another problem is that classes do not require students to learn about international issues. That is the opinion of Richard Haass of the Council on Foreign Relations.

"The problem is schools do not require that students take these courses to graduate," he said. "There is a fundamental difference between offering a course and requiring it."

If such information is not required, Haass said, then the United States could have leaders like Gary Johnson. Johnson is the presidential candidate of the Libertarian Party. He did not know about the Syrian city of Aleppo when a reporter asked him about it.

The good news

The survey results were not all bad. The young people who were questioned demonstrated a good understanding of climate change and renewable energy.

Even if the young people failed to understand many of the questions, the majority of them said that international issues were becoming more important to them.

Only two percent said that knowledge of foreign or non-U.S. cultures was not important. One percent said knowledge of world events was not important.

Haass says these findings suggest the need to find ways to get good information to students, both in school and online. To help, the Council on Foreign Relations is creating a new program called CFR Campus, designed to help build knowledge about global issues.

I’m John Russell.

Kevin Enochs wrote this story for VOA News. John Russell adapted this story for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

________________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

survey – n. an activity in which many people are asked a question or a series of questions in order to gather information about what most people do or think about something

commission – v. to order or request (something) to be made or done

newsfeed – n. An electronic transmission of news, as from a broadcaster or an Internet newsgroup

online – adj. connected to a computer or the internet

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月27日 (火)

あなたはまだあのハードタイプのスーツケースですか?

あの堀江貴文さんが企画運営するイノベーション大学校でスーツケース革命です。
これまでスーツケースといえば、硬くて丈夫なハードタイプが主流でした。
堀江貴文さんの大学の一部である、物販グループが企画、 販売しているソフトスーツケース「Carryco with me」が話題になっています。
軽くて持ち運びができるだけではありません。
その、中身に込められた、多機能性が、がぜん注目を集めています。
いまなぜ堀江貴文さんなのか、ユーチューブをみて、その人気が衰えない秘密を知ることができました。

ユーチューブダイジェストバージョン
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cjouMOIoQCk
ユーチューブロングバージョン
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xm_gIxw4da8


話題のソフトスーツケース「Carryco with me」 誕生秘話が満載です。
純粋な若者たちにより、全く飾らない言葉で、素直に表現されているので、感動させられました。
これからは、ハードタイプのスーツケースよりも、ソフトスーツケース「Carryco with me」が主流となるのではないでしょうか。
抜群のかっこよさです。



堀江貴文イノベーション大学校の物販グループが企画、 販売しているソフトスーツケース「Carryco with me」の製作秘話が公開!!



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

企業信用のよりどころであるPマーク取得は、まさに、先手必勝ということができます

アベノミクス景気によるものでしょうか、最近、株式市場をつぶさに観察していれば、あることに気がつかされます。
それは、市場に供給される、ありあまる資金を活用して、例えばIT産業、IT事業に乗り出す、若手新進起業家が後を絶たないという事実です。

IT事業で一番大切なのは、関連技術はもちろんですが、個人情報の管理体制ではないでしょうか。
企業の個人情報の管理体制を、第三者的な視点で、客観的に判断できるのはPマーク(プライバシーマーク)が一番です。
IT事業においては、もはや、プライバシーマークの認証取得は必要条件となってしまっています。
とくに、大手企業と取引する際には、絶対的な条件ともなり得ます。
それだけ、IT事業では、個人情報をしっかりと管理されることが、望まれているためです。

耳寄りなニュースをお届けいたしましょう。
助成金を活用し、プライバシーマークを、費用をかけずに取得するノウハウセミナーが開催されます。
開催地は名古屋・福岡・仙台の都市です。
IT事業を志す若者たち、必見のセミナーです。
Pマーク 取得は、まさに、先手必勝ということができます。



ユーピーエフ 「助成金を活用しプライバシーマークを費用をかけずに取得するノウハウセミナー」を開催 名古屋・福岡・仙台で



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

Health Experts Warn of Overuse of Antimicrobials

Health Experts Warn of Overuse of Antimicrobials

From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

For today’s report, we talk about the dangers, not of an illness, but of medicines -- antimicrobial medicines. Health experts are more and more concerned about the overuse of antimicrobials. A growing number of bacteria and other disease-causing organisms are developing resistance to these drugs.

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) says the growing resistance is a threat to people and animals alike.

The FAO recently noted an "increased use and abuse of antimicrobial medicines in both human and animal healthcare." It said their use and abuse has led to a growing number of disease-causing microbes that are resistant to traditional medicines.

FAO officials say this can be seen, for example, in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. The problem is so serious that U.N. officials called a high-level meeting to consider the dangers of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance is also called AMR.

But just how widespread is antimicrobial use?

“We don't really know how much of the antimicrobials, including antibiotics, are being used in food and agriculture.”

Juan Lubroth is an expert on animal health. He serves as the Chief Veterinary Officer for the FAO. He says there are many unanswered questions about the manufacturing and marketing of antimicrobial drugs.

“In fact, we don't really know how much is being made. Who is buying? Who is selling? How much is the international traffic, either as drugs ready to be used or the active ingredient inside a drug that is then formulated someplace else?”

Doctor Lubroth says the overuse of antibiotics involves everything: humans, animals and agriculture get caught in what he calls a cycle of disease transmission.

“We can get sick. They can get sick. They can die. They need the antibiotics to be given in a proper way so they can recover. So, it's not only about food and agriculture. It's also about our dogs and cats, our mascots.”

Misuse of antimicrobials includes failing to follow directions and possibly taking someone else’s medicine. Lubroth admits that even he has misused antibiotics.

“Even I'm guilty. My physician may have given me antibiotics to take for the course of a week, seven days, and I stopped at day six. Well, that's bad. That's not good. That's a misuse of the antibiotics.”

Failure to follow directions when taking medicine is one way germs can develop a resistance to a drug.

The FAO says that antimicrobial medicines are critical in the treatment of farm animals and plants. "Their use," it says, "is essential to food security, human well-being and animal welfare."

Lubroth says the Food and Agriculture Organization has developed a four-part action plan for antimicrobial resistance.

“One is to create the awareness among the general public of the issue. Two would be to have the evidence. Have the surveillance in place that I can monitor when the antimicrobial resistance appears, and I report it in a timely fashion...”

The action plan calls for strengthening governmental agencies that deal with public health, food and agriculture. It also calls for sharing of information with each other and with medical experts.

Another part of the plan is to provide support for good practices in food and agricultural systems and the effective use of antimicrobials. Such drugs are often used in small amounts in animal feed to support growth. Once in farm animals, they become part of the food chain.

“I think that the consumers should be empowered to really push their governments or their food providers that they want safe food -- wholesome food. I think we can all agree on that. We may disagree on some of the specifics of how to get there, but I think that the consumer and the voice of the consumer has to be heard.”

Lubroth says "the long-term consequences of not being able to use an antimicrobials because of resistance” would be terrible. He adds that the medicines bring a "global public good to the planet."

I’m Anna Matteo.

Joe DeCapua wrote this report for VOANews.com. Anna Matteo adapted it for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

___________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

mascot – n. a person, animal, or object used as a symbol to represent a group (such as a sports team) and to bring good luck

consequence – n. something that happens as a result of a particular action or set of conditions

food chain – n. a series of types of living things in which each one uses the next lower member of the series as a source of food

empowered – v. to give power to (someone)

veterinary – adj. relating to the medical care and treatment of animals

ingredient – n. one of the things that are used to make a food, product, etc.

formulate to create, invent, or produce (something) by careful thought and effort

cycle – n. a recurring series of events: as

transmission – n. the act or process by which something is spread or passed from one person or thing to another

awareness – n. the state of knowing that something (such as a situation, condition, or problem) exists

surveillance – medical n. close and continuous observation or testing

fashion – n. manner or way of doing something

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月26日 (月)

シリア危機 露には停戦実現の責任がある

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Russia responsible for prevailing on Syrian govt to honor ceasefire
シリア危機 露には停戦実現の責任がある

A ceasefire in the civil war between Syrian President Bashar Assad’s administration and rebel forces is on the brink of collapse just one week after the agreement, mediated by the United States and Russia, took effect. This is a serious situation.
 シリアのアサド政権と反体制派の内戦を巡り、米露が仲介した停戦合意が発効からわずか1週間で崩壊の危機に陥った。深刻な事態である。

The Assad administration, which is supported by Russia, unilaterally announced the end of the truce and resumed an offensive, claiming that its foes did not observe the agreement. The announcement was apparently prompted in part by suspicions that the United States had bombed Syrian government forces by mistake following the ceasefire.
 ロシアの支援を受けるアサド政権が、停戦終了を一方的に宣言した。「反体制派が合意に従わなかった」と主張し、攻撃を再開した。停戦発効後、米軍が政権軍を誤爆した疑いが浮上したことも、背景にあるのだろう。

We cannot turn a blind eye to the fact that a convoy carrying food and medicine was attacked from the air on the outskirts of Aleppo, northern Syria. The attack forced the United Nations to suspend aid shipments.
 看過できないのは、シリア北部アレッポ郊外で、食料や医薬品を運ぶ車列が空爆されたことである。国連は輸送活動の一時停止に追い込まれた。

Roads leading to some sections of Aleppo remain sealed off as government forces besiege them, and hundreds of thousands of residents are isolated and facing air raids and starvation. Didn’t the United States and Russia hurry to reach a ceasefire so as to deliver aid supplies safely and avert a humanitarian crisis?
 アレッポの一部地域は政権軍の包囲作戦により、道路が封鎖されている。住民数十万人が孤立し、爆撃と飢餓に苦しむ。米露が停戦を急いだのは、支援物資を安全に届ける手段を確保し、人道危機を回避するためではなかったか。

The United Nations and other parties concerned naturally condemned the airstrike, describing it as a “flagrant violation” of international law. The United States and Russia have engaged in a mud-slinging battle, with Washington claiming the attack was carried out by Russian or Syrian government aircraft and calling for the perpetrators to be held responsible, while Moscow denied culpability.
 国連などが「極めて悪質な国際法違反」として空爆を非難したのは当然だ。米国は「ロシアもしくは政権軍による攻撃」と断じ、責任を追及した。ロシア側は否定し、泥仕合が続いている。

The two countries also played a leading role in bringing about a truce in February, which lasted only a few months. The Assad administration and rebel groups were supposed to hold peace talks to establish a transitional government by August, but the plan fell through.
 米露は2月にも停戦合意を主導したが、数か月で破綻した。政権と反体制派が和平協議を進め、8月までに移行政権を樹立するという構想もすでに頓挫した。

Don’t maintain status quo

The United States aims at ousting the Assad administration as quickly as possible and forming a new government. Ending the Syrian civil war, which has continued for five years, would allow the international community to focus on defeating the Islamic State of the Iraq and Levant (ISIL) militant group. It also would serve to help resolve the refugee crisis. We consider this a reasonable approach.
 米国は、アサド政権の早期退陣と新政権の発足を目指す。5年に及ぶ内戦を終結させれば、過激派組織「イスラム国」の打倒に国際社会が集中できる態勢が整う。難民問題を収拾する契機にもなる。妥当な考え方と言えよう。

However, Russia’s stance poses a problem.
 問題なのはロシアの姿勢だ。

It places top priority on maintaining the Assad administration, which has been said to have used chemical weapons, and seizing the initiative on the Syrian situation from the United States. Moscow intervened militarily in Syria a year ago on the pretext of eradicating ISIL, and it has carried out airstrikes and other attacks to help government forces come from behind and take the offensive.
 化学兵器使用も指摘されるアサド政権を温存し、シリア情勢の主導権を米国から奪うことを最優先目標としている。1年前に「イスラム国」掃討の名目で軍事介入し、劣勢だった政権軍の反転攻勢を空爆などで後押しした。

Russia has the responsibility and influence to press government forces to observe the ceasefire. It is not acceptable for Moscow to try to maintain the status quo by exploiting the fact that U.S. President Barack Obama has only four months left before leaving office.
 ロシアには、政権軍に停戦を守らせる責務と影響力がある。オバマ米大統領の任期が残り4か月しかないことにつけ込み、現状維持を図る工作は許されまい。

Syria faces an increasingly complex situation in its civil war. Neighboring Turkey has sent tanks across the common border in an effort to prevent the forces of the Kurdish minority, which Ankara regards as a foe, from expanding the areas it controls. An Iranian contingent, meanwhile, is also helping government forces in the civil war. These countries should exercise self-restraint.
 シリアの戦況は複雑さを増している。隣国トルコは、敵対する少数民族クルド人勢力の支配地域の拡大を抑えるため、戦車部隊を越境させた。イランからは、政権軍を支援する組織が参戦している。関係国の自制が求められよう。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced that Japan would provide about $1.13 billion in aid for residents in Syria and its neighbors. We hope that Japan will continue its efforts to establish conditions to resolve the Syria crisis by making nonmilitary contributions.
 安倍首相は、シリアや周辺国の住民向けに約11・3億ドルの支援を表明した。日本は引き続き、非軍事面の貢献を通じ、危機を解決する環境の醸成に努めたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 25, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月25日 (日)

難民と世界 もっと支援に本腰を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Sept. 23
EDITORIAL: Japan must step up commitment to assisting the world’s refugees
(社説)難民と世界 もっと支援に本腰を

Imagine that half of all Japanese were driven from their homes--that comparison could be one way to help envisage the sheer extent of the crisis.
 日本人の2人に1人が家を追われた。こう例えれば事態の規模がイメージできるだろうか。

The number of forcibly displaced people around the world has reached 65 million, a record high after World War II.
 世界の難民・避難民が6500万人に達し、第2次大戦以降で最大になった。

Apart from refugees fleeing from persecution and war, there is also a rapid spread in the flow of migrants moving to other countries in quest of better lives.
 迫害や戦火を逃れる難民だけではない。より良い暮らしを求めて他国へ渡る移民の流れも急速に広がっている。

A summit was held recently at the United Nations to seek international cooperation on measures to deal with this urgent issue.
 この喫緊の問題にどう取り組むべきか。その国際協調を探るサミットが国連で開かれた。

The outflow of refugees from Syria, Afghanistan and other countries, which are embroiled in civil wars with no end in sight, is particularly serious. The global community must strengthen their efforts to achieve cease-fires and, at the same time, turn their attention before anything else to nations adjacent to those countries, which are suffering under the burden of hosting the refugees.
 とりわけ内戦の出口が見えないシリア、アフガニスタンなどから逃れる難民の流出は深刻だ。国際社会は停戦への努力を強めるとともに、難民受け入れの負担に苦しむ周辺国に、まず目を向ける必要があろう。

Lebanon has accepted more than 1 million Syrian refugees, whereas 2.5 million people have taken shelter in Turkey. These and other countries are giving out silent screams saying that they cannot sustain more.
 100万人超のシリア難民を受け入れたレバノンや、250万人が避難したトルコなどからは「限界だ」との声が漏れる。

It stands to reason that a declaration, which was unanimously adopted at the summit, referred explicitly to a “more equitable sharing of the burden and responsibility.” In this age, wherein people migrate on a global scale, the issue of refugees and migrants has direct consequences for politics and the economy of the world. The burden should be shared by the entire international community, irrespective of the distance from conflict zones.
 全会一致で採択された宣言に「責任の公平な分担」が明記されたのは当然だ。地球規模で人が移動する時代であり、難民・移民問題は世界の政治・経済に直結する。紛争地からの距離にとらわれず、国際社会全体で負担を分かち合うべきだ。

How, then, should respective countries share it? The fact that no specific figures or deadlines were included in the declaration has left a major task unfinished.
 では、各国がどう分担するのか。具体的な数字や期限が宣言に盛り込まれなかったことは、大きな課題として残った。

In the backdrop of the indecisive attitude is a rise in exclusionary sentiment, which is derived from a fear of terrorism and anxiety about jobs being snatched away. Politicians and political parties that make similar arguments are gaining momentum in recent years in Western countries.
 腰が引ける背景には、テロの恐怖や、「仕事を奪われる」との不安による排斥感情の高まりがある。欧米では近年、そうした主張をする政治家や政党が勢いを増している。

But that sort of exclusionist reproach is often an act of shifting the blame on others by exploiting the anger of the public toward a broad array of social problems, including wealth disparity. In the long run, refugees and migrants have brought no small benefit and vitality to their host countries.
 しかし、こうした排他的な非難は、貧富の格差など広範な社会問題への国民の怒りを利用した責任転嫁であることも多い。長い目で見れば、難民や移民は受け入れ国に、利益や活力を少なからずもたらしてきた。

Representatives of managers’ and workers’ groups said during the summit conference that accepting migrants and refugees in an orderly manner invigorates the economy. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has also pointed out that doing so has a positive long-term impact on the economy. National governments should properly explain to their respective public about that positive aspect of accepting refugees and migrants.
 サミットの会合で、経営者や労働者の団体は「秩序ある移民や難民の受け入れは経済を活性化させる」と述べた。経済協力開発機構(OECD)も、長期的に経済的にプラスになると指摘する。各国政府は、そうした受け入れのメリットについて国民にきちんと説明すべきだ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said during the summit that Japan will provide about 280 billion yen ($2.8 billion) in a package to assist host countries and accept 150 Syrian students.
 安倍首相は受け入れ国支援のための約2800億円の拠出や、シリア人留学生150人の受け入れなどを表明した。

But there is no change in the fact that Japan is accepting significantly fewer refugees than many other countries, a reality that is drawing international criticism.
 だが、多くの国と比べて難民の受け入れが極端に少ない現実は変わっておらず、国際的に批判の的となっている。

A growing number of businesses are hiring refugees, and an increasing number of individuals are making donations to groups assisting refugees, in Japan in recent years.
 近年は日本でも難民の雇用に取り組む企業や、支援団体に寄付する人が増えている。

The government of Japan should also broaden its range of actions and open its doors more boldly to the rest of the world in aspiring to be a country that sufficiently fulfills its responsibilities.
政府も行動の幅を広げ、もっと世界に門戸を開き、十分な責任を果たす国の姿をめざすべきだ。

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月24日 (土)

日米国連演説 連携して対北制裁を強化せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan, U.S. must join forces to slap tougher sanctions on North Korea
日米国連演説 連携して対北制裁を強化せよ

What should be done about the North Korean threat, which has entered a new phase? Japan and the United States should cooperate closely and utilize the United Nations effectively.
 新たな段階に入った北朝鮮の脅威に、どう対処するか。日米両国は、緊密に連携し、国連を効果的に活用すべきだ。

Addressing a U.N. General Assembly session, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe denounced North Korea’s nuclear and missile development, saying: “The threat has now reached a dimension altogether different from what has transpired until now. We must thwart North Korea’s plans.”
 安倍首相が国連総会で演説し、北朝鮮の核・ミサイル開発について「これまでと異なる次元に達した。計画をくじかなくてはならない」と非難した。

North Korea has carried out two nuclear tests and launched more than 20 ballistic missiles so far this year. Some of them landed in Japan’s exclusive economic zone.
 北朝鮮は今年、核実験を2回強行した。20発以上の弾道ミサイルを発射し、日本の排他的経済水域(EEZ)にも着弾させた。

“It is purely a matter of good fortune that no commercial aircraft or ships suffered any damage during this incident,” Abe said. This comment is right on the money.
 首相が「航空機や船舶に被害がなかったのは全くの偶然に過ぎない」と指摘したのは当然だ。

Pyongyang has repeatedly disregarded the sanctions resolutions adopted against it by the U.N. Security Council. Abe stressed, “The raison d’etre of the United Nations is now truly being tested.” To force North Korea to abandon its ambition of possessing nuclear weapons, imposing tougher sanctions is indispensable.
 北朝鮮は国連安全保障理事会の再三の制裁決議を無視している。首相は「国連の存在意義が問われている」と力説した。核保有の野心を断念させるには、更なる制裁強化が不可欠である。

Abe exchanged views with U.S. President Barack Obama and British Prime Minister Theresa May — leaders of two of the five permanent members of the Security Council — among others. It is of no small significance that Abe has won the cooperation of leaders of these countries to work toward adopting a new resolution on sanctions against North Korea.
 首相は、安保理常任理事国である米国のオバマ大統領、英国のメイ首相らと意見交換した。新たな制裁決議の採択に向けて、協力を確認した意義は小さくない。

The key to adopting a new resolution and ensuring the effectiveness of sanctions is how China, which is passive about additional sanctions, will respond. It is important for Japan, together with the United States and other countries, to press Beijing to join the effort to constrain North Korea.
 新決議の採択と、制裁の実効性確保のカギは、追加制裁に消極的な中国の対応である。米国などとともに、中国に北朝鮮包囲網に加わるよう促すことが重要だ。

Pressure on China key

The 60th anniversary of Japan’s U.N. membership is in December. Japan is currently serving as a nonpermanent member of the Security Council for the 11th time, more than any other U.N. member. Japan’s financial contributions to the United Nations exceed $20 billion.
 今年12月、日本は国連加盟60年を迎える。安保理の非常任理事国を加盟国で最多の11回務めている。支払った国連分担金などの累計は200億ドルを上回る。

Japan must fulfill its role in tackling the latest North Korean action also from the viewpoint of realizing Security Council reforms and becoming, along with others, a permanent member of that body.
 日本は、安保理改革を実現し、常任理事国入りを目指すうえでも、今回の北朝鮮問題できちんと役割を果たしたい。

In his final U.N. address as U.S. president, Obama also emphasized the need for applying pressure on Pyongyang, saying: “When North Korea tests a bomb that endangers all of us.”
 オバマ氏も任期最後の国連演説で、核実験は「我々すべてを危険にさらす」と述べ、北朝鮮への圧力を強める必要性を強調した。

We cannot overlook the fact that four of five North Korean nuclear tests were conducted while Obama was president of the United States. It is painfully regrettable that his administration failed to apply sufficient pressure on Beijing to rigorously impose sanctions. This eventually led to North Korea making progress in its nuclear and missile development program.
 見過ごせないのは、北朝鮮の5回の核実験のうち、4回がオバマ政権下で実施されたことだ。中国に制裁履行を徹底させられず、核・ミサイル開発の進行を結果的に許したのは痛恨である。

With China’s self-serving expansion of its maritime activities and Russia’s intervention into the affairs of Ukraine in mind, Obama expressed a sense of alarm, saying: “Powerful nations contest the constraints placed on them by international law.”
 オバマ氏は、中国の独善的な海洋進出やロシアのウクライナ介入を念頭に、「強国が国際法に挑んでいる」との危機感も示した。

Reflecting on the war in Iraq waged by the previous Bush administration, Obama’s diplomacy has attached more importance to international collaboration. The Obama administration has achieved results by reinforcing its alliance with two Asian allies — Japan and South Korea. But its influence in the Middle East and vis-a-vis China and Russia has undeniably declined.
 ブッシュ前政権によるイラク戦争の反省から、オバマ外交は国際協調を重視した。日韓との同盟強化で成果を上げたが、中東や対中露での影響力低下は否めない。

While the United States has given up its conventional role as the “world’s policeman,” in which it actively intervened in international disputes, moves to change the status quo by force have intensified. This, in one respect, has led to the emergence of extremist groups, including the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Doesn’t Obama feel regret about such a development?
 「世界の警察官」として紛争に積極介入する役割を米国が回避した隙に、「力による現状変更」の動きが強まり、「イスラム国」などの過激派組織が台頭した側面もある。オバマ氏にも、忸怩じくじたる思いがあるのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 23, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月23日 (金)

黒田日銀の転換 あの約束は何だったか

September 22, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: BOJ' new policy phase highlights failure of monetary easing experiment
黒田日銀の転換 あの約束は何だったか

The Bank of Japan (BOJ) comprehensively reviewed its large-scale monetary easing policy, which it carried out under the leadership of Gov. Haruhiko Kuroda, and announced a new framework for its bond-buying program to keep the yield of the bellwether 10-year Japanese government debt at around zero percent.
 無謀な実験は失敗に終わったということだ。
 日銀が、黒田東彦総裁のもとで進めてきた大規模金融緩和策の「総括的な検証」を行い、併せて「新しい枠組み」を発表した。

Roughly 3 1/2 years have passed since the BOJ began quantitative and qualitative easing of its monetary grip as the "first arrow" of the Abenomics economic policy mix promoted by the government of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. However, the fact that the BOJ has been forced to review the policy and change its framework clearly demonstrates that the policy has reached a deadlock.
アベノミクス第一の矢として注目を集めた「量的・質的金融緩和」が始まり約3年半になるが、こうした検証や枠組みの変更が必要になったこと自体、行き詰まりを如実に示している。

At a news conference, the BOJ would not admit that its policy has failed. Gov. Kuroda categorically denied that the central bank had been forced to change the policy framework due to limits of its monetary policy.
 日銀自身は、誤りを認めようとしない。黒田総裁は、政策の限界が枠組みの変更をもたらしたとの見方を、記者会見で強く否定した。

幻の「2年で2%」

The BOJ even praised the achievements it has made through its monetary easing policy saying, "Over that period (when the policy was implemented), the situation surrounding Japan's economy and consumer prices greatly improved, and Japan has overcome deflation in that consumer prices no longer keep declining."
 それどころか日銀は、「この間に、わが国の経済・物価は大きく好転し、物価が持続的に下落するという意味でのデフレではなくなった」と自賛してみせた。

The central bank claimed that Japan's failure to achieve its target of an annual inflation rate of 2 percent over the space of about two years is attributable to a sharp drop in crude oil prices, a consumption tax increase from 5 percent to 8 percent in April 2014, the slowdown of emerging countries' economies, and Japanese people's unique views on consumer prices. The BOJ thus denied that the failure was a result of problems involving the central bank's ultra-easy money policy.
 肝心の年2%の物価上昇目標は達成していないが、日銀の政策に問題があったからではなく、原油価格の大幅下落、消費税の引き上げ、新興国経済の減速、さらに日本人の物価観の特殊性のせいだと分析した。

When the BOJ announced at a news conference on April 4, 2013 that it would launch an ultra-easy money policy, Gov. Kuroda showed off panels bearing "2 percent," and "2 years," and appeared confident of the credit easing policy it had just approved.  時計の針を2013年4月4日に戻してみよう。
 「2%、2年……」−−。記者会見に臨んだ黒田総裁は、大きく記した「2」が並ぶパネルを自ら手にし、決定したての金融緩和策に自信満々だった。

Kuroda emphasized that the central bank's new policy was different from its past policies on three points. Firstly, the BOJ stated a target year for achieving 2 percent inflation. Secondly, the central bank not only verbally promised to achieve the goal but also took unprecedented action to purchase a massive amount of government bonds in an attempt to convince the public that consumer prices would rise. Thirdly, the BOJ pledged to avoid implementing small-scale additional measures bit by bit.
 従来の日銀との違いとして強調したポイントは主に三つだ。2%の目標達成まで「2年程度」と期限を切って結果を約束したこと。口約束でなく、国債の大量購入という異例の行動を伴わせ、人々に物価上昇を信じ込ませようとしたこと。そして従来のような小出しの追加策を重ねたりしないと言い切ったことだ。

The central bank governor declared at the time, "We've adopted all measures that are necessary now to achieve the goal of a 2 percent annual inflation within two years."
 「2年で2%の物価安定目標を達成するために、現時点で必要な措置は全て決定した」と総裁は胸を張った。

Deputy Gov. Kikuo Iwata, who joined the central bank simultaneously with Kuroda, even stated that he would step down if the central bank failed to achieve the inflation target within two years. He later retracted his statement saying, "I meant that I must place priority on fulfilling my accountability."
同じ時期に日銀入りした岩田規久男副総裁は、2年で2%を達成できない場合、辞任するとまで宣言していた。後に「説明責任を果たすことが先決というのが真意だった」と撤回したが、

The BOJ had initially stated that the 2 percent target could be achieved if the central bank drastically increased the volume of money it supplied to the market. Yet the target has not been reached.
日銀がお金の量を本気で増やしさえすれば、2%の目標は達成できるというのが、当時の約束だった。
 結果はそうならなかった。

The BOJ postponed the target date for achieving an inflation rate of 2 percent whenever it announced its outlook for consumer prices in each quarter. In October 2014, the central bank drastically increased the amount of money it supplied, but remained far from being able to achieve the inflation target.
 日銀は四半期に1度の物価見通し発表のたびに、2%の達成時期を先送りした。14年10月には、お金の量の増やし方を拡大したが、それでも約2年で2%は遠く及ばなかった。

In reviewing its policy, the BOJ cited the effects of the consumption tax increase in 2014 and the slowdown of other countries' economies as the reasons why the target had not been achieved. But BOJ executives are experts in monetary policy. They cannot make excuses by saying these factors were beyond the scope of their assumptions.
 日銀は検証の中で、14年の消費税引き上げの影響や海外の景気の鈍化を挙げているが、政策のプロなら、想定外とは言い訳できないだろう。

True, crude oil prices plummeted more sharply than had been widely predicted. In reviewing its policy, the BOJ said that Japanese people's predictions of future consumer prices are largely affected by the actual fluctuation in consumer prices that is going on. The central bank pointed out that prolonged deflation as well as labor-management negotiations on pay raises during the so-called spring labor offensive, which are unique to Japan, have made the Japanese economy more susceptible to short-term consumer price declines. However, these are nothing but excuses and attempts to shift the blame.
 確かに原油価格の激しい下落は、予想の域を超えたものだった。これについて日銀の検証は、米国などに比べ、日本人の将来の物価予想が、現実の物価動向に左右されやすいためだとした。長引いたデフレや、春闘という日本特有の賃上げ交渉が、短期的な物価下落の影響を受けやすくしていると説くが、明らかな言い訳、責任転嫁である。

The BOJ's new framework and its dumping of the two-year deadline for achieving its target represents a great transformation in its policies, from one placing emphasis on the amount of money supplied to the market to one that places more importance on interest rates.
 「2年で達成」をあっさりと葬り新たに導入した枠組みは、異次元緩和を支える、お金の量に主軸を置いた政策から金利重視の政策への大転換だ。

The BOJ has also been forced to modify its negative interest policy, which it introduced in February this year, because critics have pointed out numerous problems, such as a decrease in financial institutions' profits, and difficulties that public pension funds and others face in investing money over the long term to gain stable yields.
しかも、今年2月に導入したばかりのマイナス金利政策も、金融機関の収益を圧迫したり、年金など長期の運用を一段と困難なものにしたりと弊害が多く指摘されたため、修正を余儀なくされた。

市場をゆがめた責任

Under the previous framework, market players expected the BOJ to further relax its monetary grip whenever it became certain the central bank would postpone the target year for achieving a 2 percent inflation rate. The central bank's monetary policy thus became a major matter of concern for market players. The framework change will likely rectify the situation.
 従来の枠組みでは、物価上昇率2%の達成時期が先送りされそうになるたびに市場から追加緩和期待が出ていた。自らまいた種ではあるが、日銀の政策があまりにも市場の主要関心事になり過ぎた。それが改善されるメリットはあるだろう。

Still, questions remain as to whether the BOJ can control not only short-term interest rates but also long-term interest rates governing yields on 10-year government bonds to attain levels which the central bank regards as desirable. Long-term interest rates should be determined by the market. The rates can sound an alarm over the government's irresponsible use of taxpayers' money. Monetary policy that restricts such a function of long-term interest rates deserves criticism as excessive market intervention by the central bank.
 しかし、短期金利だけでなく長期金利(10年物国債の利回り)まで日銀が望ましいと思う水準に管理することが可能かという疑念は残る。さらに、長期金利は本来、市場が決めるものだ。例えば無責任な財政支出に対して、警告のシグナルを送る。その機能を縛る政策は過剰な市場介入ではないか。

Needless to say, what now must be brought up is the question of responsibility for failure of the experiment, which the BOJ began on its promise to achieve a 2 percent inflation rate within about two years.
 当然、問われるべきは、「2年を念頭に達成」との約束で始めた実験の失敗の責任である。

The BOJ has amassed over 450 trillion yen worth of assets. This includes government bonds whose prices could plummet in the future and investment trust funds. And the amount is expected to increase. It is a matter that could affect the credibility of the yen.
 日銀のもとには、将来値下がりの恐れがある国債や投資信託といった資産が450兆円以上も積み上がった。今後も当分の間、増加を続けるだろう。円という通貨の信用にかかわる問題だ。

How to normalize the bond market, which has been distorted because it has relied on the BOJ's massive purchase of government bonds, will pose a serious challenge. If the annual inflation rate is stabilized at over 2 percent, the BOJ will need to decrease the amount of government bonds it buys on a step-by-step basis.
 日銀による大量購入に依存し、ゆがみきった国債市場を、将来どうやって正常化するかという難題も待ち受ける。物価の上昇率が持続して2%を超えるようになれば、日銀は段階的に国債の購入額を減らしていかねばならない。

However, if the BOJ hints at its intention to withdraw from the bond market as a major buyer, it could cause market prices of government bonds to sharply decrease and long-term interest rates to spike.
 だが、日銀という巨大な買い手が市場から手を引こうとした途端、価格が急落し、長期金利は急上昇しかねない。

To prevent such a situation, the central bank would have to keep buying government bonds, even though this could generate an economic bubble or cause the economy to overheat.
それを回避しようとすれば、国債購入をいつまでも止められず、バブルや景気の過熱を招く恐れがある。

As such, the central bank will face difficulty in seeking a way out of the policy of buying a massive volume of government bonds.
極めて難易度の高い出口戦略を求められよう。

The BOJ is not solely to blame for the ultra-easy money policy that has left serious problems for Japan's future.
 将来に重大な問題を残した異次元緩和策の責任は、日銀だけにあるのではない。

The responsibility of the government, which relied on the "first arrow" of Abenomics, should also be called into question.
アベノミクスの第一の矢に頼った政府の責任も問われる。

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月22日 (木)

温暖化対策 取り組みを加速せよ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Sept. 20
EDITORIAL: Japan should speed efforts to join fight against global warming
(社説)温暖化対策 取り組みを加速せよ

The world’s fight against global warming is picking up steam.
 地球温暖化に立ち向かう世界の潮流は勢いを増している。

Japan should respond and ramp up its own efforts in both the public and private sectors to help tackle the challenge.
それを見誤ることなく、官民の取り組みを加速させるべきだ。

First of all, Japan should ratify the Paris Agreement, a landmark international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions starting in 2020.
 まずは、2020年以降の地球温暖化対策を決めた新たな国際的枠組み「パリ協定」の批准を急ぎたい。

The new climate accord is now on track to become operational as early as by the end of the year.
 パリ協定は年内にも発効する見通しになった。

Early this month, the United States and China, the world’s two biggest emitters of greenhouse gases, announced they will ratify the Paris Agreement. Their actions have greatly improved the prospect of the agreement taking effect quickly.
二酸化炭素など温室効果ガスの排出で世界1、2位の中国と米国が今月初め、足並みをそろえて協定締結を発表し、発効に必要な条件に大きく近づいたからだ。

Even after the new climate deal was adopted during the United Nations conference on climate change in December, the Japanese government has shown little enthusiasm for revitalizing its faltering efforts to stem climate change.
 パリ協定が昨年末の国連気候変動会議(COP〈コップ〉21)で採択された後も、日本政府の動きは鈍かった。

Betting that the pact would take effect around 2018, the government apparently opted to wait and see the moves of big emitters before deciding on its response.
「発効は18年ごろ。対応は大排出国の動向を見極めてからでいい」との姿勢だった。

The Kyoto Protocol, an agreement to cut greenhouse gas emissions negotiated in 1997 with Japan playing a pivotal role, required only industrialized nations to achieve their emissions targets and put no limits on the amount of gas that China, a developing country, can spew into the atmosphere. The United States later withdrew from the agreement.
 日本が尽力して1997年に採択された京都議定書では、中国が途上国として削減義務を負わず、米国は途中で離脱。

The Japanese business community criticized the Kyoto Protocol as unfair. The March 11, 2011, Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami has further blunted public interest in measures to stem global warming in Japan.
不公平だと訴える声が経済界などに広がった。東日本大震災もあって、温暖化への関心自体が薄れていた。

However, the international community has become increasingly concerned about the expected consequences of rising global temperatures. This is clearly evidenced by the fact that the United States and China have abandoned their previous reluctance and made a solid commitment to tackling the challenge.
 だが、消極姿勢を一変させた米中に代表される通り、国際社会は危機感を強めている。

That’s because it has become even clearer that human activities are the principal causes of the warming of this planet, which is believed by many scientists to be causing an increasing number of extreme weather events such as severe heat waves and destructive torrential rains.
人類の活動が温暖化を招いていることが一層確実になり、温暖化との関連性が濃厚な熱波や豪雨なども頻発しているからだ。

Japan has submitted to the United Nations its own emissions target in relation to the Paris Agreement. It has pledged to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 26 percent from fiscal 2013 levels by fiscal 2030.
 パリ協定に関して、日本は温室効果ガスの排出量を「30年度に13年度比26%減らす」との目標を国連に提出済みだ。

In the Ise-Shima Group of Seven summit held in May in Japan, the leaders of the seven major countries committed themselves to developing before 2020 long-term strategies for achieving economic growth while curbing greenhouse gas emissions.
さらに5月の伊勢志摩サミットでは、ガスの排出を抑えつつ発展していく長期戦略を20年を待たずにつくることを申し合わせた。

But debate on such a strategy has just started at a government council.
 ただ、戦略的な議論は政府の審議会でようやく始まったところだ。

The panel needs to consider a range of new ideas and proposals that would significantly affect society and industry. They include carbon pricing, which means charging for carbon emissions by businesses offering products and services so that the costs of dealing with the problem are reflected in the price tags.
Another potentially effective approach is using land under plans integrating environmental, economic and local development factors.
製品やサービスの提供に伴うガス排出量を価格に反映させる「カーボンプライシング」や、環境と経済、街づくりを一体に考える土地利用など、社会や産業のあり方にかかわる新たな発想や試みも課題になろう。

Nuclear power generation, which emits less greenhouse gases during operations than thermal power production burning fossil fuels, is often cited as an effective means to cut emissions.
 運転時のガス排出が少ない原子力発電の活用もしばしば議論にのぼる。

However, given the enormous cost and difficulty of disposing of radioactive waste and the vast damage caused by the Fukushima nuclear disaster, relying on nuclear power generation should not be an option.
だが、廃棄物処理の費用と難しさ、福島第一原発事故が示した被害の大きさを考えると、原発頼みは許されない。

To reduce its carbon footprint, Japan needs to expand the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power and geothermal energy, while making all-out efforts to curb energy consumption. It will also help to use the heat generated from plants and buildings for supplying air conditioning and hot water in the local communities.
 省エネを徹底しつつ、太陽光や風力、地熱など再生可能エネルギーをさらに導入する。工場やビルの廃熱を地域の冷暖房や給湯に生かす。

Such efforts toward higher energy self-efficiency and energy recycling will also contribute to the nation’s security, promote technological innovations and suit urban development projects.
エネルギーの自給自足や循環を意識した取り組みは、安全保障の観点からも望ましく、技術革新を促し、街づくりとも相性がいい。

The challenge facing the government is to map out an innovative strategy to ensure the implementation of effective policy measures to combat global warming while encouraging businesses, local governments and citizens to make long-term efforts to secure the health of the planet.
 温暖化対策を大きな軸に、企業や自治体、市民による多様で息の長い挑戦を促す。そんな構想力が政府に求められている。

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月21日 (水)

尖閣諸島警備 海保の増強で中国の侵入防げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Beef up JCG to deter China’s entry into waters around Senkaku Islands
尖閣諸島警備 海保の増強で中国の侵入防げ

China’s self-serving maritime expansion should not become a fait accompli. It is imperative to strategically reinforce the Japan Coast Guard’s surveillance posture.
 中国の独善的な海洋進出を既成事実化させてはなるまい。海上保安庁の警備態勢を戦略的に増強することが重要だ。

Intrusions by China Coast Guard vessels into Japanese territorial waters and the contiguous zone around the Senkaku Islands have continued. Despite Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s call for self-restraint during a Sept. 5 bilateral meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping, four Chinese government vessels entered Japanese territorial waters on Sept. 11.
 尖閣諸島周辺で、中国海警局の公船による領海侵入と接続水域進入が続いている。安倍首相が5日の日中首脳会談で自制を求めたのにもかかわらず、11日には公船4隻が領海に入った。

This is regarded by some people as a spiteful response to Japan’s demand that Beijing abide by international law in resolving territorial disputes in the South China Sea. If this is the case, China’s actions must be regarded as totally misdirected and cannot be ignored.
 南シナ海の領有権問題で、日本が国際法の順守を中国に要求していることへの意趣返しとの見方もある。そうだとすれば、全くの筋違いであり、看過できない。

Navigation by Chinese government vessels through the contiguous zone has become routine since Japan’s nationalization of the Senkakus in September 2012. In August this year, up to 15 government vessels and 200 to 300 fishing boats appeared in the zone at one time. Since December last year, the number of vessels equipped with what appeared to be machine guns has increased.
 中国公船の接続水域航行は、2012年9月の尖閣諸島の国有化以降、常態化している。今年8月には、最大15隻の公船と200~300隻の漁船が集結した。昨年12月からは、機関砲のようなものを搭載した公船も増えている。

Crew members from Chinese government vessels have repeatedly been confirmed to have boarded Chinese fishing boats in Japan’s exclusive economic zone. This indicates that on-the-spot inspections of the fishing boats, among other activities, were carried out by the Chinese authorities based on Chinese law.
 日本の排他的経済水域(EEZ)内で、中国公船の乗員が中国漁船に乗り込むケースが再三、確認された。中国の法律に基づく立ち入り検査などの可能性がある。

Chinese fishing boats are permitted to operate in Japan’s EEZ under the Japan-China fishery agreement. But the Chinese government is not empowered under international law to exercise its jurisdiction in regard to fishing in this zone.
 EEZ内では、漁船操業は日中漁業協定で可能だが、中国政府が漁業に関する管轄権を行使することは国際法上、できない。

Constant vigilance vital

To prevent such actions from becoming faits accomplis, JCG patrol boats must monitor the moves of Chinese government vessels constantly and issue immediate and adequate warnings.
 こうした行為の既成事実化を防ぐため、海保の巡視船は常時、中国公船の動向を監視し、迅速かつ適切に警告せねばならない。

To prevent accidental clashes and illegal landings by fishermen and other Chinese, it is essential that the JCG ensures numerical superiority in the number of its patrol boats compared to its Chinese counterpart.
 偶発的な衝突や漁民らの不法上陸を防ぐには、相手の船より数的優位を確保することが肝要だ。

As things stand now, the JCG’s capabilities are not necessarily sufficient.
 しかし、海保の現状は、必ずしも十分とは言えない。

This spring, the JCG established a full-time surveillance system involving 12 patrol boats to safeguard the waters around the Senkakus. This was based on the assumption that they would only have to keep an eye on about five Chinese government vessels. In the event that there are more Chinese government vessels, the JCG receives help from patrol boats dispatched from around Japan.
 海保は今春、尖閣諸島周辺を警備するため、巡視船12隻の専従体制を整えた。中国公船5隻程度を想定したものだ。より多数の公船が来た際は、全国から巡視船の応援派遣を受け、対応している。

The China Coast Guard has tripled the number of its large patrol boats to 120 in the past three years. The number will be reached to 135 in 2019.
 中国海警局はこの3年で、大型船を3倍増の120隻にした。19年には135隻に増やす。

The number of large JCG patrol boats totals only 62. The government appropriated ¥39 billion in the second supplementary budget for fiscal 2016 to build three new patrol boats. This number needs to be increased systematically.
 海保が保有する大型巡視船は62隻にとどまる。16年度第2次補正予算案に3隻の新造費390億円を計上した。今後も、計画的に増強することが求められよう。

It is essential to increase JCG personnel. At present it has a workforce of 13,500, an increase of about 800 since the nationalization of the Senkakus. Reemployment of former JCG personnel has made progress. It takes several years to train coast guard crew members. Necessary steps must be taken as soon as possible to improve the situation in the future.
 要員の確保も急務である。
 海保の定員は約1万3500人で、尖閣諸島国有化前より約800人増員した。元海上保安官の再雇用も進めている。保安官の養成には数年を要する。将来を見据えて早めに手を打つ必要がある。

To avert an emergency, it is also important to establish a communication channel with the Chinese authorities concerned.
 不測の事態を避けるため、中国当局とのパイプ作りも大切だ。

Last year, the JCG and its Chinese counterpart established a contact point in each other’s organization, but this function is not being used. It is necessary to hold talks between the two organizations tenaciously.
 海保と中国海警局は昨年、双方に連絡窓口を設けたが、あまり機能していない。粘り強く意見交換を重ねたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 20, 2016)Speech

| | コメント (0)

«香山リカのココロの万華鏡 「親のせい」で片付かない /東京