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2008年5月 4日 (日)

スラチャイと英語を勉強しましょう!

EDITORIAL: Brazilian immigration
移民100年―父祖の地で夢を支えよう

05/03/2008
05/03/2008

As dusk descended on April 28, 1908, at the Port of Kobe, the steamship Kasato Maru departed with 781 Japanese aboard, bound for Brazilian shores. Last Monday marked the 100th anniversary of the departure of this first contingent of immigrants to Brazil.
夕闇が迫る神戸港を、781人のブラジル移民を乗せた「笠戸丸」が出航した。その第1陣の船出から100周年を迎えた。

These travelers dreamed of a shining new paradise awaiting, but what they found in Brazil was far from that. They spent years in backbreaking labor on coffee plantations, battling malaria and other hardships. The film, "Gaijin," directed by Tizuka Yamasaki, herself a third-generation Brazilian of Japanese descent, portrayed the challenges faced by this first wave of immigrants.
新天地を夢見て海を渡った人たちには、日本で思い描いた生活とはほど遠い現実が待っていた。コーヒー農園での過酷な労働、マラリアとの闘い……。日系3世の映画監督、山崎チズカさんは、そんな移民1世の姿を映画「GAIJIN」で描いた。

Amid the prolonged recession following the Russo-Japanese War, the ranks of jobless swelled in Japan. In Brazil, conversely, the emancipation of that nation's slaves had produced a labor shortage. These were among the contrasting conditions that spurred the start of Japanese immigration to Brazil.
日露戦争後の長引く不況で日本には失業者があふれ、一方、ブラジルでは奴隷解放によって労働力が不足していた。移民の始まった背景には、そうした両国の抱える事情があった。

The migration continued through the 1970s, despite the interruption of World War II, with a total of 250,000 people crossing the seas. Not only farmers, but also politicians, engineers and entrepreneurs among Japanese-Brazilians appeared one after another.
ブラジル移民は戦争をはさんで70年代まで続き、25万人が海を渡った。農業だけでなく、政治家や技術者、実業家などの人材が輩出している。

A reversal of that flow, and a swift increase of migrant workers in Japan, was triggered by the 1990 revisions to the immigration control law. At the request of the business community, second- and third-generation Japanese from Brazil were granted residence status without employment restrictions.
その流れが逆になって、日本への出稼ぎが急増したのは、90年の出入国管理法改正がきっかけだ。経済界の求めで、日系人の2、3世に就労制限のない在留資格が認められたからだ。

Director Yamasaki visited Japan in the late 1990s to film a sequel to her first work. Her goal was to explore why recent immigrants, despite being accepted into Japan under a so-called national policy, were treated as gaijin (aliens). She focused on the lifestyles of the Japanese-Brazilians, tracking the plights of their fourth-generation children, many of whom dropped out of school after being unable to adapt to Japan's educational system.
山崎監督は90年代末に日本を訪れ、映画の続編を撮った。「いわば国策による受け入れなのに、『ガイジン』と受け止められるのはなぜか」。そんな思いから、日系人の生活をとらえ、学校になじめずに不登校になる4世の姿も描いた

These Japanese-Brazilians are now 310,000 strong, exceeding the number of Japanese who originally moved to Brazil. While more of them have permanent residency, how to educate their children has become a particularly acute problem.
日系人労働者はかつてのブラジル移民を上回る31万人にのぼる。永住権を取得する人も増えるなかで、とりわけ深刻なのは子どもたちの教育だ。

There is no shortage of cases in which such children stop attending school due to the language barrier and descend into delinquency. Even when they stay in school, many can form no tangible ambitions for the future. While it is natural to expect parents to take responsibility for their children's education, the success of such efforts depends upon adequate support in the classroom.
日本語がわからず、学校に行かなくなって非行に走る例も少なくない。学校に通っていても、将来の夢を持てない子もいる。親が子の教育に責任を持つのは当然だが、それも教育現場で十分な支援があってのことだ。

In Shizuoka Prefecture's Hamamatsu, home to large numbers of Japanese-Brazilians, teachers who are fluent in the language spoken in Brazil and part-time personnel are assigned to elementary and junior high schools to help these children learn the Japanese language. Such staffers also visit the homes of truant immigrant children.
日系人が多く暮らす浜松市では、小中学校にブラジルの言葉がわかる教員のほか、非常勤職員らを配置し、日本語を学ばせている。学校に通っていない子らへの家庭訪問もしている。

The labor costs for such services are funded from the city budget, but there are limits to such financial resources. For that matter, not all local governments have acted as positively on this critical front as has Hamamatsu. The education of these children, who will bear the burdens of the future, should not be left only up to municipalities. The central government must also support them.
そうした人件費は市の予算で賄っているが、それにも限界がある。そもそも浜松市のような目配りをしている自治体ばかりではない。未来を担う子どもたちの教育は自治体まかせにせず、政府も支えてもらいたい。

Assistance for immigrants having difficulties communicating in Japanese requires the help of nonprofit organizations and other groups. We suggest that firms, which have employed Japanese-Brazilian workers and made profits, should pay some of the costs. With the number of workers nationwide shrinking, the nation's response to Japanese-Brazilians is shaping up as a litmus test for acceptance of other immigrants into Japan. 日本語が苦手な親への支援にはNPOなどの協力が欠かせない。その費用は、日系人を雇って利益を上げている企業が手助けしてはどうか。 労働人口が減少するなかで、日系人への対応は、外国からの移民を受け入れるための試金石である。

One reason that so many first-generation Japanese immigrants to Brazil succeeded there was that Brazilian society opened its arms to those settlers, despite their different culture and customs.
ブラジル移民が成功したのは、文化や習慣の異なる日系人をブラジル社会が受け入れてくれたからこそだ。

We want to help these ethnic Japanese, who have returned to the land of their ancestors, blend into communities here and raise their children without anxiety.
その父祖の地で、日系人が地域社会に溶け込んで、安心して子どもを育てられるよう支えていきたい。

The Asahi Shimbun, May 2(IHT/Asahi: May 3,2008)
朝日新聞5月2日  

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