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2008年6月25日 (水)

学校耐震化

(Jun. 23, 2008) The Yomiuri Shimbun

Govts must reinforce schools against quakes

学校耐震化 自治体は補強工事を急げ(6月23日付・読売社説)

Work to reinforce school facilities against earthquakes must be accelerated, given their roles as places for children to study and as emergency shelters for local residents and disaster management bases.

子どもたちの学習・生活の場であり、地域住民の防災拠点でもある学校施設の耐震化を急がねばならない。

In response to growing unease in the country following the recent powerful earthquake in Sichuan Province, China, which destroyed many school buildings, a special measures law on earthquake disaster prevention was revised earlier this month.

中国の四川大地震で多くの校舎が倒壊し、日本でも不安が高まったのを機に、地震防災対策特別措置法が改正された。

Under the revised law, the government expanded its fiscal measures by raising the portion of costs covered by its subsidies to local governments to reinforce public primary and middle school buildings against earthquakes from half to two-thirds of the total cost. The further expansion of other fiscal measures by the central government reduces the share local governments will have to contribute from 31 percent to 13 percent.

公立学校が耐震補強工事を実施する際の国庫補助率が、2分の1から3分の2に引き上げられ、地方の財政措置も拡充された。自治体の実質的な費用の負担率は、31%から13%に下がる。

Local governments, which have so far considered seismic retrofitting of school buildings and gymnasiums a low priority, should immediately start carrying out this task.

財政難などを理由に、校舎や体育館の耐震補強工事を後回しにしてきた自治体は、早急に取り組むべきである。

The current earthquake standards were substantially strengthened after the Building Standards Law was revised in 1981. The percentage of earthquake-resistant school buildings and gymnasiums built after 1981, and those constructed prior to that but reinforced later, serves as a barometer of the safety of school facilities in this nation.

現在の耐震基準は建築基準法の改正で1981年に大幅に強化された。この後に建てられた校舎や体育館と、それ以前の建築だが補強工事などを終えたものを合わせた耐震化率は、安全な学校施設の割合を示す指標の一つだ。

 

According to the Education, Science and Technology Ministry, the percentage of earthquake-resistant primary and middle school facilities stood at only 60 percent of about 127,000 school buildings as of April, despite a rise in the figure from the previous fiscal year. About 10,000 buildings are at high risk of collapsing if an earthquake measuring upper 6 on the Japanese seismic scale of 7 hits.

文部科学省が公表した今年4月の小中学校の耐震化率は、前年度より上がったとはいえ、約12万7000棟のうちまだ6割だ。震度6強で倒壊する危険性の高いものは約1万棟もある。

Swift action called for

(急がれる補強工事)

The ministry is calling on each local government to carry out seismic retrofitting within three years, sooner than the initially planned five-year time frame.

文科省は各自治体に、当初予定の5年間より短い3年間での耐震化実現を求めている。

It is disturbing to see that there are nearly 5,000 primary and middle school buildings that have not even had their earthquake resistance tested. Twenty-six cities, towns and villages have no plans to conduct such a test within the current fiscal year.

問題なのは、補強工事が必要かどうかを判断する耐震診断すら実施していない小中学校が、なお5000棟近くあることだ。一度も実施したことがなく、今年度も予定していない市町村が26ある。

The ministry has asked architectural organizations to cooperate with requests from local governments to perform such tests, as the help of architects is indispensable for conducting earthquake resistance tests and reinforcement work.

文科省は建築士団体にも、自治体の要請に協力するよう依頼した。耐震診断や補強工事には建築士の協力が欠かせないからだ。

A simple earthquake resistance test costs about 200,000 yen per building. Tests should be conducted as soon as possible given that earthquakes are unpredictable and could occur in areas where major earthquakes have rarely hit before.

簡易な診断なら、1棟あたり20万円前後で実施できる。過去に大規模地震が少ない地域でも、地震はいつどこで起こるか予想できないだけに、急ぐべきだ。

Local governments have discretion over how to use subsidies raised under the special measures law on earthquake disaster prevention.

法改正で補助率引き上げの対象となった交付金は、使い道が自治体の裁量に委ねられている。

(discretion=決定権、自由裁量する権利)

Get priorities straight

(なすべきことを今すぐに)

However, in the initial fiscal 2006 budget, about 10 billion yen, or about a quarter of the total subsidies provided was actually used for projects that were unrelated to seismic retrofitting, including construction of swimming pools. Although it cannot be said that such work is totally irrelevant to disaster management, when deciding between constructing swimming pools or strengthening school facilities against earthquakes it is obvious which should be given priority.

06年度当初予算の場合、約4分の1にあたる約100億円が、耐震化と関係のないスイミングプール建設などにあてられている。「目的外」とまでは言えないが、学校施設の耐震化と比べれば、どちらを優先すべきかは明らかだ。

According to the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry's Fire and Disaster Management Agency, school facilities account for about 60 percent of public facilities serving as emergency shelters and disaster management bases. In the wake of the Iwate-Miyagi Inland Earthquake, primary schools are being used as shelters for residents of isolated communities.

総務省消防庁の調べでは、防災拠点となる公共施設のうち学校施設が6割を占める。岩手・宮城内陸地震でも、小学校が孤立した集落の住民の避難場所となった。

For local governments, the financial burden of seismic retrofitting now has been reduced and it has become easier to seek cooperation from experts for earthquake resistance tests. Reinforcing school buildings against earthquakes must not be delayed any longer.

財政負担が軽減され、専門家の協力も得やすくなる――。学校耐震化を遅らせてはなるまい。

(retrofitting=補強工事)

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 23, 2008)

20086230159  読売新聞)

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