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2008年7月 5日 (土)

自殺実態白書

(Mainichi Japan) July 4, 2008

White paper highlights risk factors for suicide in Japan

自殺実態白書:地域性や原因分析 自治体別で初の全国集計

A white paper on the state of suicide in Japan has been compiled by a group of scholars, highlighting risk factors that contribute to Japan's high number of suicides.

The white paper, based on National Police Agency data, considers causes and motives for suicide as well as the job status of victims, classified by the number of suicides in each category.

The report marks the first time the conditions surrounding suicide, based on data from cities, wards, towns, villages and police stations, have been unveiled on a nationwide scale. Officials hope that the white paper will lead to suicide prevention measures by administrative bodies.

警察庁のデータを基に、学識者らが自殺者の特徴を市区町村単位で整理した「自殺実態白書」がまとまった。原因や動機、職業などについて自殺者数が多い順に示し、地域の特徴を浮き彫りにした。市区町村や警察署単位で自殺の実態が全国規模で判明したのは初めて。また自殺の理由は一つではなく、平均で四つの「危機要因」を抱えていることも分かった。関係者は行政などの自殺防止対策の推進につながると期待している。【玉木達也、清水健二】

In compiling the white paper, a project team including scholars, lawyers and representatives of nonprofit organizations analyzed 97,032 suicides recorded between 2004 and 2006. They divided data held by each police station to correspond to local areas.

Members planned to present the white paper to Cabinet member Fumio Kishida, who is in charge of suicide-related issues, on Friday, and seek boosted measures to address the problem. The same day, the nonprofit organization Lifelink was due to release information on its Web site.

学識者と弁護士、NPO法人代表らで作るプロジェクトチームが、04~06年の自殺者計9万7032人を分析。各警察署で起きた自殺のデータを、市区町村単位に再集計した。メンバーが4日、自殺問題を担当する岸田文雄・内閣府特命担当相に白書を提出し、対策の充実を求める。またNPO法人「ライフリンク」(清水康之代表)がホームページに4日、公開する予定だ。

(characteristic feature by districts 英文記事にはこの部分が翻訳されていない by srachai)

◇地域別の傾向

The paper found that the top motive for suicide among people who left suicide notes when they took their lives was financial or living problems. The next two reasons were suffering from illness and family problems.

全体では、遺書のあった人の動機は(1)経済・生活問題(2)病苦など(3)家庭問題の順に多かった。

By job status, the highest number of suicides occurred among the unemployed, followed by employed people, and then the self-employed.

職業別では(1)無職(2)被雇用者(3)自営業者。

By police station, Fujiyoshida Police Station in Yamanashi Prefecture handled the most suicides. Next was Sawara Police Station in Fukuoka Prefecture, and Aomori Police Station in Aomori Prefecture.

警察署単位では(1)山梨県警富士吉田署(2)福岡県警早良署(3)青森県警青森署の順だった。

Toyota Police Station in Aichi Prefecture, which was placed sixth on the list of the number of suicides handled, recorded the highest number of suicides among employed people. Asahikawa Higashi Police Station in Hokkaido, which was 17th in the number of suicides handled, ranked first when it came to suicides due to suffering from illness.

各署ごとの傾向は、全体では6位の愛知県警豊田署(豊田市など)は被雇用者では1位。17位の北海道警旭川東署(旭川市など)は「病苦など」が1位だった。

By administrative district, Tokyo's Chiyoda-ku had the most suicides of employed men in their 40s, while Osaka's Nishi-ku recorded the highest number of suicides of self-employed men in their 40s. The city of Koshi, Kumamoto Prefecture, meanwhile, recorded the highest number of unemployed men in their 40s who took their lives.

自治体別では、東京都千代田区では40代の被雇用者の男性、大阪市西区は40代の自営業者の男性、熊本県合志市では40代の無職の男性が最も多いなど、地域により自殺者の傾向に違いがあった。

Yasuyuki Shimizu, the representative of Lifelink, said he hoped the survey would lead to countermeasures against suicide.

"Officials from cities, towns and villages say that they are unable to take concrete measures against suicide because they don't know the actual conditions surrounding suicide. I want them to use this white paper in forming countermeasures."

清水代表は「市町村関係者から、自殺の実態が分からないから具体的な対策ができないという声がある。白書を自殺対策に生かしてほしい」と話している。

(outstanding 4 causal factors 英文記事にはこの部分が翻訳されていない by srachai)

◇危機要因四つ

Members compiling the survey examined 68 suicide risk factors. They found that on average victims were exposed to four risk factors; only 4 percent were found to have committed suicide due to one risk factor.

自殺の理由は一つではなく、平均で四つの「危機要因」を抱えていることが分かった。

自殺した305人の遺族や知人から聞き取り、背景事情として家庭や健康、経済問題などにかかわる68項目を「危機要因」ととらえて調査。その結果、自殺時に危機要因が一つしかなかった人は4%だけで、平均で四つの危機要因があった。

The most common risk factor was depression, followed by family discord, debt, physical ailments, hardships of life, relationships at work, changes in working environment, loss of job, poor business, and overwork. These 10 factors covered about 70 percent of all suicides.

危機要因は(1)うつ病(2)家族の不和(3)負債(4)身体疾患(5)生活苦(6)職場の人間関係(7)職場環境の変化(8)失業(9)事業不振(10)過労--の順に多く、上位10項目で全体の約7割を占める。

The risk factors were often tied together. A company employee's job transfer, for example, could lead to overwork and trouble in relationships with others at work, which in turn could lead to depression. In the case of business executives, poor business would lead to lifestyle hardships, which would lead to multiple debts and then depression. There were also other linked factors where the causal relationship remained unclear, such as bullying and loss of job, and the death of family members and alcohol problems.

それぞれの要因は互いにつながっており、会社員なら「配置転換→過労や職場の人間関係悪化→うつ病」、経営者なら「事業不振→生活苦→多重債務→うつ病」といった経路が典型的だった。失業といじめ、アルコール問題と家族の死亡など、因果関係がはっきりしない要因が連鎖しているケースもあった。

causal relationship=因果関係) (bullying=いじめ)

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