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2008年10月11日 (土)

今も続くアイヌ差別

(Mainichi Japan) October 10, 2008

Continuing discrimination against the Ainu: a call for a government policy of coexistence

記者の目:今も続くアイヌ差別 共生目指す政策を=金子淳


National government policy for the Ainu people, who have been subject to oppression and discrimination since the Meiji Era, is now reaching a turning point. In June, the government announced a Chief Cabinet Secretary statement that declared the Ainu to be "recognized as an indigenous people."

 明治以降、迫害と差別を受けてきたアイヌ民族に対する国の政策が転換期を迎えている。政府は6月、アイヌを「先住民族と認識する」との官房長官談話を発表。

A government panel of experts headed by Koji Sato, professor emeritus at Kyoto University, was formed in July to examine Ainu policy. This marks the first time since the 1997 Law for the Promotion of Ainu Culture (the "New Ainu Law") that there has been work on a genuine review of Ainu policy.

7月には「アイヌ政策のあり方に関する有識者懇談会」(座長、佐藤幸治・京都大名誉教授)を設け、97年制定のアイヌ文化振興法(アイヌ新法)以来となるアイヌ政策の本格的な見直しに着手した。

These developments closely follow the adoption of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples by the United Nations in September of last year. In an international environment where Japan's awareness of history and perspective on human rights have come into question, it is my hope that the government of Japan will enter into a serious dialogue with the Ainu people and adopt a policy for indigenous peoples that it can proudly present on the world stage.

昨年9月には国連で「先住民族の権利宣言」が採択されたばかり。国際的に日本の歴史認識や人権感覚が問われる中、国はアイヌ民族の声に真摯(しんし)に向き合い、世界に誇れる先住民族政策を取ってほしい。

Many Ainu live in the Hidaka area, located in southern Hokkaido where I am assigned. According to a 2006 survey carried out by the Hokkaido Prefectural Government, there are 23,782 Ainu in Hokkaido, about 30 percent of whom live in Hidaka. When interacting with the Ainu I am painfully aware of the undeniable fact that discrimination against Ainu continues to this day.

 私が担当する北海道南部の日高地方には多くのアイヌ民族が暮らしている。北海道庁の06年調査では道内に2万3782人おり、その約3割が日高在住だ。彼らと触れ合う中で痛感するのは、差別が今も続いているという厳然たる事実だ。

A young Ainu girl, currently in junior high school, was forced by her elementary school classmates to read the definition of "Ainu" from the dictionary in class. These classmates handled her pens and notebooks as if they were holding something disgusting. She said that this bullying started when a classmate heard their parent say, "Ainu are dirty." Likewise, a man in his 70s recently revealed that he heard a friend talking about him behind his back, saying, "What do you expect from an Ainu?" When discrimination was mentioned in my conversations with Ainu people there were some people who suddenly grew quiet, while others spoke of their experiences with tears in their eyes.

 中学に通う女の子は小学生の時、教室でクラスメートから辞書の「アイヌ」の項目を無理やり見せられ、ペンやノートを汚いものをつまむような手つきで持たれたりした。同級生の一人が親から「アイヌは汚い」と聞かされたのが、いじめのきっかけだったという。70代の男性は最近、友人が陰で自分のことを「あいつはアイヌだから」と話すのを聞いたと明かした。差別の話になると、急に口数が少なくなる人もいれば、自らの体験を涙を浮かべて語る人もいた。

Discrimination like this is serious because it is directly linked to disparities in the Ainu's quality of life. According to the Hokkaido Prefectural Government, 3.8 percent of Ainu receive welfare, a figure that is 1.6 times that of the general population. Furthermore, the percentage of Ainu that pursue university education has stagnated at 17.4 percent, less than half the percentage of the general population (all figures are from 2006). These numbers indicate that discrimination in education, work, and marriage results in increased hardships in life, providing glimpses of a "downward spiral" where subsequent generations are unable to extract themselves from poverty.

 深刻なのは、こうした差別が生活格差に直結している点だ。道庁によると、アイヌ民族の生活保護受給率は3.8%で、アイヌ民族以外の1.6倍。大学進学率に至っては半分以下の17.4%にとどまっている(いずれも06年)。この数字からは、教育や就職、結婚などで受けた差別が結果として生活苦につながり、次の世代も貧困から抜け出せないという“負のスパイラル”が見え隠れする。

Japan's former policy for Ainu was carried out under the guise of developing Hokkaido. The national government assumed ownership of Ainu land and the Ainu lost the right to fish and hunt, their traditional means of living. Ainu culture was rejected and policies were advanced to assimilate the Ainu and make them "Japanese." The Hokkaido Former Aborigine Protection Law enacted in 1899 epitomized these measures.

 かつて国のアイヌ民族政策は北海道開発の名の下に行われてきた。彼らの土地は国有化され、伝統的な生活の手立てである漁業や狩猟の権利は奪われた。アイヌ文化は否定され、「日本人」との同化政策が進められた。その象徴が1899(明治32)年施行の北海道旧土人保護法だ。

The diligent efforts of Shigeru Kayano (1926-2006), the first Ainu to become a member of the Japanese Diet, caused this law to be repealed in 1997 after a century of being in effect. However, the New Ainu Law, established in its place, avoided recognizing the Ainu as an indigenous people and was limited to the "promotion of culture." Although there has been some progress in increasing understanding of the Ainu culture, according to Shiro Kayano, son of Shigeru Kayano and director of the Nibutani Ainu Museum, the 1997 law "did not directly contribute to an improvement in living conditions."

97年、アイヌ民族初の国会議員、萱野(かやの)茂さん(故人)らの尽力によって1世紀ぶりに廃止されたが、代わりにできたアイヌ新法は先住民族の認定を避け、内容は「文化振興」に限定された。アイヌ文化の理解促進はある程度進んだものの、萱野さんの次男志朗さん(50)=萱野茂二風谷(にぶたに)アイヌ資料館館長=は「生活の向上には直接、結びつかなかった」と言う。

The fact that many Ainu still live in poverty is a result of Japan's discriminatory policies, a fundamentally different situation from the modern problem of economic gaps. The Hokkaido Prefectural Government has established its own system of scholarships for Ainu, but this is nothing more than "a local area doing something that should be handled by the national government," says Shiro Kayano. It is fair to say that the national government's stance to this point has been to regard the pains of the Ainu people as a "local issue."

 アイヌ民族の多くが今も貧窮している背景には国の差別的な政策があり、現在の格差社会問題とは事情が異なる。道庁は独自の奨学金制度などを設けているが、「本来は国がやるべきことを地元がやっている」(志朗さん)に過ぎない。アイヌ民族の苦しみを「地方の問題」として片づけてきたのが、今までの国の姿勢だったと言える。

The panel of experts will release its report next summer. The national government is planning to use this report to examine new support policies. From Hokkaido, the panel includes Gov. Harumi Takahashi and Tadashi Kato, head director of the Ainu Association of Hokkaido. At the second meeting of the panel on Sept. 17, Kato highlighted realistic demands for living support, such as "improved education." It is possible that future deliberations will turn to the topic of indigenous rights, such as reparations or the return of land and resources. There may be times when the national government cannot easily concede to these requests. However, the dialogue between the national government and the Ainu must start with the government reflecting on its past policies and listening to the opinions of the Ainu people.

 有識者懇は来夏にも報告書を出し、国はそれを基に新たな支援策を検討する予定だ。有識者懇のメンバーには地元から高橋はるみ北海道知事やアイヌ民族でつくる北海道ウタリ協会の加藤忠理事長(69)が選ばれ、加藤理事長は9月17日の第2回会合で「教育の充実」など生活支援に向けた現実的な要求を掲げた。今後は土地や資源の返還・補償といった先住権の中身が議題に上る可能性があり、国としても簡単に妥協できない場面が出てくるかもしれない。しかし国はまず過去の政策を反省し、アイヌ民族の主張に耳を傾けることから始めるべきだろう。

In July, I reported on the Indigenous Peoples Summit in Ainu Mosir 2008 that was held at the same time as the G8 Summit in Toyako, Hokkaido. Twenty-two indigenous peoples, including the Ainu, from 11 countries and regions attended the summit, where there was discussion on the recovery of rights and on environmental preservation. Representatives of the various peoples, all with histories of being subject to persecution, delivered statements on their values, saying, "Indigenous peoples value the lands of their ancestors and have coexisted with nature." Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, Chair of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and herself a member of an indigenous people from the Philippines, declared that "protecting the rights of indigenous peoples is connected with preservation of the global environment." There are many things that we should learn from indigenous peoples.

 私は7月、北海道洞爺湖サミットに伴って開催された「先住民族サミット アイヌモシリ2008」を取材した。11カ国・地域からアイヌ民族を含む22民族が集まり、権利回復や環境保護について意見交換した。いずれも迫害の歴史を持つ各代表者は「先住民族は先祖伝来の土地を大切にし、自然と共生してきた」と自分たちの価値観をアピールし、フィリピンの先住民族で国連先住民族問題常設フォーラム議長のビクトリア・タウリ・コープス氏は「先住民族の権利を守ることは、地球環境を守ることにもつながる」と主張した。私たちは彼らから学ぶべきものが多い。

Protecting the rights of indigenous peoples is an international trend. I would like to see the government of Japan clearly indicate a position of coexistence with the Ainu people. I believe that this will lead to diversity and tolerance in Japan.

 先住民族の権利保護は国際的な流れだ。国はアイヌの人々との共生に取り組む姿勢を鮮明にしてほしい。それが、この国の多様性と寛容さにつながると信じている。(北海道報道部苫小牧)

("As I See It," by Jun Kaneko, Hokkaido District Office, Tomakomai Bureau)

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