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2008年11月 3日 (月)

集団自決判決

2008/11/3--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 1(IHT/Asahi: November 3,2008)

EDITORIAL: Mass suicide ruling

集団自決判決―あの検定の異常さを思う

The Osaka High Court has upheld an Osaka District Court ruling that recognized as fact the Imperial Japanese military's deep involvement with the mass suicides of Okinawans in the Battle of Okinawa toward the end of World War II.

 太平洋戦争末期の沖縄戦で、住民の集団自決に日本軍が深くかかわっていた。そのことが大阪地裁に続いて大阪高裁でも認められた。 

This highlights, yet again, how bizarre it was for the education ministry to order in the fiscal 2006 textbook screenings that all such descriptions of military involvement be struck out of history textbooks.

 06年度の教科書検定で、軍のかかわりを軒並み削らせた文部科学省の判断の異常さが改めて浮かび上がる。 

Under question was the book "Okinawa Notes" written by Nobel Prize-winning writer Kenzaburo Oe. In the book, Oe wrote that the mass suicides that occurred on the Kerama Islands, where U.S. forces first landed, were ordered by the Japanese army.

 問題になっていたのは、ノーベル賞作家、大江健三郎さんの著書「沖縄ノート」だ。米軍が最初に上陸した慶良間諸島で起きた集団自決は日本軍が命令したものだ、と書いた。 

The suit was filed by a former Japanese garrison commander and others, challenging Oe's claim and demanding compensation from Oe and his publisher, Iwanami Shoten.

 これに対し、元守備隊長らが指摘は誤りだとして、大江さんと出版元の岩波書店に慰謝料などを求めた。 

In November 1944, the Japanese army in Okinawa issued a policy dictating that military members and civilians must live and die together. Residents were mobilized, and were ordered not to allow themselves to be taken prisoner. This is the backdrop against which those mass suicides occurred.

 沖縄の日本軍は1944年11月、「軍官民共生共死の一体化」の方針を出した。住民は根こそぎ動員され、捕虜になることを許されなかった。そんな中で起きたのが集団自決だった。 

In its ruling, the Osaka High Court said, "There is no denying that under the grand directive of military and civilian integration, the military was deeply involved in the group suicides. It is possible to interpret the events as enforced or ordered by the military."

 大阪高裁は「一体化の大方針の下で軍が集団自決に深くかかわったことは否定できず、軍の強制ないし命令と評価する見解もあり得る」と述べた。 

Many in Okinawa have testified that the mass suicides were forced by the military. There has been extensive academic research about the matter. The high court ruling is right in line with common sense.

 集団自決が軍に強いられたものであったことは沖縄では証言がたくさんあり、学問研究も積み上げられていた。判決はきわめて常識的なものだ。 

During the trial, the former garrison commander argued that he had ordered the residents never to commit suicide. In the appeals trial, an affidavit from a man who says he heard the commander actually say so was submitted as evidence.

 裁判で元隊長は、住民に「決して自決するでない」と命じた、と主張した。控訴審では、その命令を聞いたという男性の陳述書も提出された。 

affidavit /fidéivit/

〔法〕宣誓供述書 
swear [《略式》take, make] an ~  (証人が)供述書の真実を宣誓する 
take an ~  供述書を取る.

But the high court ruling said that the former commander's argument "can hardly be accepted," and struck down the witness' testimony as "lies." The court also refused to accept the plaintiffs' argument that the theory of the commander giving orders was a scam concocted to steal pension money.

 判決は「元隊長の主張は到底採用できない」と指摘し、男性の供述を「虚言」とはねつけた。遺族年金を受け取るために隊長命令説がでっちあげられたという原告の主張も退けた。 

concoct /kgnkkt|kinkkt/

曠曦

1 〈口実・話を〉でっち上げる;〈計画などを〉考える,仕組む;〈陰謀などを〉企てる 
an alibi  アリバイをでっち上げる.[1]

Having said that, the court concluded that "at the time the book went to press, the theory that the commander had ordered the residents to commit mass suicide was widely accepted within academia, and there was sufficient grounds to believe it to be the truth."

 そのうえで、判決は「出版当時、隊長命令説は学会の通説ともいえる状況にあり、真実と信じるに相当な理由があった」と結論づけた。 

Another striking part of the ruling is that the court adopted a wide interpretation of the freedom of speech. It pointed out how the plaintiffs had seized on the fact that new materials denying the position that the commander gave the orders were made public after "Okinawa Notes" was published, and ruled that "even if new data cast doubts on the reliability of the claims in the book, that does not mean it is immediately illegal to continue publishing the book."

 そこでもうひとつ注目すべきは、表現の自由を幅広く認定したことだ。原告側が「沖縄ノート」の発行後に隊長命令説を否定する資料が出てきたと主張したことに触れ、「新しい資料で真実性が揺らいだからといって、ただちに出版の継続が違法になると解するのは相当ではない」との判断を示した。 

Above all, what must not be overlooked is the fact it was this very trial that the education ministry had used as one of their main arguments for removing phrases like "forced by the Japanese army" from the textbooks. They are heavily responsible for trying to warp history based on one-sided claims.

 それにしても見逃せないのは、文科省が教科書検定で「日本軍に強いられた」というような表現を削らせた大きな理由として挙げていたのが、この裁判の提訴だったことである。一方的な主張をよりどころに、歴史をゆがめようとした文科省の責任は重い。 

The problematic textbook screening took place under the Abe administration with its doctrine of "departure from the postwar regime."

Was it not a case of the mood of the administration casting a shadow upon the ministry, leading it to revise history? It was during the following Fukuda administration that the ministry finally acquiesced and corrected itself, allowing "military involvement" to go back into the textbooks.

 問題の検定は、「戦後レジームからの脱却」を唱える安倍政権の下でおこなわれた。時の政権の持つ雰囲気が、歴史の見直しという形で影を落としたのではなかったか。最終的に「軍の関与」を認める訂正をしたのは、次の福田政権になってからだ。 

acquiesce /kwiés/

曠昿《形式》(…を)黙認する,(…に)おとなしく従う,黙従する,(要求などに)折れる,屈服する;(…に)(消極的に)同意する《 in, to...  
The people d in the President's decisions.  国民は大統領の決定にいやいやながらも同意した.[2]

One must face history plainly and straightfowardly. We should revisit how important this is in view of the textbook screenings and the subsequent trials.

 ありのままの歴史にきちんと向き合う。その大切さを、一連の教科書検定と裁判を機に改めて確認したい。 


[1]Progressive English-Japanese Dictionary, Third edition © Shogakukan 1980,1987,1998/プログレッシブ英和中辞典  第3版  ©小学館 1980,1987,1998

[2]Progressive English-Japanese Dictionary, Third edition © Shogakukan 1980,1987,1998/プログレッシブ英和中辞典  第3版  ©小学館 1980,1987,1998

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