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2008年12月19日 (金)

記者の目:クラスター爆弾禁止条約締結の意義=中井良則(論説室)

(Mainichi Japan) December 18, 2008

Peace movement has overwhelmed cluster bomb cynicism

記者の目:クラスター爆弾禁止条約締結の意義=中井良則(論説室)

 ◇平和行動が冷笑主義を打倒 「一人一人の歴史」裏付け

 クラスター爆弾禁止条約の意味をどう考えればいいだろう。

"Even if you cry out against weapons, they'll never disappear. There is no point in enacting a convention without the participation of major countries. That's the reality of the world." Some people tend to have such a warped view of global trends, and criticize other people's actions without taking a stand on their own. Such cynicism is prevailing everywhere. However, there are people who have overcome this cynicism, as shown in the signing of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

 いくら兵器反対を叫んでも実現するわけがない。大国が加わらないなら意味はない。世界の現実ってそんなものさ。しょうがない。どうせだめなんだ。

 斜に構え、世の風潮をあざ笑う。安全地帯に潜んで他者の言動をけなし、自分は動こうとしない。そんなシニシズム(冷笑主義)はどこでも幅をきかす。だが、シニシズムを破った人々がいた。この条約の意義を私はそこに見いだす。

There was no progress on restrictions on cluster bombs even after years of negotiations during the Geneva arms reduction talks. It was two years ago that the Oslo Process on cluster bombs was launched after being separated from the Geneva talks.

 ジュネーブの軍縮交渉で何年かけても、クラスター爆弾の規制は進まない。そこから飛び出して新しい枠組みオスロ・プロセスが動きだしたのは2年前だ。

I wonder what progress those involved in the process had initially expected.

 賛同国や国際NGO(非政府組織)は徒手空拳ではなかったにせよ、どれほどの成算があっただろう。

It would have been impossible to ban the use of cluster bombs and the number of victims would have only increased if negotiations had been left to the discretion of diplomats who place priority on their national interests.

しかし国益をかざす外交官に任せていては、爆弾の使用はやまず犠牲者が増えるだけだった。

Those who negotiated the Convention on Cluster Munitions had set a deadline for signing it by the end of 2008, and attempted to persuade politicians from various countries and the public to support the treaty. Their actions, instead of cynical remarks, led to the signing of the convention.

08年末までの署名という締め切りを設定し、各国の政治家と世論を説得する。シニカルな論評に終わらない行動主義が条約実現につながったのだ。

At the signing ceremony held in Oslo on Dec. 3, Jakob Kellenberger, president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), said the two roads joined into one on that day.

 ノルウェー・オスロの署名式(今月3日)で赤十字国際委員会のケレンベルガー総裁が「きょうここで二つの道が一つになった」と表現した。

The two roads referred to the use of cluster bombs and the international humanitarian law calling for a ban on killing civilians. The roads did not only join each other. International law made the road for bombs a dead end.

道の一つは爆弾使用であり、もう一つは「市民を殺すな」という国際人道法だ。単に合流したのではない。国際法が爆弾の道を行き止まりにした。

We must evaluate the claims by those who use such weapons. In March 2003, during the Iraq War, a colonel responsible for the U.S. Air Force's strategy held a press conference at the Department of Defense. When asked to what extent the military will accept civilian casualties, he responded that commanders will consider whether their operations are worthy of the casualties.

 使う側の論理を検証しなければならない。

 イラク戦争中の03年3月、米国防総省で空軍の戦略を担当する大佐が記者会見した。どの程度の民間人の犠牲なら軍は受け入れるのか、との問いに大佐は答えた。「市民の死傷者数と折り合う軍事的な価値があるかを指揮官は考える」

In other words, the U.S. launched attacks after making a compromise between orders to win by all means and demands that civilian casualties should be limited. Balancing between military needs and civilian casualties is a typical excuse made by military commanders.

 「戦闘に勝て」という命令と「市民の犠牲は減らすべきだ」という要請。二つの相反する条件の間で妥協点を見つけ、結局は攻撃したわけだ。軍事の必要性と民間人の人命を比較しバランスをとる。これが軍人のお定まりの言い訳だ。

How can operations that kill civilians be justified? Ibaraki University Professor Emeritus Shinichi Arai, 82, who analyzed the thoughts of those who launch attacks in his book, "Kubaku no Rekishi" ("The history of air strikes"), points to "the mentality of Imperialism" and "the effects of terrorism."

 それにしても、なぜ市民を殺すような作戦に正当性を見つけることができるのだろう。今年「空爆の歴史」(岩波新書)を出版し「加害の思想」を分析した茨城大名誉教授の荒井信一さん(82)は「帝国意識」と「テロ効果」を指摘する。

Aircraft invented by the Wright brothers (Wilbur and Orville) in 1903 were soon used in war in 1911 when an Italian plane dropped hand grenades during a fight over the colonization of Libya, which was part of Turkey's territory. It was the world's first air strike using an aircraft.

 ライト兄弟が1903年に発明した飛行機は早くも11年、実戦に使われる。トルコ領リビアをめぐる植民地戦争でイタリア機が手投げ弾を投下した。世界最初の飛行機による空爆だ。

It had been believed that air strikes by civilized countries on what they considered "uncivilized" countries were effective in the fight for colonization and suppressing uprisings by local residents in areas they attempted to colonize. It was based on racism in which developed countries would not care if what they considered inferior people who lived in uncivilized areas lost their lives in war. And such racism has not died down.

 植民地争奪や「未開」とみなす住民の反乱鎮圧に文明国の空爆は効果があると考えられた。そこには未開の劣った人間は死んでも構わないという人種差別主義があり、いまも消えない。

"Massacres carried out in the name of 'air strikes' will continue as long as there is a framework allowing colonization. The mentality of Imperialism harbored by countries that attack other nations must be eliminated," Arai says.

「植民地的な枠組みがある限り、空爆と大量虐殺は続く。加害者が持つ帝国意識を克服しなければならない」と荒井さんは言う。

"The effects of terrorism" refers to the idea that countries can win war if they destroy civilians' daily lives, terrorize them and cause them to lose their will to fight.

 もう一つの「テロ効果」は、住民の日常生活を破壊し、市民を恐怖にさらして戦意を失わせれば戦争に勝てると考える。

I think that the U.S., which used cluster bombs in attacks on Iraq, harbored the mentality of Imperialism and believed in the effects of terrorism.

 イラク侵攻でクラスター爆弾を使った米国にもこの「帝国意識」と「テロ効果」があったと私は思う。

Everybody hates cruel wars. However, human beings have not yet grown mature enough to realize complete world peace in which no wars are permitted. Although they have managed to agree to set rules on wars. Bans on attacks on civilians and indiscriminate attacks that do not distinguish between military targets and civilians have been incorporated in international conventions.

 むごい戦争をだれもが憎む。だが、いかなる戦争も一切行わないという世界平和の状態に人類はまだ至っていない。かろうじて戦争にルールを設けることには合意した。「市民を攻撃してはならない」「軍事目標と文民を区別しない無差別攻撃を禁止する」と国際条約に書き込んだ。

Even if politicians or military commanders claim the war they wage is just, they are condemned and held responsible for waging unjustifiable war if they deliberately attack civilians. Human beings have managed to reach this level of maturity.

 いくら政治家や将軍が正しい目的の正義の戦争と主張したとしても、市民を意図して攻撃すれば不正の戦争と非難され責任を問われる。人間はようやくその状態にまでたどりついた。

Unfortunately, these rules are sometimes broken. However, the types of weapons that people have banned have been steadily increasing. They include chemical and biological weapons and anti-personnel landmines. I regard the Convention on Cluster Munitions as the latest results of arm reduction efforts made by human beings.

 残念ながらそうしたルールも時に破られる。だが、禁止を約束した兵器の種類は着実に増えている。化学兵器、生物兵器、対人地雷……。その最新の成果がクラスター爆弾禁止条約だ、と位置づけたい。

A sense of stagnation has been spreading throughout the world since the financial crisis erupted in September. Under such circumstances, people tend to hide in comfortable nutshells of cynicism.

 9月の金融危機以降、トンネルに閉じ込められたような感覚が日本と世界に広がる。こういう時はシニシズムの生ぬるい殻に逃げ込んでしまいそうだ。

"Where we are met with cynicism and doubts and those who tell us that we can't, we will respond with that timeless creed that sums up the spirit of a people -- yes, we can," President-elect Barack Obama said in a speech he made shortly after he won the U.S. presidential race in November.

 「シニシズムや疑念にぶつかったり、できっこないという人たちに出会ったら、時を超えた信念で応じよう。イエス・ウィ・キャン(そうだ、私たちはできる)と」。オバマ次期米大統領は11月の当選の夜、勝利演説でそう呼びかけた。

The U.S., which has used the largest number of cluster munitions of all countries that possess such weapons, has obligations to sign the convention and extend assistance to victims.

 最も多くクラスター爆弾を使った米国は条約に加わり、被害者支援の責任を果たす義務があるだろう。

Individuals who can break the barrier of cynicism can change history. It was demonstrated by the singing of the Convention on Cluster Munitions and the U.S. presidential election. (By Yoshinori Nakai, Editorial Writer)

シニシズムの壁を破る一人一人の個人が歴史を動かす。その実例を禁止条約制定と大統領選挙が見せてくれたのだから。

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