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2008年12月29日 (月)

記者の目:職員会議で挙手・採決禁止した都教委=木村健二(東京社会部)

(Mainichi Japan) December 28, 2008

Tokyo Education Board's ban on votes, show of hands goes too far

記者の目:職員会議で挙手・採決禁止した都教委=木村健二(東京社会部)


 ◇行き過ぎ通知が自由を抑圧--協調・活性化、環境整備を

The Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education's blanket ban on showings of hands and votes in staff meetings at metropolitan high schools, announced in an April 2006 notice, is causing a stir in Japan.

 東京都の教育委員会による1通の通知が波紋を広げている。都立校の職員会議で「挙手」と「採決」を全面的に禁止した06年4月の通知だ。

No such notice has been issued in any other prefecture, and educators are complaining that the move is resulting in a loss of freedom of speech.

他の道府県にこうした通知はなく「言論の自由が失われている」との声も学校現場から上がる。

As I see it, the notice is a prime example of the Tokyo Board of Education's hard line which, under the leadership of Gov. Shintaro Ishihara, pursued things like widespread punishment for teachers who didn't stand for the singing of Japan's national anthem, "Kimigayo." I think it goes too far. The education board should rethink the notice, which is stifling for educators, and devote itself to its role of providing an environment that revitalizes schools with cooperation between school workers and administrators.

私は、この通知は石原慎太郎知事の下で「君が代」斉唱時に起立しない教職員の大量処分などを推し進めてきた都教委の強硬路線が極まったもので、行き過ぎた施策だと考える。都教委は現場を窒息させるような通知を見直し、校長ら管理職と教職員が協調しながら学校を活性化させる環境を整える役割に徹すべきだ。

The education board's notice was sent out under the name of then director for education Masahiko Nakamura, under the title "Making school management appropriate." It said that planning and coordination meetings held by principals and vice principals -- not staff meetings -- served as the nerve center of school administration.

"Management by means of holding a show of hands, votes and so on at staff meetings is inappropriate, and is not to be carried out," the notice said.

In the past staff meetings at some schools had turned into decision-making bodies that overrode school principals' views with majority votes. The notice was designed to promote the type of school development that principals were seeking.

 通知は「学校経営の適正化について」と題され、当時の中村正彦教育長名で出された。学校経営の中枢機関を職員会議ではなく校長や副校長らが開く「企画調整会議」と位置づけ、「職員会議において『挙手』、『採決』等の方法を用いて職員の意向を確認するような運営は不適切であり、行わない」とした。かつて職員会議は、教職員側が多数決で校長を押し切って実質的な議決機関と化していた学校もあり、校長の目指す学校づくりを促進する狙いがあった。

In 2000, before the notice was sent out, the former Ministry of Education revised an ordinance in order to boost the authority of principals, and designated staff meetings as "subsidiary organs" to facilitate the work of school principals. Prefectural education boards across Japan revised their regulations accordingly. However, a Mainichi poll carried out in August showed that only the Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education went as far as to send out a written ban on a show of hands and votes.

 通知に先立つ00年、旧文部省は校長の権限強化のために省令を改正し、職員会議を校長の職務を円滑化する「補助機関」と明確化。各都道府県教委も同様の規則改正をした。ただし、毎日新聞が8月に実施したアンケートでは、挙手・採決の禁止まで明文化して通知したのは都教委だけだ。

Nobuo Dohi, 60, principal of Tokyo Metropolitan Mitaka High School, is seeking a withdrawal of the ban. At a meeting of school principals in November last year, he stressed that the measure was having a negative effect at schools. He had presented his claims to the media in May, saying a mood was spreading among school workers that whatever they said was pointless. He had asked the metropolitan education board to hold an open discussion on the issue.

 通知撤回を求めて声を上げたのが、都立三鷹高(三鷹市)の土肥信雄校長(60)だ。昨年11月の校長会で、学校現場に悪影響が及んでいると主張し、今年5月には「何を言っても意味がないという空気が教員に広がっている」とメディアを通じて訴え、都教委に公開討論を開くよう求めた。

In response, between June and September the education board asked principals and vice principals at 260 metropolitan high schools -- excluding Dohi's high school -- what they thought about the situation. Altogether, 245 schools (94 percent) replied that the measure had no effect on freedom of speech. No schools answered that the measure did affect free speech.

On Nov. 13, the metropolitan education board compiled the results of the survey. It concluded that the measure "is not depriving people of freedom of speech."

 これに対し都教委は6~9月に三鷹高を除く都立校260校の校長と副校長から状況を聞き取った。言論の自由への影響について245校(94%)が「ない」と回答し「ある」はゼロだったとして、「言論の自由を奪っているものではない」と結論付けた調査結果を11月13日にまとめた。

Educational analyst Naoki Ogi, who sides with Dohi, writes off the results of the survey.

"It's like a pistol-armed robber making a victim raise both hands and asking, 'Are you scared?' It's not worthy to be called a survey," he says.

 だが、この調査結果を、土肥校長の意見に賛同する教育評論家の尾木直樹氏は「まるでピストルを持った強盗が被害者に両手を上げさせて『怖いか』と聞くようなもの。調査の名に値しない」と切り捨てる。

Opinions on the issue are divided. At a meeting of the education board on Nov. 27, Yutaka Takehana, former Tokyo vice governor, said, "The notice is not something that's making orders like 'Don't hold staff meetings,' or, 'Don't listen to the opinions of school workers.'"

 11月27日の都教委では、元副知事の竹花豊氏が「通知は『職員会議を開くな』とか『教職員の意見を聞くな』ということを指示しているものではない」と指摘。

Screenwriter Makiko Uchidate says," It's mistaken to think that not being able to hold votes or a show of hand is the equivalent of a crackdown on opinions."

脚本家の内館牧子氏も「採決・挙手できないことがイコール言論の弾圧というふうにとらえるのは間違っている」と述べた。

"There are hundreds of ways to establish communication (between principals and school workers)," adds Tsutomu Kimura, president of the National Institution for Academic Degrees and University Evaluation, who chairs the education board.

委員長の木村孟・独立行政法人大学評価・学位授与機構長は「(校長と教職員との間には)何百通りもコミュニケーションをとる方法はある」と言った。

But I want people to stop and think about this. Are there any other organizations that make a point of spelling out bans on a show of hands and votes? The metropolitan education board meeting regulations actually go the opposite way, stating that a show of hands and votes are conceivable procedures.

 でも、ちょっと待ってほしい。わざわざ「挙手」や「採決」を明記して禁じている組織がほかにあるだろうか。当の都教委の会議規則の中には、逆に挙手や採決をありうる手続きとして記している。

I don't think the feelings of Dohi are that far removed from society in general. Even in the metropolitan education board's survey, opinions matching those of Dohi could be seen -- five schools admitted, "An atmosphere has emerged that there isn't any point in staff presenting their opinions, and they've stopped speaking out." The stance of teachers managing by themselves had also disappeared, according to another report.

土肥校長の感覚が、世間一般からそんなにかけ離れているとは思えない。都教委の調査でも、土肥校長に同調する声が皆無だったわけではない。「職員が意見を言っても仕方がないという雰囲気になり、発言しなくなった」と認めた答えが5校あった。「教員が自分たちでやっていく姿勢がなくなった」などの声もあったという。

A teacher in his 40s from a metropolitan high school, whom I met during my coverage of the issue, said that atmosphere of meetings had changed because of the notice.

"In staff meetings, the atmosphere of free debate has disappeared, and the meetings have basically become outlets for announcements and reports. It has spurred autocratic management by the principal," the teacher said.

 私の取材でも、ある都立高の40代男性教諭は「職員会議で自由に議論する空気がなくなり、単なる連絡と報告の場になった。校長のワンマン運営に拍車が掛かった」と話した。

Masaaki Katsuno, an associate professor in educational administration at the University of Tokyo, says such a notice is unusual.

"Even from a perspective of general organizational management, the notice is extremely unusual," he says. "Staff aren't infringing on the leadership of principals in any way (by holding votes and a show of hands). Officials should seriously take to heart the significance of what is being pointed out by an incumbent principal," he adds, showing his support for the open forum requested by Dohi.

 勝野正章・東京大大学院准教授(教育行政学)は「一般的な組織運営を考えても通知は極めて異常。(挙手・採決をしても)校長のリーダーシップに何ら抵触することではない。現職校長が指摘する意味を重く受け止めるべきだ」と、土肥校長の求める公開討論の開催に賛意を示す。

School principals hold the final responsibility and authority in school administration and management. Shows of hands and votes could serve as points of reference for their decisions, and there are probably cases when doing so is more effective. And from the viewpoint of teachers, there are likely some who will lose their motivation when faced with a procedure that shuts off a way for them to express their opinions from the outset.

 校長は、学校の管理運営に最終的な責任と権限を持つ。判断の参考にするため挙手や採決を活用すればいいし、その方が効率的なケースもあるはずだ。逆に教職員側の立場で言えば、自分の意思を表す手段を最初から封じるようなやり方に、意欲をなくす人もいるだろう。

I don't think staff meetings that produce unproductive discussions from start to finish as people focus on putting forward their ideas are desirable. But placing notices that dwell on standardized operations above everything else only brings discouragement to the education scene, and isn't good for the children, either. The metropolitan education board should open its ears to different opinions from within and without. ("As I See It," by Kenji Kimura, City News Dept. of the Mainichi Shimbun)

持論ばかりを主張して不毛な議論に終始する職員会議が望ましいとは思わないが、画一的な運用にこだわる通知至上主義は現場のやる気をそぐだけで、子供のためにもならない。都教委は内外の異論に耳を澄ませるべきだ。

毎日新聞 20081225日 東京朝刊

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