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2008年12月19日 (金)

教科書充実 教員の力量も磨かなければ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Dec. 19, 2008)

Textbook move could see new chapter in education

教科書充実 教員の力量も磨かなければ(1219日付・読売社説)

Now that a policy to boost the content of school textbooks is certain to be adopted, we hope the move will improve the academic abilities of schoolchildren and spark in them a greater interest in learning.

 教科書の中身が増えることになった。児童生徒の学力や学習意欲の向上に、結びつけていかなければならない。

The government's Education Rebuilding Council on Thursday issued a second report on education reconstruction, urging the government to improve textbooks used in schools. The Textbook Authorization and Research Council, an advisory panel to the education, science and technology minister, plans to issue a similar report shortly.

 政府の教育再生懇談会が、教科書の充実を求める第2次報告をまとめた。文部科学相の諮問機関、教科用図書検定調査審議会も近く同様の報告を出す。

The main point of the Education Rebuilding Council's report is the elimination of the upper limits on advanced materials in textbooks--a move that is in line with changes made this year to teaching guidelines that will be gradually implemented from the 2009 academic year. Currently, about 10 percent of total content for primary and middle school books, and 20 percent for high school books, is allowed to be of an advanced nature. These limits are checked when textbooks are screened.

 主要な点は、今年の学習指導要領改定などを受け、教科書検定の運用上、発展的な学習内容の分量を「小中学校では全体の1割程度、高校では2割程度」としている上限をなくすことだ。

The council also urged the education ministry to review the stipulation in the textbook screening yardsticks that says textbooks should not contain materials deemed "too rudimentary" for each grade. This proposal aims at providing more supplementary materials for students who tend to fall behind.

 学習の遅れがちな児童生徒への補充的な学習内容も手厚くするため、教科書検定基準にある「程度が低すぎないこと」などの規定も見直すよう求めた。

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Cram-free no more

Under the current teaching guidelines, which stress cram-free education, learning materials have been reduced by about 30 percent compared with the previous guidelines.

 「ゆとり教育」が打ち出された現行の指導要領では、学習内容が約3割減った。

As it has become clear that the academic abilities of Japanese students were dropping in international achievement scores and other tests, the ministry--under the new teaching guidelines--will increase class hours for major subjects at primary and middle schools by more than 10 percent, and reinstate some learning materials dropped in the current guidelines. Total class hours for arithmetic/ mathematics and science will be increased by about 15 percent during the nine years of primary and middle school education.

 国際学力調査などで学力低下が明らかになり、改定後の新指導要領では小中学校とも主要教科の授業時間を1割以上増やし、削減した学習内容の一部も復活させた。算数・数学と理科は、小中9年間で15%程度増える見込みだ。


The new teaching guidelines will be fully implemented in the 2011 academic year for primary schools and in the 2012 academic year for middle schools. The new guidelines will be applied to science subjects ahead of schedule starting from the next academic year.

 新指導要領の全面実施は、小学校が2011年度、中学校では12年度だが、理数については来年度から前倒し実施される。

The latest report aims to bid farewell to cram-free education also by changing textbook content. The textbooks should not only have more content, but also better content.

 今回の報告は、「脱ゆとり教育」を教科書の面でも示すものだ。分量だけではなく、内容の充実にもつなげてもらいたい。

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Teachers also should hone skills

In particular, as the report pointed out, it is essential for textbooks to contain related materials from other subjects and descriptions about how material in textbooks can apply to daily life and society.

 特に、報告が指摘しているように、関連する他教科の内容を入れたり、実生活や実社会でどう役立つのかという記述を盛り込んだりすることは、大切だ。

According to international math and science tests and related questionnaires--the results of which were released recently--Japanese middle school students came bottom in the percentage of students who answered that math and science "are necessary for studying other subjects" or "are useful in daily life."

 先に公表された理数の国際学力調査では、中学生の場合、理数が「他教科の勉強に必要」「日常生活に役立つ」という答えは、いずれも最下位レベルだった。

Science, for example, can be used in home economics class, where teachers can make students calculate calories, or in health education, where teachers can teach students about the structure of the body. We hope textbook writers and publishers will tax their ingenuity in these regards.

 例えば理科なら、家庭科と関連づけて熱量を計算させたり、保健と絡めて体の構造を教えたりすることもできるだろう。執筆者や教科書会社の工夫を期待したい。

In its report, the council said it was necessary to change the perception that all the contents in textbooks must be taught. An awareness change is essential for parents in particular.

 報告は、「教科書の内容は全部教えなければならない」という認識を変えていく必要があることも提言した。特に、保護者にはそうした意識改革が求められよう。

However, it largely depends on the ability of teachers whether improved textbooks will be able to enhance the academic achievements and motivations of their students.

 教科書がよくなっても、それを生かして学力や意欲の向上につなげられるかどうかは、教員の力量に負うところが大きい。

It is only natural that the report stressed the need for improving training programs for teachers in addition to improved textbooks. Efforts also must be made to devise content-rich training programs to be taken by teachers when they renew their teaching licenses under the new license renewal system to start next academic year.

 報告が、教科書だけでなく、教員研修の充実を求めたのは、もっともだ。来年度から始まる教員免許更新講習の内容も、充実を図らねばなるまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 19, 2008)

200812190207  読売新聞)

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