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2009年4月 4日 (土)

金融サミット 結束優先で封印した不協和音

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Apr. 4, 2009)
Unresolved discord may yet upset G-20 unity
金融サミット 結束優先で封印した不協和音(4月3日付・読売社説)

Leaders from the world's major industrialized and emerging economies have restated their efforts to maintain a united front in tackling the global economic downturn that has grown ever more serious.
 深刻化する世界不況の克服へ、先進国と新興国の首脳が結束の強化を再確認した。

But sending this message alone cannot overcome the crisis. It must be backed by quick action and concrete results.
 しかし、メッセージだけでは、危機を打開できない。具体的な成果を上げるスピードが重要になろう。

The second summit meeting of the Group of 20 economies to address the crisis was held in London, with Japan, the United States and European nations as well as China and India among the participants.
 日米欧の先進国と、中国、インドなどの20か国・地域(G20)の首脳が参加し、ロンドンで開かれた第2回金融サミットが、首脳宣言を採択して閉幕した。

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United approach

A final communique, adopted at the end of the summit Thursday, says a total of 5 trillion dollars in fiscal stimulus funds will be injected into the worldwide economy, with the aim of spurring a resumption of economic growth by the end of the next year.
 宣言は、「来年末までの世界経済の回復」を目標に掲げ、世界全体で5兆ドルの景気刺激策を実施することを打ち出した。

This injection of funds will raise global output by 4 percent and create millions of jobs, according to the communique.
この刺激策により、世界の経済成長率が4%押し上げられ、数百万人の雇用が創出されるとしている。

Since the first G-20 summit meeting was held in Washington in November in the wake of the outbreak of the U.S.-triggered global financial crisis, the situation has steadily worsened. The global economy likely will register negative growth this year.
 米国発の金融危機が燃えさかる昨年11月に第1回サミットが開かれた後も、危機は深まるばかりだ。今年の世界経済は、マイナス成長に陥る見通しである。

Of course, G-20 members shared deep concern about the situation and expressed a determination to break the vicious circle of economic losses. But also there were indications the leaders decided to act in a united fashion, putting their disagreements to one side. A confrontation between the United States and Europe over additional fiscal measures was one example of an issue that was raised but did not prove divisive.
 G20が危機感を共有し、悪循環を断ち切る決意を示したのは当然といえよう。だが、協調を最優先し、不協和音を封印した跡がみえる。まず、追加的な財政出動を巡る米欧の対立だ。

U.S. President Barack Obama, a newcomer to the G-20 format, called on each nation present to implement vigorous fiscal measures, just as he had done in the United States by introducing a large fiscal stimulus plan. The United States called on nations to introduce fiscal spending equivalent to at least 2 percent of their gross domestic product.
 初参加したオバマ米大統領は、大型の景気対策を決めた米国と同様に、各国に積極的な財政出動を求めた。国内総生産(GDP)比で2%以上を念頭に置いた。

Japan, which has begun considering an additional stimulus package, supported the idea, but Germany and France took a different stance, arguing that additional spending is unnecessary. This has left some potential for friction over what future stimulus measures should be taken.
 新たな追加経済対策の検討に入った日本は同調したが、ドイツやフランスは追加策は不要とし、足並みはそろわなかった。今後の景気対策について火種を残した。

On tightening the regulation of financial institutions, a compromise by the United States on such matters as the introduction of a registry system for hedge funds was hailed as a great step forward. But differences remain between the United States and Europe regarding the finer details, with Europe pushing for greater regulation.
 金融機関に対する規制をどう強化するかという問題では、ヘッジファンドの登録制導入などで米国が歩み寄ったのは前進だ。だが、具体策では、強力な規制を求める欧州と米国の溝は依然大きい。

G-20 leaders also agreed that the lending capacity of the International Monetary Fund, which extends assistance to nations in dire situations, be expanded. However, emerging nations such as China, which are eager to have a greater say in the IMF, adopted a different position to the United States.
 経済危機の国を支援する国際通貨基金(IMF)の融資枠を拡大する点でも一致した。ただ、発言力増大を狙う中国など新興国と、米国の思惑は食い違う。

The Great Depression taught nations that promoting free trade is key to revitalizing the world economy. In this respect, it was a matter of course that the communique resisted protectionism.
 大恐慌を教訓にすれば、世界経済の再生に、自由貿易の推進が欠かせない。宣言が、保護貿易主義の阻止を明記したのは当然だ。

But an agreement on an antiprotectionist approach reached at the previous G-20 summit meeting was subsequently broken by a number of nations who pressed ahead with measures to protect their domestic industries. The agreement should be adhered to by all nations from now on.
 しかし、前回会合でなされた保護主義反対の合意は、その後、各国で相次いだ自国産業を保護する動きで反古(ほご)にされた。今度こそ、順守しなければならない。

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Problems remain

The G-20 summit arose as a way of overcoming the limitations of the Group of Seven and Group of Eight major nations frameworks in tackling global issues. But it now seems apparent that the G-20 also faces a number of problems due to the large number of participating members and unresolved differences between them.
 世界的な問題に対する先進7か国(G7)や8か国(G8)の限界が指摘され、G20の首脳会議が始まった。だが、参加メンバーが多く、意見が対立しがちなG20もまた、課題を抱えていることが明らかになったのでないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, last edition of the April 3, 2009, issue)
(2009年4月3日01時55分  読売新聞)

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