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2009年11月30日 (月)

雇用不安 新成長戦略で働く場確保を

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The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 30, 2009)
New growth strategy needed to protect jobs
雇用不安 新成長戦略で働く場確保を(11月30日付・読売社説)

At the end of last year, a large number of manufacturers across the nation fired temporary workers even before their work contracts expired. To help those who lost jobs, a civic group set up a tent camp, called Toshikoshi Hakenmura (village for temporary workers to see out the old year), in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. A year later, the country's employment situation has grown even more serious.
 昨年暮れは製造業の派遣切りが続き、日比谷公園に「年越し派遣村」ができた。1年たった今、雇用情勢は一段と深刻化している。

How effective will the government's emergency employment measures be? The government must do all it can to alleviate the severe employment situation as the year-end approaches.
 政府の緊急雇用対策は、どれだけの効果が期待できるか。年の瀬を前に、政府は雇用対策に全力を挙げなければならない。

===

Situation in rural areas bleak
 ◆深刻な地方へのしわ寄せ◆

Kitakami, a city located in the southwest of Iwate Prefecture, has some of the leading industrial parks in the country. Blessed with vast plains and abundant water, the city capitalizes on its good location connected to an expressway.
 岩手県の南西部に位置する北上市は、全国有数の工業団地を持つ。広大な平野と豊かな水資源に恵まれ、高速道路も整備された立地条件の良さが売り物である。

With a large number of leading companies having set up plants there, the city until recently enjoyed a reputation as having successful industrial parks where a variety of industries are concentrated. Yet the tide of recession is sweeping toward the city.
 大企業が次々と進出し、産業集積が進んだ成功例とされるが、その北上市にも、景気悪化の荒波が押し寄せている。

At Iwate Toshiba Electronics Co., a Toshiba Corp. subsidiary located in an industrial park in the northern part of the city, a vast plot of land lies vacant next to the firm's semiconductor plant.
 市内北部の工業団地にある東芝子会社の岩手東芝エレクトロニクス。稼働中の半導体工場の横には広い敷地が残されたままだ。

Toshiba announced in 2008 it would build a new plant in Kitakami to produce cutting-edge NAND flash memory products. But the firm decided early this year to postpone construction of the plant due to flagging sales of semiconductors and a serious downturn in business. The site for the planned flash memory plant will soon see its second winter.
 東芝は2008年、最先端のNAND型フラッシュメモリーの北上新工場を建設すると発表した。ところが、今年初め、半導体不況と業績悪化を理由に建設を延期した。新工場は着工されず2度目の冬を迎えようとしている。

Under the initial plan, the plant was scheduled to start operation in spring 2010 and employ about 1,000 new workers.
 計画通りならば、来春以降に稼働し、1000人規模の新規雇用が見込まれていた。

About three years ago, the ratio of job offers to job seekers in the city rose to about 1.9 thanks to companies that flooded to the city to open new plants. As a result, the city ran short of workers. But now, the job-offers-to-job-seekers ratio has nosedived to about 0.3. Kitakami Mayor Akira Ito awaits the day when Toshiba decides to start the construction.
 北上市は約3年前、企業進出ラッシュで有効求人倍率が1・9倍程度まで上昇し、人手不足の時期もあった。それが今や、約0・3倍に急落した。伊藤彬市長は、東芝の着工決断を待つ日々だ。

The mayor has been visiting companies with branches in the city, asking them to hire even one more employee, in what he calls his "plus one" campaign.
 「プラスワン」作戦――。一人でも多くの採用を求める陳情攻勢を市長はそう名付け、地元に進出した企業を回り続ける。

This situation is not confined in Kitakami, but can be seen across the country. NEC Corp. has closed its liquid crystal panel plant in Izumi, Kagoshima Prefecture, while Honda Motor Co. postponed operation of its new plant in Yoriimachi, Saitama Prefecture.
 こうした状況は北上に限らない。NECの液晶パネル工場閉鎖(鹿児島県出水市)、ホンダの新工場稼働延期(埼玉県寄居町)など、全国で相次いでいる。

Listed companies' midterm earnings reports for the period ending in September showed that their business performance is improving. But they are still cautious about making capital investments as they strive to cut costs to be globally competitive.
 上場企業の今年9月中間決算は、業績改善を裏付けた。しかし、グローバル競争を勝ち抜くため、各社は、コスト削減を徹底しており、設備投資には慎重だ。

The Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry announced Friday that the number of jobless people was 3.44 million in October, while the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 5.1 percent. The nation's job-offers-to-job-seekers ratio remains at a low level, at a seasonally adjusted 0.44.
 総務省が27日発表した10月の完全失業者は344万人で、完全失業率は5・1%だった。全国の有効求人倍率も0・44倍と、低水準が続いている。

Under its slogan of "From concrete to people," the administration of Prime Minister Yukio Hatomaya touts a policy shift that allocates taxpayers' money to programs related to people's lives, rather than to public works programs, as was seen in the past. This policy shift has slashed the number of public works projects, which local economies rely heavily on, dealing a heavy blow to the economies, which were already suffering from the ongoing wave of corporate restructuring.
 鳩山政権は、「コンクリートから人へ」の政策転換を掲げる。頼みの公共工事が激減したうえ、企業リストラも加わり、特に地方経済にはダブルパンチである。

The government, which compiled emergency employment measures in October, has begun studying additional employment measures for inclusion in the second supplementary budget for fiscal 2009.
 政府は、10月に緊急雇用対策をまとめたのに続き、2009年度第2次補正予算に盛り込む追加雇用対策を検討し始めた。

===

 ◆求められる大胆な追加策◆
Bolder steps needed

With the number of jobless rising, there are fears of downside risks for the economy, making it vitally important for the government to come up with new bold measures.
 失業者が増え続け、景気腰折れも懸念されており、ここは大胆な対策を打ち出すべきだ。

The pillar of the emergency employment measures is the provision of assistance to those who have lost their jobs and are in poverty and distress, and to new graduates, as well as the creation of jobs, mainly in such areas as nursing care, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, for about 100,000 people by the end of this fiscal year.
 政府の雇用対策は、仕事を失った貧困・困窮者や新卒者への支援のほか、介護や農林業などを中心に年度末までに約10万人の雇用創造を目指すことが柱である。

With the measures, the government aims to make the Hello Work job placement offices one-stop centers that, as well as helping unemployed people find jobs, can also help those who have become homeless as a result of losing their jobs find accommodation. But these measures are nothing new.
 ハローワークの支援機能や住宅支援策の強化を目指すが、旧来型の政策で目新しさはない。

Meanwhile, to encourage firms to temporarily lay off rather than fire employees, the government will ease requirements for receiving a governmental subsidy to defray costs relating to layoffs.
 政府は、従業員を解雇せず休業などにとどめた企業を支援する雇用調整助成金の要件を緩和する。

Steps such as these would go some way to protecting jobs. But subsidies like the one for firms furloughing workers should be expanded, while the government should carefully design job-training programs.
雇用維持に一定の効果が期待できるが、助成金をさらに拡充すべきだろう。きめ細かな職業訓練も強化しなければならない。

The ratio of college students graduating next spring who have received unofficial job offers hovered at around just 60 percent as of October, leaving the job situation for job-hunting college students extremely tight. To avoid creating a generation of unemployed people, it is an urgent task to boost such assistance.
 来春の大卒予定者の就職内定率は、10月現在で約60%に低迷し、「超氷河期」と言われる。就職できない「ロストジェネレーション」を生み出さないよう、支援対策の強化も急務だ。

What is probably important in the mid- and long term is to expand job opportunities.
 中長期的に肝心なのは、雇用機会を拡大することだろう。

Although the government has set a target of creating 100,000 jobs, that figure is dwarfed by the number of jobless, which has ballooned to 3.44 million.
 政府が雇用創出の目標に掲げた10万人は、344万人に膨らんだ失業者と比べると力不足だ。

Expanding cooperation among the sectors of agriculture, commerce and industry will reinvigorate these primary industries and boost tourism, the government should mobilize all workable policy steps so as to create more jobs in rural areas.
1次産業を活性化させる農商工連携の拡大や観光ビジネスなども絡め、政策を総動員し、地域の雇用を広げる工夫が求められる。

===

Domestic industries at risk
 ◆国内産業の空洞化を防げ◆

Job-creation measures will also directly lead to measures to prevent the hollowing out of domestic industries.
 雇用対策は、国内産業の空洞化を防ぐ対策にも直結する。

Driven by fierce price-cutting competition for their products at home, more and more companies are shifting their production bases out of the country, further reducing the number of job opportunities. As a result, the Japanese economy is in danger of falling into a vicious cycle in which it becomes increasingly anemic.
 企業は製品の値下げ競争に追われるように、工場の海外移転を加速させており、雇用機会の縮小は深刻だ。日本経済は、それによってさらに弱体化する悪循環に陥りつつある。

For such reasons, the government needs to hammer out a new growth strategy that will revitalize domestic industries and regional economies.
 だからこそ、政府は、国内産業や地域が活性化できる新成長戦略を打ち出さねばならない。

The promotion of new industries that can capitalize on Japan's strong points, such as those in the area of environmental protection, will generate economic vitality and create jobs. The government needs to present a clear-cut vision to give domestic industries and regional economies hope for the future.
 環境などの日本の強みを生かした新産業をテコ入れし、活力を生みだし、雇用増につなげる――将来に希望を持てる、そんな明確なビジョンを示す必要がある。

In this respect, the key will be to generate demand in other Asian countries for Japanese goods by reinforcing product-development and export strategies targeted at consumer markets in Asia.
 アジアの消費者向けの市場を狙い、商品開発や輸出戦略も強化するなど、アジアの需要を国内に取り込むことが重要になろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 30, 2009)
(2009年11月30日01時11分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月29日 (日)

CO2削減 米中の目標公表で弾みつくか

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The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 29, 2009)
U.S., China could lead way to post-Kyoto deal
CO2削減 米中の目標公表で弾みつくか(11月29日付・読売社説)

The United States and China, the world's two largest emitters of greenhouse gas, have recently announced their medium-term targets for CO2 emission reductions. We hope their commitments will add momentum to the drafting of a fair framework to succeed the Kyoto Protocol, which expires at the end of 2012.
 温室効果ガスの2大排出国である米国と中国が削減の中期目標を公表した。京都議定書に代わる公平な枠組み作りの弾みとしたい。

The United States has set itself a target of cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 17 percent from 2005 levels by 2020. The U.S. targets also include a 30 percent reduction by 2025, 42 percent by 2030 and 83 percent by 2050.
 米国の目標は、温室効果ガスの排出量を2020年までに05年比で17%削減するというものだ。さらに、25年に30%、30年に42%、50年に83%と段階を踏んで減らす内容である。

However, a 17 percent cut from 2005 levels actually represents a reduction of just a few percent from 1990 levels. This contrasts sharply with the target set by the administration of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama, which aims to curb this nation's emissions by 25 percent from 1990 levels.
 「05年比17%減」は、1990年比に換算すると数%の削減に過ぎない。90年比で一気に25%削減しようという鳩山政権の目標との違いが際立っている。

The U.S. targets are very realistic, as restoring the economy is currently Washington's top priority.
 経済の立て直しが最優先課題である米国にとって、現実的な色合いが濃い削減目標といえよう。

===

China emissions could grow

Meanwhile, China, which has recently surpassed the United States to become the world's largest greenhouse gas emitter, has announced it will reduce carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product by 40 percent to 45 percent compared with 2005 levels by 2020.
 米国を抜き最大の排出国となった中国の場合は、国内総生産(GDP)当たりの二酸化炭素(CO2)排出量を20年までに05年比で40~45%削減する。

The Chinese target of cutting emissions per unit of GDP is different from those adopted by Japan and the United States, which aim for reductions in total emissions volume. Under this approach, China would be allowed to emit more CO2 if its GDP grows.
 日本や米国のように、排出総量の削減目標ではなく、一定単位のGDPを生み出す際のCO2排出量を削減するという考え方だ。GDPが増えれば、CO2の総排出量も増加する可能性が高い。

China is apparently trying to trumpet to the world its contribution to tackling greenhouse gas reduction without damaging its economic growth. It also has stressed that cutting greenhouse gas emissions is a "voluntary action based on our own national situation."
 経済成長を損ねず、その一方で、排出削減に取り組む姿勢をアピールする狙いがあるのだろう。中国は「国情に基づく自主的な行動」とも強調している。

This indicates that Beijing is wary of entering into internationally binding deals on emissions reductions.
国際的に削減義務を負うことに対する警戒心がうかがえる。

===

COP15 nations divided

The 15th Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Climate Change Convention (COP15) will start in Copenhagen on Dec. 7. The U.S. and Chinese announcements of midterm targets is undoubtedly one step forward in the lead-up to COP15 discussions that will focus on a post-Kyoto Protocol international framework to be followed from 2013.
 12月7日から気候変動枠組み条約締約国会議(COP15)が開催される。13年以降の国際的な削減ルールとなる「ポスト京都議定書」について討議するに当たり、米国と中国が中期目標を示したのは、一歩前進には違いない。

In reality, however, there is still a gulf of opinion between major industrialized countries and developing countries on how to tackle climate change. It already appears almost impossible for a post-Kyoto Protocol framework to be adopted in the Danish capital in December. The focus of attention has already shifted to whether the COP15 nations can reach a major political agreement that could lead to the adoption of a new protocol next year.
 だが、先進国と途上国の主張の隔たりは、依然として大きいのが現実である。早くも、新たな議定書の採択は絶望視されている。来年の議定書採択につながる踏み込んだ政治合意にこぎ着けられるかどうかが焦点といえる。

Moves by the United States and China hold the key to the success of the talks.
 米国と中国の動向は、その成否のカギを握るだろう。

There is concern that some developing countries are leaning toward a possible extension of the Kyoto Protocol beyond 2012. The Kyoto Protocol lacks teeth as the United States has withdrawn from it and China, as a developing country, is not obliged to cut its emissions under the pact.
 懸念されるのは、途上国の間に京都議定書の延長論が浮上していることだ。米国が離脱し、中国も途上国として削減義務を負っていない京都議定書は、世界の排出量を減らす実効性を欠いている。

Hatoyama has made an international pledge to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 25 percent without seeking the backing of the Japanese public. As a precondition for committing the nation to this target, however, he has stated that all major nations must sign on to a post-Kyoto Protocol framework.
 鳩山首相は、国内の合意がないまま、「25%削減」を国際公約に掲げた。一方で、目標を目指す条件として、ポスト京都への「すべての主要国の参加」を挙げた。

Japan must steadfastly maintain this condition at the upcoming COP15 talks.
 日本にとって大切なのは、COP15で、この条件をあくまで堅持することである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 29, 2009)
(2009年11月29日01時13分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月28日 (土)

事業仕分け 政治家が責任持って決定を

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 28, 2009)
Budget decisions rest with lawmakers
事業仕分け 政治家が責任持って決定を(11月28日付・読売社説)

The Government Revitalization Unit on Friday ended its nine-day budget screening session to identify wasteful spending in fiscal 2010 budget requests for government-led projects.
 予算の無駄を洗い出す行政刷新会議の事業仕分けが、9日間の作業日程を終えた。

The unit judged that many of the 449 projects it examined should be abolished or downsized. The task force also demanded that some funds already distributed to independent administrative organizations and public-interest corporations be returned to the national coffers.
 対象とした449事業の多くに廃止や縮減などの判定を下した。

The money to be returned and savings raked in from the abolished projects outlined in the initial budget requests will top 1.6 trillion yen.
 独立行政法人や公益法人が抱える基金に国庫返納を求めた分を加えると、ひねり出した成果は1・6兆円を超えた。

Although this is still short of the government's target of 3 trillion yen, the savings could be used as a precious financial resource for next fiscal year's budget.
 目標の3兆円には届かなかったが、来年度予算に使える貴重な財源の一部にはなろう。

However, the first attempt to broadcast part of the government's budget drafting process live on the Internet created many problems.
 しかし、インターネットで国の予算編成作業の一端を同時中継するという初の試みは、数多くの課題を残した。

Some members of the unit's screening teams, comprised of lawmakers and experts from the private sector, basked in the public exposure and often played to the gallery, snapping at officials from the government organizations to give them explanations on the projects. It was appalling behavior.
 国会議員や民間有識者からなる仕分け人が、公開を意識してパフォーマンス的な言動を繰り返し、各府省の説明担当者を一方的にやり込める場面が相次いだのは見苦しかった。

The criteria by which budget examiners were chosen from the private sector also remain unclear.
 民間の仕分け人をどういう基準で選んだのか、それも不明なままだった。

===

Changes needed

Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama said he plans to continue the budget screening in and after fiscal 2010. If so, we think it is necessary to revise the rules for running the session--such as by giving sufficient opportunities for budget briefers to answer questions and clarifying the standards by which budget examiners from the private sector are selected.
 鳩山首相は、来年度以降も事業仕分けを続ける意向を表明している。そうであるなら、説明者側に十分な反論の機会を与え、仕分け人の選任基準を明確化するなど、運営方針の見直しが必要だ。

Many questions also have been raised about why some government projects were subject to the screening when it was obvious they could not be discussed properly in just one hour.
 仕分けの対象とされたテーマに疑問を呈する声も多かった。わずか1時間の議論では手に余る案件が幾つも含まれていたからだ。

Projects that fell under this category included allocations for the so-called sympathy budget for U.S. military forces in Japan, the Foreign Ministry's support of international institutions and funding to promote science and technology.
 在日米軍に対する「思いやり予算」や対外援助、地方交付税、科学技術振興関連などだ。

These matters are all closely related to what the nation should be and its future. They cannot be solved so easily.
 いずれも国の在り方、将来にかかわる問題で、簡単に答えが出るような話ではない。

===

Science gets cold shoulder

Perhaps the biggest controversy during the screening was the panel's decision to effectively freeze the budget for a next-generation supercomputer project.
 中でも、波紋を呼んだのは次世代スーパーコンピューターの開発予算を巡って、「事実上の凍結」という判定が出された件だ。

Nobel laureates and business leaders have poured scorn on this decision, saying that short-term cost-effectiveness was not the proper standard for evaluating science and technology projects. They also warned that Japan could eventually lose the global race to develop advanced technology.
 ノーベル賞受賞者や経済界からは、「短期的な費用対効果ばかりをみる議論は、科学技術にはなじまない」「世界の先端技術開発競争で、日本が負けてしまう」といった強い批判が噴き出した。

We wholeheartedly agree with them. The unit might have lacked the strategic thinking needed to deduce what fields should be given priority in budget allocations from long-term and international points of view.
 その通りだろう。長期的かつ国際的視点で、どんな分野に予算を重点配分していくか、という戦略的思考が、行政刷新会議に欠けていたのではないか。

It was also regrettable that the unit decided to abolish a project to encourage children to read books.
 子供に読書を勧める事業を廃止としたのも遺憾である。

Ill-advised judgments made by the panel this time around must be corrected in the future.
 誤った判定については今後、見直していかねばならない。

The decisions made during the budget screening session are not final. The government could treat them as a set of criteria for making decisions on the budget, but it should not be bound by them.
 そもそも、事業仕分けでの判定は、最終的なものではない。判断材料の一つにはなるが、縛られてはなるまい。

The responsibility for deciding how to treat the unit's judgments in the budget drafting process now rests in the hands of this nation's lawmakers.
今後の予算編成の中で、政治家が責任を持って扱いを決めるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 28, 2009)
(2009年11月28日01時49分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月27日 (金)

円急騰 ドル離れ進む世界の投資資金

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 27, 2009)
Yen's surge doesn't deserve appreciation
円急騰 ドル離れ進む世界の投資資金(11月27日付・読売社説)

The yen's value has surged as selling pressure on the U.S. dollar has accelerated on foreign exchange markets. This situation could deal a devastating blow to the tottering Japanese economy.
 外国為替市場で、ドル離れが加速し、円が急騰した。足元が不安定な日本の景気回復に打撃を与えかねない事態だ。

The yen jumped to a 14-year high in the 86 yen level against the dollar Thursday in Tokyo. The dollar seems to be declining across the board against the euro and currencies of newly emerging economies.
 26日の東京市場の円相場は、1ドル=86円台をつけ、約14年ぶりの円高水準になった。ドルは、ユーロや新興国通貨などに対しても値下がりし、「ドル全面安」の状況を呈している。

Finance Minister Hirohisa Fujii indicated the government would intervene in the currency market if exchange rates "move abnormally." U.S. Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben Bernanke also warned against sharp falls of the dollar when he stated recently that the Fed would monitor changes in the value of the greenback.
 藤井財務相は、相場が異常に動いた場合には、円売り介入する考えを示唆した。米連邦準備制度理事会(FRB)のバーナンキ議長も先日、「ドル相場を監視する」と発言し、急激なドル安を牽制(けんせい)したばかりだ。

As dollar-selling pressure appears unlikely to ease anytime soon, the appreciation of the yen and depreciation of the dollar likely will continue for some time. Monetary authorities in Japan and the United States, and other countries for that matter, must work together to moderate excessive fluctuations in currency markets by exploring the possibility of market interventions.
 ドル売り圧力は強く、円高・ドル安傾向が続くとみられる。日米などの通貨当局が、市場介入の可能性も探りながら連携し、過度な変動を抑える必要があろう。

===

U.S. economic woes

The biggest cause of the falling dollar is the expectation that the United States' ultralow interest rate policy will remain in place as the U.S. economy continues to sputter.
 ドル安が進んでいる最大の要因は、米国の景気回復の足取りが重く、超低金利政策が長期化すると予想されているためだ。

The U.S. unemployment rate has risen to 10 percent. Nascent indications are that this could be a jobless recovery. Some observers have even suggested that U.S. authorities are tacitly tolerating moderate falls in the dollar to stimulate the economy through growth in exports.
 米国の失業率は10%台に上昇し、まさに「雇用なき景気回復」だ。輸出拡大による景気テコ入れを狙い、米当局が本音では、緩やかなドル安を容認している、との観測も背景にある。00

A more worrying problem is that the so-called dollar carry trade--investors selling dollars with relatively low interest rates and instead investing in higher-yielding currencies--has kicked into gear.
 さらに厄介なのは、低金利のドルを売って、高金利通貨などに投資する「ドルキャリー取引」が活発化している問題だ。

The yen carry trade was commonplace from about 2004 through 2007. This time around, the dollar is shaking up money markets around the world.
 2004~07年ごろに目立った「円キャリー取引」に代わり、今回はドルが、世界のマネーの動きを揺さぶっている。

The price of gold has surged to a record high near 1,200 dollars an ounce in New York. This also is a sign that investors are discarding the greenback because gold is purchased as an alternative currency to the dollar. Crude oil and grain prices also have been creeping up as investment funds are diverted into these markets.
 金の価格が史上最高値の1トロイ・オンス=1200ドル近くに急騰した。ドルの「代替通貨」として買われており、ドル離れを示すものだ。投資資金の流入で、原油や穀物価格も上昇している。

===

Exporters in peril

A sharp rise in the value of the yen and a plunge in the value of the dollar could spell disaster for the Japanese economy, which remains mired in deflation and has yet to get on the path to a full recovery.
 急激な円高・ドル安は、デフレに陥り、本格的な景気回復が遅れている日本経済にとって、特に重荷になるだろう。

Many exporting companies had assumed the yen would average about 90 yen per dollar throughout the second half of this fiscal year. If the yen continues to appreciate sharply against the dollar, these companies would take a battering. These exporters are a driving force of the nation's economy; any faltering by them could throttle the economy again.
 輸出企業の多くは、今年度下期に1ドル=90円程度の円相場を想定しており、急激な円高・ドル安が続けば、業績には大きな打撃だ。牽引役である企業の体力が弱れば、景気も腰折れしかねない。

Furthermore, the euro's surge could stall a full recovery of the European economy. Concern about economic bubbles is rising in newly emerging nations such as Brazil, which have been magnets for investment funds.
 ユーロの急騰は、欧州経済の本格回復にも悪影響を及ぼす。ドル離れした投資資金が流入しているブラジルなどの新興国では、バブル経済を懸念する声もある。

A fall in the dollar would throw the world economy into confusion. To ensure this does not come about, it is essential that the United States emerge from a jobless recovery and regain confidence in its currency. To this end, we consider it imperative that the United States implement effective measures to boost employment.
 結局、世界経済を混乱させるドル安に歯止めをかけるには、米国が「雇用なき景気回復」を脱却し、ドルの信認を取り戻すことが肝要だ。効果的な雇用対策の実施が急務といえよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 27, 2009)
(2009年11月27日01時33分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月26日 (木)

日米密約調査 核抑止力の低下は避けよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 26, 2009)
(11月26日付・読売社説)
Pact probe must not dilute U.S. N-deterrence

A full investigation into alleged secret pacts involving the entry into Japan of U.S. nuclear weapons--among other issues said to have been agreed between Tokyo and Washington--is essential to recover public trust in this nation's diplomacy.
 核持ち込みなどに関する「日米密約」の真相究明は、日本外交への国民の信頼を回復するために重要だ。

However, the probe must not be allowed to weaken the effect of the U.S. forces' nuclear deterrence.
だが、その結果、米軍の核抑止力を低下させる事態は避けねばなるまい。

A panel of experts set up by the Foreign Ministry to investigate the alleged pacts will hold its first meeting Friday.
 密約問題を検証する外務省の有識者委員会の初会合が27日に開かれる。

Based on the results of an in-house Foreign Ministry investigation, the panel members will interview retired ministry officials before submitting a report to Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada in January.
外交文書に関する内部調査結果を基に、外務省OBらの聞き取り調査も実施し、来年1月に報告書を岡田外相に提出する。

The panel will examine four alleged secret pacts, including one said to have been inked in 1960 when the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty was revised. This agreement reportedly effectively allowed U.S. military ships and airplanes carrying nuclear arms to visit or pass through Japan without prior consultation between the two governments.
 検証対象は、1960年の日米安保条約改定時に、核搭載の米軍艦船や航空機の日本寄港・通過を事前協議の対象外としたとされる件など四つの密約問題だ。

Disclosed U.S. diplomatic documents and the testimony of a former administrative vice-minister for foreign affairs have already undermined the credibility of the former government's official denial of the existence of the pacts. Furthermore, the ministry's latest probe unearthed a document supporting the pacts' existence.
 核持ち込みについては既に、公開された米外交文書や元外務次官らの最近の証言により、「密約はない」とする政府見解の維持が困難となっていた。さらに、今回の外務省調査で、密約の存在を裏付ける文書が見つかったという。

===

Extenuating circumstances?

It is highly significant that Okada is launching his own inquiry after the Democratic Party of Japan wrested power from the Liberal Democratic Party and he was made foreign minister.
 政権交代を機に、岡田外相が密約の調査・検証を始めた意義は小さくない。

If the DPJ-led government was to officially admit the existence of the secret pacts based on the results of the inquiry, it would be the first step to dispelling the sense of mistrust felt by the public.
政府が、その結果を踏まえて、密約の存在を正式に認めることが、国民の不信感を解消する一歩となろう。

However, we can understand the circumstances under which the government at that time deemed it necessary to draw up a secret deal with the United States to secure the effectiveness of the U.S. "nuclear umbrella," while consideration likely was paid to the antipathy of Japanese people toward nuclear arms during the Cold War period.
 ただ、政府が東西冷戦期に、国民の核アレルギーに配慮しつつ、米国の「核の傘」の実効性を確保するため、密約を結ばざるを得なかった事情は理解できる。

We expect the panel members to take into account the historical background of the period and try to discern how such pacts might have been thrashed out.
 有識者委員会は、当時の時代背景も踏まえて、密約締結の経緯をきちんと検証してほしい。

Secrets are an inherent part of diplomatic negotiations. During such bargaining, there is much information that cannot immediately be disclosed in terms of maintaining relations of trust with a partner country and preventing harm to the people concerned. However, it is important to deepen discussions on the kind of circumstances in which it is appropriate to disclose such information after a certain period of time.
 外交交渉には秘密が付き物だ。相手国との信頼関係を維持し、関係者への悪影響を避けるため、すぐには公開できない情報は多い。一定期間の後、どんな条件の下で公開するのが適当なのか、議論を深めることが大切だろう。

Hereafter, discussions must be held to review the three nonnuclear principles of not producing, not possessing and not allowing the entry of nuclear arms into this country.
 今後、重要なのは、核を「持たず、作らず、持ち込ませず」とする非核三原則のあり方の議論だ。

===

Looking ahead

Japan's present security situation is becoming increasingly unstable in light of North Korea's declared possession of nuclear weapons, for example. This makes it necessary to maintain and even improve the U.S. forces' nuclear deterrence.
 北朝鮮が核保有を公言するなど現在の日本の安全保障環境は厳しい。米軍の核抑止力を維持、向上させることが求められる。

In 1991, the United States removed tactical nuclear weapons from its military ships and nuclear submarines. This made the entry of nuclear weapons into Japan unlikely, at least for a while. But in the medium-to-long term, there is no guarantee that a neighboring country will not threaten the security of this nation with nuclear, biological or chemical weapons.
 米国は91年に米軍艦船・原潜から戦術核を撤去した。当面は、核持ち込みの事態は想定されにくくても、中長期的に、近隣国が核や生物化学兵器で日本の安全を脅かす事態がないとは限らない。

A founding principle of national security is that a country must remain militarily flexible to deal with changing situations.
 様々な事態の変化に対応できるよう、軍事面の柔軟性を確保することが、安全保障の要諦(ようてい)だ。

We believe it may be time for the government to seriously consider introducing "2-1/2 nonnuclear principles," which would still prohibit the deployment of nuclear arms on the ground but would allow ships and airplanes carrying nuclear weapons to visit Japan.
 核を「持ち込ませず」のうち、陸上への核配備の禁止は継続しても、核搭載艦船や航空機の寄港・立ち寄りは可能とする「非核2・5原則」の採用を、前向きに検討していいのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 26, 2009)
(2009年11月26日01時06分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月25日 (水)

公共事業―撤退のためのルールを

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 24(IHT/Asahi: November 25,2009)
EDITORIAL: Unnecessary land plan.
公共事業―撤退のためのルールを

A land reclamation project in Okinawa Prefecture is highlighting afresh the old issue of public works projects that are kept alive when there is no longer a strong need for continuing them.
 動き出した公共事業は止められないのか――そんな疑問を改めて投げかける事例が、沖縄で起きている。

Last month, the Naha branch of the Fukuoka High Court ordered the suspension of public spending for a land development project to reclaim the Awase tidal mudflats in the city of Okinawa on the central-eastern part of the main Okinawa island.
 本島中部東側に位置する沖縄市沖の泡瀬干潟の埋め立てについて先月、福岡高裁那覇支部が費用支出を差し止める判決を出した。

But Okinawa Mayor Mitsuko Tomon intends to continue the landfill project by crafting a new plan for the use of the land by the end of the current fiscal year. The prefectural government supports the city's response to the ruling.
だが東門美津子市長は今年度中に新たな土地利用計画を作り直し、埋め立てを続ける考えだ。県も市に歩調を合わせている。

The Awase mudflats are among the largest coastal wetlands in Japan's southwestern islands and known as a habitat for more than 100 rare species.
 泡瀬干潟は南西諸島最大級で、100種以上の希少生物が生息する。

The project would reclaim 187 hectares including the tidal flats to create an artificial island for the building of hotels and other resort facilities.
その干潟を含む約187ヘクタールを埋め立てて人工島を造成し、ホテルなどを誘致しリゾート施設などを整備する。

The reclamation work would be carried out by the central and prefectural governments at a cost of about 48.9 billion yen, and the beach development part of the project would require the prefectural and municipal governments to spend 30 billion yen. The plaintiffs sought a court injunction to stop the project, claiming it is damaging to the environment and questionable from an economic viewpoint.
 この計画を実現するために国と県による埋め立てに約489億円、県と市による海浜開発に約300億円がかかる。原告側は、自然保護や経済性の観点から工事差し止めを求めた。

The high court ruled that promoting the project while its economic benefits are unclear would be illegal. The ruling basically supported the decision by the Naha District Court in November last year.
 高裁は、経済的合理性がないまま事業を漫然と進めることは違法だと判断した。昨年11月の一審判決を踏襲する考え方である。

While the district court ordered the suspension of all public spending for the project, the high court ruled that spending to cover research and personnel costs necessary for reviewing the plan and changing the license to reclaim land would be legal.
ただ一審判決が「すべての公金支出差し止め」を命じたのに対し、高裁判決は、計画の見直しや埋め立て免許変更に必要な調査費と人件費の支出は適法だと認めた。

This judgment is behind Tomon's decision to redraw the development plan and not appeal the high court's ruling.
 沖縄市長が控訴審判決を受け入れて上告せず、計画を作り直す考えを示したのは、これを根拠にしている。

But does Tomon's refusal to withdraw from the project respect the spirit of the rulings, which both denied that the plan makes good economic sense?
 だが一、二審で経済的合理性を否定されながら撤退に踏み切らないのは、判決の趣旨に沿っているだろうか。

Indeed, the high court decision has left open the possibility of continuing the project. But the court set a tough condition for doing so, saying the economic benefits of the new plan need to be confirmed through "a considerably robust assessment."
 確かに高裁判決は事業継続の可能性を残した。しかし見直し案が経済的合理性を確保するには「相当手堅い検証が必要」と厳しい注文をつけている。

Such an assessment must be made before any decision to continue the project. A rigorous reassessment from scratch on the economic benefits of the project is also needed to determine if it is really necessary.
まず「継続ありき」の考え方であってはなるまい。事業の必要性をゼロベースで問い直し、だれもが納得できる経済的根拠を示す必要がある。

Land minister Seiji Maehara, who is in charge of Okinawa-related affairs, has called off this fiscal year's bidding for the project under the original plan and suspended the reclamation work. We hope he will take an equally uncompromising stance toward the new land use plan.
 元の計画にもとづく今年度の入札を取りやめ、埋め立て事業を一時中断した前原誠司沖縄担当相には、新たな土地利用計画にも妥協を許さぬ姿勢で臨んでもらいたい。

The law regulating such landfill works doesn't assume that a project can be aborted. This legal hole has been brought to the fore by the dispute over the Awase project.
 そもそも埋め立ての根拠法となる「公有水面埋立法」は事業中止を想定していない。この事業をめぐって、そんな法の不備も明らかになった。

The mammoth project to desalinate Shinjiko and Nakaumi--two brackish lakes with more salinity than fresh water but not as much as seawater straddling Shimane and Tottori prefectures--was frozen in 1988. But it took the government many years to scrap the project.
 島根、鳥取両県にまたがる宍道湖・中海の淡水化事業は88年に凍結されたが、中止までに長い年月を要した。

The law on which the desalination project was based contained no rules for putting a project on hold. A 2001 revision to the law finally established the formal procedure for scrapping projects.
根拠法の「土地改良法」に中止の手続きがなく、01年の改正でようやく事業廃止手続きの項目が盛り込まれた。

There are also no legal procedures for aborting public works projects to build roads and dams.
 ほかにも道路やダムの公共事業に法律上の中止規定がない。

Discontinuing public works projects usually requires settlements of the money provided by the central and prefectural governments as well as compensation for local communities affected.
公共事業を中止する時には、政府や県が負担した事業費の精算や地元への補償などが不可欠だ。

Given the dire fiscal situation and dubious economic benefits of public works projects, the era of extravagant spending on public investments is undoubtedly over.
危機的な財政事情や経済効果を考えても公共事業を大盤振る舞いできる時代は終わった。

It is urgent to create rules for pulling the plug on public works projects.
 公共事業から撤退する際のルールづくりを急がねばならない。

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進化論150年―ヒトの未来を見つめ直す

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 24(IHT/Asahi: November 25,2009)
EDITORIAL: Evolution headed where?.
進化論150年―ヒトの未来を見つめ直す

Charles Darwin's seminal work "On the Origin of Species" revolutionized not only biology but also people's perception of the human race. It was first published on Nov. 24, 1859, exactly 150 years ago.
 生物学だけでなく、人間観を一変させたチャールズ・ダーウィンの名著『種の起源』が発売されたのは、ちょうど150年前の今日だった。

This year also marks the bicentennial of Darwin's birth. Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, also shares the same birthday--Feb. 12, 1809. Like Darwin, Lincoln changed history. With a rash of publications and events to commemorate the anniversary of Darwin's landmark theory, it behooves us to think anew about the human species from an evolutionary aspect.
 ダーウィンが生まれたのは1809年2月12日だから、生誕200年でもある。同じ日、後に大統領として米国の歴史を変えることになるエイブラハム・リンカーンも産声を上げている。
 今年は、進化論にとって記念すべき年とあって本の出版や催しが続いている。進化の観点からヒトという生物を改めて考え直す機会かもしれない。

From the time Darwin conceived the notion of evolution during his voyage on the Beagle, it took him more than 20 years to mull over his ideas and finally put them down in book form. One of the reasons it took so long was that Darwin anticipated strong resistance from society, especially the church. In fact, it was not until 1996 that the late Pope John Paul II finally acknowledged the theory of evolution as "more than just a hypothesis."
 ダーウィンがビーグル号の航海で進化の着想を得てから発表するまでに、実に20年以上かかっている。熟慮の産物だ。教会はじめ社会の強い抵抗が予想されたからでもある。ローマ法王が「単なる仮説以上」と進化論を容認したのは1996年になってからだ。

All species evolve and branch out. The validity of Darwin's theory is also borne out by a finding that humans are close to chimpanzees. Their genetic differences amount to only 1.2 percent. Humans are not so special after all.
 すべての種は進化し、枝分かれしてできた。ヒトとチンパンジーとの遺伝子の違いは1.2%という最新の研究も、その近さを示し、ダーウィンの正しさを立証している。
 ヒトは決して特別な存在ではない。

What Darwin called "dizzying diversity of life" is a product of evolution and cataclysmic changes in the Earth's environment. But with humans now ruining that diversity, it has become more important than ever to understand where humans belong in the evolutionary chain.
 地球環境の大変動をくぐり抜け、ダーウィンのいう、進化の産物としての生物の「めくるめく多様性」ができあがった。それを人の手で損ないつつある今、ヒトの位置づけを知ることがますます重要になっている。

In the United States, many people still believe in creationism and vehemently object to the theory of evolution being taught in schools. We can only hope that the Obama administration's respect for science will steer the United States into a society that is more accepting of Darwinism.
 ところが、いまだに多くの人が天地創造説を信じ、教育現場でも進化論への反発が強いのが米国だ。科学の復権を掲げたオバマ政権の登場で、進化論の受け入れが進む社会への「チェンジ」も期待したいところだ。

Japan has contributed significantly to the advancement of the theory of evolution.
 進化論には日本の貢献も大きい。

As a key mechanism of evolution, Darwin proposed that the process of natural selection produces mutations favorable to the survival and propagation of species.
 ダーウィンは進化の原動力として、生存や繁殖に有利な変異が広がっていく「自然選択」を提唱した。

In 1968, however, the Japanese biologist Motoo Kimura (1924-1994) introduced the theory of neutrality of molecular evolution. Kimura argued that about 80 percent of sudden changes in protein and other substances are neither beneficial nor harmful, and that whether the mutants survive is accidental.
 これに対し、たんぱく質などの突然変異の約8割は有利でも不利でもないとし、1968年に「分子進化の中立説」を唱えたのが故木村資生博士だ。残るかどうかは偶然、というわけだ。

Kimura's theory was met with considerable opposition at first, but has since come to be accepted as one of the two pillars to support Darwin's theory of evolution along with natural selection.
 当初は強い反対にあったが、今では、自然選択と並んで進化論を支える二本柱として認められている。

According to Mariko Hasegawa, a professor of anthropology at the Graduate University for Advanced Studies, living creatures possess numerous mutant factors, some of which kick in when the environment has changed. For instance, there are Antarctic fish whose blood does not freeze. It appears that their mutant factor helped when they were migrating and found themselves in sub-zero waters.
 長谷川真理子・総合研究大学院大教授によれば、生物はそんな変異を数多くため込んでいる。その中のあるものが、環境が変わったときに働きだす。
 例えば、南極にいる血液が凍らない魚は、大陸移動で海水が0度以下になる環境ができたときに、たまたま抱えていた変異が役立ったらしい。

Humans, on the other hand, have caused their environment to change considerably over the last 10,000 years. Today's children are growing up quite differently from their peers in the past. Of the five senses, only the visual sense is inundated with information. The other senses tend to remain less developed. How will humans change in the environment of their own making? The future of the human race is something to think about.
 一方、人類はこの1万年ほど、自らの手で環境を大きく変えてきた。その中で子どもの育ち方も一変した。五感のうち視覚情報が多様化する一方、他の感覚は平板になりがちだ。
 自ら作り出した環境によって人類はどう変わっていくのか。ヒトの未来にも思いをはせてみたい。

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フィリピンで大量虐殺

フィリピンミンダナオ島南西部ラナオデルソール(ダバオの西側)で大量虐殺。
知事選挙キャンペーンのグループと同行する取材記者が襲われた。
死者は40名以上。
犯行は計画的で100名以上の武装集団がこれにかかわっているのが確認されている。
犯行グループの準備は周到で殺戮(さつりく)後に死体を埋める大きな穴が前もって掘られていたということだ。
スラチャイがミンダナオ島に仕事で配属されていたときには、もっと西側のほうが危険だと言われていた。
ザンボアンガ州でモロ解放戦線が活動していたからだ。
一度ホテルでモロ解放戦線の隊長、ヌルミズワリ氏と同じホテルに宿泊しそうになったが、生きたここちはしなかった。
ホテルや周辺には「歓迎ヌルミズワリ閣下」の横断幕(バナー)がたくさん飾り付けられていた。
心の底からの歓迎じゃなくて、報復を恐れるあまりの歓迎のセレモニーだと私の目には映った。

(スラチャイ記)

(Mainichi Japan) November 24, 2009
Philippines declares emergency after 24 killed

MANILA, Philippines (AP) -- Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo placed two southern provinces under a state of emergency Tuesday, giving security forces free hands to pursue gunmen who killed at least 24 people in one of the country's worst election massacres.

The emergency measures, including checkpoints and random searches by authorities, will remain in place until the president is confident that law and order have been restored in the region, Arroyo spokesman Cerge Remonde said.

The attack Monday was on a convoy of vehicles filled with supporters of a gubernatorial candidate along with his relatives, including his wife, and several journalists. The candidate, Ismael Mangudadatu, who was not a part of the convoy, accused his powerful political rival of being behind the slayings.

The government stressed that it would go after the culprits, regardless of where the investigation leads.

"No one will be untouchable," Remonde told reporters, calling Monday's killings "unconscionable."

Officials were still trying to determine the exact number of people intercepted by about 100 gunmen and taken to a remote mountainous area, said Interior Secretary Ronaldo Puno.

"We're hopeful that some people escaped, and we're hoping to find them alive," he said.

Police said the convoy of about 40 people was going to register Mangudadatu, vice mayor of Buluan township, to run for provincial governor when they were stopped.

Soldiers and police later found 24 bodies, including those of Mangudadatu's wife, Genalyn, and his two sisters, sprawled on the ground or shot in their vehicles about five kilometers from where they were ambushed, police spokesman Leonardo Espina said.

Mangudadatu said Tuesday that four witnesses had told him the caravan was stopped by gunmen loyal to Andal Ampatuan Jr., a town mayor belonging to a powerful clan and his family's fierce political rival.

He refused to name the witnesses or offer other details.

"It was really planned because they had already dug a huge hole (for the bodies)," Mangudadatu said.

The National Union of Journalists of the Philippines said at least 10 local reporters were part of the convoy. Espina said they identified the remains of at least one journalist. Joy Sonza, head of a small private TV station, UNTV, said investigators told him they found the bodies of his correspondent and cameraman. A driver and an assistant cameraman were still missing, Sonza said.

If confirmed, it would be the "largest single massacre of journalists ever," according to Paris-based Reporters Without Borders.

The army and police were searching for as many as 16 other people who were missing, military spokesman Lt. Col. Romeo Brawner said, adding that troops were looking for more bodies in areas that appeared to have been recently dug up.

A backhoe was apparently used to bury the bodies, said army commander Lt. Col. Rolando Nerona.

Puno vowed there would be no sacred cows in the investigation. "Within day or two, we should be starting to call people or making arests. We have some information already about specific names but we can't disclose them," he said.

National police chief Jesus Verzosa relieved Maguindanao's provincial police chief and three other officers of their duties and confined them to camp while being investigated. One of the police officers was reported to have been seen in the company of the gunmen and pro-government militiamen who stopped the convoy, police said.

The Ampatuans were unreachable for comment.

The region, among the nation's poorest and awash with weapons, has been intermittently ruled by the Ampatuan family since 2001. It is allied with Arroyo.

Arroyo's political adviser Gabriel Claudio said he was meeting with Zaldy Ampatuan, governor of the Automous Region in Muslim Mindanao, when the killings occurred Monday to try to mediate in the long-running rivalrly between the the Ampatuans and the Mangudadatus.

"I really thought that at the time that the affinity, the relations between the two families, will be affirmed," he said.

He said the most important thing was to ensure there was no more violence.

"There has to be swift and decisive justice," Claudio said.

Philippine elections are particularly violent in the south because of the presence of armed groups, including Muslim rebels fighting for self-rule in the predominantly Roman Catholic nation, and political warlords who maintain private armies.

The last elections in 2007 were considered peaceful, even though about 130 people were killed.

The decades-long Muslim insurgency has killed about 120,000 people since the 1970s. But a presidential adviser, Jesus Dureza, said Monday's massacre was "unequaled in recent history."

Julkipli Wadi, a professor of Islamic studies at the University of the Philippines, said he doubted the national government's resolve in trimming the powers of political dynasties like the Ampatuans because they deliver votes during elections.

"Because of the absence of viable political institutions, powerful men are taking over," he said. "Big political forces and personalities in the national government are sustaining the warlords, especially during election time, because they rely on big families for their votes."

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エネルギー課税 暫定税率廃止分をどう補う

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 25, 2009)
エネルギー課税 暫定税率廃止分をどう補う(11月25日付・読売社説)
Energy tax needed to cover revenue shortfalls

Revision of the tax system for the next fiscal year is now focused on an environmental tax--an envisaged tax sought by the Environment Ministry to tackle global warming.
 来年度税制改正で、環境省が要望する地球温暖化対策税(環境税)の扱いが焦点になってきた。

Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama plans to scrap provisional higher gasoline tax rates and other auto-related taxes in April, as stipulated in the Democratic Party of Japan's campaign manifesto. The measure stands to cost the central and local governments about 2.5 trillion yen in revenue.
 鳩山首相は政権公約通り、ガソリン税などに上乗せされている暫定税率を来年4月に廃止する方針だが、これにより国と地方は2・5兆円もの税収を失ってしまう。

To address this problem, it has been proposed that the government transform the current gasoline tax and the light oil delivery tax with provisionally higher tax rates into a new environmental tax, from which about 2 trillion yen of tax revenues could be generated.
 そこで、暫定税率分を含めたガソリン税と軽油引取税を衣替えする形で、2兆円規模の環境税を創設する案が出てきた。

Given the dire fiscal situation, we believe the government should withdraw the decision to abolish the provisional higher tax rates. But if the government does go along with the plan, it will need to take steps to make up for the expected revenue shortfalls, introducing some form of new tax on energy.
 厳しい財政事情を考えれば、暫定税率廃止は撤回すべきだが、廃止するとすれば、同時にエネルギーに対する何らかの新税を導入して、歳入に穴をあけない工夫が必要であろう。

The new tax proposed by the Environment Ministry is designed to impose a small tax on a broad range of fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. As for gasoline and light oil, the ministry plans to impose additional taxes on the stages of retail sale and shipment.
 環境省が求める環境税は、石油や天然ガスなどの化石燃料に広く薄く課税し、ガソリンと軽油については、小売りや出荷の段階でさらに税率を上乗せするものだ。

Apart from the tax rates, the envisaged tax has the same structure as that for the petroleum and coal tax, the gasoline tax and the light oil delivery tax.
 税率以外の基本的な仕組みは、今の石油石炭税とガソリン税、軽油引取税と同じである。

===

Minimal end result

Once the provisional higher tax rates are abolished, gasoline prices will drop 25 yen per liter from the current price. But the Environment Ministry projects that the envisaged tax will raise the gasoline price by 20 yen per liter, with the end result of making the price of gasoline only 5 yen lower per liter than the current price.
 暫定税率の廃止でガソリンは1リットルにつき、現在より25円安くなるが、環境省案では環境税の導入で20円値上げされ、差し引き5円の値下げとなる。

With the exception of those in the United States, taxes in other major countries are markedly higher on gasoline compared with other fuels. In this regard, people may find it easy to accept the proposed plan.
 米国を除く主要国では、ガソリンに対する税率は他の燃料よりかなり高く、その点では環境省案は国民にとって受け入れやすいものであろう。

However, the ministry's plan has its own problem--it sets tax rates for natural gas and coal at more than double the current rates.
 ただし、環境省案の問題は、都市ガスや石炭などへの税率を今の倍以上にしていることだ。

Even accounting for lower gasoline prices, the average household is projected to shoulder about 1,100 yen more in energy costs each year.
 ガソリン価格の値下げを加味しても、一般家庭は年間1100円程度の負担増となる。

The changes are expected to have an even greater impact on the steel and electric power industries. Given this, the government needs to be careful when it comes to imposing higher taxes on gas and coal.
 鉄鋼や電力業界にとっては、経営に対する影響はさらに大きい。ガス、石炭などへの課税強化は慎重であるべきだ。

===

Timing important

Some within the government are calling for a two-tier approach, initially abolishing the provisional higher tax rates in April and introducing a new energy tax about six months later.
 政府には、来年4月は暫定税率の廃止だけにとどめ、新たなエネルギー課税の導入は半年程度遅らせてはどうか、との声もある。

This apparently is meant to begin with tax cuts times to suit the House of Councillors election scheduled for next summer. However, if the introduction of these measures is staggered, gasoline prices will significantly fluctuate each time.
 来年夏の参院選を控え、減税を先行させたいとの思惑からだが、時期をずらせばガソリン価格はそのつど大きく変動する。

In that case, confusion similar to that experienced in spring last year when the provisional higher tax rates were temporarily suspended will reemerge. We should avoid such a situation.
 これでは暫定税率が一時失効した昨年春の混乱が再び起きるだけだ。こうした事態は避けなければならない。

The Environment Ministry intends to have the revenues from the environmental tax allocated from the general fund mainly for environmental measures. The government will decide where specifically to spend expected tax revenues through discussion among government bodies.
 環境省は、環境税の税収は一般財源としつつ、重点的に環境対策に振り向けたい意向だ。具体的な使い道は今後、政府部内で協議して決めることになる。

We urge the government's Tax Commission to deepen discussions on what form the environmental tax system should take.
 政府税制調査会は、望ましい環境税制の在り方について、議論を深めてほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 25, 2009)
(2009年11月25日00時47分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月24日 (火)

◆永住外国人地方参政権

(Mainichi Japan) November 24, 2009
Opinion split over giving permanent foreign residents local voting rights
◆永住外国人地方参政権

 結党時に「定住外国人の地方参政権などを早期に実現する」と掲げており、この方針は今後とも引き続き維持していく--民主党政策集INDEX2009

 ◇「国民」概念進む多様化
 ◇在日韓国人の一部、すでに選挙権行使

In the House of Representatives election on Aug. 30 this year, a 21-year-old South Korean man in Japan born to a Japanese mother and South Korean father exercised his right to vote for the first time.
 在日韓国人の父と日本人の母を持つ東京都内在住の男性(21)は8月30日の衆院選で初めての選挙権を行使した。

A revision to the Nationality Law in 1984 permitted children born from 1985 onwards to hold dual nationality up until the age of 22 if one of their parents was Japanese. Still, the existence of people such as the 21-year-old, who has both dual nationality and the right to vote, is not widely known in Japan.
1984年の国籍法改正に伴い、翌85年以降に出生し、片親が日本人なら22歳までは二重国籍が認められるようになった。男性も「選挙権を持つ在日韓国人」だが、こうした人の存在はあまり知られていない。

Next year, the 21-year-old, who must choose between the two nationalities, plans to follow the path of his brother, who is two years his elder, and select Japanese citizenship.
(日本語翻訳なし スラチャイ)

"I didn't know my Korean name until my third year of elementary school, and I can't speak Korean even now. I was teased about my Korean name in the past, and I have lots of Korean friends living in Japan, but my awareness as a Korean is, frankly speaking, low," he says.
 「小学校3年生まで自分の韓国名も知らず、今も韓国語を話せない。韓国名をからかわれたこともあるし、在日韓国人の友人は多いが、韓国人という意識は正直、低い」。来年、2歳上の兄と同じく日本国籍を選択するつもりだ。

In the Lower House election, the 21-year-old voted for the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), which has pushed for local-election voting rights for long-term foreign residents. He attended several meetings with South Koreans in Japan, and though he was unsympathetic with their call to be given suffrage in exchange for their obligation to pay taxes, he voted for the DPJ as he wanted his friends to be given the right to vote.
 衆院選では民主党に投票した。在日韓国人の集会に数回参加し、「納税の義務の代わりに参政権を」という主張には共感しなかったが、「友人たちに参政権を持ってほしい」という思いが決め手になった。

"The opponents (of voting rights for foreigners) say that Koreans living in Japan will cast anti-Japanese votes, but I don't think so. If they are given voting rights, then voting from the perspective of being a South Korean in Japan will cease. They will vote while thinking about how they can improve their lives," the 21-year-old said.
 「反対派は在日韓国人が反日的な投票行動を取るというが、そうは思わない。実現すれば、在日韓国人という意味をこめて投票することはなくなる。自分の生活を良くすることを考え投票する」と、男性は話した。

There are about 910,000 foreigners in Japan who hold permanent residence, comprising some 420,000 special permanent residents from the former colonized Korean Peninsula and Taiwan, and 490,000 who have met special requirements such as residing in Japan for 10 years or more. It is estimated that there are 470,000 Koreans with permanent residence, more than half of the total.
 永住外国人は旧植民地の朝鮮半島、台湾出身者らが対象の特別永住者約42万人と在日10年以上などの条件を満たす一般永住者約49万人の計約91万人。在日韓国・朝鮮人は全体で約47万人で過半数を占める。

A proposal made by the DPJ's federation of legislators in May last year suggested introducing voting rights only for residents from countries with which Japan has diplomatic relations, thereby excluding North Koreans. If the proposal materializes, then most of the foreign voters will be South Koreans, Chinese and Brazilians, who make up a large percentage of the foreign permanent residents in Japan.
 昨年5月に民主党の議連がまとめた提言では、対象を国交のある国の国籍保有者とし、在日朝鮮人は除外した。提言通り実現すれば、対象は永住者の多い韓国人、中国人、ブラジル人が大半を占めることになる。

Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama, DPJ Secretary-General Ichiro Ozawa and other party officials have pushed to give permanent foreign residents local voting rights, from both a historical perspective and the perspective of "fraternal" politics that the DPJ has promoted. Ozawa has called for the early submission of a bill to change the law, but the government's priorities remain unclear. The move was incorporated in the party's list of policies and its election promises, but was left out of its election manifesto.
 民主党では鳩山由紀夫首相、小沢一郎幹事長らが「友愛」政治や歴史的観点から推進論を説く。小沢氏は早期の法案提出を政府に呼び掛けているが、政府側の優先順位は明確ではない。公約も政策集には明記されているが、マニフェストへの盛り込みは見送られた。

Tomomi Inada, a Liberal Democratic Party legislator who opposes giving foreign permanent residents voting rights, argues, "If local assembly members and heads supported by foreigners appear, then it will influence local Diet members. It will constrain Japan's national interests." This line of thinking is also deeply rooted in the DPJ.
 反対派の論客、自民党の稲田朋美衆院議員は「外国人から支援された首長や地方議員が誕生すれば、地元の国会議員も影響を受ける。日本の国益の制約になる」と訴える。こうした考えは、民主党内にも根強くある。

Fears have been raised that if suffrage is granted in areas such as Osaka's Ikuno Ward, where foreigners account for 24 percent of the population, then it will lead to friction between supporters and opponents. This gives rise to the argument, "Japanese nationals should decide on the future of Japan -- permanent foreign residents can gain suffrage by obtaining Japanese citizenship."
 人口の24%を外国人が占める大阪市生野区などで参政権付与を認めれば、それに反対する人たちとの摩擦が生ずる恐れもある。「日本の行方は日本国民が決めるべきで、永住外国人が日本国籍を取得して参政権を得ればよい」との主張に結びつく。

At the same time, Katsuhiko Okazaki, a graduate professor at Aichi Gakuin University, who supports voting rights for foreign permanent residents, points out, "There are South Koreans living in Japan who obtain Japanese citizenship to get all the rights, but there is still resistance to losing their South Korean nationality. If dual citizenship were granted, the problem would be solved all at once."
 一方、推進派の岡崎勝彦・愛知学院大学大学院教授(外国人法)は「在日の人はすべての権利を得ようと日本国籍を取得する人もいるが、韓国籍を失うことへの抵抗はなおある。二重国籍を認めれば一気に解決する」と提案する。

Okazaki says that the principles of lineage and exclusivism are deeply rooted in Japan, but the fact that there are already cases of dual citizenship, as is the case with South Koreans in Japan who have voting rights, shows that the concept of what constitutes a national has diversified. He adds that there have been changes in the sense of belonging that is associated with nationality.
 岡崎氏は、日本は「血統主義」「排他主義」が根強くあるが、「選挙権を持つ在日韓国人」のような二重国籍状態がすでに現存するため、「国民という概念の多様化が進んでいる」と話し、国籍に対する帰属意識も変わりつつあることを指摘した。

Next year marks 100 years since Japan's annexation of the Korean Peninsula. It is certain the issue of suffrage for foreigners will emerge as a major point of discussion.
 来年は日韓併合から100年の節目。外国人参政権問題が大きな論点になるのは間違いない。【田所柳子】

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cad

娘たちのために家を増築

カイちゃんも6歳になり個室と専用ベッドを欲しがるようになりました。

昨日コーンケーンの工務店と打ち合わせをして年内に増築が完成するようにお願いしました。

デザインはスラチャイが自分でやります。
CADを使ってデザインしますが、操作方法をすっかり忘れていて昨日は夜遅くまで作業しました。
少しずつですが操作方法を思い出してきています。

たった今 floor plan (平面図)が仕上がりました。
明日はsection (立面図)を4方向から描いて設計図は完成します。
来週には工事が開始しますので、かなり真剣に作業しました。

CADもEXCELも毎日使っていないと操作方法をすぐに忘れてしまいますね。
右指が以前のスピードの三分の一くらいで打ち込みができるまで快復しています。
今一息です。

スラチャイ

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外国人選挙権―まちづくりを共に担う

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 23(IHT/Asahi: November 24,2009)
EDITORIAL: Foreigners' suffrage.
外国人選挙権―まちづくりを共に担う

Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama and Democratic Party of Japan Secretary-General Ichiro Ozawa both support giving permanent foreign residents the right to vote in elections that choose local government chiefs and assembly members. The bill is due to be submitted to the ordinary Diet session next year.
 自治体の首長や議員を選ぶ際に永住外国人が投票できるようにする。この外国人地方選挙権の導入に、鳩山首相や小沢・民主党幹事長が前向きな姿勢を示し、来年の通常国会にも法案が出される見通しだ。

Since 1998, the DPJ, New Komeito and other parties had submitted similar bills. However, due to deep-rooted opposition, Diet debate over this issue has made little progress. Meanwhile, local communities are becoming increasingly multicultural.
 98年以降、民主党や公明党が法案を出してきたが、根強い反対論があって議論は進まなかった。この間に地域の国際化は急速に進んでいる。

The Hatoyama government advocates the creation of a "society where multiple cultures coexist." Then surely it is time to move forward to realize such a society.
鳩山政権は「多文化共生社会」をめざすという。実現へ踏み出すときではないか。

The number of non-Japanese with permanent residency in the nation has increased by 50 percent in the past decade to 910,000. Among them, 420,000 are ethnic Koreans with special permanent residence status due to their historical background.
 日本に永住する外国人はこの10年で5割増えて91万人になった。このうち歴史的経緯がある特別永住者の在日韓国・朝鮮人は42万人だ。

The figure has increased because a growing number of foreigners have obtained ordinary permanent residence status. Many decided to live in Japan in and after the 1980s for such reasons as business and marriage. They are from various countries, including China, Brazil and the Philippines.
年々増えているのは80年代以降に来日し、仕事や結婚を通じて根を下ろし、一般永住資格を得た人たちだ。出身国も中国、ブラジル、フィリピンと様々だ。

Those permanent residents have put down roots as good neighbors in their communities. It is appropriate that they should be given the right to participate in local elections and share the responsibility for improving their communities.
 地域社会に根付き、良き隣人として暮らす外国人に、よりよいまちづくりのための責任を分かち合ってもらう。そのために地方選挙への参加を認めるのは妥当な考え方だろう。

The nation needs human resources from abroad to maintain vitality in society. Granting the right to vote in local elections to permanent foreign residents will help to create an environment comfortable for foreigners to live in. It will also strengthen local autonomy in line with the trend for decentralization.
 日本の活力を維持するためにも、海外の人材が必要な時代である。外国人地方選挙権を実現することで、外国人が住みやすい環境づくりにつなげたい。分権時代の地方自治を活性化させることもできる。

Some opponents insist that foreign residents should acquire Japanese nationality if they want to vote. But it is only natural for them to wish to maintain connections with their native countries while having affectionate ties with the communities they currently live in. The answer is not to exclude those people but to create a society that honors diverse lifestyles.
 「選挙権が欲しければ国籍をとればいい」との考え方がある。だが、母国へのつながりを保ちつつ、いま住むまちに愛着を持つことは自然だ。そうした外国人を排除するのではなく、多様な生き方を尊重する社会にしたい。

More than 200 local governments have come up with ordinances that enable foreign residents to vote in local referendums on issues like municipal mergers. In 1995, the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution does not forbid new legislation to grant voting rights in local elections to non-Japanese residents with close interests in their communities.
 合併などを問うための住民投票条例の中で、外国籍住民の投票権を認めた自治体はすでに200を超えている。地方選挙権についても最高裁は95年、立法措置をとることを憲法は禁じていないとの判断を示している。

More than 40 countries, such as European nations and South Korea, have given suffrage to foreign residents who meet certain requirements and conditions.
 世界を見ても、一定の要件を満たした外国人に参政権を付与する国は、欧州諸国や韓国など40あまりに上る。

In recent years, opponents have increasingly expressed concerns that a large number of foreigners could use their voting rights for purposes that might put national security at risk.
 近年、声高になってきた反対論の中には「外国人が大挙して選挙権を使い、日本の安全を脅かすような事態にならないか」といった意見がある。

We cannot accept such inflammatory arguments that seek to agitate, cause anxiety and stir up exclusive intolerance.
 人々の不安をあおり、排外的な空気を助長する主張には首をかしげる。

It is far more dangerous to isolate and exclude foreign residents as "those who might cause harm."
外国籍住民を「害を与えうる存在」とみなして孤立させ、疎外する方が危うい。

We should include them into the community to create a stable society.
むしろ、地域に迎え入れることで社会の安定を図るべきだ。

The DPJ is considering a bill that would limit voting rights to people from countries that have diplomatic relations with Japan.
 民主党は選挙権を日本と国交のある国籍の人に限る法案を検討しているという。

The ruling party is apparently trying to allay anti-North Korean sentiment by excluding ethnic Koreans registered under Joseon (old undivided Korea) nationality, instead of South Korea.
反北朝鮮感情に配慮し、外国人登録上の「朝鮮」籍者排除のためだ。

However, all people with Joseon nationality do not necessarily support North Korea.
 しかし、朝鮮籍の人が必ずしも北朝鮮を支持しているわけではない。
良き隣人として共に地域社会に参画する制度を作るときに、別の政治的理由で一部の人を除外していいか。議論が必要だろう。

We are now trying to create an inclusive system to allow foreign residents to participate as good neighbors in local communities.
Is it really appropriate to exclude a certain group of people based on different political concerns? Further debate is necessary.

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集落を守る―補助金よりも助っ人で

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 23(IHT/Asahi: November 24,2009)
EDITORIAL: Preserving rural areas.
集落を守る―補助金よりも助っ人で

The mountainous Irokawa district in Nachi-Katsuura, Wakayama Prefecture, is in the southeastern part of the Kii Peninsula. It is made up of nine secluded settlements that depend mainly on farming and forestry activities.
 紀伊半島南東部の山間地、和歌山県那智勝浦町の色川地域。農林業を中心に九つの集落がひっそりと点在する。

Nearly 40 percent of the 430 or so residents used to be city dwellers. Kazuo Hara, who heads a regional development committee comprising the heads of the settlements, moved from Hyogo Prefecture at age 26. That was 28 years ago.
 約430人の住民のうち4割近くは都会からこの地に移り住んだ「Iターン組」である。集落の区長たちでつくる色川地域振興推進委員会の会長を務める原和男さんも、28年前、26歳の時に兵庫県から移り住んだ。

In 2007, the committee started an education program to train young people outside Nachi-Katsuura to become farmers. Last year, the panel started compiling a written record on life in the region. The committee members are learning the ins and outs from local residents of farm work and how to create traditional food dishes. They are also collecting information about local events and customs over the years. The information is being compiled into a booklet.
 その委員会が町外の若者を集め、一昨年から「百姓養成塾」を、さらに昨年からは「むらの教科書づくり」を始めた。地元の人から野良仕事や伝統食づくりを学び、伝統行事や昔の暮らしを聞き取って冊子にまとめている。

Migration to Irokawa started more than three decades ago after the local community accepted five families that wanted to try their hands at organic farming. Initially, most of the new residents were would-be farmers sharing the same ideals.
Over time, however, different types, like retirees wanting to spend their twilight years in the country and families with young children, have moved to the Irokawa district. The influx of newcomers has helped preserve this area's traditional way of life. But the future of the community is under threat due to the rapid aging of society and the dwindling birthrates.
 Iターンの始まりは30年以上前、有機農業をめざす5家族を受け入れたことだった。当初は同じ道を志す人が多かったが、しだいに田舎暮らしを求める年金暮らしや子育て世代が増えた。そうして何とか集落を守ってきたところに、少子高齢化の波が押し寄せた。

The average age of the original Irokawa residents is 69, and that of newcomers is 40. The settlements will eventually disappear unless young people plant roots there. A sense of crisis prompted Irokawa to try to attract more young people to the area.
 住民の平均年齢は、もとからの住民が69歳、Iターン組も40歳。このまま若い担い手がいなくなれば集落は消えてしまう。新たな危機感から、若者の呼び込みに動いた。

"We need young people willing to live here as committed members of the community, instead of simple support from the outside," says Hara. He regards one program adopted by another town in the prefecture as ideal for luring young people. Koya, located at the northern tip of the Kii Peninsula, has introduced a program to hire outsiders to help promote regional development.
「外から支援するのではなく、住民と同じ目線で暮らす若者がほしい」と原さんは語る。
 そんな原さんが「理想的」とみている制度がある。同じ紀伊半島の北端にある和歌山県高野町が導入した「むらづくり支援員」だ。

In May, the town government solicited applications for three positions, offering a monthly wage of 150,000 yen for 100 flexible working hours a month under a three-year contract. The town received 162 applications--many more than it expected.
 報酬は月15万円、月100時間のフレックスタイム制で契約は3年。今年5月、こんな条件で支援員3人を公募すると、全国から予想を超える162人の応募があった。

Five new recruits in their 20s up to 40s have moved from Tokyo, Kagoshima and elsewhere to live in settlements in Koya. They are trying to find ways to tackle various challenges, for example, by creating a system to support old people and developing new local specialties.
採用された20~40代の男女5人は、東京や鹿児島などから担当する集落に移り住んだ。高齢者を支える仕組みや新しい特産品づくりなど集落ごとの課題をさぐっている。

The program is the brainchild of Kanji Takahashi, Koya's deputy mayor. "We hope they will find solutions to these challenges and continue living in the settlements after their three years are up," Takahashi says.
 発案した高橋寛治・副町長は「そうした課題の解決策を見いだし、3年後は自分も定住できるようになってもらいたい」と語る。

According to a survey by the central government, about 2,600 of the roughly 62,000 settlements in cities, towns and villages nationwide are in danger of disappearing.
 政府が調査したところ、全国の市町村の下にある約6万2千の集落のうち、消滅する可能性のある集落は約2600もあるという。

On the other hand, there are many city dwellers who want to leave the hurlyburly of city life if they can. These are people who want to raise their children close to nature and seek a spiritually rich life--even at the expense of having less money to live on. Others simply want to spend their retirement years in a rural, laid-back environment.
 一方で、機会があれば、あくせくした都会から離れたいと考えている人は少なくない。自然の中で子育てをしたい。給料が減っても心豊かな生活がほしい。定年後は田舎でゆったり……。

Local communities and governments need to figure out how to attract such urbanites to their areas. Outsiders who are willing to support local development are more important for the survival of local communities than state subsidies. The wisdom and stimulus provided by outsiders can generate energy to move communities from within. Thus, outsiders could be entrusted with the role of planners for regional development.
 そんな都会の人たちを引きつけるには、そこで暮らす人や地元の自治体がまず知恵をしぼることであり、地域を守るには補助金よりも助っ人ということではないか。外からの知恵や刺激を受けることで、地域を内部から動かすエネルギーを生み出す。地域づくりのプランナーの役割を託してもいい。

Efforts similar to those described above are being made in many parts of the nation. The administration of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama, which has pledged to promote decentralization, should pay more attention to these developments.
 紹介したような試みは各地にある。「地域主権」を掲げる鳩山政権はこんなところにも目を向けるべきだろう。

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News from Washington Post

Washington Post 社より今朝届いた速報

サウスカロライナ州知事の不倫の記事
どの国もあまり変わりませんね。
日本でも総理大臣がこれで辞任したことがありましたね。

新聞記者の執拗な調査取材で州民の血税を無駄遣いしていることが発覚。
州の条例で禁止されているファーストクラス(航空機)の使用など多数が発覚して、
現在調査中。
知事の弁護士は問題ないと発言している。


News Alert
01:56 PM EST Monday, November 23, 2009

S.C. governor faces 37 ethics charges he broke state laws

South Carolina Gov. Mark Sanford has been under scrutiny since he vanished
for five days over the summer, reappearing to tearfully admit to an
extramarital affair with a woman he later called his "soul mate."

For more information, visit washingtonpost.com -

http://link.email.washingtonpost.com/r/ZTVJ68/5BMNE/KRTP16/7K7EOI/5MVT2/9A/t

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国際機関援助 「倍加」を表明して削減とは

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 24, 2009)
Robbing Peter to pay Paul
国際機関援助 「倍加」を表明して削減とは(11月24日付・読売社説)

Though Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama has promised the international community that Japan will boost its assistance to developing countries, the government has cut its support for international organizations that play key roles in aid projects. This is contradictory and unacceptable.
 途上国支援を強化すると国際公約しながら、鳩山首相が、支援で中核的役割を担う国際機関への援助を削減するのは、筋が通らない。

The amount of Japan's contributions to international organizations has been decreasing every year since the administration of former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi moved to reduce official development assistance as part of its structural reform program that recognized no "sacred cows." The contributions have fallen by more than 40 percent from the peak year of fiscal 2001.
 国際機関向けの拠出金は、小泉政権が「聖域なき構造改革」の一環として政府開発援助(ODA)の削減に踏み切って以来、年々減っている。ピーク時の2001年度と比べて、4割以上も減少した。

Against this background, Hatoyama, in a speech at the U.N. General Assembly in September, vowed to double Japan's efforts to assist developing countries, in close cooperation with international organizations, raising expectations among those organizations for an increase in the amount of Japan's contributions to them.
 そうした中、鳩山首相は9月の国連演説で、国際機関と連携しながら途上国支援への努力を「倍加したい」と表明した。国際機関側に日本の拠出増に対する期待感が広がった。

But the actual amount of contributions, measured in terms of budget requests for fiscal 2010, already has fallen below that of fiscal 2009. In addition, some of the contributions have become a target of the budget scrutiny aimed at cutting wasteful spending in ministries' fiscal 2010 budget requests that is being conducted by the Government Revitalization Unit.
 ところが、実際の拠出額は、すでに来年度概算要求ベースで今年度を下回っている。さらに一部の拠出金は、行政刷新会議の事業仕分けの対象に挙げられた。

===

Groups play role Japan can't

International organizations targeted in the government's panel's budget screening include the U.N. Development Program, the U.N. Human Settlements Program (UN-HABITAT) and the U.N. Volunteers--hardworking organizations that dispatch staff to Afghanistan and other countries.
 国連開発計画(UNDP)、国連人間居住計画(HABITAT)、国連ボランティア計画(UNV)などだ。いずれもアフガニスタンなどに職員を派遣し、実際に汗を流している組織である。

The government has pledged up to 5 billion dollars (about 450 billion yen) in aid to Afghanistan for nonmilitary purposes over a five-year period beginning this year. The aid is intended to provide vocational training for former Taliban soldiers and promote agricultural development and other worthy goals.
 政府は先に、アフガニスタンの民生支援のため5年間で最大50億ドル(約4500億円)を拠出することを表明した。旧タリバン兵士の職業訓練や農業開発などだ。

But it will not be easy for Japanese people to work in Afghanistan under the aid programs unless the security situation there improves. Japan's aid programs, therefore, will probably be carried out in the form of providing funds to the UNDP and other international organizations and having them dispatch their staff and volunteers to Afghanistan.
 だが、現地の治安状況が改善せず、日本人が現地で活動することは容易ではない。このため、日本の支援の実態は、UNDPなどに資金を渡し、各機関のスタッフや派遣ボランティアに活動してもらう形となる。

The government likely intends to secure a budget for funds to have international bodies carry out Japan's aid programs, separately from its contributions. Considering the current situation, in which Japan has no choice but to rely on international bodies to execute its aid programs, it does not make sense to slash contributions to international organizations, which are mainly used to defray their operating costs.
 そうした活動経費は、通常の拠出金とは別に予算を確保するつもりかもしれない。しかし、国際機関に頼らざるを得ない現状を思えば、主に国際機関の運営費に充てられる拠出金を大幅に切り詰めることが、適切とは思えない。

===

Nation's reputation at stake

Japan has seen its reputation as a major contributor to international organizations dwindle. Some observers have linked the reduction in the amount of Japan's contributions to the dearth of Japanese executive staff in international organizations and their absence on such organizations' boards.
 日本は、各国際機関で上位拠出国の地位を喪失しつつある。各機関への幹部職員の送り込みが進まなかったり、執行理事会メンバーから日本が外れたりするのは、これまでの拠出金削減が影響しているとの指摘もある。

The budgets for international organizations, meanwhile, have ballooned. It is important for this country, as a contributor, to urge the organizations to keep a ceiling on their swelling budgets. Japan also should increase its efforts to increase the number of Japanese staff in international bodies.
 国際機関自体の予算は膨張傾向にある。拠出国として抑制を促すことは大切だ。国際機関における日本人職員の増員に向けた努力もいっそう強化すべきだ。

It goes without saying that Japan must pursue these two goals as well as contribute funds to international organizations. But we fear that cutting such contributions willy-nilly could lower Japan's profile in the international community.
 そうした資金拠出以外の取り組みを前提としてもなお、安易な削減は、国際社会における日本の発言力低下を招く恐れがある。

We do not want to see a situation in which the government attaches so much importance to budget screening to cut wasteful spending that Japan's diplomacy ends up being harmed.
 事業仕分けで予算カットに汲々(きゅうきゅう)とするあまり、日本の外交にマイナスの影響を与えるような結果になっては困る。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 24, 2009)
(2009年11月24日01時08分  読売新聞)The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 24, 2009)
Robbing Peter to pay Paul
国際機関援助 「倍加」を表明して削減とは(11月24日付・読売社説)

Though Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama has promised the international community that Japan will boost its assistance to developing countries, the government has cut its support for international organizations that play key roles in aid projects. This is contradictory and unacceptable.
 途上国支援を強化すると国際公約しながら、鳩山首相が、支援で中核的役割を担う国際機関への援助を削減するのは、筋が通らない。

The amount of Japan's contributions to international organizations has been decreasing every year since the administration of former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi moved to reduce official development assistance as part of its structural reform program that recognized no "sacred cows." The contributions have fallen by more than 40 percent from the peak year of fiscal 2001.
 国際機関向けの拠出金は、小泉政権が「聖域なき構造改革」の一環として政府開発援助(ODA)の削減に踏み切って以来、年々減っている。ピーク時の2001年度と比べて、4割以上も減少した。

Against this background, Hatoyama, in a speech at the U.N. General Assembly in September, vowed to double Japan's efforts to assist developing countries, in close cooperation with international organizations, raising expectations among those organizations for an increase in the amount of Japan's contributions to them.
 そうした中、鳩山首相は9月の国連演説で、国際機関と連携しながら途上国支援への努力を「倍加したい」と表明した。国際機関側に日本の拠出増に対する期待感が広がった。

But the actual amount of contributions, measured in terms of budget requests for fiscal 2010, already has fallen below that of fiscal 2009. In addition, some of the contributions have become a target of the budget scrutiny aimed at cutting wasteful spending in ministries' fiscal 2010 budget requests that is being conducted by the Government Revitalization Unit.
 ところが、実際の拠出額は、すでに来年度概算要求ベースで今年度を下回っている。さらに一部の拠出金は、行政刷新会議の事業仕分けの対象に挙げられた。

===

Groups play role Japan can't

International organizations targeted in the government's panel's budget screening include the U.N. Development Program, the U.N. Human Settlements Program (UN-HABITAT) and the U.N. Volunteers--hardworking organizations that dispatch staff to Afghanistan and other countries.
 国連開発計画(UNDP)、国連人間居住計画(HABITAT)、国連ボランティア計画(UNV)などだ。いずれもアフガニスタンなどに職員を派遣し、実際に汗を流している組織である。

The government has pledged up to 5 billion dollars (about 450 billion yen) in aid to Afghanistan for nonmilitary purposes over a five-year period beginning this year. The aid is intended to provide vocational training for former Taliban soldiers and promote agricultural development and other worthy goals.
 政府は先に、アフガニスタンの民生支援のため5年間で最大50億ドル(約4500億円)を拠出することを表明した。旧タリバン兵士の職業訓練や農業開発などだ。

But it will not be easy for Japanese people to work in Afghanistan under the aid programs unless the security situation there improves. Japan's aid programs, therefore, will probably be carried out in the form of providing funds to the UNDP and other international organizations and having them dispatch their staff and volunteers to Afghanistan.
 だが、現地の治安状況が改善せず、日本人が現地で活動することは容易ではない。このため、日本の支援の実態は、UNDPなどに資金を渡し、各機関のスタッフや派遣ボランティアに活動してもらう形となる。

The government likely intends to secure a budget for funds to have international bodies carry out Japan's aid programs, separately from its contributions. Considering the current situation, in which Japan has no choice but to rely on international bodies to execute its aid programs, it does not make sense to slash contributions to international organizations, which are mainly used to defray their operating costs.
 そうした活動経費は、通常の拠出金とは別に予算を確保するつもりかもしれない。しかし、国際機関に頼らざるを得ない現状を思えば、主に国際機関の運営費に充てられる拠出金を大幅に切り詰めることが、適切とは思えない。

===

Nation's reputation at stake

Japan has seen its reputation as a major contributor to international organizations dwindle. Some observers have linked the reduction in the amount of Japan's contributions to the dearth of Japanese executive staff in international organizations and their absence on such organizations' boards.
 日本は、各国際機関で上位拠出国の地位を喪失しつつある。各機関への幹部職員の送り込みが進まなかったり、執行理事会メンバーから日本が外れたりするのは、これまでの拠出金削減が影響しているとの指摘もある。

The budgets for international organizations, meanwhile, have ballooned. It is important for this country, as a contributor, to urge the organizations to keep a ceiling on their swelling budgets. Japan also should increase its efforts to increase the number of Japanese staff in international bodies.
 国際機関自体の予算は膨張傾向にある。拠出国として抑制を促すことは大切だ。国際機関における日本人職員の増員に向けた努力もいっそう強化すべきだ。

It goes without saying that Japan must pursue these two goals as well as contribute funds to international organizations. But we fear that cutting such contributions willy-nilly could lower Japan's profile in the international community.
 そうした資金拠出以外の取り組みを前提としてもなお、安易な削減は、国際社会における日本の発言力低下を招く恐れがある。

We do not want to see a situation in which the government attaches so much importance to budget screening to cut wasteful spending that Japan's diplomacy ends up being harmed.
 事業仕分けで予算カットに汲々(きゅうきゅう)とするあまり、日本の外交にマイナスの影響を与えるような結果になっては困る。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 24, 2009)
(2009年11月24日01時08分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月23日 (月)

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デフレ再燃―たじろがず新成長戦略を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 21(IHT/Asahi: November 23,2009)
EDITORIAL: The return of deflation.
デフレ再燃―たじろがず新成長戦略を

The government declared Friday that the Japanese economy has been caught by deflation again.
 政府が「デフレ宣言」を出した。

In assessing the current health of the nation's economy in its monthly economic report for November, the government said, "Judging from a comprehensive analysis of price trends, the economy is in a mild deflationary phase."
月例経済報告の基調判断に「物価の動向を総合してみると、緩やかなデフレ状況にある」という文言を盛り込んだ。

It was the first time in three years and five months that the government officially recognized a downward price trend as deflation.
政府が物価下落をデフレーションと認定したのは3年5カ月ぶりだ。

Deflation means a continued general decline in prices in the face of depressed demand and oversupply. It puts enormous downward pressure on sales, production and consumer spending.
 デフレは総需要の不足が原因で、物価が全般的に下がり続ける現象である。販売や生産、消費の不振を招く巨大な圧力となる。

Japan became the first industrial country to fall into deflation in the postwar era as consumer prices fell for an extended period following the collapse of the bubble economy in the early 1990s.
 日本はバブル崩壊後から消費者物価が下がり、先進国としては戦後初のデフレに陥った。

In March 2001, the government declared the economy to be in deflation and held onto that view until June 2006. Over a long period of time, falling prices were sapping the vigor of the economy.
政府は01年3月にデフレ宣言を出し、06年6月までデフレ状態と認めていた。長期にわたり物価下落が経済を圧迫してきたのだ。

As the economy regained strength, deflationary pressure eased. But the government avoided declaring an end to deflation, recognizing the possibility of the economy slipping back into a deflationary downturn.
 その後、景気回復につれてデフレはおさまったが、政府は「逆戻りする可能性が残る」との判断から「デフレ脱却宣言」を見送り続けてきた。

The economic contraction precipitated by the global recession has forced the government to acknowledge that the deflationary trend is accelerating.
 そして今回、再びデフレ状態に舞い戻ったと表明。世界同時不況が引き起こした経済収縮で、デフレが悪化していることを認めざるをえなくなったといえよう。

Consumer prices have fallen for seven months in a row. The domestic demand deflator, a measure of price levels excluding the cost of imports included in gross domestic product statistics, dropped in all of the first three quarters of the year.
 消費者物価の連続下落が7カ月。国内総生産(GDP)統計の国内部門の物価指数も年初から3四半期連続で下がっている。
The latest economic outlook by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development said Japan is in the grip of deflation and will remain so until 2011. All of this makes the government's decision to acknowledge deflation reasonable.
経済協力開発機構(OECD)の経済見通しで、日本経済がデフレに陥っているとしているだけでなく、デフレが11年まで続くと予測していることをみても、政府の「宣言」は妥当だ。

Some people, including those in the financial sector, say this acknowledgement will create the expectation among people that prices will be lower tomorrow. This, they warn, will encourage consumers to delay purchases, further depressing demand.
 宣言がきっかけで、「物価はこれからも下がる」という「デフレ期待」が国民の間に広がることを警戒する声も金融界などにある。人々の財布のヒモが固くなって、消費不振がさらにひどくなるのでは、という心配だ。

However, rather than worry about the negative effects of the declaration, we must recognize the reality of deflation--which could prolong the current economic downturn--and work out a remedy for the disease.
 だが、いま必要なのは「宣言」の副作用を心配することではない。不況を長期化させかねないデフレをきちんと認識したうえで、その克服策を打ち立てることだ。

In a Friday news conference, Deputy Prime Minister Naoto Kan, who is also in charge of economic and fiscal policy, called on the Bank of Japan to take steps to slay deflation. But the government needs to work with the central bank to ensure every possible policy measure will be taken to arrest the economy's deflationary descent.
 菅直人副総理兼経済財政相は、きのうの記者会見で日銀にデフレ克服策を求めたが、政府も日銀と力を合わせて、政策を総動員する必要がある。

As it turned out, the most effective cure for the deflation triggered by the burst of financial market and real estate bubbles was expansion of exports driven by robust economic growth in the United States and China. Surging exports prompted companies to ramp up investment in plants and equipment and lifted corporate earnings.
 バブル崩壊後のデフレを緩和するのに威力を発揮したのは、米国と中国の経済成長に引っ張られた輸出の増加だった。それに刺激されて設備投資が拡大し、企業業績は回復した。

The government should buckle down to develop and execute a growth strategy designed to stimulate investment and consumption in the private sector.
The strategy should focus on measures to bolster the welfare sector of the economy and create jobs in line with the pledge by the administration of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama to shift the policy priority from investment in roads and buildings to investment in human resources under the slogan of "From concrete to people."
Another important component should be a set of efforts to promote "green economy" as a means to stem global warming.
 いまは、鳩山政権が掲げる「コンクリートから人へ」の大方針に沿った福祉経済化や雇用対策、地球温暖化対策としての「グリーンな経済」づくりを基礎に、民間の投資や消費を引き出すような成長戦略を組み立て、実行に移すことが期待される。

Last week, visiting OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurria said Japan needs to pursue economic growth by expanding the role of women in society and promoting development of new environmental technologies.
 来日したOECDのグリア事務総長は今週、日本の課題について、女性の社会進出や環境技術の発展で「新たな成長をめざす必要がある」と指摘した。

Japanese policymakers should respond positively to Gurria's ideas.
このエールにこたえたい。

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普天間移設―鳩山首相の牽引力を問う

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 21(IHT/Asahi: November 23,2009)
EDITORIAL: Agonizing over Futenma.
普天間移設―鳩山首相の牽引力を問う

The Hatoyama administration is in agony over the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Okinawa Prefecture.
 米海兵隊の普天間飛行場の移設問題で、鳩山政権が悩み苦しんでいる。

In the United States, the Obama administration contends the only realistic solution would be to move the base to Henoko in Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, as agreed by the the Liberal Democratic Party-led government and the United States three years ago.
 オバマ米政権は自民党政権との3年前の日米合意通り、名護市辺野古へ移すのが唯一現実的だという。

But many of the people in Okinawa are against creation of another lasting U.S. military facility in their prefecture, where 75 percent of all U.S. bases in Japan are located. The Okinawa people's hopes will be dashed if their plight does not change even after a change of government.
 一方で、沖縄県民の多くは、ただでさえ在日米軍基地の75%が集中する沖縄に、普天間に代わる新たな恒久基地を造ることに反対だ。政権交代が実現しても、事態が変わらないのでは、県民の期待は打ち砕かれてしまう。

A way to resolve the dilemma involving two points must be found--the importance of the U.S. bases, which are the centerpiece of the Japan-U.S. security alliance, and the fact that throughout the postwar period, Okinawa has almost singlehandedly born the burden of the security arrangements.
 日米安保体制を支える基地の重要性と、戦後ひたすらその重荷をほぼ一身で耐えてきた沖縄。
(北朝鮮をはじめ、安全保障にかかわる問題があるにしても、この矛盾は何とかできないか。)

That seems to be the public sentiment seen in a recent Asahi Shimbun poll that found a majority of the people polled support a review of the existing Japan-U.S. agreement. The matter, therefore, is all the more difficult.
 そんな国民の思いが、本社の世論調査で日米合意の見直しに対する過半数の支持になっているのだろう。それだけ難しい課題である。

It is commendable that in their meeting, Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama was straightforward with U.S. President Barack Obama and told him how difficult the situation was, and attempted to seek a solution. A review of the existing agreement should begin immediately.
 鳩山由紀夫首相がオバマ米大統領との会談で、政権交代を踏まえて事態の困難さを率直に伝えつつ、打開策を探ろうとした姿勢は評価されるべきだし、日米合意の「検証」も急ぎたい。

However, the basic trust underlying the alliance should not be sacrificed in the process because the Japan-U.S. alliance is the supporting pillar of Japan's security. In this regard, we cannot help but question the behavior of the prime minister and his Cabinet ministers over the past few weeks.
 ただ、そうした過程で、日本の安全保障の柱である同盟を支える基本的な信頼関係が損なわれては困る。その点で、首相や閣僚のこの間の言動には懸念を抱かざるを得ない。

The two nations should seek to resolve the issue by the end of the year. As Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada said, the Japanese government needs to decide whether or not to include the relocation costs in the next fiscal year's budget. The government must not act as if it were going to base its decision on the outcome of the Nago mayoral election due next January.
 問題の決着は、年内がひとつのメドだろう。岡田克也外相が言うように、来年度予算に移設費用を盛り込むかどうか決める必要がある。1月の名護市長選の結果にげたを預けるような態度は取るべきではない。

Yet, although the prime minister said in his meeting with Obama that he intends to resolve the problem "as soon as possible," the following day, he said he would not necessarily rush a decision within the year. Moreover, it became apparent that his intentions regarding the status of the minister-level working group for reviewing the current agreement were different from what Obama had in mind.
 なのに首相は首脳会談で、普天間問題を「早期に解決する」といいながら、翌日には必ずしも年内決着を急がない考えを示した。さらに、現行計画を検証する閣僚級の作業部会の位置づけをめぐっても、オバマ氏との認識の食い違いが露呈した。

It is not just the United States that has been bewildered by the mixed message from the Japanese government. Defense Minister Toshimi Kitazawa said he was considering a breakthrough plan based on the existing agreement, and yet Okada said he was looking for ways to merge the functions of Futenma with Okinawa's Kadena Air Base. In addition, the prime minister does not deny the possibility of moving Futenma air base outside of Okinawa, saying he himself intends to put together the final plan. There is no way the Okinawa people, together with the rest of the country, can fathom which way the government is looking.
 戸惑っているのは米国だけではない。北沢俊美防衛相が現行案を前提にした打開案を検討し、外相は嘉手納飛行場への統合を探る。首相は県外移設を否定せず、「(最後は)私が案をつくる」と言う。沖縄県民も国民も、これでは政権の意思がどこを向いているのか、分かりようがない。

The Japan-U.S. agreement is a multi-faceted package of interlinked changes that include reorganizing and streamlining the U.S. bases in Japan, transferring U.S. Marines from Japan to Guam, and the Japanese government paying much of the costs of that transfer.
 日米合意では、在日米軍基地の整理・統合やグアムへの海兵隊の移転、その移転経費の日本側負担などがパッケージになっている。

What is important is for the prime minister to state clearly that he has no intention of changing this framework itself.
大事なのは、首相がこの枠組みそのものを変えるつもりはないと明確に語ることではないか。

If, on top of that, he intends to look for a transfer location other than Henoko, then he must propose that clearly to the U.S. side.
 そのうえで、もし辺野古以外の移設先を探るのであれば、米国側にはっきりと提起しなければならない。

Letting the working group discussions drag on without clarifying which general direction he would have the talks go is not only disingenuous toward the Untied States, but it will also raise false hopes among the Japanese public.
全体の方向性をあいまいにしたまま作業部会の検討を長引かせるのは、米国に対して不誠実であるばかりか、国民の期待をもてあそぶことになりかねない。

Hatoyama must recognize the power of his own message, and become a real force in resolving the issue.
 首相は自らのメッセージの重さを自覚し、牽引(けんいん)力を発揮すべきなのだ。

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知りたい:ようこそ、豪華三つ星学食へ 受験生の呼び水効果に、外食産業生き残り策も

(Mainichi Japan) November 22, 2009
知りたい:ようこそ、豪華三つ星学食へ 受験生の呼び水効果に、外食産業生き残り策も
From sushi to French cuisine, college cafeterias go upscale as competition heats up

 ◇イタリアン、フレンチ、すし…店内ピアノコンサート
Amid the ever intensifying competition for survival, college cafeterias are undergoing major changes in an attempt to attract more students, with some offering a conveyor-belt fresh sushi bar or an open-air Italian restaurant.
 オープンカフェでイタリアン、職人が新鮮なネタを握る回転ずし--。大学の食堂、学食が様変わりしている。味もなかなかとか。おすすめは? 【岡礼子、根本太一】

There are some 1,300 seats available at the food-court style cafeteria at Toyo University's Hakusan campus in Tokyo's Bunkyo Ward. Students can choose from a wide variety of options offered at six eateries.
 1300席の空間を学生が埋める。東洋大白山キャンパス(東京都文京区)の学食は、専門店6店が軒を連ねるフードコート形式。

"We have either fried chicken or rice omelet here almost every day," said a first-year student. Indian curry with freshly baked naan bread is also popular among students at the college.
「ほぼ毎日ここに来て、空揚げか半熟オムライスを食べる」と1年の男子学生3人。注文を受けてから焼くナン付きカレーとタンドリーチキンも評判だ。

The most recommended dish at the Nippon Institute of Technology in Saitama Prefecture is the "Minori Sushi" lunch. The combination of its toppings changes depending on the fresh fish available for each day. Other popular menu items include rice bowls topped with raw fish, available from between 500 and 650 yen.
 日本工業大(埼玉県宮代町)のイチオシは、その日の仕入れでメニューが替わる「みのり寿司」。500円の「サンマのたたき丼」や「ブリ丼」、650円の「あぶりサーモン・ネギとろ丼」が人気だ。「ウニ・ネギトロ丼」は850~1000円と値が張るが、80~120グラムのウニがのる。

The college's sushi bar manager Hisao Yoneyama, 50, was headhunted by an official when he was working as an apprentice chef at a nearby sushi restaurant, and opened his own shop on campus in 1992.
店主の米山久雄さん(50)は、近くのすし店で修業中に大学関係者から声をかけられ、92年の独立と同時に出店した。

The University of Tokyo boasts a French restaurant that opened in 2004. The special of the day costs 800 yen, a price relatively high for college students, but "students visit the French restaurant when they want to spoil themselves with a special treat," according to a restaurant employee.
 フレンチレストランもある。東京大の「ルヴェソンヴェール」は04年に開店した。「コショウダイのポワレ、香味野菜」などの日替わりランチが800円。学生には高めだが、店側は「特に奮発したい時に来るようだ」。

 ■環境問題に取り組み
Gakushuin University reformed the interior of its cafeterias two year ago, while outsourcing the operation to Seven and i Food Systems Co. There is a piano placed in the cafeteria of the women's college, allowing students to hold lunchtime piano concerts.
 内装も一変した。約2年前にリニューアルした学習院大は、セブン&アイ・フードシステムズに運営を委託。女子大学食にはピアノもあり、学生によるランチコンサートも不定期で開かれる。

Meanwhile, some universities are promoting unique initiatives focusing on the environmental and social issues at their cafeterias.
 一方、環境や社会問題に配慮する取り組みも。

Aoyama Gakuin University has started its "Table for Two" campaign this year. If students order one of the specials of the week priced at 480 yen, 20 yen will be donated to help children in developing countries. The campaign came about after negotiations between students and the cafeteria operator.
青山学院大は今年、野菜を多く使った週替わり定食480円を頼むと、20円を途上国の子どもに寄付する「テーブルフォーツー」運動を始めた。学生たちが学食の運営企業と交渉した成果。

 ■近隣住民も積極活用
"We've studied about the international contributions college students can make, so we have put that into practice," said a senior student.
4年の沢木一真さん(22)は「授業で学生でもできる国際協力を学び、実行に移した」と話す。

College cafeterias used to be considered a place for poor students; however, this does not hold true for universities today. Instead, cafeterias are playing a role as a special feature to attract new students to the university.
"As the country's birth rate continues to decline, universities are required to attract the attention of prospective students. At the same time, the food-service sector is trying to survive the economic downturn by advancing into colleges," said a PR representative of a major preparatory school.
 今の学食に貧乏学生のたまり場といった雰囲気はない。受験生を呼び込む手段ともなっており、駿台予備学校の広報担当者は「少子化で学生の関心を引く工夫が求められる。景気の低迷で外食産業が生き残り策として大学に進出している面もある」と分析する。

Waseda University's Gakushoku Kenkyukai is a college club that researches cafeteria menus from universities across the country. Club representative Junichi Nakamura, 21, said that: "School cafeterias serve as a basis for college life. Students can find their friends there, and exchange information."
 全国の大学を食べ歩く早稲田大サークル「学食研究会」の中村潤一幹事長(21)は「学食は、大学生活の基盤。行けば、誰かしら知り合いがいて情報交換できる」と話す。

Furthermore, students can stay at the cafeteria for as long as they want.
長居もできる。

"As many of the customers at school cafeterias are faculty members and neighboring residents, colleges can also expect advertising spin-offs from quality cafeterias," Nakamura said.
「レストランなどの利用者の多くは教職員や近隣住民。大学の宣伝効果もある」。

Not only private schools and but also national universities that have transformed into independent administrative agencies hope to win students by adding value to their cafeterias.
私立に限らず独立行政法人化した国立大も、学食に新たな価値観を求めているようだ。

毎日新聞 2009年11月6日 東京夕刊

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犯罪白書 窃盗と覚せい剤の再犯を断て

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 23, 2009)
Take steps to stop repeat of theft, drug crimes
犯罪白書 窃盗と覚せい剤の再犯を断て(11月23日付・読売社説)

Taking appropriate measures to prevent the repeat of thefts and stimulant-related crimes is an important task when it comes to building a society in which people can live with peace of mind.
 盗みと覚せい剤犯罪を繰り返させない手だてを講じる。我々が安心して生活できる社会にするには、それがポイントの一つといえよう。

This year's white paper on crime, which was released by the Justice Ministry recently, raises the theme of developing measures to prevent repeat offenses. The 2007 white paper also focused on repeat offenses, and since then the ratio of recidivists to the total number of perpetrators of crimes cleared by police or other investigative authorities has been increasing, hitting 42 percent last year.
 法務省がまとめた今年の犯罪白書のテーマは「再犯防止施策の充実」だ。白書は一昨年も「再犯」を取り上げたが、検挙された者のうち、再犯者が占める割合はその後も増え続けている。昨年は42%に上った。

Taking effective measures to thwart recidivism holds the key to maintaining the country's public safety.
 再犯対策が、日本の治安を維持するかぎを握っている。

The 2009 white paper on crime analyzed the current situation of theft and stimulant-related crimes, whose recidivism rates are particularly high. The analysis found that more than 70 percent of convicts serving prison terms for either of the crimes had previously been jailed for the same crime.
 白書は再犯率が高いとされてきた窃盗と覚せい剤犯罪の現状を分析した。その結果、このどちらかの犯罪で刑務所に再入所した者の7割以上が、前回も同じ罪名で服役しているという実態が浮かび上がった。

The recidivism rate for these crimes is extremely high, compared with other crimes, proving that once people committed theft or stimulant-related crimes, they tend to reoffend.
 他の犯罪に比べ、極めて高い割合である。一度、窃盗と覚せい剤に手を染めると、また同じ罪を犯しやすいことの証左だろう。

===

Ex-convicts need jobs

Shoplifting is the most common type of theft. "Lack of income to cover living expenses" was given as the top motive for committing this crime among both male and female offenders. The recidivism rate of perpetrators of theft who had a regular job, meanwhile, tended to be lower than that of part-time workers or unemployed people.
 窃盗の中で最も多いのは万引きだ。盗みを犯す動機としては、男女とも「生活費の困窮」がトップとなっている。定職に就いている人の再犯率が、無職やアルバイトなどの場合と比較して低いという傾向も表れている。

It is vital that the Justice Ministry and Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry cooperate and enhance support for people discharged from prison to help them find a job at Hello Work employment service offices and other places. Though the economic situation is severe, it is indispensable to encourage employers to hire such people.
 法務省と厚生労働省が連携し、ハローワークなどで出所者らへの就労支援策を充実させていくことが肝要である。厳しい経済状況ではあるが、出所者を雇用する事業主の開拓も欠かせない。

The recidivism rate for stimulant-related crimes is also high among unemployed people. It should be noted, however, that the recidivism rate of those who are single and live alone is higher than that of those who are married and live with their family or other relatives even though they work full-time.
 覚せい剤についても、全体としては無職者の再犯率が高い。ただ、注目すべきは、家族などと同居していない単身者の場合には、定職に就いていても再犯率は下がらないということだ。

To prevent repeat stimulant-related offenses, it seems necessary for the people they live with to keep a watchful eye on them. The role of parole officers, who regularly examine urine samples taken from those living alone and check their living situation, is even more important.
 覚せい剤の再犯を防ぐには、就労とともに、同居者の監視の目が必要だということだろう。単身者に対しては、定期的に尿検査を実施したり、生活状況をチェックしたりする保護観察官の役割がより重要である。

===

Rehabilitation centers vital

The Justice Ministry is developing self-rehabilitation promotion centers that provide support for released prisoners, whose treatment is often difficult. But opposition from residents has held up plans to develop such centers.
 法務省は、処遇が難しい出所者の受け皿となる自立更生促進センターの整備を進めている。だが、地域住民の反対運動で、整備計画は大幅に遅れている。

In addition to correctional education at prisons, the government should establish a system that would offer educational programs at those centers to teach people who served time in prison for stimulant-related crimes how to stop using stimulant drugs and help them reintegrate into society.
 覚せい剤犯罪で服役した者に対しては、刑務所内での矯正教育だけでなく、こうしたセンターで「脱・覚せい剤」の教育プログラムなどを受けさせ、社会復帰させる体制を整えるべきだろう。

As symbolized by arrests of TV celebrities, the widespread abuse of stimulant drugs is becoming a serious social problem. The Justice Ministry needs to appeal to the public the necessity of operating such centers and win their understanding.
 芸能人が逮捕されるなど、覚せい剤の蔓延(まんえん)は、大きな社会問題となっている。法務省は、センターの必要性を広く訴え、理解を得ていく必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 23, 2009)
(2009年11月23日01時05分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月22日 (日)

パタヤにて(旅行記)

10月の後半2週間パタヤとラヨーンで過ごしました。このときは体調が悪くて、特に最初の1日目は途中で引き返そうかと思ったほどでした。パタヤからコーンケーンの自宅までは500キロ、旅の途中で徐々にですが体調が快復。無事自宅に安全運転でたどり着きました。大きな自信となりました。あと数回は自分でドライブできると思います。

●象に乗るママとシーファーちゃん

photo by srachai from OCNフォトフレンド

●象に乗るパパとカイちゃん

photo by srachai from OCNフォトフレンド

●カイちゃん6才

photo by srachai from OCNフォトフレンド

●シーファーちゃん2才

photo by srachai from OCNフォトフレンド

●パパ60才、ママ45才、シーファーちゃん2才

photo by srachai from OCNフォトフレンド

●パタヤの有名なビッグブッダのアクセスステップ

photo by srachai from OCNフォトフレンド

●パタヤの有名なビッグブッダ

photo by srachai from OCNフォトフレンド

●ビッグブッダでお祈りを捧げるママ、カイちゃん、シーファーちゃん

photo by srachai from OCNフォトフレンド

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英英辞書(辞典)

英英辞典を使いこなすことは英語学習における大きな課題で、どうしてもこの壁は乗り越えなければなりません。

例えば、外国人が日本語を勉強するのに和英辞典を使用して一生懸命勉強している姿を想像すれば、それが正しい日本語を身に付けるためにあまり役にたたないことは容易に想像できます。

辞書は学習する言語で書かれた辞書を使うのが大切で、できるだけ早く切り替えをすべきだと思います。
本物の英語を学習しようとすればなおさらです。

どんなに優れた辞書でも完璧ではありません。
辞書は数冊購入して定義の記載内容を比較すべきです。
相互補完的な役割を果たすので、効果的です。

私は40歳台で国際契約約款を学習する社内留学をさせられました。
期間は4ヶ月。
数人のネイティブに直接英語で指導を受けましたが、内容は大学の講義そのものでした。

講師陣の中に一人飛びぬけて優秀なアメリカ人がいて、最初に教えられました。
英語学習の成果は適切な辞書選びに左右される。

この講師の推薦する辞書は、
Longman Contemporary English Dictionary (ロングマン現代英英辞典)
でした。

この辞書の特徴は誰もが知っている2000語の単語を使って、すべての定義が書かれている点にあります。
数々の英英辞典に挑戦して挫折したスラチャイですが、この辞書は別でした。
私のもっている少ない語彙でも理解できたのです。

Oxford English Dictionary の大きな版ももちろん所有はしていましたが、敷居が高くて頭が痛くなるばかりでした。

もう一冊私が愛用していた辞書を紹介します。
Oxford English Dictionary for student (オックスフォード学生用辞典)
です。

この辞書は2000語の制約はありませんが、初歩の英語学習者でも理解できる定義で記載されていました。
この辞書を作るのに特別なチームを編成して、学生のために書き下ろしたものです。(イギリス)

最後にスラチャイが現在愛用している辞書をご紹介いたします。

10年前に秋葉原のラオックスで購入した小学館の Bookshelf 2.0 です。
価格は7000円強。
この電子辞書は定義が英和と同時に英英も同じ画面上に出くるので大変に便利です。
掲載の英英辞典はアメリカ人の社会人対象でかなり難しいです。
10年目でちょっとだけ英語のまま理解できるようになりました。

単語の定義を調べているうちに定義に使われている単語がわからなくなり、今度はそれを辞書引きする。
そうこうするうちに最初に調べた単語が何であったのかすっかり忘れています。
これの繰り返しです。

何とか命あるうちに少しでもネイティブのレベルに近づきたいものです。

srachai from khonkaen, thailand

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Japan Times headline of the day

Extracted from Japan Times (和文はスラチャイ)

No quick Futenma decision: Hatoyama
普天間基地移設問題の早期解決はなし(鳩山首相)

Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama says he is not ready to reach a conclusion by the end of the year on the relocation of U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Okinawa Prefecture.
沖縄普天間米軍基地の移設問題の年内解決は難しい。(鳩山首相の発言)

DPJ to admit existence of secret nuke pact
民主党米国との密約の存在を認める


The Foreign Ministry decides to admit the existence of a secret Japan-U.S. pact under which Tokyo allows stopovers of U.S. military vessels or aircraft carrying nuclear weapons.
外務省は原子力搭載の空母などが日本に寄航することを認める密約があったことを認めた。

Early-bird Uniqlo sale celebrates founding
ユニクロチェーン創業記念早朝セール


The Uniqlo chain holds an early-morning sale at about 400 stores to mark the 60th anniversary of the founding of its operator, with more than 2,000 people lining up before dawn outside its flagship store in Tokyo's Ginza district.
カジュアルウェアーのユニクロは参加の400店舗にて早朝営業を開始。創業60周年を記念するイベント。銀座店では早朝から2000人以上の買い物客でごった返した。

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アフィリエイトで一休み!

給与による収入増が見込めない今の状況を打開、目先を買えて節約作戦。無料相談で保険料を節約しましょう。



NTTコミュニケーションズの無線LANサービス「ホットスポット」のアフィリエイトプログラムです。外出先から、普段お使いの無線LAN機能内蔵のノートPC・iPhone / iPod touchなどの無線LAN搭載機器でブロードバンド・インターネットがご利用いただけます。海外ローミングも提供中です。



朝日新聞の新規定期購読申込みのご案内。英字新聞も購読できますよ。スラチャイも日本では英字新聞のみ購読していました。



NTTの新しい形のアクセスアップ手法です。アクセスアップ・オレンジ・トラフィック…に疲れた方にお勧めです。クチコミblogランキング【TREview】のブログ登録促進キャンペーンです。



英字新聞ジャパンタイムズの定期購読、3ヶ月、6ヶ月、12ヶ月のいずれかのお申込をお待ちしております。

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記者の目:日米首脳会談 同盟深化の開始=須藤孝(政治部)

(Mainichi Japan) November 22, 2009
More equal relations with the U.S. also means heavier responsibility in Asia
記者の目:日米首脳会談 同盟深化の開始=須藤孝(政治部)

 ◇東アジアで責任を果たせ 対等な関係へ行動を

 オバマ米大統領の初来日となった13日の日米首脳会談で、両国は同盟の深化を目指す政府間協議を開始することで合意した。ほんの手始めとはいえ、鳩山政権が掲げる「緊密で対等な日米関係」に向けた一歩だ。共に政権交代を果たした新政権として手を携え、新しい関係に向けて進もうとする意気込みに、まずは期待したい。
(この部分は英訳されていない no inglish translation for this part)

 だが、米軍普天間(ふてんま)飛行場(沖縄県宜野湾(ぎのわん)市)の移設をめぐる議論が「対米関係か国内政治か」の二者択一にとどまっているように、鳩山由紀夫首相の中にある「対等な関係」は理念先行で肝心な中身が伴っていないのではないか。
(この部分は英訳されていない no inglish translation for this part)

 対等な関係を目指すなら、日本が東アジア地域で信頼を得て主体的に行動することが求められる。そのためには日本が背負う歴史問題にも向きあうことが必要だし、東アジアの安全保障における沖縄の米軍基地の位置づけもはっきりさせる必要があるだろうが、そうした議論は政府内からほとんど聞こえてこない。
(この部分は英訳されていない no inglish translation for this part)

 「同盟深化」という言葉自体は日米間でたびたび確認されてきた。しかし、会談の前日、外務省幹部は私に「いままでの外務省の言葉なら方向を変えずに深めるという意味だが、今回は進める『進化』だ」と語った。首相の「日米同盟をレビュー(見直し)する」という意気込みは、外務官僚さえ興奮させている。
(この部分は英訳されていない no inglish translation for this part)

(Mainichi Japan) November 22, 2009
More equal relations with the U.S. also means heavier responsibility in Asia
記者の目:日米首脳会談 同盟深化の開始=須藤孝(政治部)

The administration of U.S. President Barack Obama's foreign policy is centered on a multilateral approach, a precondition of which is that the countries in each region should expect to play their part.
 だが、オバマ政権の多国間関係重視は、それぞれの地域で各国がしかるべき役割を果たすことが前提だ。

The United States is essentially saying: "We respect you, so we would like you to take up some important tasks that will be in both our interests."
「あなたを尊重するから仕事をしてほしい。それがお互いの国益になる」。

This is a cool and realistic foreign policy, indicating that despite the U.S.'s superpower status it is dealing with other countries on an equal footing.
クールで現実的な外交政策だ。超大国米国は力の差を前提にした対等な関係を考えている。

In his Nov. 14 speech in Tokyo, Obama declared that "Our efforts in the Asia-Pacific will be rooted, in no small measure, through an enduring and revitalized alliance between the United States and Japan." But this was not just an affirmation of the bilateral relationship, but a call to Japan to take up greater responsibilities in the region.
大統領は14日の東京演説で「日本との関係はアジア地域における米国の取り組みの要だ」と強調したが、日本は重い責任を求められたと受け止めるべきだ。

Japan has lent support to U.S. initiatives, dispatching Self-Defense Forces units to aid reconstruction in Iraq, refuel Western warships in the Indian Ocean involved in the Afghan war, and help defend international shipping against Somali pirates. However, in Japan's own backyard of East Asia, has Tokyo played a proactive role beyond supporting U.S. bases in Japan?
 日本はイラクの復興支援、インド洋での給油活動、ソマリア沖の海賊対策などに自衛隊を派遣した。しかし、自ら身を置く東アジアの安全保障について、米軍に基地を提供する以外に積極的な役割を担おうとしてきただろうか。

The U.S. bases in Okinawa are essential parts of American strategy in the region, especially as North Korea continues its nuclear weapons development and China boosts its military strength. Thus, Japan must see the Futenma base relocation issue in the context of policy towards all of Asia, including China and North Korea. Realistic alternatives to the U.S. military presence in Okinawa are not just hard to imagine, but building a foreign policy around moving those bases out of the prefecture or out of Japan should be reconsidered.
 沖縄の米軍基地は、軍備を増強する中国と核開発を続ける北朝鮮をにらむ米国のアジア戦略の要だ。普天間問題も中国や北朝鮮との関係も踏まえた日本のアジア政策全体から考える必要がある。沖縄での米軍のプレゼンス(影響力の存在)を下げるという選択肢が現実的には考えにくい以上、県外移設は外交政策としては選択すべきではないだろう。

On Oct. 14, Political News Department reporter Nakae Ueno argued in this column that Futenma was not just a foreign relations issue, but also a symbol of regime change, and called on the government to take the negotiations with the U.S. slowly and take the popular will of Okinawans into account. On Nov. 10, Naha Bureau reporter Teruhisa Mimori wrote that the will of the Okinawan people is plain to see, and called on the government to do its utmost to move Futenma out of the prefecture. I must respectfully disagree with my colleagues.
本欄で、普天間問題への対応は外交問題以上に政権交代の象徴だから、結論を急がず「沖縄の民意」検証をと訴えた政治部・上野央絵(なかえ)記者(10月14日)、沖縄の民意は明らかだからあくまで県外移設へ努力をと求めた那覇支局・三森(みもり)輝久記者(11月10日)と、私は意見を異にする。

There is also a proposal to merge Futenma with Kadena Air Base. However, Kadena is the largest U.S. Air Force base in Asia, and is aimed squarely at countering Chinese air and naval power. If, as the Americans insist, merging Futenma with Kadena -- itself entwined with Japan's Asian policy and the security guarantee -- would reduce the air base's operational effectiveness, then the Japanese government would do best not to approve such a move.
 沖縄県内の米軍嘉手納(かでな)基地への統合案もあるが、嘉手納はアジア最大の米空軍基地で、中国の海空軍と向き合う。日本のアジア政策と安全保障に深く絡む同基地が、統合によって米側が主張するように機能低下するならば、日本政府も容認できないはずだ。

As for getting out from under the American shadow and building an Asian policy of our own, if we judge that the U.S. guarantee of Japan's security is still necessary, that includes not turning the excessive cost of such ambitions back onto the United States. During the last election, Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama called on Futenma to be moved out of Okinawa Prefecture. However, the base issue should not be distorted into a purely domestic issue. The prime minister must accept the criticism and recant his statements on Futenma.
 対米追従から脱却し、アジア政策を自ら考えるということは、日本の安全保障上必要と判断すればそのツケを過度に米国に回さないことも含まれる。鳩山氏は衆院選で県外移設を訴えたが、国内事情だけで問題をゆがませるべきではない。批判は甘受して前言を撤回すべきだと考える。

Japan has a strong tendency to view the Japan-U.S. security guarantee as a purely bilateral issue, not as a guarantee actively aimed at securing all of East Asia. As a rule, the Japan-U.S. alliance has always come first, and as a result Japan is not truly viewed as a member of Asia.
 日本は自国の安全保障を日米2国間の課題としてしか考えない傾向が強く、東アジア地域全体の安全保障に主体的にかかわることは避けてきた。日米同盟至上主義の結果、日本はまだ本当にはアジアの一員として受け入れられていないというのが現実だ。

The government has excluded the Self-Defense Forces from a special measures law to inspect North Korean ships. However, to prevent the diffusion of North Korean weapons of mass destruction, the government may yet be faced with having to deploy Japanese forces. Hanging over the government's hesitation to make practical use of the Self-Defense Forces is the sense that it is skirting around the issue of Japan's relationship with Asia. When at the APEC summit in Singapore, Hatoyama stated that "reconciliation in the real sense of the word is not necessarily believed to have been achieved in the region ... although more than 60 years have passed since Japan caused tremendous damage and suffering to the people of many countries, particularly to the people of Asian nations," he was also speaking to himself.
 北朝鮮船舶の貨物検査特別措置法案で、政府は自衛隊の関与を外した。だが、北朝鮮の大量破壊兵器拡散を防止するため今後、自衛隊も必要になるという課題を突きつけられる可能性は残る。自衛隊の活用を政府がためらうのは、日本とアジアの関係にいまも奥歯に物が挟まったような感覚がつきまとっているからだろう。首相は15日にシンガポールで行ったアジア政策演説で「60年以上がたった今もなお、真の和解が達成されたとは必ずしも考えられていない」と自らに言い聞かせた。

During his meeting with Obama, Hatoyama requested the president visit Hiroshima. However, standing in the way of such a visit is a historical view -- common not just in the United States but also in the countries of Asia -- of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima as a positive act that ended Japan's aggressive war. If Hatoyama wishes the pivotal alliance with the United States to evolve, then he must seek to have Asia accept Japan as one of its own. He must face Japan's historical issues head on, while acting as a responsible member of the region and earn Asia's trust. That is the first step in making Japan-U.S. relations truly equal. (By Takashi Sudo, Political News Department)
 首相は日米首脳会談で、大統領に広島訪問を要請した。しかし、それを阻む「日本の侵略戦争を終わらせた良い原爆」という歴史認識は、米国民だけでなく東アジアの諸国民にも根強い。米国が「アジアの要」と位置づける日米同盟の「進化」を目指すなら、まずアジアで受け入れられなければいけない。歴史問題とも向き合いながら、地域に責任を持つ一員として行動し、信頼を得ることが、「対等な日米関係」の第一歩だ。

毎日新聞 2009年11月18日 東京朝刊

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スパコン凍結 科学技術立国の屋台骨が傾く

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 22, 2009)
Supercomputer vital to Japan's scientific future
スパコン凍結 科学技術立国の屋台骨が傾く(11月22日付・読売社説)

Is the new administration's stance on science and technology about to be called into question due to its budget measures?
 科学技術に対する新政権の基本姿勢が問われるのではないか。

In its review of ministerial budget requests for fiscal 2010, which is aimed at cutting wasteful spending, the Government Revitalization Unit has decided to "effectively freeze" a project by the Education, Science and Technology Ministry to develop a next-generation supercomputer.
 文部科学省の「次世代スーパーコンピューター(スパコン)」開発事業が、行政刷新会議の事業仕分けで「事実上の凍結」とされた。

The supercomputer would be used for science and technology research.
 スパコンは科学技術研究用の高速計算機だ。

The world's leading supercomputers can make calculations one million times faster than a standard personal computer.
最新のものはパソコンより100万倍も速い。

They have more than 1,000 central processing units--the brains of a computer--as well as other components that allow for higher computing speed.
 コンピューターの頭脳であるCPU(中央演算処理装置)が1000個以上、その他部品も高速動作するものを使う。

Most supercomputers are huge and due to the heat they generate while making calculations need to be installed in a large, well air-conditioned room.
本体も巨大なことが多く、計算時の発熱を防ぐため、ほとんどが空調完備の大部屋や建屋に設置されている。

The machines are used for simulations in a wide variety of fields, including climate-change prediction, aircraft design and genetic research. They are indispensable to those who need to conduct tests in fields where practical experiments are nearly impossible to do and they cut the time it takes to carry out research, thereby keeping research costs down.
 気候変動予測や航空機設計、生命現象の解明など多分野で「シミュレーション(模擬実験)」に使われている。実際の実験が難しい分野では欠かせない。研究期間の短縮、費用の圧縮もできる。

In light of these important roles, there is a fierce global competition to develop supercomputers and the Japanese project is going up against the world's best. Does the government intend to undermine advancement in key research areas?
 その重要性から、世界で開発競争が展開され、日本の計画も世界をにらんでいる。こうした意義を軽視していいのか。

===

U.S. leading the way

Currently, the United States is leading the race to develop supercomputers that are even better than the world's leading models, which have reached speeds of about 1 quadrillion calculations per second.
 現在、スパコン開発でトップを走るのは米国だ。上位機種の計算速度は、1秒間に1兆回の1000倍程度に達している。

Japan's next-generation supercomputers aim at improving this calculation performance by the power of one. Such an improvement would see the period taken to develop an aircraft, in simple terms of calculation, lowered to a 10th of the time it currently takes. That would bring huge benefits.
 日本の次世代スパコンは、これを1桁(けた)上回ることが目標だ。1桁でも、例えば航空機開発なら、単純計算で開発期間が10分の1になるのだから恩恵は大きい。

However, it is not easy to improve performance by the power of one over what are already cutting-edge machines. To that end, it is necessary to develop improved circuitry, including better semiconductors, a basic part of every computer. The private sector cannot take on such a massive task alone.
 しかし、最先端で1桁性能を向上させるのは容易でない。基本部品である半導体の開発など幅広く手がける必要があり、民間だけでは挑めない。

The United States and other countries develop supercomputers with financial backing from their governments. Japan also included about 27 billion yen for this purpose in the fiscal 2010 budget requests.
 米国など各国も、政府発注により開発を進めており、日本も来年度予算の概算要求に約270億円を盛り込んでいる。

===

Govt backing crucial

During scrutiny of the budget request relating to the supercomputer project, government panel members made comments such as, "Is it really necessary to aim for first place [in this field]?" or "It's better to purchase such equipment from abroad." But these observations of the current situation are both poorly expressed and inaccurate.
 事業仕分けでは「1位を目指す必要があるのか」「海外から買えばいい」などの声が出た。こんな現状認識は甘い。

Unless Japan makes an effort to take the lead in supercomputer development, it will not rank with the superpowers in the field.
 1位を目指すくらいでないと世界に伍(ご)せない。

Japan ranked first in the world in terms of supercomputer calculation speed in 2002, but lost the top spot 2-1/2 years later. Today, it languishes in 31st place, behind even China and South Korea.
2002年に日本のスパコンが計算速度で世界1位になったが、2年半で抜かれ、今は31位だ。中国、韓国が保有するスパコンにも後れを取る。

Buying a supercomputer from abroad can prove very difficult because nations closely guard the secrets behind their state-of-the-art technology. Japan would be reduced to purchasing only midranking supercomputers in terms of processing capacity.
 海外から買うにも最先端技術は各国が詳細を秘している。一般的な性能のものしか買えない。

If researchers cannot use cutting-edge supercomputers in Japan, it could lead to a brain drain of capable researchers. An overseas report has already appeared in which it was said that Japan's science and technology spheres would fall into decline if the supercomputer project was frozen.
 日本で最先端スパコンが使えないと、優秀な研究者が流出することにもなりかねない。スパコン凍結で日本の科学技術は衰退に向かう、との海外報道もある。

Budget requests for other science and technology-related projects also were severely scrutinized. It is natural to want to cut wasteful spending in the budget requests, but we do not want to see a situation emerge in which Japan's science and technology lifeline also is cut.
 事業仕分けでは、他の科学技術関連予算も厳しくたたかれた。無駄排除は当然だが、日本の科学技術の命脈を断つ事態は困る。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 22, 2009)
(2009年11月22日00時10分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月21日 (土)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:逃走は「生きる実感」か /東京

(Mainichi Japan) November 21, 2009
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: The mind of a fugitive
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:逃走は「生きる実感」か /東京

Tatsuya Ichihashi, who spent two years, seven months on the run from police after fleeing from his apartment where the body of Briton Lindsay Ann Hawker was found, reportedly showed no resistance when police apprehended him at a ferry terminal in Osaka this month.
 2年7カ月の逃亡を経て逮捕された、市橋容疑者。大阪のフェリー乗り場の待合室で警察官に身柄を確保されるときも、とくに抵抗する様子はなかったという。

Ichihashi was raised in a privileged family, and while he was unable to become a doctor like his parents, he continued to study at university. He failed to find a job right away, but he was said to be searching for his dream while receiving financial support. One could say he was a youth who symbolized an affluent society; he was far removed from the young victims of social disparity such as those who lose their jobs due to company layoffs of temp workers.
 恵まれた家庭に育ち、親と同じ医師になれなかったとはいえ、大学で勉強をし、すぐに定職にはつけなかったが仕送りを受けながら夢を探していたといわれるこの容疑者は、言ってみれば“豊かな社会”を象徴するような青年だ。派遣切りなどの憂き目にあうなど、格差社会の被害を受けている若者たちとはかなり状況が違う。

So how did Ichihashi end up living in hiding for such a long time without (as far as we know) receiving any assistance? Where did his obsession with escaping at all costs come from?
 それがなぜ、逃走を企て、これほどまでに長期間、これまで知られている限りで誰の助けも借りず、潜伏生活を送ることになったのだろうか。「なんとしても逃げる」というこの執着は、どこから来ていたのだろう。

Of course we don't yet know all the details of the case, but Ichihashi was said to have told people at a construction company where he worked that he had shut himself off from society. Perhaps what he said was not altogether made up. It is possible that he had tried to enter the medical profession like his parents but failed to do so, and during his days as a student when he was asking, "What do I want to do? What do I want to become?" his mental state corresponded to withdrawal from society -- regardless of how much fun he looked like he was having.
 もちろん、詳しいことはまだ何もわかっていないが、容疑者が建設現場で語っていたといわれる「これまで引きこもりをしてきた」という言葉は、あながち出まかせではなかったのではないか。親と同じ医療の仕事につこうとしたがつけず、「自分は何をしたいのか、何になりたいのか」と自問自答しながら過ごしていた学生時代は、いくら周りからは楽しげに見えても、本人にとっては心理的な引きこもり状態と同じだったのかもしれない。

Ironically, running away from police forced Ichihashi to think by himself and make his own decisions. In a sense, those days on the run when all responsibility fell on him possibly gave him a sense of being alive.
 皮肉なことに、逃走という行為は、自分で考え、自分で選択しながら行動しなくてはならない。すべて自分の責任だ、という日々は、ある意味で「生きる実感」を与えてくれるものだったのではないか。

In my clinic, young people often arrive saying that they don't feel they are living of their own accord, even though they are in fortunate circumstances. They, too, choose the path that will please the adults around them for the time being, without really knowing what they want to do, and live each day without any challenges.
 診察室にも、恵まれた環境にいながら「自分の意思で生きていると思えない」と訴える若者がしばしばやって来る。彼らも、自分が何をしたいのかもわからないまま、とりあえず周りの大人たちが喜んでくれるような道を選択しつつ、手ごたえもないまま毎日を送っている。

One young person told me, "I want to experience living of my own free will, not because somebody has asked me to do something." But it is difficult to seize that opportunity.
「誰に頼まれたからでもない、私の意思で生きているんだと実感してみたい」とある若者は言っていたが、そのきっかけをつかむのは難しい。

Saying this, however, there are young people who go on to live independently after taking part in volunteer or disaster relief activities. I have often seen people who have lived withdrawn from society for more than a decade change suddenly and become active in this way. All young people have underlying strengths.
 とはいえ、中にはボランティア活動や災害救援などを足がかりに、主体的な人生を送れるようになる若者もいる。そうやって十年以上、引きこもりをやってきた人がうって変わって活動的になった姿を、これまで何度も見てきた。どんな若者にも底力があるのだ。

Were there no other paths Ichihashi could choose to sense being alive? I recall the faces of the young people I met at my clinic who were withdrawn from society but later got back on their feet. (By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
 市橋容疑者も、もっと別の形で「生きる実感」を手にする道はなかったのだろうか。診察室で出会って、そして元気になっていった引きこもりの若者の顔が頭に浮かんだ。

毎日新聞 2009年11月17日 地方版

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採決強行―新時代の国会はどこに

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 20(IHT/Asahi: November 21,2009)
EDITORIAL: Ruling bloc's power play
採決強行―新時代の国会はどこに

The scene that unfolded early Friday at the Diet was all too reminiscent of the era under Liberal Democratic Party rule.
 これでは、自民党政権時代の国会の風景と変わらないではないか。

The three-party ruling coalition led by the Democratic Party of Japan steamrolled a debt relief bill for small and midsized companies and housing loan borrowers through the Lower House. The bill encourages financial institutions to ease repayment terms for struggling customers.
 民主、社民、国民新の与党が、中小企業の借金や住宅ローンの返済猶予を金融機関に促す中小企業等金融円滑化法案の採決を衆院で強行した。

Earlier, the ruling coalition, which also includes the Social Democratic Party and the People's New Party, forced the bill through the Lower House Committee on Financial Affairs after only eight hours of deliberations over two days. Thus, the ruling camp threw away a good opportunity to debate the role of the nation's financial sector in the recession.
 不況下の日本の金融のあり方を見つめ直す議論もできたはずだが、委員会の質疑は2日間、約8時間で打ち切られた。

With the year-end surge in corporate demand for funds looming, the government and the ruling bloc apparently wanted to enact the bill as quickly as possible. But they deserve to be criticized for acting so hastily.
企業が資金繰りに追われる年末を控え、政府与党は成立を急ぎたいのだろうが、いかにも拙速である。

The ruling coalition explained that time was of the essence since other important bills need to be enacted before the current Diet session ends on Nov. 30. No doubt, the LDP and the other opposition parties tried to draw out the Diet deliberations. But that doesn't justify treating the process of Diet deliberations lightly.
 与党は、他にも重要な法案があり、30日の会期末をにらむとこの日がタイムリミットだったと説明する。自民など野党側には審議引き延ばしの思惑もあろう。しかし、だからといって審議の過程を軽んじていいはずがない。

The opposition bloc is toughening its stance. Does the DPJ intend to continue steamrolling bills through the Diet while the opposition parties boycott the sessions and votes?
 野党は反発を強めている。民主党は今後、与党単独での審議・採決を繰り返すつもりなのだろうか。

Following the first genuine power transfer in postwar Japan, the nation's political system is undergoing a radical change, for example, by putting politicians in charge of policymaking instead of bureaucrats. This has raised expectations for a significant change in the way the Diet operates.
 戦後初めて本格的な政権交代が実現し、官僚主導から政治主導への転換をはじめ、政治の姿は大きく変わりつつある。国会のありようも例外ではない。そんな期待が高まっていた。

In fact, Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama's policy speech struck us as refreshing when he spoke about his political philosophy in his own words. Often during committee sessions, both opposition questioners and the prime minister and his Cabinet members engaged in lively debate without depending on memos prepared by bureaucrats.
 実際、鳩山由紀夫首相の所信表明演説は、自分の言葉で政治理念を語り、新鮮な印象を与えた。委員会審議では、野党の質問者も、受けて立つ首相や閣僚もメモに頼らず、政治家として論戦を繰り広げる場面が目立った。

Consequently, the forced passage of the bill seemed like a return to the old Diet, where center stage was often taken by partisan political dickering over the schedule, rather than the content of debate.
 それだけになおさら、今回の採決強行は「古い国会」への逆戻りを印象づけた。審議の中身より、日程をめぐる与野党間の駆け引きが前面に出る、いわゆる「国対政治」である。

The move by the ruling camp put a damper on expectations for more vibrant and meaningful discussions at the Diet. As it is, plans for a one-on-one debate between the party leaders remain on hold.
 党首討論が見送られていることと併せて、国会活性化への期待に冷や水を浴びせるものだ。

Ichiro Ozawa, the DPJ's secretary-general, has been the main champion of Diet reform. He has called for a departure from such parliamentary traditions as getting bureaucrats to answer questions and wasting time on partisan negotiations on the schedule. That would allow politicians to engage in serious debate. The DPJ should try to figure out a new approach to managing Diet affairs in line with Ozawa's argument.
 官僚による答弁や国対政治を排し、政治家同士が真剣に議論を戦わせる。そんな国会への改革にこだわっているのは、他ならぬ民主党の小沢一郎幹事長だ。その趣旨を生かして、新しい国会運営を模索すべきではないか。

Among the bills waiting to be considered is one to freeze the planned sales of government-held shares in Japan Post Holdings Co. and its affiliates. The bill, which embodies the Hatoyama administration's pledge to review the process of postal privatization, demands especially exhaustive examination. The ruling coalition must not rush to enact the legislation by resorting to its majority in the chamber.
 審議を待っている法案のうち、郵政民営化の見直しを掲げる鳩山政権の基本姿勢が問われる株式売却凍結法案では、とくに徹底した論議が必要だ。与党が数を頼りに成立を急ぐようなことがあってはならない。

The government is opposed to an extension of the Diet session because it fears it would hamper work to draft the budget for next fiscal year in December. But it should consider a limited extension to ensure sufficient discussions are held on these important bills.
 政府は12月の予算編成への影響を避けるため、国会の会期延長には否定的だが、こうした重要法案をきちんと審議するために必要とあれば、ある程度の会期延長も考えるべきだろう。

Some of the members of a group of opinion leaders have put together a set of proposals for Diet reform in response to Ozawa's request. They include making the Diet open throughout the year so lawmakers can consider bills without worrying about time limits.
 小沢氏の求めに応じ、有識者らでつくる21世紀臨調の有志がまとめた国会改革の提言には、会期を気にせずに審議ができる「通年国会」の実現などが盛り込まれている。

Now, bipartisan debate should start on Diet reform toward the next year's regular session. The ruling camp's dependence on its majority to push through its political agenda is not in tune with the new era, as symbolized by the regime change.
 来年の通常国会に向けて、与野党で国会改革の議論を深める時だ。与党が数の力で突っ走る国会の姿は、政権交代の時代にふさわしくない。

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内定率急落―ロスジェネを再び作るな

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 20(IHT/Asahi: November 21,2009)
EDITORIAL: Job market for students
内定率急落―ロスジェネを再び作るな
 
As of early October, nearly 40 percent of university seniors seeking jobs after they graduate in March had no offers of employment, according to a government survey.
 木枯らしの中、まだ就職活動を続ける大学4年生が多くいる。10月初めの段階では、就職希望者の4割近くが内定を得られていなかったという。

The percentage of those who secured job offers dropped nearly to the level of 2003, the peak of extreme job scarcity dubbed the "employment ice age."
 内定率は「就職氷河期」さなかの03年ごろの水準まで落ち込んだ。

Companies that have reduced the number of new hires have apparently become more selective amid the uncertain economic outlook. The situation is also serious for students who will graduate from high school.
景気の行方が定まらない状況で、企業が採用予定数を絞ったうえ、人材を厳選しようとしている表れだろう。高校生の内定率も同様に深刻だ。

From around 1995 to 2005, companies curbed their recruitment of new graduates as regular employees and replaced them with nonregular workers.
 企業は95年から05年ごろにかけて新卒者の採用を抑え、非正規の労働力に置き換えた。

Young people who could not land permanent jobs on graduation had no choice but to continue to work as dispatch workers or so-called freeters without acquiring skills. Since their income is unstable, such workers are hesitant to get married or start a family. Seriously hit by the financial crisis that started last year, many people lost their jobs and homes at the same time.
正社員になれなかった人は、技能を身につけられぬまま派遣やフリーターを続けざるを得なかった。収入が不安定なため、家族や子どもを持つこともためらってしまう。昨年の金融危機の直撃で、職と住まいを失った人も少なくなかった。

How to support these young people of "the lost generation" has become a weighty social problem. To prevent a recurrence of the situation, the government should do whatever it can to support job-seeking students toward next spring.
 そうした「ロストジェネレーション」と呼ばれる世代をどう支えてゆくかは、いま社会の重い課題になっている。その轍(てつ)を踏まないためにも、来春に向けた就職支援にできるだけの手を打つべきだ。

The government's task force for emergency job measures has taken action for would-be graduates and is calling on business organizations to expand employment. However, companies are also crying for help, saying they already face difficulties maintaining current payrolls.
 政府の緊急雇用対策本部は、新卒者の支援策に乗り出し、経済団体に採用の拡大を呼びかけている。ところが企業からは、現状の雇用を守るだけでも精いっぱいだとの悲鳴が聞こえる。

But there must be industries suffering from a labor shortage as well as medium-sized and small businesses that are eager to hire. Perhaps this is a chance for students to look at new areas of growth potential rather than seeking stable employment at major companies.
 人手不足に悩む業種や、採用意欲が高い中小企業もあるはずだ。学生にとっては安定志向で大企業を狙うより、新しい成長分野に目を向けるチャンスかもしれない。

Hello Work public job placement offices, universities and other schools should tie up to find job offers in local communities and create more opportunities to bring employers and students together.
ハローワークと学校が連携して地域の求人を掘り起こす。学生とのマッチングの機会を増やす。そんな工夫を重ねてほしい。

There is another problem that must be addressed on a long-term basis. It is the corporate practice of hiring new graduates en masse only once a year in spring. We wonder if the practice will remain effective.
 その上で、長い目で考えるべき課題がある。企業が毎春、新卒者をまとめて採用する慣行が、もはや限界に来ているのではないかということだ。

This hiring practice only worked when the economy grew steadily and companies trained workers under the lifetime employment system. Now, each time the economy slumps, many regular workers lose their jobs, which increases instability in the labor market.
 経済成長が続き、企業が終身雇用のもと人材育成を引き受けていたからこそ成り立ってきたシステムだ。今のように景気が悪くなるたび正社員枠からあふれた不安定雇用層が生まれ、将来にまで固定化される構造は、社会の活力維持のためにも望ましくない。

We are now in an age in which diversified talent is sought. However, under the current hiring practice, job-seeking students and prospective employers have only one opportunity to meet, upon the students' graduation.
 多様な人材が求められる時代である。学生、企業の双方にとって、就職・採用の機会は新卒時の1回だけで十分といえるだろうか。

Mid-career and year-round hiring should be expanded so that students who graduated earlier can repeatedly apply for regular positions. A system is also needed to help young unemployed people acquire skills and techniques so that they can continue to apply for jobs.
 卒業後、何度も正社員にトライできるよう、中途採用や通年採用を広げたい。仕事に就いていない若者が技術や技能を身につけ、挑戦を続けられるような支援の仕組みも必要だろう。

During economic downturns, the practice of hiring new graduates en masse causes a serious distortion in university education.
 不況下の新卒一括採用は、大学教育にも大きなひずみをもたらしている。

Companies are moving up the timing of recruitment to secure competent students. This has caused anxious students to scurry and attend job-briefing sessions and interviews, which eats away the time of students who should be devoted to learning.
 企業はよりよい人材を求めて採用活動の開始を早め、不安にかられた学生は説明会や面接に奔走する。

If such activities undermine students' potential as competent workers, it would be tantamount to putting the cart before the horse.
就職活動に学業の時間がすりつぶされている。その結果、人材としての力が損なわれては本末転倒ではないか。

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デフレ認定 日銀は政府と危機感の共有を

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 21, 2009)
BOJ must get serious about deflation
デフレ認定 日銀は政府と危機感の共有を(11月21日付・読売社説)

The Japanese economy, as had been widely expected, is mired in deflation as prices continue to fall.
 やはり日本経済は、物価が下がり続けるデフレに陥っていた。

In a monthly economic report released Friday, the government acknowledged the economy is in a mild deflationary phase and warned that deflation could impede the nation's recovery.
 政府は月例経済報告で「緩やかなデフレ状況にある」と認定し、デフレが景気を腰折れさせる恐れがあるとの見方を示した。

In March 2001, the government for the first time in the postwar period acknowledged that the nation's economy was in deflation due to prolonged price drops. The government has not declared that the economy has overcome this deflation. Conversely, deflation has returned to haunt the economy before a full recovery could be confirmed.
 政府は2001年3月、物価下落が長期化したため、戦後初めてデフレを認定したが、今も脱却宣言はない。全快を確認できないまま、デフレがぶり返した。

The government and the Bank of Japan must closely cooperate and use all available policy tools to ensure a complete departure from deflation this time.
 政府と日銀は、連携を密に政策を総動員し、今度こそ完治を図らねばならない。

Falling prices are good news for consumers. But lower prices mean reduced profits for companies, which often results in job and salary cuts. If this situation generates drops in consumption and further price falls, the economy could tumble into a deflationary spiral.
 物価が下がれば消費者にとってはうれしいが、企業の利益は減少し、給料カットや失業として跳ね返る。その影響による消費の減少で物価がさらに下がれば、デフレと不況が連鎖するデフレスパイラルにつながる。

===

Economic prospects gloomy

A lack of demand is the prime cause of deflation. Accordingly, bringing an end to deflation will require boosting demand. However, the future of the nation's economy is uncertain.
 デフレからの脱却には、最大の原因である需要不足の解消が欠かせないが、先行きは不透明だ。

Gross domestic product has registered positive growth for the past two consecutive quarters thanks to the government's stimulus measures, such as the eco point purchase incentive program for energy-efficient home appliances and the subsidy scheme for eco-friendly vehicles.
 家電のエコポイントやエコカー補助などが奏功し、実質国内総生産(GDP)は、この2四半期連続でプラス成長となった。

But the unemployment rate remains stubbornly high and winter bonuses are set to be cut significantly. Prospects for the year-end shopping season are decidedly gloomy. The impact of the freeze on some public works projects under the administration of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama is yet another cause for concern. Compounding this grim situation, the appreciation of the yen pushes down prices of imported products.
 だが、失業率は高く、冬のボーナスも大幅減が確実だ。年末商戦の見通しは暗い。鳩山内閣が公共事業の一部を凍結した影響も心配だ。円高で輸入品が安くなるもうひとつのデフレも懸念される。

The government intends to make measures related to employment, the environment and child care the centerpieces of a second supplementary budget for this fiscal year and the initial budget for next fiscal year.
 政府は、今年度2次補正予算と来年度当初予算を、雇用、環境、子どもへの対策を重点に編成するという。

===

Govt must watch its pennies

But the government is facing a severe fiscal situation. If a massive amount of government bonds were issued, interest rates might rise sharply. The government must avoid resorting to generous spending. Instead, it should make proper budget allocations that focus on projects that will likely generate an immediate expansion in demand.
 ただ、財政は厳しい。国債を大増発すれば金利が急上昇しかねない。大盤振る舞いを避け、需要拡大に即効性のある事業に絞った予算配分が必要となろう。

Some government officials reportedly have floated the idea of introducing a housing version of the eco point scheme. We hope the government comes up with effective measures, without merely sticking to its policy pledges just for sake of doing so.
 政府内には「住宅版エコポイント」などの新たなアイデアもあるという。子ども手当などの政権公約にとらわれず、効果的な対策に知恵を絞ってもらいたい。

Compiling a mid- to long-term strategy to achieve private sector-driven growth without relying only on fiscal measures to stimulate demand remains an urgent task on the government's to-do list.
 需要の穴埋めを財政だけに頼らず、民間主導の成長実現に向けた中長期的な戦略も、策定を急がねばならない。

Meanwhile, we doubt if the Bank of Japan, which should play a central role in combating deflation, is taking the price falls as seriously as the government is.
 一方、デフレ退治の主役であるべき日銀が、デフレへの危機感を、政府としっかり共有しているのか疑問がある。

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development on Thursday said deflation in Japan would linger through 2011. The organization also called on the Bank of Japan to fight deflation with quantitative easing measures.
 経済協力開発機構(OECD)は19日、日本のデフレが2011年まで続くとし、日銀に量的金融緩和で戦うべきだと提言した。

At a policy board meeting Friday, however, the central bank decided to keep the current key interest rate unchanged. Bank of Japan Gov. Masaaki Shirakawa suggested additional measures, such as further quantitative easing, are not needed.
 だが、日銀は20日の金融政策決定会合で政策を現状維持し、白川方明総裁は量的緩和の拡大など追加策は不要との考えを示した。

The central bank appears to lack the government's concern when it comes to deflation.
 政府より、デフレに対する認識が甘いのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 21, 2009)
(2009年11月21日01時28分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月20日 (金)

社説:犯罪白書 「規範意識」が低下した

(Mainichi Japan) November 19, 2009
社説:犯罪白書 「規範意識」が低下した

Crime report suggests people's law-abiding spirit has declined
A knifing rampage, in which a man rammed a truck into a crowded intersection in Tokyo's Akihabara district in June last year and then stabbed pedestrians, leaving seven people dead and 10 injured, is still fresh in people's memories.
 昨年6月の白昼、休日の買い物客でにぎわう東京・秋葉原の交差点に男がトラックで突っ込み、次々と人々をナイフで刺し、7人が死亡、10人が負傷した通り魔事件は、今も記憶に新しい。

The government's while (white?) paper on crime released recently, which details the trends of crimes in 2008, shows that there were 14 cases of random attacks, including the Akihabara incident. The figure is far above the three cases in 2004, six in 2005, four in 2006, and eight in 2007.
 08年の犯罪動向をまとめた今年の犯罪白書によると、凶器を使って人を無差別に殺傷する通り魔事件が、秋葉原事件を含め14件起きている。04年以後07年までの4年間が各3、6、4、8件だから、データは少ないものの急増ぶりが目立つ。

In a related development, the National Police Agency (NPA) has reported that the number of cases of robbery, business break-ins and bag-snatching has been growing since the beginning of this year. NPA officials believe that this trend is attributable partly to the economic downturn and the worsening of the employment situation following the collapse of U.S. financial giant Lehman Brothers in September last year.
 一方、警察庁によると、今年に入り強盗や事務所荒らし、ひったくりが増加している。昨年9月のリーマン・ショック以後の経済・雇用情勢の悪化と一定の関連性があるとみている。

When asked about the motives for his crime, the defendant in the Akihabara case remarked, "I was sick and tired of living." He had moved from area to area as a temporary worker. His remark illustrates the tough social situation of today, in which the economic downturn has triggered heinous crimes.
秋葉原事件の被告は、派遣社員として各地を転々とし、動機を「人生のうっぷんが出てきて嫌になった」と供述した。経済の行き詰まりが凶悪事件に結びつく昨今の殺伐とした世相が浮かび上がってくる。

The arrest rate shown by the white paper has raised some concerns. During the post-war period of the Showa Era, the arrest rate, excluding that for traffic accidents, had stood above 50 percent. It had declined to 19.8 percent by 2001, but turned upward to reach 31.8 percent in 2007. However, it fell 0.2 of a point last year to 31.6 percent.
 白書の数字では、検挙率が気にかかる。交通事故を除く刑法犯で、昭和時代(戦後)は50%を超えていた。それが01年に19・8%まで下落し、その後右肩上がりに回復して07年は31・8%だったが、昨年わずか(0・2ポイント)とはいえ低下したのだ。

Tatsuya Ichihashi, who had been wanted by police in connection with the slaying of a British English teacher, was recently arrested after spending two years and seven months as a fugitive. Information provided by a cosmetic clinic that conducted plastic surgery on him led to his arrest. This has raised questions primarily about the police's investigation abilities, but also demonstrated that it is difficult for the police alone to raise the arrest rate and maintain law and order as crimes have diversified.
 英国人女性の死体遺棄容疑で指名手配中だった市橋達也容疑者が2年7カ月の逃亡の末、民間からの通報を元に逮捕された。もちろん警察の捜査能力が第一に問われるが、犯罪の多様化が進み、警察の力だけで検挙率を高め、治安を保つのが難しいことを象徴するできごとだ。

Police are required to rely on citizens to a certain extent in their efforts to maintain law and order and apprehend crime suspects.
 どう民間の力を生かすか。

In a speech at the Japan National Press Club on Nov. 6, NPA Commissioner General Takaharu Ando expressed concern that a decline in the public's law-abiding spirit and loosening social bonds has contributed to the increase in crimes. "It appears that Japanese people's high law-abiding spirit and social bonds such as those in schools and regional communities, which had supported the country's high standards of public order, are declining."
In his speech, the police chief lamented the decline in law-abiding spirit particularly among teenagers and their parents, citing examples he heard from officers across the country.
安藤隆春警察庁長官は今月6日、日本記者クラブの講演で「日本の良好な治安を支えてきた国民の高い規範意識と、学校や地域などの共同体の存在感が共に低下しているのではないか」と懸念を示した。
各地の少年補導員に聞いたとして長官が披露した話を一部紹介したい。

Many teenagers caught shoplifting say, "Others do the same thing. What's wrong?" Many of them are isolated in their families and at school and some of them do not even know the age and occupation of their parents or their own address.
 最近の非行少年は、万引きをしても「皆がやっているのに、何で悪いのか」という反応が返ってくる。家庭や学校に居場所がなく、親の年齢や職業、自分の住所さえ知らない。

Some parents of shoplifting minors complain to shops that reported the incidents to police saying, "It would have been all right if I had paid for it. Why did you alert the police?"
一方の親は「代金を払えば済むのに、なぜ警察に通報したんだ」と店に食ってかかる、というのだ。

These examples show parents bear responsibility for the decline in law-abiding spirit among youths. This reminds us of the need for further education on crime-prevention.
 いかにも寒々しい風景だ。若者が社会ルールを守る意識に乏しいのは親世代に責任があることを示す。この話の教訓として、防犯教育の必要性も指摘しておきたい。

Anybody who commits a crime is subject to punishment. Those who commit theft could face up to 10 years in prison. Moreover, questions remain as to how citizens can protect themselves from falling victim to crimes. Police are cooperating with some schools to provide crime-prevention education, but recent crime trends underline the need to step up efforts.
罪を犯せばペナルティーがある。例えば窃盗でも最高10年の懲役だ。また、被害に遭わないためにはどうするか。警察は学校と連携し一部で防犯教室を実施しているが、さらに積極的な展開が必要ではないか。

毎日新聞 2009年11月19日 東京朝刊

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事業仕分け―大なた効果を次につなげ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 19(IHT/Asahi: November 20,2009)
EDITORIAL: Budget spending cuts.
事業仕分け―大なた効果を次につなげ

Never before has the process of drafting a state budget come under such close scrutiny by so many people.
 国の予算案づくりの過程が、これほど多くの国民の監視の目にさらされたことは、かつてなかった。

The Government Revitalization Unit, tasked with scouring the budget requests for savings, has finished the first half of its work. Its operations have been covered daily and extensively by the media, and a webcast of the team at work received an incredible 24,000 hits at its peak.
 歳出の無駄を洗い出す行政刷新会議の事業仕分けの前半が終わった。マスメディアを通じて作業の様子が連日伝えられ、ウェブ中継へのアクセスはピーク時で2万4千件に及んだ。

All this reflects growing interest among taxpayers over how their money is used by the government. Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama must respect the results of the budget review process and do his utmost to eliminate unnecessary spending so that public money is efficiently used in compiling the budget for the next fiscal year. He should also make sure that spending on similar programs not subject to the current review is also cut.
 税金の使途に対する世論の視線が、それだけ厳しいことの反映でもあろう。鳩山由紀夫首相は仕分けを尊重し、対象外の類似事業にもメスを入れるなど、予算案決定に向けて無駄の排除と効率化を徹底してほしい。

The task force's work so far has made it clear that spending cuts alone will not be sufficient to finance all the programs the Democratic Party of Japan had pledged in its election manifesto.
 今回の経験で、民主党のマニフェストの実行に必要な予算を事業仕分けだけでひねり出すのは難しいということも、明らかになった。

In total, 46 programs have been identified that will be scrapped or dropped from the fiscal 2010 budget, representing a saving of about 150 billion yen. The first round of the review process resulted in putting aside about 1 trillion yen, including the 150 billion yen, by discovering surplus reserves that should be returned to state coffers and downsizing other projects.
 「廃止」「来年度の計上見送り」とされたのは46事業計1500億円。埋蔵金の国庫返納や予算規模縮減を含めた総額は1兆円規模となる。

The government aims to cut about 3 trillion yen from the budget requests, which exceeded 95 trillion yen. This target will be hard to achieve even if the task force identifies additional budget cuts during the second half of its work next week. In addition, the surplus reserves can be spent only once and cannot be counted on as a permanent revenue source.
 95兆円に膨らんだ概算要求の削減目標は約3兆円である。来週行われる仕分け後半の成果を見込んでも、達成は容易ではない。しかも、埋蔵金は一度使えば次年度からは当てにできず、恒久財源にはなりえない。

The question facing the Hatoyama administration is which of its election promises should be carried out and to what extent during its first year in office. It must now make a crucial decision on policy priorities.
 マニフェストを初年度に、どこまで実現するのか。鳩山政権はいよいよその優先順位を決めなければならない局面にきたといえる。

The budget-cutting team has been criticized for making hasty rough-and-ready decisions. Critics also said members of the Government Revitalization Unit were not fully briefed on details of how the programs and projects were supposed to work and that decisions on reductions and terminations were actually made before the team started its review.
 事業仕分けに対しては、「短時間の議論で結論を出すのは乱暴だ」「仕分け人は現場を知らない」「廃止や見直しの結論ありきではないか」といった批判がある。

The team decided to scrap a program intended to help young people having difficulty in adjusting to society, like those who hide away at home, and find jobs for them. But those who are working for the program are calling for its continuation. In the same vein, there are calls to maintain funding for projects that give children opportunities to read books and experience nature.
 とりわけ、引きこもりなどの若者の就職を支援する「若者自立塾」や、子どもに読書や自然体験をさせる「子どもゆめ基金」の廃止には、現場の関係者から存続を求める声が出ている。

Indeed, education, welfare and science and technology are policy areas where government expenditures should not be evaluated simply on the basis of cost effectiveness.
 確かに、教育や福祉、科学技術などは、費用対効果の物差しだけでは単純に割り切れない分野である。

The task force's proposals indicate that drastic measures, which could cause unwanted effects, are needed to uproot the vested interests accumulated during the long grip on power by the Liberal Democratic Party.
 多少の副作用もあろうが、そのくらいの大なたをふるわないと、自民党の長期政権時代のしがらみを断ち切るのは難しいということでもあろう。

In assessing the programs, the team sought to ascertain whether they really required the involvement of the central government or could be entrusted to local governments or private-sector entities. The review is significant in that it involved a fundamental rethinking of how administrative services should be provided. If the review process determines that certain programs are necessary, the government should keep them alive by figuring out effective ways to finance them.
 本当に政府が面倒をみなければいけないのか。自治体や民間に任せられないか。行政サービスのあり方を根本から考えようとした事業仕分けの意義は大きい。そのうえで、なお必要だというなら、効果的な手法を工夫して存続させる道はあってもいい。

Hatoyama has suggested that the budget review is a one-off event. But given the fact that the projects examined by the team represent only 15 percent of the total, it is clear that the work should continue until all of them have been scrutinized.
 首相は今回のような事業仕分けは今年限りとする考えを示している。今回の対象が国の全事業の約15%に過ぎないことを考えれば、一度はすべての事業の総ざらえが必要ではないか。

Above all, such a budget review fully open to the public is certain to change the mind-set of bureaucrats in the Kasumigaseki district and strengthen the sense of participation in the policymaking process among taxpayers. We hope the government will continue this work in some form in future budget compilation work.
 何より、全面公開で行われる事業仕分けは、霞が関の官僚の意識改革や納税者の参加意識の向上にもつながるに違いない。来年以降の予算編成にも、何らかの形で生かしてもらいたい。

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党首討論―情けない首相の逃げ腰

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 19(IHT/Asahi: November 20,2009)
EDITORIAL: One-on-one Diet debate.
党首討論―情けない首相の逃げ腰

Since it took power in mid-September, the administration led by Yukio Hatoyama has been busy re-examining the policies implemented by the former coalition government before it starts work on compiling the fiscal 2010 budget.
 政権交代から2カ月あまり。鳩山政権は10年度予算編成に向けて、自公政権下でとられてきた政策を次々に見直そうとしている。

The new government totally reviewed the supplementary budget put together by Taro Aso's team, called a halt to the construction of the Yanba Dam in Gunma Prefecture and instructed the Government Revitalization Unit to scrutinize projects included in budget requests for the next fiscal year. The government is also studying whether the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Okinawa Prefecture can be relocated elsewhere. This amounts to a total re-examination of the plan previously agreed to by Tokyo and Washington.
 麻生政権による補正予算の全面見直し。八ツ場ダムの建設中止。行政刷新会議の事業仕分け。米軍普天間飛行場の移設についても、日米で合意した計画の見直しを含めて「検証」を進めている。

Why is the administration drastically changing policies? How does it plan to realize them? Hatoyama has a duty to provide a satisfactory explanation.
 なぜ、政策の大規模な変更なのか。どう実現するのか。鳩山由紀夫首相は説明責任を負っている。

How will Sadakazu Tanigaki, president of the main opposition Liberal Democratic Party, respond? How does he evaluate his party's past policies? What is the LDP's new course? Now, more than ever, voters are eager to hear a heated verbal battle between the two leaders.
 下野した自民党の谷垣禎一総裁はどう反論するのだろうか。過去の党の政策をどう評価するのか。自民党の新しい道は何か。今ほど、有権者が両氏の主張のぶつけ合いを聞きたいと思っている時はないだろう。

However, it now appears doubtful that the two leaders will hold a one-on-one debate during the current Diet session. Initially, the ruling and opposition parties had aimed to do so on Wednesday, but on Nov. 13 the government and the Democratic Party of Japan squelched the idea.
 ところが、両氏による党首討論がこの国会で開かれるのかどうか、怪しい状況になってきた。当初、与野党は初の討論をきのう開く方向で話してきたが、結局、政府与党が応じなかった。谷垣氏の自転車事故の前から、きのうの党首討論の可能性は消えていた。

The government says it put the damper on the idea because some members of the Cabinet would not be able to attend it due to official business. True, there is a general understanding between the ruling and opposition parties that requires the attendance of all Cabinet ministers at such a debate, but the explanation offered is a little hard to swallow.
 一部の閣僚が公務で出席できないから、というのが言い分だ。確かに、討論には全閣僚の出席を原則とするという与野党の申し合わせがあるが、拒む理由としては納得しがたい。

Why must all Cabinet ministers be present when it is the party leaders who are going head to head? The government and the DPJ cannot avoid criticism that they used the agreement as an excuse to avoid the debate.
 党首同士がやりあうのに、なぜ全閣僚の出席が必要なのか。与党は申し合わせをたてに討論を避けた、と言われても仕方あるまい。

In principle, debates between the party leaders are held on a Wednesday. In that case, the next chance would be Nov. 25, but the DPJ-led government has not yet responded to the LDP's request to hold one on that day. Does the government seriously think there is no need to hold a debate before the Diet session winds up on Nov. 30?
 討論は原則として水曜日に開くという申し合わせもある。そうすると次の機会は25日だが、自民党の開催要求に政府与党はまだ応えていない。政府与党は30日までの会期中に開かなくてよいと考えているのだろうか。

Even if some Cabinet ministers are absent, it shouldn't pose a problem. Surely, the debate doesn't have to be held on a Wednesday, either. When it was in opposition, the DPJ persistently demanded that a one-on-one debate be held. But now that it is a ruling party, it has made an about-face.
 閣僚が欠席したとしても何の不都合もないし、開催日をずらす手もある。野党時代、民主党は討論の開催を強く要求してきた。与党になったとたんのこの不熱心さは、なんとも説得力を欠く。

We find the party's stance anything but convincing. We urge the government and the DPJ to arrange a one-on-one debate without delay.
政府与党は速やかに党首討論を実現させるべきだ。

The government wants to avoid extending the Diet session so it can concentrate on compiling the budget. It says there is no time for the debate since its priority is to pass various bills. But this explanation doesn't hold water, for the simple reason that such debates customarily last only 45 minutes.
 予算編成に集中するため国会の会期延長は避けたい。法案処理が最優先なので時間がとれない。そんな解説は理由にならない。討論はわずか45分間という慣行なのだから。

Is it because Hatoyama doesn't want to face opposition questioning about his political donation scandal and discord within the government? The more he puts off the debate, the more he must be prepared to be exposed to such criticism.
 自らの政治資金疑惑や政府内の足並みの乱れを突かれたくないからではないか。討論を避ければ避けるほど、そう言われるのを首相は覚悟しなければならない。

In his policy speech, the prime minister called on fellow Diet members: "Let us exchange in hearty debate here at the Diet ...truly for the people to the utmost extent of our ability."
 所信表明演説で「真に国民のためになる議論を力の限り、この国会でぶつけ合っていこうではありませんか」と呼びかけたのは首相だ。

If the debate is not held during this Diet session, the next opportunity will only arise next year. The lackadaisical attitude shown by this administration is pathetic given that it achieved a historic regime change.
 この国会を逃すと、党首討論の機会は来年の通常国会までなくなる。歴史的な政権交代を果たしたというのに、そんな怠慢は情けない。

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養女たちへの熱い思い

私には養女が二人いる。
それぞれ22歳と18歳になる。
上の養女はコーンケーンの私立大学に進学させ、来年卒業予定だ。
人の子供を大学まで進学させて頭がおかしいんじゃないのか、という人もいる。
私はそれは違うと思う。
いずれ遠からず私も死ぬ日がやってくる。
実子カイちゃんとシーファーちゃんはまだ幼い。
私がいなくなった後、娘たちの面倒を見てくれる人たちは多いほどよい。
はるか遠くを見据えた将来への投資といったところでしょうか。
義父として養女たちへの愛情も芽生えてきている。
これでいい。
私は正しい路を進んでいると確信している。

srachai from khonkaen, thailand

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党首討論見送り 首相の決断で応じるべきだ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 20, 2009)
Hatoyama should agree to debate with Tanigaki
党首討論見送り 首相の決断で応じるべきだ(11月20日付・読売社説)

The ruling Democratic Party of Japan has long been insisting that a Diet session should be a stage for debates among lawmakers. However, the party has recently been contradicting its policy line by refusing to hold a debate between party leaders at the Diet.
 国会を政治家同士の論戦の場としたい――。そう力説している民主党が党首討論の開催に応じないのは、まったく筋が通らない。

The first debate between Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama, who also is president of the DPJ, and Liberal Democratic Party President Sadakazu Tanigaki was initially scheduled for Wednesday. But the DPJ had been reluctant to hold the question time since last week, and the debate was eventually called off.
 鳩山首相と谷垣自民党総裁による初の党首討論は当初、18日に開催する予定だった。ところが、民主党が先週になって難色を示し、日の目を見なかった。

The parties had agreed to hold a debate of party leaders every Wednesday. This means Nov. 25 would be the last opportunity for the leaders to cross verbal swords if the current Diet session is not extended.
 党首討論は、各党の申し合わせで毎週水曜に開催するとなっているので、会期延長がなければ、来週の25日が最後の機会となる。

The DPJ insists question time was not held because the party wanted to give priority to deliberations on outstanding bills.  民主党は、法案審議を優先するためとしている。

However, this excuse seems rather flimsy, considering a debate between party leaders would take only 45 minutes from 3 p.m. each Wednesday.
 しかし、党首討論は水曜の午後3時から45分間だけだ。

The DPJ could do several things to get question time up and running, such as setting aside time by taking a break from deliberations on the bills with the cooperation of the LDP--the party chomping at the bit to hold the debate.
開催を要求する自民党の協力を得て、その時間だけ法案審議を中断するなど工夫の余地はいろいろあろう。

===

Frail reasoning

Most baffling of all, if giving priority to Diet deliberations was the DPJ's real motive for dodging question time this week, holding the debate toward the end of the Diet session will only become more difficult. The prospect of the leaders facing off on Nov. 25 looks ever more unlikely. Is the Hatoyama administration going to postpone the first verbal joust between party leaders until next year's ordinary Diet session?
 そもそも法案審議の優先が理由なら、会期末ほど開催が困難で、25日の開催も危うくなる。鳩山政権初の党首討論を来年の通常国会まで先送りするつもりなのか。

The agreement among the parties states that all cabinet ministers are supposed to sit with the prime minister during question time. The DPJ has since griped that having every minister available at debate time is very difficult. However, the LDP has said it does not mind if every minister is not present.
 各党の申し合わせでは、すべての閣僚が「原則として陪席する」となっている。民主党はこれを持ち出し、閣僚全員をそろえるのが容易でないとも釈明するが、自民党は「閣僚がそろわなくてもよい」と言っている。

We think both reasons given by the DPJ for postponing question time lack conviction. This will only give more ammunition to critics in the LDP who suspect the DPJ refuses to hold the debate because it does not want Hatoyama's falsified political donations scandal to be pursued at the Diet.
Even if the party is averse to such criticism, the prime minister should agree to take part in the debate without ducking for cover.
 いずれも、説得力を欠く理由ばかりだ。これでは、「首相の偽装献金問題を追及されたくないからだ」と批判する自民党を勢いづかせるだけだろう。それが不本意なら、鳩山首相は逃げ隠れせずに党首討論を受けて立てばよい。

===

Ozawa has role to play

We think DPJ Secretary General Ichiro Ozawa, who is responsible for Diet affairs, should comply with the LDP demand to hold the debate. Ozawa, who is trying to submit a bill on Diet reforms to the current Diet session, himself said a Diet session should be an arena for debates among politicians.
 国会対応の責任者である小沢幹事長も、自民党の要求に応じるべきだ。小沢氏は国会改革に関する法案の今国会提出をめざし、「国会も政治家同士の論戦に改めるべきだ」と強調している。

By this logic, surely a debate among party leaders is the prime example of politicians locking horns.
 「政治家同士の論戦」の最たるものが、党首討論ではないか。

A working group of the National Council for Building a New Japan (21st Century Rincho), a nongovernmental think tank, made a proposal to hold a debate between party leaders every week after Ozawa had sought its advice. This would not require any new legislation and could be realized immediately--if the DPJ decided to give it the green light.
 小沢氏の要請を受けた「新しい日本をつくる国民会議」(21世紀臨調)も、党首討論の毎週開催を提言している。新たな立法措置を必要とせず、民主党が決断すれば直ちに実現することだ。

It is also important to simplify the debate arrangements with some remedial measures, such as cutting the length of the debate and reviewing the agreement that requires every cabinet minister to attend.
時間の短縮や全閣僚陪席の見直しなど、開催しやすくすることも大事だ。

Intensive, detailed discussions are needed on a raft of political issues, including financial sources for new policy measures such as child-rearing allowances, and the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps' Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture, on which Hatoyama's remarks have often been inconsistent. We also want to hear exhaustive explanations on the falsified political donations directly from the mouth of the prime minister himself.
 子ども手当など新規施策の財源や、首相の発言がぶれる米海兵隊普天間飛行場移設の問題など、掘り下げるべき論点は多い。首相の偽装献金問題も、本人の口からきちんとした説明を聞きたい。

It is obvious the DPJ is obstructing these debates. The party should agree to hold question time on Nov. 25--unless it fancies being accused of trying to sweep its leader's donations scandal under the carpet or of reducing its Diet reform pledge to an empty slogan.
 それを阻んでいるのは、明らかに民主党である。「疑惑隠し」「看板倒れの国会改革」のそしりを受けたくなければ、25日の党首討論開催に応じるべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 20, 2009)
(2009年11月20日01時19分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月19日 (木)

トレビュー

アクセスアップ、オレンジ、トラフィック…、
毎日パソコンを稼動させるのも面倒だし電気代ももったいないですね。
画面の向こうで見てくれている人は少ないのが実情です。
特に自動サーフではほとんど誰も見ていないと思います。
私もこの手法を使っていてむなしさを覚えました。
今では使っていません。

NTTが無料で提供するアクセスUPの手法は一味ちがいます。
楽しみながらアクセスアップができる新しいタイプの手法です。
無料登録してあなたのブログのアクセスを増やしてください。

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あなたのブログとメールアドレスをご用意ください。



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地域主権―視界不良を早く晴らせ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 18(IHT/Asahi: November 19,2009)
EDITORIAL: Decentralization council.
地域主権―視界不良を早く晴らせ

The government of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama has decided to establish the Local Sovereignty Strategy Council. Hatoyama had promised full-fledged decentralization of administrative powers to local governments if his Democratic Party of Japan took control of the government. The new council will reportedly coordinate this push.
 鳩山政権が「地域主権戦略会議」の設置を決めた。民主党は政権をとったら本格的な地方分権を実現させると言ってきた。その司令塔になるという。

Hatoyama will chair the body, which will include the ministers of national policy, government revitalization, finance and internal affairs and communications, the chief Cabinet secretary, local government heads and private-sector experts. In all, about 12 members will map out pertinent policies and systems.
 鳩山由紀夫首相が議長となり、国家戦略相、行政刷新相、財務相、総務相、官房長官の5閣僚が入る。首長や民間人も加え、総勢12人程度で今後の方針づくりや制度の設計にあたる。

Under the coalition government of the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito, the government used proposals from experts in the Decentralization Reform Committee to render final decisions. Special interest politicians and bureaucrats regularly meddled in this process, causing most recommendations to be diluted or thrown out altogether.
 自公政権時代は、有識者による地方分権改革推進委員会が案を練り、政府が引き取って取捨選択する方式だった。その過程で族議員や官僚の横やりが入り、勧告の多くが骨抜きにされたり、採用されなかったりしてきた。

This latest plan seeks to avoid such a fiasco. Politicians and experts will debate the issues and reach decisions together. The conventional advisory council approach to policymaking, with decisions reached through consultations, recommendations and selection, will be junked in favor of fast-track implementation via political decisions issued under the prime minister's hand.
 この轍(てつ)は踏まないということだろう。政治家と有識者が同じ場で議論し、そこで決める。諮問、勧告、取捨選択して決定という従来の審議会型の政策決定を排し、首相以下の政治判断で即実行に移すという構想だ。

This new departure is encouraging.
 この新機軸はいい。

(中央集権という長年の日本政治の仕組みを突き崩す挑戦なのだから、態勢をしっかり固めてからというのも理解できる。)

Yet, the approach so far has been painfully slow. This also holds true for the DPJ campaign promise to furnish an arena for discussions between outlying regions and the central government. The first such meeting was just recently convened, and the system has yet to be passed into law.
 だが、それにしてもこれまでの取り組みはスピード感に乏しいと言わざるを得ない。公約だった地方と政府の協議の場づくりも、法制化に先立つ初会合がようやく開かれたばかりだ。

The all-important question is what decentralization measures will be adopted for the coming year. Unfortunately, very little has been forthcoming on that front.
 さて、では来年に向けてどんな分権策が日の目を見るかといえば、残念ながらほとんど見るべきものがない。

It appears that the standards for establishing day-care centers, roads and other obligations that the central government has forced on the municipalities will be revised. But the policy now is to defer any immediate action on transferring authority and tax revenue sources and abolishing regional offices of the national government.
 保育所の施設の基準や道路の規格など政府が自治体をしばってきた「義務づけ」が見直されそうだが、権限や税財源の移譲、国の出先機関の廃止は当面見送られる方向だ。

Lump-sum grants, another DPJ campaign pledge meant to pool subsidies for use by regions as seen fit, will not come onstream until the fiscal 2011 budget.
公約だった、補助金を束ねて自由に使える一括交付金の創設も11年度予算からになる。

This sluggish pace threatens to deflate the high hopes of voters and local governments.
 これでは有権者や自治体の期待はしぼむ。

What will be implemented and by when? Will provisions be made for the needed revenue sources, transfer of authority and other key components? To dispel such doubts, a timetable and grand plan for reforming regional autonomy should be drafted immediately.
いつまでに何を実施するのか、必要な財源や権限移譲の手当てはされるのか。そうした人々の疑問に答える工程表と地域主権改革の全体像を早く示すことだ。

For example, Kazuhiro Haraguchi, the minister of internal affairs and communications, touts an increase in local government tax grants by more than 1 trillion yen. However, if regional tax revenues decline with the elimination of the provisional tax rates on gasoline and other items, what will be left in the coffers?
 たとえば、総務相は1兆円余りの地方交付税増額を唱えているが、ではガソリン税などの暫定税率廃止で地方の税収が減れば、差し引きどうなるのか、財政の見通しが立たない。

Under that scenario, would it even be feasible for the regions to take over authority, personnel from central government outposts and assume other duties? 
そんな状況で、権限や政府の出先機関の職員を引き受けていいのか。自治体側はとまどい、ためらう。

This blurry vision needs to be corrected at once.
 こうした視界不良を、急いで晴らさなければならない。

The public is also anxious. Although the idea of decentralization has a nice ring to it, doubts remain about the ability to truly relegate such responsibilities to regional authorities. If local assemblies and others fail to speak out on how to best change the approach to autonomy, these worries will never be eased.
 国民も不安を抱いている。分権はいいけれど、自治体に任せて本当に大丈夫かという疑問だ。地方議会も含めて自治のあり方をどう変えるのかを語らないと、この不安はぬぐえまい。

If the Local Sovereignty Strategy Council plans to devote more time to plotting an approach to this challenge, the Hatoyama administration needs to tender an in-depth blueprint toward that end. Lasting regional autonomy reform requires a structure empowering residents to fully savor the autonomy they wield over their own lives.
 戦略会議をつくり時間をかけて取り組むというなら、鳩山政権はそこまで踏み込んだ青写真をきちんと示すべきだ。住民が自らの主権を実感できる仕組みを考えてこその地域主権改革だ。

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米中首脳会談―「G2」時代の深化と限界

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 18(IHT/Asahi: November 19,2009)
EDITORIAL: Obama's talks with Hu.
米中首脳会談―「G2」時代の深化と限界

Visiting China for the first time, U.S. President Barack Obama met with Chinese President Hu Jintao on Tuesday. The two leaders pledged cooperation not only on bilateral issues but also on a broad spectrum of global challenges ranging from the economy to security, nuclear problems and climate change.
 オバマ米大統領が初めて中国を訪れ、胡錦濤国家主席と会談した。両首脳は二国間の問題にとどまらず、経済や安全保障、核、気候変動など世界的な幅広い問題での協調を誓いあった。

Obama scheduled the longest chunk of his whirlwind Asia tour itinerary for his stay in China. In appreciation of this gesture, the entire Chinese leadership laid out the red carpet for him. This was symbolic of what has come to be called an era of the "G-2" partnership between the United States and China.
 オバマ氏は今回のアジア歴訪で最長の日程を中国訪問にあて、中国側は胡氏ら指導者総出でそれに応えた。「米中G2」とも呼ばれるようになった時代を象徴するできごとだ。

Obama and Hu have confirmed their shared understanding that their countries are now economically inseparable, and that global problems in this century cannot be resolved without their close collaboration.
 米中の経済が切っても切れない関係に深まり、両国の協調なしに21世紀の世界的な問題は解決できないことを、両首脳が確認し合ったともいえる。

On climate change, for instance, Obama referred to the United States and China as the world's largest consumers and producers of energy, and the two leaders agreed to aim for a comprehensive deal that would have "immediate operational effect" at the 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP15) in Copenhagen next month.
 たとえば気候変動問題。オバマ氏の言う「世界最大のエネルギー消費者、生産者として」米中は、来月の気候変動枠組み条約第15回締約国会議(COP15)で、具体的な効果のある合意を目指すことで一致した。

As for Obama's call for a nuclear-free world, the two leaders promised to lead the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to a successful conclusion, and committed themselves to early ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
 オバマ氏が強調する「核なき世界」をめぐっては、来年の核不拡散条約(NPT)再検討会議の成功や、共に批准していない包括的核実験禁止条約(CTBT)の早期批准を約束した。

With the world still struggling to turn the corner on the global economic recession, Obama and Hu concurred that all forms of protectionism must be shunned. However, they apparently made little progress on pending bilateral trade disputes over tires and steel pipes.
 世界的な経済不況から立ち直る動きが確かでないなか、あらゆる形の保護主義に反対することで一致したが、タイヤや鋼管など米中間でくすぶる貿易摩擦では進展はなかったようだ。

At present, the United States and China are still at the stage of exploring where they can start collaborating.
 両国の協調はまだ、できることから始めている手探りの段階だ。

While the two leaders agreed to bolster their cooperation on nuclear issues concerning North Korea and Iran, it appears that China had no specific proposals to offer. Obviously, China does not want to apply pressure on Iran because of its own energy needs.
 北朝鮮やイランの核問題については協力を強めることで一致したものの、中国からの具体的な提案はなかったようだ。エネルギー確保のためイランに圧力をかけにくいなど、中国側の事情がみてとれる。

From its inception, the Obama administration has been under criticism at home and abroad for only playing softball with Beijing on human rights and civil liberties issues with respect to ethnic Tibetans and Uighurs. Aware of the criticism, Obama mentioned the Tibetan problem during his joint news conference with Hu and urged him to reopen dialogue with the Dalai Lama and his representatives. The remarks, however, were not included in the joint statement.
 オバマ政権は発足以来、中国に対して、チベットやウイグルの民族問題や人権、自由といった面で強く働きかけることをせず、内外からの批判も浴びていた。それを意識したのだろう。オバマ氏は胡氏との共同記者発表でチベット問題に言及し、ダライ・ラマ14世側との対話再開を求めた。だが、共同声明には記されなかった。

During the summit, Obama said the United States "welcomes China as a strong, prosperous and successful member of the community of nations." In response, Hu said China welcomes the United States as an Asia-Pacific nation that strives for regional peace, security and prosperity. The leaders also reaffirmed the importance of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum.
 会談で米国は、強大で繁栄し世界的にさらに大きな役割を果たす中国を歓迎すると表明した。中国は米国を地域の平和と安定、繁栄のために努力するアジア太平洋国家として歓迎すると応じた。アジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)の重要性も再確認した。

But Washington's return to a policy of engagement with Asia, which Obama has been stressing during this tour, is obviously calculated to keep China's presence and influence in the region in check.
 しかし、オバマ氏が今回の歴訪で強調する「米国のアジア回帰」には、この地域で影響力と存在感を増す中国への牽制(けんせい)の意図も当然含まれる。

The deepening of U.S.-China cooperation is not a simple, one-dimensional process, and there is no need for Japan to feel left behind in this "G-2" era. And while the United States and China hold the key to resolving the North Korean nuclear problem, there are numerous economic and environmental challenges that the two giants cannot successfully address without Japan's involvement. In short, we have entered an era that requires multiple-layer sharing of responsibilities.
 米中の協力の深化は一本調子に進むものではなく、「G2」が唱えられることに日本の埋没感を覚える必要はない。北朝鮮問題の解決は米中がかぎを握る。一方で経済や地球環境など、日本なしに米中が突破できない課題は非常に多い。そうした重層的な役割分担を構想する時代になった。

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fc2 ブログランキング

タイのスラチャイです 笑顔
fc2 ブログランキングに参加してから初めてベストテンに入ることが出来ました。
皆様のご支援のおかげだと心より感謝申し上げます。
今後も楽しみながら英語力(読む・書く・聞く・話す)を少しでも高めるべく努力いたします。
ありがとうございます。

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官僚OB人事官 適材の起用なら問題はない

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 19, 2009)
Hiring right bureaucrat for right job is no taboo
官僚OB人事官 適材の起用なら問題はない(11月19日付・読売社説)

If somebody is deemed the right person to serve in a certain government post, it is the responsibility of politicians, including the prime minister and Cabinet members, to appoint that person, regardless of whether he or she has served as a former bureaucrat or is from the private sector.
This principle needs to be established.
 官僚OBでも民間人でも、「適材」として間違いない人物なら、首相や閣僚など政治家の責任で起用する。そんな原則を確立する必要がある。

Both the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors have approved the government's appointment of Takeshi Erikawa, a former administrative vice health, labor and welfare minister, as one of the commissioners of the National Personnel Authority, an appointment that requires Diet approval.
 人事院の人事官に江利川毅・前厚生労働次官を起用する国会同意人事が、衆参両院で可決された。

One of the three commissioner posts at the authority has successively been held by former bureaucrats. It makes sense to have a person like Erikawa as a commissioner to handle the personnel affairs of national public servants, given that former bureaucrats are familiar with public services operations.
 人事官3人のうち1人は、官僚OBが就任してきた。国家公務員の人事管理を扱う人事官に、江利川氏のように、公務の実情を知る官僚OBを加えるのは、理にかなったことといえよう。

===

Amakudari redefined

Referring to Erikawa's appointment, Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama said at the upper house Budget Committee: "We must carry out a reform of the civil servant system [that could be as drastic as] requiring discussions on whether the National Personnel Authority should continue to exist. A capable person should take up the post."
 鳩山首相は参院予算委員会で、江利川氏の起用について、「人事院の存廃の議論が必要なぐらいの公務員制度改革をしなくてはならない。実力がある人をつけなければならない」と説明した。

The government has effectively taken the stance that Erikawa's appointment does not constitute an instance of the so-called amakudari practice, in which retired bureaucrats take well-paid jobs at corporations in sectors they formerly oversaw. The government takes the view that appointing the right person for the right job, while considering such factors as the status of the post and the job's requirements--and as long as there is no mediation by government bodies in the appointment--does not constitute amakudari.
 政府は、今回の人事に関して、「府省庁による斡旋(あっせん)を受けずに、再就職先の地位や職務内容等に照らし、適材適所の再就職をすることは、天下りには該当しない」との見解を示している。

This could be interpreted to mean that appointments of former bureaucrats by politicians to posts the government considers important, such as to the personnel commissioner, do not constitute amakudari.
 今回のように政府が重要と考えるポストに、官僚OBを政治任用することは「天下り」にあたらない、ということだろう。

The appointment of Jiro Saito, former administrative vice finance minister, as president of Japan Post, also should be seen as an example of this stance.
 先に日本郵政社長に斎藤次郎・元大蔵事務次官を起用したのも、その見解に沿った任用というべきである。

It would be difficult to carry out appropriate personnel changes if, as a mere formality, former bureaucrats were automatically disqualified. We hope the government's personnel decisions are made based on the principle of choosing the right person for the right job.
 形式的、機械的に官僚OBを排除していたら、的確な人事の断行は困難になる。民間人を含め、政府の人事は「適材適所」を基本に進めてもらいたい。

===

Both parties risk dishonor

When the Democratic Party of Japan led the opposition, it repeatedly made a political issue of government appointments that required the approval of both chambers of the Diet.
 民主党は野党時代、国会同意人事を政争の具にしてきた。

Last year, the party opposed the government's appointment of Toshiro Muto, a former administrative vice finance minister, as president of the Bank of Japan. This shook the then administration of Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda in a divided Diet, in which the lower house was controlled by the Liberal Democratic Party-led coalition and the upper house by the DPJ-led opposition.
 昨年は、衆参ねじれ国会の下、日銀総裁に武藤敏郎・元財務次官を充てる人事案を拒否して、福田政権を激しく揺さぶった。

The DPJ's Takeo Nishioka, who serves as the chairman of the upper house Rules and Administration Committee, has recently said, "The political situation took precedence over simply judging whether Mr. Muto was good or bad [for the job]."
"I still think it was nonsense that Mr. Muto was rejected," he added.
 民主党の西岡武夫参院議院運営委員長は今になって「純粋に武藤さんがいい、悪いという前に政治状況があった」とし「武藤さんがはねられたのは今でもおかしいと思っている」と語ったという。

These remarks are truly unwise.
 実に不見識な発言と言わなければならない。

However, the LDP's rejection of Erikawa's appointment also is dishonorable.
 自民党が今回、人事官人事に反対したのもいただけない。

Regarding the LDP's opposition, party President Sadakazu Tanigaki said: "[The DPJ] made an about-face by changing the interpretation of amakudari soon after it took power and urging support for [Erikawa's appointment.] There's no ground [for us] to approve it."
 自民党の谷垣総裁は、反対理由として「政権に就いた途端、掌(てのひら)を返すように天下りの定義を変え、賛成しろと言われても、賛成する根拠がない」と語った。

This apparently shows LDP defiance in the face of the DPJ's shifted stance. But if the LDP brushed off an appropriate examination of whether the person in question was the right person for the job, it goes against the claims made by the party while it was in power. It also indicates that the party might, in the end, be merely acting out of revenge.
 これは、民主党の方針変更に対する反発だろう。しかし「適材」かどうかの吟味を脇に置いてしまっては、与党の時の自らの主張を否定し、ただの“意趣返し”に終わってしまうのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 19, 2009)
(2009年11月19日01時15分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月18日 (水)

オバマ大統領中国主席と人権問題につき話し合う

ワシントンポストの記事を引用しました。
(翻訳はスラチャイ)

Tuesday, Nov. 17, 2009
Obama Talks Human Rights With Chinese President
オバマ大統領中国主席と人権問題につき話し合う

President Obama told Chinese President Hu Jintao he believes everyone has "certain fundamental rights" and insisted China needs to improve its treatment of ethnic and religious minorities.
オバマ大統領は中国国家主席に、人は誰も基本的人権を有していると主張した。さらに民族や宗教、少数民族問題などの解決を求めた。

They will keep talking.
米中の交渉(話し合い)は継続的にこれを行う。

Obama also didn't get very far in trying to convince his counterpart that China should let its yuan currency rise in value.
オバマ大統領は中国の通貨元の切り上げについては深く言及しなかった。

Hu didn't even mention the issue in their joint media appearance, choosing instead to make a thinly veiled reference to new U.S. tariffs on Chinese products.
中国国家主席は元の切り上げにつき報道も控えた。そのかわり中国製品の米国における課税については少しだけ言及した。(報道した)

The two leaders pledged to cooperate on climate change, and both emphasized it was important to reach a comprehensive global deal in Copenhagen next month.
米中のリーダーは時代の潮流に沿った連携を約束した。
来月コペンハーゲンで開催が予定されている国際会議で米中が様々な国際間の問題を解決すべく努力することで一致した。

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オバマ大統領中国主席と人権問題につき話し合う

ワシントンポストの記事を引用しました。
(翻訳はスラチャイ)

Tuesday, Nov. 17, 2009
Obama Talks Human Rights With Chinese President
オバマ大統領中国主席と人権問題につき話し合う

President Obama told Chinese President Hu Jintao he believes everyone has "certain fundamental rights" and insisted China needs to improve its treatment of ethnic and religious minorities.
オバマ大統領は中国国家主席に、人は誰も基本的人権を有していると主張した。さらに民族や宗教、少数民族問題などの解決を求めた。

They will keep talking.
米中の交渉(話し合い)は継続的にこれを行う。

Obama also didn't get very far in trying to convince his counterpart that China should let its yuan currency rise in value.
オバマ大統領は中国の通貨元の切り上げについては深く言及しなかった。

Hu didn't even mention the issue in their joint media appearance, choosing instead to make a thinly veiled reference to new U.S. tariffs on Chinese products.
中国国家主席は元の切り上げにつき報道も控えた。そのかわり中国製品の米国における課税については少しだけ言及した。(報道した)

The two leaders pledged to cooperate on climate change, and both emphasized it was important to reach a comprehensive global deal in Copenhagen next month.
米中のリーダーは時代の潮流に沿った連携を約束した。
来月コペンハーゲンで開催が予定されている国際会議で米中が様々な国際間の問題を解決すべく努力することで一致した。

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オバマ大統領中国主席と人権問題につき話し合う

ワシントンポストの記事を引用しました。
(翻訳はスラチャイ)

Tuesday, Nov. 17, 2009
Obama Talks Human Rights With Chinese President
オバマ大統領中国主席と人権問題につき話し合う

President Obama told Chinese President Hu Jintao he believes everyone has "certain fundamental rights" and insisted China needs to improve its treatment of ethnic and religious minorities.
オバマ大統領は中国国家主席に、人は誰も基本的人権を有していると主張した。さらに民族や宗教、少数民族問題などの解決を求めた。

They will keep talking.
米中の交渉(話し合い)は継続的にこれを行う。

Obama also didn't get very far in trying to convince his counterpart that China should let its yuan currency rise in value.
オバマ大統領は中国の通貨元の切り上げについては深く言及しなかった。

Hu didn't even mention the issue in their joint media appearance, choosing instead to make a thinly veiled reference to new U.S. tariffs on Chinese products.
中国国家主席は元の切り上げにつき報道も控えた。そのかわり中国製品の米国における課税については少しだけ言及した。(報道した)

The two leaders pledged to cooperate on climate change, and both emphasized it was important to reach a comprehensive global deal in Copenhagen next month.
米中のリーダーは時代の潮流に沿った連携を約束した。
来月コペンハーゲンで開催が予定されている国際会議で米中が様々な国際間の問題を解決すべく努力することで一致した。

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GDP4.8%成長―補正で民需の奮起促せ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 17(IHT/Asahi: November 18,2009)
EDITORIAL: GDP growth of 4.8 percent.
GDP4.8%成長―補正で民需の奮起促せ

The domestic economy grew in the July-September quarter at a much faster rate than private-sector forecasts. On an annualized basis, real gross domestic product increased by 4.8 percent, posting growth for the second consecutive quarter.
 民間の予測を大きく上回った。7~9月期の国内総生産(GDP)の実質成長率は年率換算で4.8%。前期に続くプラス成長だった。

But nominal GDP, an indicator which more accurately reflects people's sentiment about economic conditions, contracted by 0.3 percent. And the overall state of the economy is still far from what can be described as in the recovery phase.
Yet, more encouraging signs have emerged. One of them is that corporate investment in plant and equipment took an upturn in the quarter after a period of continued contraction. As a result, domestic demand contributed to economic growth. These were the first such signs of improvement in six quarters.
 生活実感に近い名目GDPは年率マイナス0.3%で、水準自体も景気回復と呼ぶにはまだ遠い現状だが、元気づけられる要素が増えた。その象徴は、縮小続きだった設備投資が拡大に転じたことだ。おかげで内需が成長に寄与するようになった。いずれも6四半期ぶりである。

Private consumption has been stimulated by a series of government stimulus measures, such as the eco-point program to promote sales of energy-saving consumer electronic appliances. Exports to China and North America are also rebounding. In response to the improved conditions, automobile, electronic and other key industries have started investing in new environment-related equipment.
 エコポイントなど、これまでの政府の景気対策で個人消費が刺激された。中国や北米などへの輸出も復調の傾向にある。これを受けて、環境関連の新設備の導入が自動車や電機といった主力産業で目立つようになった。

Coordinated economic policy efforts among major economies and Japan's own stimulus measures are finally beginning to goose demand in the private sector.
 世界的な政策協調と日本の景気対策が、ようやく民需に波及するサイクルが見えてきたといえる。

On the other hand, there are troubling signs of persistent deflationary pressure. A general decline in prices is threatening to throw the economy into a downward spiral. The deflationary trend is affecting employment and keeping the jobless rate at high levels. Winter bonuses are expected to be cut sharply, and the outlook for consumer spending offers no reason for optimism.
 半面、気になるのはデフレ傾向だ。全般的な物価下落が経済を縮小させる圧力として働き続けている。それが雇用に影を落とし、失業率が高止まりしたままの厳しい状態が続く。冬のボーナスは大幅カットが見込まれ、個人消費の動向も楽観できない。

Once the government's stimulus measures have run their course, the economy could start shrinking again, falling into a second bottom. From this point of view, the government still has a role to play in stoking economic growth.
 景気を刺激する諸施策の効果が切れれば、景気全体が再び下降し、「二番底」に陥る危険がある。この意味では、政府による景気刺激策の役割はなお終わっていない。

But the administration of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama, which has pledged to place priority on protecting living standards, should not resort to the kind of giveaway and pork-barrel spending that so often characterized past policy efforts under the government led by the Liberal Democratic Party. In particular, the Hatoyama administration must avoid trying to keep demand going with haphazard public works spending.
 だが、「生活第一」を掲げる鳩山政権は、自公政権のような「ばらまき」型の刺激策を採るべきではない。とくに、場当たり的な公共事業で需要を継ぎ足すような政策ではいけない。

The government needs to support job security and consumer spending by strengthening the social safety net while expanding private-sector demand, such as business investment, an area that is showing promising signs of recovery.
 社会的安全網の強化で雇用や消費を支えると同時に、回復の動きを見せている設備投資などの民需を喚起することが必要な局面である。

The government needs to focus on effective pump-priming measures to put the economy on a path of self-sustaining growth driven by the private sector.
 民間主導の自律的な景気拡大につなげていくための呼び水として有効な政策を、重点的に打ち出すことが求められているのだ。

From this vantage point, it is important for the Hatoyama administration to craft a second supplementary budget for the current fiscal year and the regular budget for fiscal 2010 as soon as possible to send out a clear message that it is trying to ensure sustained expansion of domestic demand.
 この意味で、鳩山政権は内需を前向きな拡大に導くメッセージ性を込めて、2次補正と来年度の本予算の姿を早く示すことが肝心だ。

Hatoyama has vowed to shift the focus of economic policy "from concrete to people." He should demonstrate his commitment to promoting the well-being of the people through the process of developing these spending plans.  鳩山由紀夫首相が「コンクリートから人へ」と目標を語ったように、ここでも「人間」重視の姿勢を生かしてほしい。

Specifically, he should announce policy incentives for private-sector investment in areas expected to create new growth industries, such as health-care services, welfare and the environment.
具体的には、新たな産業基盤として期待される医療・福祉や環境分野への民間の投資を促すような政策を打つことだ。

These areas also have a huge potential for creating new jobs. But few new businesses have emerged so far in these sectors.  これらの分野は、雇用の受け皿としても大きな可能性を秘めているが、なおビジネスが育っていない。

The government should take steps to awaken hopes among the people that fiscal and monetary policies and regulatory reform will lead to the creation of new jobs.
財政・金融政策による支援や規制改革をテコに、雇用創出が進んでいくと、国民が期待できるようにしたい。

With the second extra budget, the government should turn its economic policy in that direction and accelerate it with the state budget for next fiscal year. That will be the most effective way to revitalize the economy.
 2次補正でその流れを作り、来年度予算で加速させることが最大の景気対策になるといっても過言ではない。

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車年産1千万台―中国は緑色革命に弾みを

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 17(IHT/Asahi: November 18,2009)
EDITORIAL: China's auto industry.
車年産1千万台―中国は緑色革命に弾みを

From January through October, China's automobile output and sales both exceeded 10 million units. The figures could each top 13 million by the end of this year, which would make China the world's top vehicle maker as well as largest sales market for the first time. Currently, the United States leads the world in sales, and Japan in production.
 中国での自動車の生産、販売台数が1月から10月までの合計で、ともに1千万台を超えた。年間では1300万台を超える可能性もある。販売では米国、生産では日本を抜き、いずれも初めて世界一になる。

New vehicle sales in China grew sixfold in the last decade. In sharp contrast, the U.S. market shrank rapidly after the global economic meltdown forced General Motors Corp. and Chrysler LLC to file for bankruptcy. Japanese automakers, which had depended on the U.S. market for growth, also slumped.
 新車販売台数はこの10年で6倍に膨らんだ。世界経済危機でゼネラル・モーターズやクライスラーの経営が破綻(はたん)し、急速にしぼんだ米国市場や、そこに依存して伸びてきた日本メーカーの疲弊ぶりと対照的な勢いだ。

China is expected to overtake Japan in terms of gross domestic product next year at the earliest--an achievement befitting a nation that is now seen as a new engine to drive global economic growth. But given the grave impact of a bloating Chinese auto market on energy resources and the environment, the situation signals the urgency of technological renovation to shift to non-gasoline cars.
 来年にも国内総生産(GDP)が日本を追い抜く中国。世界経済の新たな成長エンジンとして寄せられた期待に応える実績だろう。だが同時に、資源や環境への影響の深刻さを考えると、中国自動車市場の急膨張は、「脱ガソリン車」への技術革新をせかすシグナルでもある。

China's Communist Party and government have actively promoted the auto industry for its huge potential to create jobs and push technological development in a broad range of sectors. Expressways built in China over the last decade are more than six times longer than the total in Japan.
 中国共産党・政府は雇用や技術開発のすそ野が広い自動車産業を重視してきた。高速道路はここ10年で、日本の総延長の6倍を超える距離を整備した。

When China's annual vehicle production reached the 10-million mark for the first time last month, the occasion was celebrated with a new model of the Jiefang (Liberation) truck rolling off the assembly line at state-owned China FAW Group Corp.
1千万台目には、国有企業が生産してきた中国製トラック「解放」の現代版を選び、派手に祝った。

Passenger cars became the market mainstay a few years ago. Rising income levels in China have made them affordable to more citizens. With the emergence of domestic automakers, inexpensive passenger cars have become available. The government has been promoting sales with tax breaks and subsidies for buyers.
 市場の主力は、すでに数年前から乗用車だ。所得水準が向上し、マイカーに手の届く人が増えた。国内メーカーの台頭で安い乗用車も出回るようになった。政府の購入補助や減税措置が消費を後押しした面もある。

In 2008, China's per-capita GDP topped $3,000 (about 267,000 yen)--the watershed that turns a nation into a mass consumer society. Japan got there in the early 1970s.
 中国の1人あたりGDPは08年、3千ドルを超えた。大衆消費社会へ生活様式の変わり目となるとされる水準だ。日本では70年代初めにあたる。

With car ownership still less than 5 percent today, China is on the threshold of motorization.
 自動車普及率は5%足らずで、なおモータリゼーションの入り口にある。

According to International Monetary Fund projections, China will have roughly doubled its per-capita GDP by around 2015. New vehicle sales at that time are expected to increase to 15 million units, comparable with sales in the reviving U.S. market. The figure in China is estimated to reach about 20 million around 2020.
国際通貨基金の予測によると、2015年ごろに中国の1人あたりGDPは現在の約2倍になる。中国の新車販売はそのころ、1500万台規模に復活する米国と並び、2020年ごろには2千万台規模となるとみられている。

That's effectively double the scale of today's Chinese market. And if 20th-century-type gasoline cars are still the mainstay, the massive energy consumption and environmental destruction that will result are too horrendous to even consider.
 いまの中国市場がもうひとつできるようなものだ。ガソリンエンジンに頼った20世紀型の自動車が主流のままでは、すさまじい資源消費と環境破壊に直面するだろう。

Beijing is aware of the need to save energy and protect the environment if the nation's auto industry is to keep growing. The Chinese government has taken measures, including more stringent fuel-efficiency requirements, tax breaks for small cars and support for the development of electric vehicles and other green cars. It has also begun improving rail, subway and other mass public transport services. These efforts must be enhanced.
 中国共産党・政府も、成長の持続には省エネと環境保護が重要だとして、燃費規制の強化や小型車向け減税に加え、電気自動車など「環境車」の開発支援に取り組んでいる。鉄道や地下鉄など公共交通網の整備にも力を入れるようになった。こうした施策はさらに強める必要がある。

The Chinese auto market has become a battleground where Japanese, U.S., European, South Korean--and now Chinese--automakers are engaged in cutthroat competition.
 中国市場は、日米欧韓に加えて中国メーカーがしのぎを削る大競争の舞台だ。

To survive in this burgeoning market, we hope Japanese makers, which have been leading the world in gas-electric hybrid and other clean-car technologies, will remain leaders in the "green revolution" by using their technological expertise to offer affordable green cars and help the auto industry grow without sacrificing the environment.
ハイブリッド車を軸に環境車でリードしてきた日本メーカーは、頼もしい中国市場に活路を見いだすためにも、蓄えた技術を手の届く価格で商品にし、環境と発展を調和させる「緑色革命」の先導役を担ってほしい。

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普天間作業部会 年内決着で対日不信を解け

Restore U.S trust by settling relocation issue
The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 18, 2009)
普天間作業部会 年内決着で対日不信を解け(11月18日付・読売社説)

If Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama continues putting off a final decision on the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps' Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture, it will only amplify U.S. distrust of the Japanese leader, pushing the Japan-U.S. relationship to the brink of crisis. It is vital to resolve the issue by the end of this year.
 米海兵隊普天間飛行場の移設問題の結論をこのまま先送りし続ければ、鳩山首相に対する米国の不信は増幅され、日米関係が危機に陥ろう。年内の決着が不可欠だ。

The Japan-U.S. ministerial-level working group started discussing the relocation issue Tuesday. The two parties reaffirmed that they would expeditiously reach a conclusion, without specifying a time frame.
 移設問題に関する日米の閣僚級の作業部会が始まり、時期は明示しないまま、「迅速に結論を出す」方針を再確認した。

While the Japanese side indicated its intention to focus on reviewing the current plan, including the process of drawing it up, the United States reiterated its position that the current plan is the only feasible option.
 日本側は、現行計画が決まった経緯などの「検証」を重視する考えを示した。だが、米側は「現行計画が唯一実現可能な選択肢」との立場を改めて強調した。

The Hatoyama administration has spent a long time reviewing the relocation issue. Given this, is it truly necessary to start over again? As agreed upon in the recent Japan-U.S. summit talks in Tokyo, we believe the two countries should make expeditiously reaching a conclusion a top priority.
 鳩山政権は既に、「検証」に相当な時間を費やしている。改めてやり直す必要があるのか。先の日米首脳会談の合意通り、「迅速な結論」を最優先すべきだろう。

What cannot be overlooked is that Hatoyama continues making statements that can be interpreted as reversing the agreement. We find this highly regrettable.
 看過できないのは、鳩山首相がオバマ大統領との合意を翻すような発言を繰り返していることだ。極めて憂慮すべき事態である。

===

Role of current plan questioned

The prime minister stressed that the current relocation plan is not a premise for discussions at the high-level working group. He even suggested that the discussions start from scratch, saying that there was absolutely no prerequisite. This logic is hard to understand.
 首相は、作業部会は現行計画を前提としないと強調する。「すべての前提を置かない」と、白紙で議論するかのような発言もしている。この理屈は理解しがたい。

U.S. President Barack Obama stressed in the summit talks that the working group should adhere to the basic agreement. In a joint press conference with the prime minister, the president also said that the working group would be focused on implementing the 2006 Japan.-U.S. accord to relocate the marine base from Ginowan to Nago, both in Okinawa Prefecture. The prime minister did not object to this statement.
 オバマ大統領は首脳会談で「基本は守るべきだ」と強調した。首相との共同記者会見でも、「作業部会は日米合意の履行を焦点とする」と述べた。だが、鳩山首相は特に異論をはさまなかった。

It is no wonder that the president views the current relocation plan as the premise for the high-level working group. If a rift opens between the Japanese and U.S. leaders, it may seriously damage Japan's national interests.
 大統領が現行計画を作業部会の前提と考えるのは無理もない。日米首脳間の信頼に亀裂が生じるような事態になれば、日本の国益を大きく損ねかねない。

Furthermore, if the negotiation starts from scratch, it would be like turning the clock to 1996, when Japan and the United States agreed on the return of the Futenma Air Station. In that case, the return of the airfield will highly likely be delayed by more than a decade and decisively damage the Japan-U.S. relationship.
 さらに、白紙で議論するとなれば、普天間飛行場の返還に日米が合意した1996年にまで、時計の針を逆戻りさせる。返還は10年以上遅れる可能性が大きいし、日米関係も決定的に悪化しよう。

===

Time of the essence

As for the timing of an expeditious conclusion, Hatoyama said that he might decide which direction to take in line with the outcome of the Nago mayoral election scheduled for January.
 「迅速な結論」の時期について鳩山首相は、来年1月の「名護市長選の結果に従って方向性を見定めることもある」とも語った。

However, the prime minister said last month, "I didn't mean that [the decision would be made] after the mayoral race." As such, Hatoyama's remarks have been inconsistent.
 首相は先月、「市長選の後と言ったつもりはない」などと述べており、発言がぶれ続けている。

In the first place, the prime minister, as the one who takes charge of national security, should avoid leaving such a key issue concerning the fundamentals of the Japan-U.S. alliance to the result of a mayoral election.
 そもそも日米同盟の根幹の問題を市長選に委ねることは、国の安全保障の最高責任者として避けるべきだ。

Some in Okinawa Prefecture are also critical of the prime minister's policymaking style, saying that it is "unreasonable" to put the responsibility for making a key diplomatic decision on local governments.
沖縄からも、外交問題を地元に押しつける手法は「理不尽だ」との声が出ている。

If the prime minister wishes to respect the feelings of people in Okinawa, he has to sincerely listen to these voices, too.
 首相が「沖縄の気持ちが大事」というなら、こうした声こそ真剣に受け止める必要がある。

Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada and Defense Minister Toshimi Kitazawa called for settling the issue by the end of the year from the viewpoint of appropriating necessary funds in the fiscal 2010 budget. Their opinions are quite right, and the prime minister should respect the views of the relevant ministers.
 岡田外相と北沢防衛相は、来年度予算に必要経費を計上する観点から、年内決着の必要性を指摘している。当然であり、首相は担当閣僚の見解を尊重すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 18, 2009)
(2009年11月18日01時02分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月17日 (火)

社説:2期連続の成長 安心と希望生む政策を

(Mainichi Japan) November 17, 2009
Gov't urged to implement economic policies to boost consumer confidence
社説:2期連続の成長 安心と希望生む政策を

Japan's real-term gross domestic product (GDP) in the July-September period grew at an annualized rate of 4.8 percent from the April-June period, according to preliminary figures released by the Cabinet Office. This represents positive growth for the second consecutive quarter.
 内閣府が16日発表した今年7~9月期の国内総生産(GDP)の速報値は、実質成長率が年率換算の前期比で4.8%と2期連続のプラス成長になった。

The economic crisis triggered by the collapse of U.S. financial giant Lehman Brothers, which was called an economic crisis that "occurs only once every 100 years," appears to be nearing an end after an unexpectedly short period of time without dealing a fatal blow to Japan's economy. The government should be applauded for preventing the economy from freefalling by implementing various policy measures, including those worked out by the previous administration.
「100年に1度の経済混乱」といわれた昨秋のリーマン・ショックが、予想外に短期で大きな痛手をもたらさずに収束しつつあるといえる。前政権時代からの政策の総動員で、経済を底割れさせなかったことをひとまず評価したい。

The growth rate in the July-September quarter was also higher than the average forecast made by economists of around 2.5 percent.
 今回発表の成長率は、エコノミストが予想した平均値の2%台半ばよりも高かった。

Among external demand, exports remain brisk. For domestic demand, consumer spending and corporate investment in plants and equipment turned out to be better than expected thanks to the government's eco-point system that encouraged consumers to buy environment-friendly cars and electric appliances.
外需の輸出が引き続き好調で、内需の個人消費と設備投資が、自動車や家電製品の買い替えを促すエコポイント制度などの効果で予想外によかったためだ。

However, the effects of economic stimulus measures started to decline. Share prices are not as bullish as their peak, while the unemployment rate remains high. Moreover, the average winter bonus to be paid by major companies to their employees is estimated to decline at a record high rate from the previous year. Everybody apparently has a sense of uncertainty about the economic outlook and is worried about their future livelihoods.
 しかし、景気刺激策の効果はピークを過ぎた。株価も最近は一時の勢いがない。失業率は高止まりだし、大企業の冬のボーナスは前年実績比で過去最大の落ち込みになる見通しだ。だれもが「先行きは不透明」と感じ、「ここから先が心配だ」と思っている。

Economic growth will likely slow down in the foreseeable future and the quarterly economy period may post negative growth.
 今後は成長が鈍り、四半期単位でのマイナス成長も覚悟しなければならないかもしれない。

However, it is impossible to keep implementing new economic stimulus measures one after another from a short-term perspective.
だからといって、目先の景気刺激策を繰り返すのはきりがない。

In working out a second supplementary budget for fiscal 2009, the government is urged to invest precious taxpayers' money in employment security measures and those aimed at supporting people's livelihoods as well as other measures.
Households would benefit from such steps taken from a mid- and long-term perspective.
これから政府が検討する2次補正予算案では、中長期の観点で家計に元気を与える失業対策や生活支援策を柱とした政策に知恵と限られた財源を投入することが大事だ。

The public is trying to gauge how serious the new administration of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama is about making good use of taxpayers' money for their livelihoods in working out the fiscal 2010 budget draft and redistributing people's wealth through tax system reform.
 予算案作りを通じ、税金を国民の暮らしにきちんと生かそうとしているか。税制改革で、所得の再配分や税の公平にどれだけ気を配っているか。国民は新政権の本気度を測ろうとしている。

The compilation of the fiscal 2010 state budget draft, which will get under way toward the end of this year, and discussions on tax system reform for next fiscal year will also be vital.
 年末にかけて本格化する来年度予算案の編成や来年度の税制改革論議も、思いのほか重要だ。

The Japanese economy needs not only technological innovation and an increase in productivity but also hope and a sense of reassurance for the future of people's livelihoods. Such hope and a sense of reassurance would result in consumer spending, which would in turn reactivate the economy.
日本の経済に必要なのは、技術革新や生産性の向上ばかりでなく、国民の間に将来への希望や安心感が広がっていくことである。それが家計支出となって経済の歯車を動かす。

Stock traders who are reacting nervously to the fluctuation of share prices on a day-by-day basis are also paying close attention to the government's seriousness in implementing such policy measures.
日々一喜一憂する株式などの市場関係者も、意外にそうした基本姿勢を注目している。

Such efforts would be of great significance as economic stimulus measures if they gain confidence and sympathy from the public.
政策と政策運営に対して国民の信頼感と共感が得られれば、経済対策として非常に大きな意味を持つ。

These measures could also be effective in preventing deflation, which is often caused by people worrying more.
今、心配されるデフレも不安心理の増幅によって生み出されるものだから、デフレ対策にも有効である。

In that sense, Economy, Trade and Industry Minister Masayuki Naoshima badly damaged the public's confidence by revealing the GDP growth rate in the July-September period before it was officially announced.
 その意味で、直嶋正行経済産業相が発表前の成長率を業界との会合で漏らしたのは、信頼を大きく損なってしまった。

He said, "I didn't know when the embargo would be lifted." However, it is not just a simple mistake but raises questions about whether he is qualified to serve as an economic minister. He should deeply reflect on his actions, and the government as a whole should take the issue seriously.
「解禁時間を知らなかった」とは経済閣僚としてお粗末である。ミスで片づけられず、資質を問われても仕方ない。経産相は猛省しなければいけないし、政府としても軽く扱うべきことではない。

毎日新聞 2009年11月17日 2時31分

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農家戸別補償―拙速を避け、本格案に

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 16(IHT/Asahi: November 17,2009)
EDITORIAL: Protecting rice farmers.
農家戸別補償―拙速を避け、本格案に

The farm ministry has started preparing for the introduction of a new income support program for farmers--one of the key platforms of the ruling Democratic Party of Japan in the Aug. 30 Lower House election. But the plan crafted by the ministry has serious drawbacks that could hamper, rather than help, the revitalization of the nation's flagging agricultural sector.
 民主党が総選挙で掲げた政権公約の目玉の一つ、農家への「戸別所得補償制度」の導入に向けて、農林水産省が動き出した。だが農水省案には大きな問題があり、このままだと日本農業の再生はおぼつかない。

The biggest problem is that the program would preserve the long-standing policy of reducing the amount of land devoted to rice cultivation, which has been a major cause of decline of Japanese agriculture.
 最大の問題は、日本の農業衰退の原因となった「減反政策」を温存していること。

In addition, the program as envisioned by the ministry would hinder the consolidation of farmland. That is because most rice farmers would be eligible for the income support.
さらに、大半の農家を補償対象としてしまい、農地の集約が進まなくなりそうなこと、である。

The ministry has requested around 560 billion yen as an outlay for fiscal 2010 to finance the program. This costly plan should not be allowed to end up degenerating into a giveaway to farmers at a time when the government is reviewing hundreds of programs and projects for major spending cuts.
 制度の導入に伴い農水省が来年度に要求している予算は約5600億円。事業仕分け作業などを通じて予算削減に力を注いでいる一方で、これほどの巨額が結果的に農家へのバラマキと化さないようにしなくてはならない。

The acreage-reduction program is, in effect, a production cartel based on cooperation between the government and rice growers. It is designed to adjust rice production to actual demand. Its aim is to prop up the finances of farming families by preventing rice prices from falling even when demand is sagging.
 減反政策は、コメの需要量に合わせて生産量を調整する官民協調の生産カルテルだ。需要が減っても米価が下がらないようにして、農家経営を支える狙いがある。

Some 7 trillion yen of taxpayer money has been poured into this program, which has been in place for four decades. As a result, Japanese consumers have been forced to buy rice at much higher prices and shoulder a heavy financial burden to support the program.
 この政策は40年間にわたって続けられてきた。つぎ込まれた財政資金は累計約7兆円。国民は消費者として高いコメを買わされ、納税者としても巨額の負担を担わされてきた。

The prohibitive 778-percent tariff that Japan imposes on rice imports to keep cheaper rice from washing into the domestic market is also having a harmful effect. This measure to protect domestic rice farmers from international competition has been impeding Japan's farm negotiations under the World Trade Organization and its talks for free trade agreements with its key trading partners.
 安い輸入米が入らないようにと、コメに778%という高関税をかけていることの弊害も大きい。世界貿易機関での農業交渉や主要国との自由貿易交渉の足かせになっている。

Despite the huge price paid for it, the acreage-reduction policy has undermined the vigor and the vitality of Japanese agriculture.
 これほどの代償を払ったにもかかわらず、減反は日本の農業の足腰を弱めてきた。

It has served as a powerful disincentive for production increases, thereby worsening problems that have long bedeviled the sector, such as the dwindling number of people willing to succeed the family farm and the increase in the number of plots of unused farmland.
農家の増産意欲が奪われた結果、後継者不足や耕作放棄地の拡大に拍車がかかっている。

The proposed income support program would provide subsidies to farmers when the sales prices of their crops fall below estimated production costs. Similar programs of direct cash payments to farmers have helped bolster farm production in Europe and the United States.
 戸別所得補償制度は、農家の販売価格が生産コストを下回った場合、その差額に補助金を払って農家所得を補償する仕組みだ。欧米ではこの政策が生産拡大に効果をあげている。うまく生かせば、日本のゆがんだコメ政策の転換と農業再生につながる。

If it is designed and implemented properly, the program could radically alter the nation's unhealthy rice policy and help revive agriculture. But if the income support program is introduced while the acreage reduction policy is maintained, as planned by the farm ministry, it would provide no incentive for rice growers to increase output.
 だが、農水省案のように減反を続けつつ戸別所得補償を導入するのでは、農家の生産意欲は高まらない。

The ministry plans to make some 1.8 million rice growers eligible for the program, which would represent almost all farmers selling rice. This could discourage farmers who are cultivating rice only as a side business from parting with their farmland, thereby stalling the slow-moving trend toward concentration of farmland in the hands of full-time farmers.
 農水省は補償対象を約180万戸と想定し、ほぼすべてのコメ販売農家に適用しようとしている。しかし、副業でコメを作っている農家が所得補償を期待して農地を手放さなくなれば、少しずつ進んできた主業農家への農地集約の流れが止まってしまう。

The ministry should limit the scope of income subsidies to the less than 1 million families that are earning the main part of their income from farming.
 ここは補償対象を農業を主業としている数十万戸に絞るべきではないか。

The government should lay out a new vision for rice farming based on a liberalization policy. Under such a vision, production and imports of rice would be liberalized, but an income support program would mitigate the damage suffered by full-time rice farmers from expected drops in rice prices due to liberalization.
 コメの生産と輸入を自由化する。米価が下がって、主業農家の経営は打撃を受けるが、所得補償で支える。

It could pave the way for future exports of high-quality rice from Japan. The proposed income support program represents a major pillar of reform that radically changes the government's agriculture policy.
その先に、高品質の日本米を輸出する道も開けてくるだろう。政府はそういう農業の未来をめざしてほしい。

The government appears to be trying to push through the reform in an unreasonably short period. It should hammer out a better, more carefully designed plan than the current rough-and-ready one.
 農政の抜本的転換となるべき改革を、あまりに短期間に進めようという手法にも無理があるのではないか。拙速でない案を練り直すべきだ。

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アジア政策―横浜会議への重い宿題

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 16(IHT/Asahi: November 17,2009)
EDITORIAL: Japan's role in APEC.
アジア政策―横浜会議への重い宿題

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Singapore has closed. During the forum, Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama gave a policy speech on how Japan intends to achieve peace, stability and prosperity in Asia through open regional cooperation based on the spirit of yuai (fraternity), while maintaining a foothold in the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 シンガポールでのアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議が閉幕し、鳩山由紀夫首相がアジア政策演説を行った。日米同盟を基軸にしつつ、友愛精神をもとに開かれた地域協力を積み重ね、アジアの平和と安定、繁栄を達成する――。

The previous day, U.S. President Barack Obama made a groundbreaking speech in Tokyo, saying, "As an Asia-Pacific nation, the United States expects to be involved in the discussions that shape the future of this region" and participate fully in matters relating to Asia.
 前日にはオバマ米大統領が東京で画期的な演説をした。米国は「太平洋国家」としてアジアへの関与を強め、共同体論議にも積極的にかかわる――。

It has been more than a year since the world plunged into economic turmoil. China and Southeast Asia have played a significant role in not only propping up the global economy, but also being the tractive force for future growth. That role is growing bigger every day.
 世界が経済危機に陥ってから1年余り。中国や東南アジアは国際経済の下支えとして、そして将来の成長の牽引(けんいん)役としての存在感をいよいよ増している。

China's increasing political influence and military prowess are also bringing about drastic changes to the power structure of this region.
中国の政治的な影響力や軍備の増強も、この地域の力の構造を大きく変えつつある。

The two leaders' speeches were also declarations of how the two countries intend to address Asia as it undergoes a huge transformation. The fact that Japan's prime minister welcomed U.S. intentions to increase its involvement in Asia will serve as the basis of future cooperation between the two countries.
 両首脳の演説は、大転換期を迎えたアジアにどう向き合っていくのかという、日米それぞれの基本姿勢の表明でもあった。首相が米国のアジアへの関与姿勢を歓迎したことは、今後の日米協力の土台となるだろう。
 日米両首脳の思いに、APEC会議に集まった多くのリーダーたちも共鳴したのではなかろうか。

APEC was created exactly 20 years ago. Members' efforts at promoting free trade and investment within the region have helped to push up exports and economic growth at rates higher than any other region in the world.
 ちょうど20年前に創設されたAPECは貿易や投資の自由化努力を通じて、貿易の伸びや成長率が世界の他の地域を上回る。

The active pursuit of economic growth and trade within the Pacific Rim region has played a large role in the growth of China and Southeast Asia.
中国や東南アジア諸国の成長にも、環太平洋地域を舞台とする経済や貿易の活発な動きが大きな役割を果たしてきた。

APEC leaders jointly agreed to: continue economic stimulus measures until there is a full recovery; work on diminishing disparities within the region; and create a new strategy for even further growth and development.
 景気回復まで刺激策を続ける。域内の格差是正にも取り組む。それにとどまらず、さらなる発展をめざす新たな成長戦略をつくろう。

The APEC leaders made these commitments toward the summit next year in Yokohama.
1年後に横浜で開く首脳会議に向けて、APEC首脳たちはそう宣言した。

As next year's host country, Japan bears a heavy responsibility. The historic Bogor Declaration of 1994 put forth the goal of "achieving free and open trade and investment by 2010" among developed countries. Japan must build on this goal and lead the way toward the creation of a new strategy for the 21st century.
 来年の議長国、日本が担った責任は重い。94年の歴史的なボゴール宣言は「2010年に先進国で貿易と投資を自由化する」との目標を掲げた。この目標に沿って、21世紀の新たな戦略づくりをリードしなければならない。

One huge difficulty in this task is that the United States is keen on creating an APEC free trade zone, but Southeast Asian countries are wary of free-trade negotiations led by Washington. Japan is also cautious about opening up trade in the agriculture-forestries sector.
 容易な作業ではない。米国はAPEC自由貿易圏の実現に関心を示すが、東南アジア諸国は米国主導の自由化交渉には警戒的だ。日本も農林業分野の自由化には及び腰だ。

This is not just about the economy. How should we deal with the growing influence of China? Regional political and military stability are crucial for economic growth in Asia, but such a situation would depend heavily on diplomatic initiatives on multiple levels, between the United States and China, between China and Japan, as well as multilateral frameworks.
 経済の領域だけではない。中国の影響力の拡大をどうとらえるか。アジアの経済発展には、地域の政治的、軍事的な安定が不可欠だが、これには米中や日中間、また多国間の枠組みをはじめ重層的な外交が重要になる。

Next year's Yokohama summit will present another opportunity for Obama to visit Japan. It will also provide a chance for the president to join events marking the half-century anniversary of the revised Japan-U.S. Security Treaty.
 来年の横浜会議は、オバマ大統領が再び来日して、日米安保条約改定50周年を記念する機会ともなる。

Ahead of these opportunities next year, the two countries will start discussions on how to "deepen" the alliance to respond to changes in Asia and the new global agenda.
それに向けて、アジアの変化や地球規模の新しい課題に対応して、日米同盟を「深化」させるための協議も始まる。

We should swiftly reach a breakthrough in the issue over relocating the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Okinawa Prefecture so that dialogue between the countries can be fruitful and meaningful.
 これを実り豊かな内容にするためにも米軍普天間飛行場の移設問題の打開を急ぎたい。


Corps 発音注意 コァーと発音する、コープスと発音しないように!
(スラチャイ)

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トレビュー

NTTが無料提供するアクセスアップ術

面倒な設定なし

登録に必要なのはメールアドレスのみ

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ドル高

column extracted from kyodo news,

本日→
日経平均 9,791.18 ドル
NY ダウ 10,406.96 円
1米ドル 89.29 円
日経だけ世界経済の回復から取り残されていますねー。
この状況で円高というのも理解できないです。
マネーゲームまだ続いています。
この数ヶ月金が高騰していますが米国投機家のしわざだとにらんでいます。
タイ人には早く換金して欲しいですね。
タイバーツの急落と同じことが起きるかもしれませんので。
(スラチャイ)

2009年11月17日 08時08分

NY株、年初来高値を更新 1万400ドル台回復
 【ニューヨーク共同】週明け16日のニューヨーク株式市場のダウ工業株30種平均は大幅続伸し、前週末比136・49ドル高の1万0406・96ドルで取引を終えた。終値の年初来高値を更新し、昨年10月上旬以来の高値水準となった。ハイテク株主体のナスダック総合指数は29・97ポイント高の2197・85。10月の米小売売上高が2カ月ぶりに増加したことを受けて買い注文が先行した。

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鳩山経済政策 マニフェスト不況を起こすな

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 17, 2009)
Don't let manifesto vows trigger economic slump
鳩山経済政策 マニフェスト不況を起こすな(11月17日付・読売社説)

If the government led by the Democratic Party of Japan sticks doggedly to fulfilling the pledges it made ahead of the latest House of Representatives election, and these efforts force the economy into a slowdown, the government will have put the cart before the horse.
 公約を守ろうと躍起になって、景気を悪化させることにでもなれば、本末転倒である。

The nation's economy has just recorded positive growth, but in our opinion this is a result of economic measures taken by the previous administration and the recovery of external demand, and the economy has been only temporarily boosted. The deflationary trend, in which falling prices cause economic stagnation, has become serious.
 日本経済はようやくプラス成長を回復したが、前政権の景気対策と外需回復で一時的に浮揚したと見るべきだ。物価下落が経済停滞を招くデフレも深刻になっている。

Nevertheless, the Cabinet led by Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama has frozen projects worth about 3 trillion yen in the supplementary budget for fiscal 2009 and also plans to cut in the fiscal 2010 budget public works and other projects that could be expected to have an immediate effect as economic stimulus measures.
 ところが、鳩山内閣は今年度の補正予算を約3兆円凍結し、来年度予算も、景気刺激に即効性が期待される公共事業などをカットするという。

===

Scrap nonurgent policies
 ◆成長戦略欠くバラマキ◆

The government's approach is aimed at securing financial resources for eye-catching policies in the DPJ's manifesto for the general election, but we fear the government's stance could accelerate the cooling down of regional economies.
 政権公約に盛り込んだ目玉政策の財源を得るためだが、こうした姿勢では、地方経済などの冷え込みを加速させる「マニフェスト不況」に陥らないか心配だ。

To avoid a manifesto-induced economic downturn, the government needs to change the principle governing its policy choices from keeping the promises it made in its manifesto to coming up with measures to improve the economy. This entails a drastic review of its stated policies.
 政策選択の原則を公約優先から景気優先に切り替え、政策を抜本的に見直すべきだ。

The biggest problem is that the Hatoyama Cabinet is going ahead with the dole-out policies pledged in its manifesto without having formulated a growth strategy to realize a full-scale recovery of the nation's economy.
 最大の問題は、鳩山内閣が日本経済の本格回復に向けた成長戦略を持たぬまま、選挙公約したバラマキ型の政策を強行しようとしている点にある。

A huge drop in tax revenue is unavoidable due to the rapid worsening of the economy that began last year. We urge the government to make the tough policy decisions necessary to bring the economy back on a recovery track, by using its limited financial resources effectively, and at the same time prevent the nation's finances from further worsening.
 昨年からの景気の急激な悪化で税収は大きな落ち込みが避けられない。政府は、乏しい財源を効果的に使って景気を立て直すと同時に、財政の急速な悪化に歯止めもかけるという難しい政策運営が求められている。

However, in ministries' budget requests for fiscal 2010, the government included key policies pledged in the DPJ manifesto and left their budgets almost untouched.
 ところが、来年度当初予算の概算要求には、政権公約に盛り込んだ大型の政策がほぼそのままの規模で並んだ。

These marquee policies include 2.3 trillion yen for a child-rearing allowance, 600 billion yen for making expressways toll-free and 500 billion yen for making public high school education free. If the 2.5 trillion yen revenue shortfall that will result from the scrapping of the provisionally higher gasoline tax rate is added to these figures, it is clear that a huge amount of financial resources--about 7 trillion yen--will be needed to implement the pillars of the DPJ's manifesto.
 子ども手当2・3兆円、高速道路無料化0・6兆円、公立高校無償化0・5兆円などだ。これにガソリン税の暫定税率廃止(2・5兆円)を含めれば、7兆円に迫る巨額の財源が必要となる。

If the government insists on implementing these policies, it will be impossible for it to keep a ceiling on the fiscal 2010 budget. Hatoyama has said he will try not to issue more than 44 trillion yen worth of government bonds next fiscal year, but it seems that his administration will be unable to avoid issuing a huge amount of government bonds.
 これらの目玉政策の実施に執着するのなら、予算規模を適正な水準に抑えるのは不可能だろう。鳩山首相は来年度の国債発行額を今年度の44兆円以下にするとしているが、大幅な増発は避けられないのではないか。

When a nation's finances are in dire straits, the prices of government bonds tumble and long-term interest rates jump, which has a negative influence to the economy and aggravates the financial situation because of the increase in the cost of debt servicing. To avoid such a situation, the government should drop nonessential election pledges.
 財政危機が深刻化すれば国債価格が急落して、長期金利が跳ね上がる。それが景気にかえって悪影響を及ぼし、利払い費の増加で財政がさらに悪化する。そうした事態を避けるためにも、不要不急の公約にこだわるべきでない。

We hope the government and the Bank of Japan will take concerted actions, such as an effort by the central bank to increase its purchases of government bonds and hold down interest rates.
 日銀が国債買い入れを増やして金利上昇を防ぐなど、政府・日銀の政策協調も強めてほしい。

Of course, to restore market trust in the nation's finances, it is indispensable for the government to show its determination to pursue fiscal reconstruction, such as by raising the consumption tax after the economy recovers to secure a stable financial resource.
 むろん、景気回復後に消費税を引き上げて安定財源を確保するなど、財政再建に向けた決意を今から示すことが、財政に対する市場の信頼回復に欠かせない。

===

Growth could easily stall
 ◆高成長も持続性に疑問◆

The political task to which the government must give top priority is realizing a full-scale economic recovery.
 今、最優先の政策課題は、景気の本格的な回復である。

The Cabinet Office announced Monday that the nation's gross domestic product for the July-September quarter rose 1.2 percent from the previous quarter, marking an expansion for two straight quarters. Consumer spending and exports grew, while capital investment finally turned upward.
 内閣府が16日に発表した7~9月期の国内総生産(GDP)は、前期比1・2%増と2四半期連続でプラス成長となった。個人消費と輸出が伸び、設備投資もようやくプラスに転じた。

Though the economic downturn appears to have come to a halt, it may be too early to judge that the recent growth will be self-sustaining, and that the economy is on a full-fledged expansion track.
 悪化は一段落した形だが、成長が持続して本格的な成長軌道に入ったとみるのは早計だ。

First of all, the economic recovery is mainly a result of the government's economic stimulus package and lacks a broad base. In the area of consumer spending, sales of vehicles and flat-screen TVs have certainly been brisk, thanks to government subsidies for eco-friendly cars and the so-called eco-point system designed to boost the purchase of electrical appliances. But sales of other products are slumping.
 まず、回復は景気対策の効果が中心で、広がりを欠いている。個人消費は、エコカー補助や家電のエコポイントなどで自動車や薄型テレビの販売が好調だったが、他の商品はさえない。

Winter bonuses are certain to be significantly reduced, and there are fears that deteriorating employment conditions may once again hit consumption.
 冬のボーナスは大幅減が確実で、雇用情勢の悪化で消費が再び落ち込む危険がある。

The latest GDP figure, which shows significant economic growth, may not appear quite right to many people. GDP measured in nominal terms, which more accurately reflects household and corporate sentiment, is experiencing negative growth due to declining consumer prices. Deflation is chilling household and corporate sentiment. Not a few observers believe, therefore, that the nation's economic growth will slow down in the first half of next year and will probably show negative growth under certain circumstances.
 今回の大幅なプラス成長に、ぴんとこない人も多いだろう。家計や企業の実感に近い名目のGDPが、物価下落でマイナスに沈んでいるためだ。デフレが家計や企業の心理を冷やしている。来年前半に成長が鈍り、場合によってはマイナス成長に落ち込むとの見方も少なくない。

===

Economy must come first
 ◆「公約」より「景気」を◆

Under these conditions, what bothers us is the fact that public works projects, which have supported an economy that has been deteriorating since last year, declined in the July-September quarter from the previous quarter for the first time in five quarters.
 こうした中、気がかりなのは、昨年からの景気悪化で下支え役だった公共投資が、7~9月期に5四半期ぶりに前期比マイナスに転じたことだ。

According to the Cabinet Office's October "economy watchers survey," which polls those working in industries that are highly sensitive to economic conditions, respondents in construction-related businesses in rural areas said the number of public works projects had dwindled significantly.
 景気の影響を受けやすい業種の人に実感を聞く10月の景気ウオッチャー調査で、地方の建設業者から「公共工事が激減している」との声が寄せられた。

Under the principle of spending more taxpayers' money on projects closely related to people's lives, rather than on building concrete structures, touted in the DPJ's election slogan of "From concrete to people," the Hatoyama administration is slashing public works projects and shifting its political focus to the direct provision of public funds to the people in the field of welfare, among others.
 鳩山政権は、「コンクリートから人へ」の方針で、公共事業を削り、福祉など国民への直接給付に政策の重点を移している。

It is certainly necessary for the government to review the practice of building unnecessary public facilities and relying on public works projects to prop up regional economies. But if the government fails to pay consideration to regional economies hard hit by the recession, they may be dealt a fatal blow.
確かに箱もの行政や公共事業頼みの地域振興は見直さねばならない。
 だが、不況で疲弊した地方経済への配慮を欠けば、致命的な痛撃を与えかねない。

Given the current serious employment situation, some argued that the child benefits likely will be saved rather than spent if it is distributed across the board, with no relation to household income. If the program is funded by cutting other programs' budgets, the political effects will cancel each other out.
 雇用情勢が厳しい中、所得制限もないまま子ども手当をばらまいても、消費より貯蓄に回るとの指摘がある。財源が他の予算の削減なら、政策効果は相殺される。

Rather than spending more than 2 trillion yen on the child allowance program, extending the government subsidy program for eco-friendly cars and others, which had a measurable effect in the GDP statistics, might be able to more effectively stimulate consumption using less budget funds. The government must not waste a large amount of budget on projects that have limited economic effects.
 2兆円以上を子ども手当に費やすより、GDP統計で一定の効果が見られたエコカー補助などを延長する方が、少ない予算で効率的に消費刺激できるのではないか。これに限らず、公約した内需振興策は効果の検証が必要だ。
 マニフェストに固執して、経済効果の薄い事業に多額の予算を浪費してはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 17, 2009)
(2009年11月17日01時21分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月16日 (月)

Hatoyama outlines East Asia bloc

column extracted from the Japan Times

鳩山総裁のシンガポールでのアジア共同体構想の記事です
友愛精神を基調とするアジア共同体構想の骨子は以下の4項目

アジア地域の(経済的)繁栄
環境問題(排出ガス規制などの環境保全対策)
人権の擁護
海上の保安対策

鳩山首相は米国にもアジア共同体構想に加わってもらいたい意向だが?いまひとつはっきりしていない。

共同体構成国の組み合わせにつき中国と日本とで若干意見を異にしている。

今後多分日本と中国が中心となってアジアの発展を担っていくのではないでしょうか。

経済力のあるアジアの動向にアメリカは強い関心を示している。特に中国に対しては。

(スラチャイ)

Monday, Nov. 16, 2009

Hatoyama outlines East Asia bloc

Borrowing from 'yu-ai,' key concepts include regional prosperity, environmental cooperation

SINGAPORE (Kyodo) Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama on Sunday highlighted four key areas of cooperation in his concept for an East Asian community ? regional prosperity, the environment, protecting human life and maritime safety.

Hatoyama indicated the U.S. is a potential member of his envisaged regional grouping, saying in a speech in Singapore, "The presence of the United States has been playing and will continue to play an important role in ensuring the peace and prosperity of Asia, including Japan."

Hatoyama said Japan will speed up negotiations for economic partnership agreements with South Korea, India and Australia, and study the possibilities of talks with other countries as a means to pursuing prosperity in the region.

Hatoyama proposed expanding maritime cooperation in Southeast Asia, such as antipiracy operations in the Strait of Malacca, to other regions as part of efforts to build a "sea of 'yu-ai' (fraternity)," noting that "most regional commerce depends on sea routes."

"The concept behind my initiative for an East Asian community stems from the philosophy of yu-ai," he said. "Within yu-ai, people respect the freedom and human dignity of others just as they respect their own freedom and human dignity. In other words, yu-ai means not only the independence of people but also their coexistence.

"I set this goal because reconciliation in the real sense of the word is not necessarily believed to have been achieved in the region," said Hatoyama, whose two-month-old government attaches great importance to Asian diplomacy.

"This is the current situation, although more than 60 years have passed since Japan caused tremendous damage and suffering to the people of many countries, particularly on the people of Asian nations."

Hatoyama expressed hope that developing countries will take advantage of advanced energy-saving technologies, water purification techniques and other environment-focused technologies owned by Japanese companies as they aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while pursuing sustainable growth to achieve a "green Asia."

He stressed that countries need to ensure the success of the key U.N. climate change meeting next month in Copenhagen, where the world will try to strike a deal on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol.

Hatoyama said Japan will make a "proactive contribution" to encourage governments and other institutions to register their human and material assets for disaster relief, which would allow the region to conduct more prompt and effective rescue and relief activities in response to disasters.

Along with the four areas, Hatoyama cited nuclear disarmament, nuclear nonproliferation, urban issues, social security and cultural exchange as potential fields of regional cooperation.

"There may also be an opportunity for us to discuss possible political cooperation in the future," he said.

"It may be possible that countries with the will and the capabilities to cooperate in a particular field may choose to participate in projects initially, and as their efforts bear fruit, other countries could join later."

While welcoming Washington's commitment to Asia as stated in President Barack Obama's speech in Tokyo on Saturday, Hatoyama carefully avoided speaking about Washington becoming a member of his envisaged East Asian community.

As a framework of future regional cooperation, China envisions a grouping of 13 countries ? Japan, China and South Korea plus the 10 Association of Southeast Asian Nations members of Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

Japan envisages a wider grouping including Australia, India, New Zealand and possibly the United States.

No to two-isle plan
SINGAPORE (Kyodo) Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama told Russian counterpart Dmitry Medvedev on Sunday that he will not accept the idea of settling the sovereignty dispute over four Russian-controlled islands off Hokkaido by setting for the return of the two smaller islands.

"The (Japanese) public and us (the government) cannot understand (the idea of) returning two islands. I would like you to show a nonstereotypical approach that goes beyond such an idea," Hatoyama quoted him self as saying at the meeting the Russian president in Singapore.

Medvedev told Hatoyama that Russia truly hopes to advance negotiations on the territorial row while Hatoyama is in office, a Japanese delegation source said.

Hatoyama quoted Medvedev as telling him that Moscow wants to seek a "pragmatic" solution to the dispute without employing an approach based on the thinking of the Cold War era.

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時代の風:精神障害者と犯罪=精神科医・斎藤環

extracted from Mainichi Daily News

日本人の書く英語、わかりやすいですね。
最初に翻訳文を読んで内容を理解してから英文を読むと辞書なしでも概ね理解できます。
専門用語は発音を含めてチェックすべきです。(英英、英和)
久しぶりにしっかりとした文章を読ませていただきました。
(スラチャイ)

(Mainichi Japan) November 16, 2009
Sign of the Times: Transparency needed to help identify flaws in a system
時代の風:精神障害者と犯罪=精神科医・斎藤環

While the case barely received any media coverage in Japan, in September, a certain serial murderer made headlines all over Britain. Surprisingly, the murders took place over five years ago and the murderer has already been arrested. So why all the media attention now?

As it turns out, the perpetrator was mentally ill and the crimes took place because of a series of flaws in the system that treated him.

Peter Bryan, who has been sentenced to life imprisonment for three murders and suffers from schizophrenia, was sent to Rampton Secure Hospital after he beat a 20-year-old shop assistant to death with a hammer in 1993. He was discharged in 2001 and moved into a hostel to receive community care. In 2002, however, he assaulted a 17-year-old girl and was once again hospitalized, but in an open ward.

The second murder took place in February 2004. Bryan escaped from his hospital room, killed a 45-year-old acquaintance, chopped his body into pieces, and ate parts of the man's flesh. The case involving "madness" and "cannibalism" sent shockwaves through British society.

Bryan committed his third murder after he was arrested and sent to Broadmoor Hospital, a high-security psychiatric institution, by strangling a 59-year-old fellow inpatient.

Britain requires an independent inquiry under the guidance of the Department of Health when a mentally ill patient receiving treatment commits a crime. On Sept. 3 this year, the National Health Service (NHS) disclosed the results of two investigations that were conducted regarding Bryan's case.

The report states that the series of events were not attributed to errors made by specific individuals, but that they were due to systemic failures.

When Bryan was discharged from the first psychiatric hospital to community care, he only received six months of rehabilitation training, even though the standard program takes two years. In addition, the staff in charge of community care was inexperienced, and was quick to decrease Bryan's medication dosage.

A more experienced expert may have been able to identify the danger Bryan posed at the point at which he assaulted the teenage girl. If Bryan had at least been placed in a high-security institution instead of an open ward, the second murder could have been prevented.

There have been charges of sloppy management against Broadmoor over the murder that took place there. Bryan was not adequately examined upon hospitalization, and when the attack took place in the dining hall there were no staff members present. From the report, it's clear that the system was inexcusably flawed.

But the most important lesson we can take away from this is that the NHS conducted an exhaustive five-year investigation to clarify where the responsibility for the case lies, and made the results available to the public. Upon a quick look through the report, I found that not only did the investigative panel conduct a meticulous inquiry, it also offered 50 detailed recommendations to the respective responsible parties.

British psychiatric care is not, of course, picture-perfect. It suffers from a constant shortage of psychiatrists and high-security hospitals are overflowing with patients who have recovered but cannot be discharged. Furthermore, prisons are filled with mentally ill individuals who are not given treatment.

Even if a system's flaws cannot be corrected right away, however, certain things can still be done. That is, the flaws of a system can be identified, specific ways for improvement laid out, and the information then made public and recorded. In order to bring transparency to a system, efforts to increase visibility and document information are essential.

As non-fiction writer Kunio Yanagida pointed out in his writings about airplane accidents, investigations into crimes and accidents in Japan still tend to focus on finger-pointing. Moreover, information about incidents that involve the mentally ill are generally concealed, citing reasons of privacy. What fills in this dearth of public information are tabloid magazines and tell-all books.

However, systemic accidents -- of which airplane accidents are a typical example -- are a result of a chain of multiple causes. In order to prevent such incidents from taking place, a thorough investigation of systemic glitches -- not the assignment of blame -- is what matters. In that sense, there is much to be learned from the NHS report as a model of systemic inquiry in the mental health field.

Although the crime rate for mentally ill individuals is far lower than that for those who are not mentally ill, the perception that such people are "dangerous" still runs rampant. As it is, there exists the prejudice that crimes committed by the mentally ill are distinct in some way, and hiding information only serves to enhance this view. Information must be made public in order for us to regain tolerance.

The American psychiatrist Thomas Szasz once said, "The stupid neither forgive nor forget; the naive forgive and forget; the wise forgive but do not forget." I'd like to believe that we, as people who are unforgiving but forgetful, need one more effort, if we want to be wise. (By Tamaki Saito, psychiatrist)

(Mainichi Japan) November 16, 2009
時代の風:精神障害者と犯罪=精神科医・斎藤環

 ◇透明なシステムへの努力

 日本ではほとんど報道されなかったが、先月イギリスで、ある連続殺人事件の記事がメディアをにぎわせた。事件そのものは5年以上も前で、犯人も逮捕されている。そんな古い事件が、なぜ今になって注目されたのだろうか。

 事件を起こしたのが精神障害者であり、その背景に治療システムの不備があったことが明らかにされたためだ。

 3件の殺人で起訴されたピーター・ブライアン無期囚は、統合失調症を罹患(りかん)していた。

 1993年、彼は20歳の女性店員をハンマーで撲殺し、ランプトン保安病院に収容された。8年後の2001年、ブライアン無期囚は退院を認められ、コミュニティケアを受けるべく簡易宿泊所での生活をはじめた。しかし02年、彼は17歳の少女に暴行して開放病棟に再び入院となる。

 04年2月、第2の事件が起こった。病棟を抜け出したブライアン無期囚が、45歳の知人を殺害し、遺体をバラバラにしたうえにその一部を食べたのである。「狂気」と「カニバリズム」の絡んだ事件とあって、イギリス社会は騒然となった。

 ブライアン無期囚は逮捕され、ブロードモア保安病院に収容された。第3の事件が起こったのはその直後である。収容先の病院で、彼は59歳の入院患者を絞殺したのだ。

 イギリスでは、治療中の精神障害者が殺人事件を起こした場合、保健省の指導のもとで独自調査が義務づけられる。09年9月3日、NHS(国営医療サービス事業)はブライアン無期囚の事件に関する二つの独自調査を公表した。

 報告書では、一連の事件の原因について、特定の職員の落ち度ではなく、システムの不備として検討されている。

 たとえばブライアン無期囚は地域コミュニティへと退院する際、半年の社会復帰訓練しか受けられなかった。通常ならば2年はかかるプログラムである。また退院後のコミュニティケアを担当する職員は経験不足で、彼が服用する薬の量を安易に減らしてしまった。

 少女への暴行が起きた時点で、経験豊富な専門家ならば危険性を予見できたかもしれない。少なくとも、ここでブライアン無期囚を開放病棟ではなく保安病院に入院させていれば、第2の事件は防ぎ得たであろう。

 ブロードモア病院内で起きた殺人については、管理のずさんさが指摘されている。ブライアン無期囚の入院に際して、まともな診察は一度もなされなかった。ダイニングルームで事件が起こったときも、スタッフは誰もその場にいなかった。

 報告書を読む限り、システムの欠陥ぶりには弁解しようのないものもある。

 しかしわれわれが学ぶべきは、この種の事件に対する責任の所在を5年がかりで徹底的に追及し、その結果をすべて公表するというNHSの姿勢のほうである。報告書にざっと目を通してみたが、事件の緻密(ちみつ)な検証ぶりもさることながら、「提言」部分では改善すべき点を責任部署ごとに50項目にわたり具体的に列挙している。

 イギリスの精神医療とて、理想郷というわけではない。精神科医は常時不足しており、保安病院には回復したにもかかわらず退院できない患者があふれている。また刑務所には多くの精神障害者が未治療のまま収容されている。

 システムが不備ですぐには改善が見込めないときでも、できることはある。「そのシステムがどのように不備であるか」を徹底して記述し、あり得べき改善点を具体的に列挙しておくことだ。さらにそれらを公開し、記録すること。システムをガラス張りにするには、「可視化」と「アーカイブ化」の努力は必須なのだ。

 柳田邦男氏がかつて指摘したように、わが国における事件や事故の調査は、いまだ責任追及型に偏りがちである(『マッハの恐怖』)。加えて精神障害者の事件は、プライバシー保護を理由に、あっさり密室化されてしまう。情報不足を補完するのは、相も変わらず週刊誌のスクープ記事や暴露本だ。

 しかし、航空機事故が典型であるように、システムの事故は複合的な原因の連鎖で起こる。こうした事故の再発を防ぐには、個人の責任追及よりも、システムの誤作動を緻密に検証するよりほかにない。その意味でNHSの報告書は、メンタルヘルス分野におけるシステム検証のモデルとして学ぶところが大きい。

 精神障害者の犯罪率は、そうでない人の犯罪率に比べてもかなり低い。にもかかわらず、「危ない人」という偏見は、なかなか減らない。ただでさえ彼らの犯罪は特別視されがちなのに、情報が隠ぺいされることで偏見は強化されてしまう。われわれが寛容さを取り戻すためには、むしろ情報は公開されなければならないはずだ。

 精神科医トマス・サズ氏は、寛容性について次の言葉を残している。「愚か者は許さず、忘れない。単純な者は許し、忘れる。賢者は許し、そして忘れない。」(『第二の罪』)。「許さないが忘れっぽい」われわれが賢者たらんとすれば、あと一息、と思いたい。=毎週日曜日に掲載

毎日新聞 2009年10月11日 東京朝刊

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最新タイ株式投資市況

タイには数十社の証券取引ブローカーがあります。
私の使っている zmico (seamico) はトップ10の下の方にランクされています。
下記は朝一番の株式市況で毎日配信されてきます。
昨年9月より年末にかけてのタイ株式暴落でスラチャイも痛手を被りました。
今年の9月ころから株価が上昇し始め現在では昨年を上回る株価まで回復しています。
タイ株式は略称SETといいます。
昨年は概ね600バーツ代でしたが、昨年の暮れには400バーツ代まで大暴落、現在は回復してきて700バーツをしのぐ勢いです。
最近投資した銘柄が僅か二月ほどで100%も急騰、スラチャイも昨年の痛手を回復(挽回)することができました。

株式投資はやはりアメリカ頼みですね。
親亀こければみなずっこけるの図式です。
ダウが9500ドルを割り込むような事態になれば景気の二番底が懸念され、タイ株式も再び600バーツを割り込むと予想しています。米国の景気回復にはまだまだ時間がかかるとタイの専門家たちは予測しています。

タイがこれだけ回復しているのに日本のnikkeiはまだ10000円に届きませんね。
一体どうしたというのでしょうか。
心配になります。

Tactical Brief:

We continue to maintain our view that as long as the following support levels continue to hold, our target of 780 is maintained:  1020 for the S&P500, 2024 for the NASDAQ, and 9430 for the Dow Jones.  However, if they are broken, then further correction of the SET Index down to the 600 level becomes an increasingly likely possibility.

The release to watch for this week is US Retail Sales.  We believe consumers in the US will continue to be the weakest link in the economy.  And until they recover, the rest of the world will also continue to stall. Last week US consumer credit for the month of September was reported and fell by -$14.8 billion. That marked the eighth consecutive month that consumers pulled back. American consumers continue to believe they are too highly leveraged and are working to pay down debt. Banks are still tightening lending available to consumers and are even pulling existing credit lines from established customers.  Consumer debt as a percent of income is lower than just a few months ago but still way above normal. It peaked at around 136% of income and is now closer to 125%. Things will return to normal only when this figure is able to revert back to the long term average of around 93%.

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ムダ根絶―もっと使える検査院に

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 14(IHT/Asahi: November 16,2009)
EDITORIAL: Wasteful spending.
ムダ根絶―もっと使える検査院に

A staggering 236.4 billion yen of taxpayer money was spent in wasteful and otherwise questionable ways in fiscal 2008, according to the Board of Audit's recently released report on its investigation into the government's expenditures.
The amount, a record for inappropriate government spending, is larger than the 220 billion yen target for reducing the annual natural increase in social security spending set by the previous Liberal Democratic Party-New Komeito coalition government.
 2364億円。自公政権が年間の社会保障費の抑制目標とした2200億円を上回る金額である。それだけの税の無駄遣いと不適切な経理処理のあったことが、会計検査院の昨年度検査で明らかにされた。史上最高の規模だ。

This figure only represents the tip of the iceberg of what the watchdog could uncover with its limited-scope investigation. The complete picture would likely be far more disturbing.
 これとても検査院が検査した範囲で判明した分であり、氷山の一角にすぎまい。全体の実態はさらに深刻とみたほうがいい。

One dubious practice known as azuke (depositing) involves keeping budget surpluses at contractors by cooking up fictitious orders. The investigation by the board found that this gimmick was used widely by ministries, agencies, local governments and government-affiliated bodies.
The board also uncovered caches of maizokin (buried money), or the part of funds for effectively finished projects that has been left unspent but has been stashed away without being returned to state coffers.
 あまった予算を、物品などを発注したことにして業者にプールする「預け」という手口は、省庁や自治体、関連団体で横行していた。事業の役割が終わっているにもかかわらず、事業費を国庫に返さずにため込む「埋蔵金」もあちこちで発掘された。

As usual, the audit found many cases in which private contracts were awarded without competitive bidding to businesses offering cushy jobs to retiring bureaucrats. Such deals typically cost taxpayers a lot more than contracts given through bidding.
 受注業者の選定にあたって競争入札をせずに、天下り先の業者と随意契約してコスト削減を怠っていた事例も相変わらず多い。

Taxpayers should be angry about such outrageous wastes of their money at a time when state finances are in a crisis and people are suffering from a harsh recession.
 財政が危機的状態にあり、国民が不況にあえぐ中でも続く役所の節操のない無駄遣い。納税者はもっと怒っていいのではないか。

Eliminating waste and inefficiency in government spending is the most important policy promise made by the government of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama. In line with this pledge, the Government Revitalization Unit, tasked with ferreting out unnecessary and wasteful expenditures, is reviewing hundreds of programs.
 税金の無駄や非効率を改めることは、鳩山政権の最大の公約だ。それに沿って、予算の無駄を洗い出す行政刷新会議の事業仕分けが始まっている。

Many of the programs identified by the task force as problematic, such as the GX rocket development project, were also criticized by the Board of Audit for inefficiency.
 たとえば難航しているGXロケットの開発などのように、行政刷新会議で取り上げられた事業の多くは、検査院も非効率だと指摘したものだ。

The two systems for scrutiny of government spending should be regarded as essential and mutually reinforcing weapons for eradicating wasteful outlays.
 この二つのシステムを無駄撲滅の両輪と考えたい。

The findings from the board's investigation can be used by the government's team for more effective evaluation of expenditures by government organizations.
検査結果をフィードバックすることによって、より効果的な予算の査定もできるのではないか。

However, it is necessary to enhance the board's functions, powers and resources drastically.
 そのためには検査院の機能や権限、態勢などを思い切って強化すべきだ。

Of the inappropriate accounting practices that have been pointed out to date, 481 cases involving 13.1 billion yen remained uncorrected, according to the report.
 検査院がこれまでに指摘した不正経理のうち、改善されていないものが481件、131億円分もあった。

The government should empower the board to order measures to fix the problems in such cases while establishing punishment for inappropriate accounting practices by government branches and affiliated entities.
 このようなケースでは、検査院に改善を命じる権限を与え、不正経理については罰則を設けることも検討していいのではないか。

To deter wrongdoing involving entire organizations, the government should consider creating a leniency program that grants whistle-blowers exemption from or reduction in punishment.
組織的な不正行為を内部告発した職員については、本人の処分を免除したり、軽減したりすることも考えたい。

The board's 1,300-strong workforce should be expanded. One way to accomplish this is to hire more outside experts such as lawyers, prosecutors and certified public accountants who have experience tackling misuse of public funds.
 約1300人の職員態勢も増強するべきだろう。公金の不正支出問題を追及してきた弁護士や検事、公認会計士など、外部の人材も積極的に登用していくことだ。

The Board of Audit, established according to the Constitution, is a politically neutral institution independent of the Cabinet.
 会計検査院は憲法で設置が定められ、政治的に中立な立場を貫くために内閣から独立した機関となっている。

Neutrality is the most important factor for the effectiveness of the board's operations.
 独立性はなによりの武器だ。

But officials of the board continue to retire into plum jobs at government-affiliated organizations subject to audits by the watchdog. This amakudari practice should stop.
ところが、検査の対象となる独立行政法人などへの天下りが絶えないのはどうしたことか。やめるべきである。

Before the August Lower House election, both the ruling and opposition parties at that time submitted bills to the Upper House to beef up the board. But these bills have all since been scrapped.
 政権交代前の参議院には、当時の与野党がそれぞれ検査院の強化法案を提出したが、いずれも廃案となった。

We hope the government and the Diet will start afresh working on legislation to strengthen this vital organization.
政府と国会は、あらためて必要な法制化に取り組んでほしい。

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日米首脳会談―新しい同盟像描く起点に

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 14(IHT/Asahi: November 16,2009)
EDITORIAL: Hatoyama, Obama meet.
日米首脳会談―新しい同盟像描く起点に

Two months after their initial meeting in New York, Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama and U.S. President Barack Obama held their first substantive meeting on Friday.
 ニューヨークでの初顔合わせから2カ月。鳩山由紀夫首相とオバマ米大統領が初の本格会談を行った。

The two leaders both achieved change of government by gaining wide public support, and the two are also facing a harsh gap between campaign promises and reality.
 ともに国民の支持を得て政権交代を果たしたが、今は選挙公約と現実との落差に苦悩する似たような政治的立場にある。

Obama is in the midst of trying to convince Congress to back health-care reform. The situation in Afghanistan, which he called the main battleground in the war on terror, has deteriorated and now is turning into a quagmire.
 大統領は、医療保険制度の改革で議会説得のまっただ中。「テロとの戦い」の主舞台と位置づけたアフガニスタンは泥沼化しつつある。

Hatoyama is in the midst of rearranging the national budget to focus more on "people, not concrete." He also finds himself in a difficult position over his campaign promise to move U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Okinawa Prefecture to a location outside the prefecture, or outside the country.
 首相は「コンクリートから人へ」の予算の組み替えの真っ最中。総選挙で訴えた沖縄・普天間飛行場の県外、国外への移設の問題で苦境に立つ。

For the two leaders, the latest meeting was something they could not allow to fail. That is why they pointed to their agreement on a wide range of issues as evidence of success, but put off a resolution of the Futenma issue.
 そんな両首脳にとって、今回の会談は失敗が許されないものだった。そのために幅広い領域での合意を成果として強調したが、日米関係をきしませている普天間問題は先送りした。

However, that hardly undermines the significance of their meeting.
 だが、そのことはこの会談の意義を損なうものではない。

The Japan-U.S. alliance has "deepened" as the two nations strengthened their cooperation in numerous areas.
 さまざまな分野で協力を強化する日米同盟の「深化」。

For the Hatoyama administration led by his Democratic Party of Japan, the meeting was meaningful because Hatoyama and Obama confirmed two crucial points:
・The fundamentals of Japan's security and foreign policy are based on the alliance with the United States;
・The two countries will continue to be trustworthy alliance partners in dealing with matters of global importance.
半世紀に及んだ自民党政権にとってかわった鳩山民主党政権にとって、日本の安全保障と外交の基本を米国との同盟に置くこと、地球規模の課題でも信頼できる同盟パートナーであり続けること、の2点を米大統領と確認しあった意味は大きい。

In a region witnessing the rise of China's economic and military power, it will benefit both Japan and the United States to cooperate and strengthen their bilateral ties. This cooperation is essential in order to maintain stability and prosperity in the region. No doubt, the two leaders share this common understanding as the foundation of their discussion for a stronger alliance.
 中国の経済的、軍事的台頭が著しいこの地域にあって、日米が同盟を基礎に連携し、結び合うことは双方の国益にかなう。地域の安定を保ち、繁栄を続けるためにもそれが欠かせない。両首脳が語り合った同盟強化の根底には、そんな共通理解があるはずだ。

China itself hopes for stability in the region. We hope that Obama, when he visits China this month, will speak of a broad regional framework--how the United States, anchored by its good relations with Japan, intends to collaborate with China.
 中国自身も地域の安定は望むところだ。来週、中国を訪れる大統領には、良好な日米関係を基盤としつつ、中国とどのように連携していくか、大きな構図で語ってもらいたいと思う。

In Friday's talks, Hatoyama and Obama agreed to work together on issues like global warming and realizing a "world without nuclear weapons."
 首脳会談では、地球温暖化対策や「核なき世界」への取り組みなどで一致してあたることを合意した。

These are also the issues that Hatoyama pushed during his campaign for the Aug. 30 Lower House election.
 鳩山首相が選挙で訴えてきたテーマでもある。

We understand that the relationship between Japan and the United States, which has previously been focused on security and economic matters, is now entering a new phase. The Japanese voting public will no doubt welcome this. We hope this becomes the starting point of a new kind of alliance in the 21st century.
従来の、安保と経済に偏りがちだった日米協力が新しい次元に入るということだろう。日本の有権者は歓迎するに違いない。21世紀の同盟のあり方を描き出す起点としたい。

An alliance must be a relationship backed and trusted by the people of both countries.
 同盟とは、互いの国民が納得感を持ち、信頼しあえるものでなければならない。

In this sense, it is meaningful that a minister-level working group has been set up to review the existing agreement on the relocation of Air Station Futenma.
その点で、普天間をめぐる合意を検証するため閣僚級の作業グループができたことには意味がある。

This will allow Japan to discuss the issue with the United States backed by the public mandate given to the Hatoyama administration. The focus of the committee's discussions will be the issue of whether or not there is no other relocation option other than Henoko, as was agreed to three years ago.
3年前に合意された辺野古移設以外の選択肢がありえないのかどうか、日本の新しい民意を背景に協議できることになったからだ。

Hatoyama directly explained to Obama the difficulties of the Futenma issue. At the same time, he also expressed his intentions to resolve the situation as soon as possible. We hope the prime minister keeps his word while tackling the problem, with the understanding that this is something that strikes at the core of the alliance.
 首相は普天間問題の難しさについて、大統領に直接、説明した。一方で、できるだけ早く結論を出す考えも伝えた。同盟の根幹にかかわる問題だという認識に立って、首相にはその言葉通りの取り組みを求めたい。

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coffee break

ギター曲はスラチャイの編曲です。 1番のフォーレのロマンスはピアノ曲ですが、フォーレが若干18才で作曲した名曲です。 ↓ http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/coffee.htm  

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APEC 危機後の成長戦略をどう描く

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 16, 2009)
APEC growth strategy needed in postcrisis era
APEC 危機後の成長戦略をどう描く(11月16日付・読売社説)

Leaders of Pacific Rim economies have hammered out a vision for strengthening their unity to realize sustainable growth in the region in the post-financial crisis era.
 金融危機後の持続的な成長を目指し、環太平洋の国と地域が結束の強化を打ち出した。

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum ended its two-day summit meeting in Singapore on Sunday. The leaders of its members--21 countries and regions, including Japan, China and the United States--adopted a joint declaration and a joint statement concerning the regional economic growth.
 日米中など21か国・地域が参加し、シンガポールで開かれたアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)の首脳会議は、首脳宣言と、経済成長に関する特別声明を採択して閉幕した。

The most significant point of the latest summit meeting was that the joint declaration stipulates that the APEC leaders will draw up a comprehensive long-term economic growth strategy next year, when Japan chairs APEC meetings. The declaration also stressed that the leaders will maintain economic stimulus policies until a durable economic recovery has clearly taken hold.
 日本がAPEC議長国となる来年中に、「域内の長期的な成長戦略を策定する」と明記したことが最大のポイントだ。景気刺激策を継続する方針も強調した。

APEC is a gigantic economic bloc that accounts for half of global gross domestic product. Led by APEC as the center of growth, the global financial crisis has finally got out of the worst.
 APECは世界の国内総生産(GDP)の5割を占める巨大な経済圏である。成長センターであるAPECが先導し、金融危機は最悪期をようやく脱した。

===

Asia overreliant on U.S.

However, prospects for a full-fledged economic recovery remain uncertain. The Asia-Pacific economies, therefore, expressed their resolve to strengthen cooperation and serve as an engine to drive the global economy after overcoming the crisis.
 しかし、景気回復の先行きは、まだ不透明だ。危機克服後も、連携を強化し、世界経済を牽引(けんいん)するエンジン役となる決意を示したといえよう。

The joint statement on a "new growth paradigm" envisages future growth that is compatible with global climate change efforts, and balanced growth.
 新成長戦略は、地球温暖化対策と調和した持続的な成長や、均衡が取れた成長を目指すものだ。

Asian countries allowed the financial crisis to worsen by remaining heavily dependent on exports to the United States, a country that consumes more than it needs. Also, economic disparities have widened in the region. All these lessons are behind the adoption of the joint statement.
 アジア各国は、過剰消費の米国向けの輸出に過度に依存し、危機を深刻化させた。経済格差も広がった。その教訓が背景にある。

Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama emphasized his proposal of making global-warming countermeasures part of the the region's growth strategy. At the summit meeting, the leaders also agreed on the importance of seeking a political agreement on a post-Kyoto Protocol framework to tackle global warming.
 鳩山首相は、地球温暖化対策を域内の成長戦略に取り込む考えを強調した。会議では、「京都議定書」に続く温暖化対策の枠組みについて、政治合意を目指す重要性でも一致した。

What kind of new growth strategy will APEC, which includes the United States and China--the largest carbon dioxide emitters--as its members, come up with? The leadership of Japan, the next APEC chair, will be severely tested on this point.
 二酸化炭素(CO2)の2大排出国の米中両国がメンバーであるAPECとして、どんな成長戦略をまとめるのか。議長国・日本の指導力が厳しく問われよう。

===

Free trade area envisaged

The joint declaration also rejects protectionism and stipulates that APEC leaders will continue to explore ways to build a free trade area in the Asia-Pacific that covers APEC.
 一方、首脳宣言は、保護主義の阻止を強調するとともに、APECをカバーするアジア太平洋自由貿易地域(FTAAP)の具体案の策定を進めると明記した。

The declaration marks a step forward for APEC, apparently reflecting the stance of U.S. President Barack Obama of putting importance on Asia.
 アジア重視を明確にしたオバマ米大統領の姿勢を反映し、一歩踏み出した形である。

In the Asia-Pacific region, various ideas for economic cooperation, including Hatoyama's pet concept of an East Asian community, exist. The most important thing is to promote open regional cooperation that includes the United States. A road map is needed for the realization of the large free trade zone concept.
 この地域では、鳩山首相が東アジア共同体構想を掲げるなど、様々な経済連携案が交錯する。何より重要なのは、米国を含めた「開かれた地域協力」を推進することだ。広大な自由貿易圏構想実現への道筋を探る必要がある。

The trade and investment liberalization that APEC agreed upon must be steadily implemented to this end. Concrete progress should be made by the end of 2010, a year targeted by APEC's more developed members to achieve the liberalization.
 そのためにはまず、APECが合意した貿易・投資の自由化を着実に進めなければならない。域内の先進国の目標年とした来年までに、一定の成果が求められる。

In addition, it is also important that APEC play a leading role in settling the stalled Doha Round of free trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization by the end of next year.
 難航している世界貿易機関(WTO)の新多角的貿易交渉(ドーハ・ラウンド)の来年中の決着に向け、APECが主導的な役割を果たすことも大事だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 16, 2009)
(2009年11月16日00時57分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月15日 (日)

coffee break

ギター曲はスラチャイの編曲です。
1番のフォーレのロマンスはピアノ曲ですが、フォーレが若干18才で作曲した名曲です。

http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/coffee.htm

 

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coffee break

  Coffee Break (midi file no.1 to no.13)
  I will present my favorite midi music to those who might be tired in editing postings.
  I play classical guitar and the attached midi music are for classical guitar except romance by Faure.
  Thank you.
 
  (1) Romance by G.Faure (France)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/romance3.mid
   
  (2) Yesterday by the Beatles (England)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/yesterday.mid
   
  (3) Killing me softly with his song by words:norman gimbel music:charles fox (U.S.A. ?)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/killing-kiyoshi.mid
   
  (4) Un Sueno En La Floresta by Agustin Pio Barrios Mangore  (1885-1944)(Paraguay?)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/abmusel.mid
   
  (5) Angostura-Vals Venezolano(Venezuelan Walts) by Antonio Lauro  (1917-1986)(Venezuela)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/alangos.mid
   
  (6) Pavane-Capricho, Op.12 (Guitar arr. by Tarrega) by ALBENIZ, Isaac (1860-1909) (Spain)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/alb_pav_kiyoshi.mid
   
  (7) Sor-study no.19 (selected by Andress Segovia) op.29-no.13  by Fernando Sor (1778-1839)(Spain)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/ss-19-kiyoshi.mid
   
  (8) Pavane for a Dead Princess by Joseph Maurice Ravel  (1875-1937)(France)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/jmrppuid-weed-kiyoshi.mid
   
  (9) Dedicatoria by Enrique Granados  (1867-1916) (Spain)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/egdedic.mid
   
  (10) Prelude No 5 - A419/5 by Heitor Villa-Lobos  (1887-1959) (Brazil)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/hvl_p5-kiyoshi.mid
   
  (11) Js Bach-suite for unaccompanied cello no.6 in D, bwv 1012 by Johan Sevastian Bach  (1685-1750) (Germany)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/bwv_1012.mid
   
  (12) Pastral by Joaquin Rodrigo  (Joaquin Rodrigo)  (1901-1999)(Spain)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/Rodrigo_Pastoral-kiyoshi.mid
   
  (13) Prelude no.1 by Manuel Maria Ponce  (1882-1948)(Mexico)
  http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000/Ponce_Prelude_No1-kiyoshi.mid
 
 
 
 
 

1

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Japan central to Asia plans, Obama says

column extracted from Japan Times

このサイトには標準でネイティブの発音が聞ける英英辞書が添付されています。(無料)

http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20091115a1.html

オバマ大統領の東京で行われたスピーチの詳細です。
日米同盟を主軸にアジア外交政策を強めていきたい。
爆発的な経済発展を成し遂げている中国は無視できないが、
日米関係をそこなうことはない。
懸案の北朝鮮は六カ国協議の席に戻るように強く働きかける。
制裁措置はきちん実施していく。
日本人埒被害者の問題解決も同時に進めて行く。
オバマ大統領は日本に強い気配りを示していますね。
鳩山首相も、ぎくしゃくした日米関係を早急に修復すべく、動いて欲しいですね。
(スラチャイ)

Sunday, Nov. 15, 2009

Japan central to Asia plans, Obama says
U.S. also hopes to strengthen China relations

By MASAMI ITO
Staff writer

U.S. President Barack Obama expressed Saturday in Tokyo his firm intention to build strong ties with Asia while stressing that the alliance with Japan lies at the center of his policy for the region.

But Obama also made it clear he will focus on strengthening ties with China ? a bilateral relationship that is often a source of concern in Japan ? and encouraged Beijing to play a greater role in the international community.

On the last day of his two-day stay in Tokyo, Obama for the first time gave a comprehensive overview of his Asia policy at Suntory Hall in Minato Ward.

Aiming to dispel recent concerns over the Japan-U.S. military alliance, Obama reiterated how much Washington values the bilateral relationship, stressing it is the foundation of "security and prosperity" for the two nations.

"Since taking office, I have worked to renew American leadership and pursue a new era of engagement with the world based on mutual interests and mutual respect," Obama said.

"And our efforts in the Asia-Pacific will be rooted, in no small measure, through an enduring and revitalized alliance between the United States and Japan."

The mood at the Suntory Hall was welcoming, and Obama drew laughter from the audience as he recalled visiting Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture, as a young boy and being more interested in "maccha" ice cream than in seeing the great Amida Buddha.

Obama, who was born in Hawaii and spent part of his childhood in Indonesia, stressed the importance of the Asia-Pacific region to the U.S.

"Asia and the United States are not separated by this great ocean ? we are bound by it," Obama said.

Obama said all nations, including Iran and North Korea, should fulfill their responsibilities in nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation.

He urged the North to return to the six-party talks and called on Pyongyang to disclose details of the Japanese abductees.

"Working in tandem with our partners, supported by direct diplomacy, the United States is prepared to offer North Korea a different future," Obama said.

Pointing out China's rapidly developing economy, Obama said other countries should not view its expansion with fear.

"The United States does not seek to contain China, nor does a deeper relationship with China mean a weakening of our bilateral alliances" with other countries, Obama said.

"On the contrary, the rise of a strong, prosperous China can be a source of strength for the community of nations."

But at the same time, he strongly expressed his intention to take a critical stance on human rights issues in China.

The U.S. and China "will not agree on every issue, and the United States will never waver in speaking up for the fundamental values that we hold dear ? and that includes respect for the religion and cultures of all people ? because support for human rights and human dignity is ingrained in America," Obama said. "But we can move these discussions forward in a spirit of partnership rather than rancor."

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「理想の自分」こだわらず /東京

(Mainichi Japan) November 15, 2009
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「理想の自分」こだわらず /東京
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: The danger of a virtual self

There's been a case in the news lately of a woman possibly defrauding men while hinting she would marry them, with the victims dying under mysterious circumstances.
A weekly magazine recently carried blog entries and submissions to online recipe sites said to be written by the same woman. Reading these texts, I was surprised at the consistency of the worldview and self-image they revealed.
 「婚活詐欺」などと称されている一連の事件。被害にあった男性たちが不審死を遂げていることにも関心が集まり、女性がネットの料理サイトに書いたといわれるレシピや日記が週刊誌などで公開されている。
 驚くのは、一貫した世界観だ。

Describing herself as an "elegant, wealthy woman who loves her dog and her family, and cooks using high-grade, seasonal ingredients," she described a life of eating lunch in top class restaurants, getting her hair done at famous salons, and ordering cooking ingredients from well-known shops, complete with photographs.
 「家族やペットの犬を愛し、四季の高級食材で料理を作る優雅なセレブ」として、日々の生活の様子が丁寧な言葉づかいと写真で紹介される。
 一流レストランでランチ、有名美容室でヘアカット、季節を感じに旅行に出かけ、おなじみの老舗から食材を取り寄せ……。

Now, as it appears that behind all this pleasantness this woman was committing fraud, everything she wrote becomes suspicious. If, however, one read these things without knowing of her possible criminal activity, one might think, "Wow, there really are some elegant and pure-hearted ladies out there." That's how thoroughly her diary entries and recipes paint the picture of a woman given naturally to a wealthy lifestyle.
 その裏に詐欺などの犯罪が隠れていた、とされる今では、すべてが欺瞞(ぎまん)に満ちて見えてくるのだが、何も知らずにこれだけ読むと、「へえ、上品で心のきれいなお嬢さまもいるものだな」と感心してしまうかもしれない。それくらい、“さもありなん”のセレブ生活がつづられているのだ。

It seems to me likely that this picture she created online is the person she truly thought herself to be.
 おそらくこの女性にとっては、このサイトにたまっていく自分の記録こそが、“本当の自分”だったのだろう。

She cooked, took trips and studied in seminars for the sole purpose of writing these experiences on the Web site. However, when one thinks of where the money for all this came from ...
 料理も旅行もセミナーでの勉強も、すべては日記に載せるため。そして、それを実現するためにはお金が必要となると……。

If only she had been the type to include her dreams and aspirations in her entries. If she had only wrote, "I went to a three-star restaurant today," there would have been no need for any money.
 この女性が、空想や願望を日記に書くタイプならまだよかった。「三ツ星レストランに行きました」を書くだけなら、元手はいらないからだ。

Perhaps she had established a rule for herself, that she must record the restaurants and so on she had been to in her diary. Perhaps she couldn't stand posting daydreams online.
 だが、彼女は、実際に行ったり食べたりして日記にしなければならない、というルールを自分に課していたのではないか。
ネットにウソや空想を書くことの方が耐えられなかったのかもしれない。

At the moment, blogging is very widespread, and bloggers use a little technical expertise to increase their page views. If, however, you write as the person you wished you were, then at some point you may have to become that person in order to protect the image you've created.
 いまブログが大流行で、誰もがより多くの人に見てもらうための工夫をこらしながら、自分の毎日をつづっている。
 しかし、いったん理想の自分の姿をブログにつづってしまうと、それを保つために今度は現実の方を変えなければならない場合も出てくる。

Real people's lives and lifestyles are not nearly so consistent. Kind people have cruel sides, and refined people can be concealing vulgarity.
 人間の生活や人生は、それほど整合性があるものではない。やさしい人にも残酷な一面があり、上品な人にも世俗的な顔が隠れている。

Of course, I'm not saying that blogs are the cause of her alleged crimes. But she may serve as one example of how fussing too much over an ideal version of ourselves and our lives can take us in unexpected directions.
 もちろん、今回の事件の原因がブログだ、と言うつもりはないのだが、そこに描かれている「理想の自分」にこだわりすぎると、思わぬ方向に突っ走ってしまうこともある、というひとつの例にはなるのではないか。

If you are a compulsive blogger, then I think taking a break and occasional changes in content and tone are just about right. (By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
 ブログは書いたり中断したり、ときには内容やトーンが変わったり、というくらいが、ちょうどよいのだと思う。

毎日新聞 2009年11月10日 地方版

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森繁久弥さん―その身に戦後を映して

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 13(IHT/Asahi: November 14,2009)
森繁久弥さん―その身に戦後を映して
EDITORIAL: Hisaya Morishige dies.

Hisaya Morishige, an actor who was capable of playing a great variety of roles, died Tuesday.
 モリシゲさんが亡くなった。

At times, he was known to have his audience in stitches with his light and comical acting. At other times, he depicted the joys and sorrows of ordinary people full of tender human feelings.
 ある時は軽妙な演技で観客を笑いの渦に巻き込み、またある時は、人情味たっぷりに庶民の哀歓を描きだす。

Morishige could play the part of a dignified politician just as well as that of a lazy husband dependent on his wife. He was also a good talker and skillful writer.
威厳に満ちた政治家の役も、女房に甘えるダメ亭主も似合った。話術も文筆の腕も冴(さ)えていた。

With his magnanimity and profundity as an actor, Morishige continued to reflect postwar Japanese society.
 芸域の広さと多才さ。その俳優としての大きさと奥行きで、「森繁久弥」は戦後という時代を映し続けた。

After dropping out of Waseda University, Morishige joined the Toho theatrical company and was called up for military service in 1938. Because of an ear disease, he was soon discharged. He went to Manchuria in northeastern China the following year as an announcer of Japan Broadcasting Corp. (NHK).
 早稲田大学を中退して東宝劇団に入った森繁さんは、38年に軍隊に召集された。耳の病気ですぐに帰され、翌年、NHKのアナウンサーとして旧満州へ。

He was there when Japan lost the war.
そこで敗戦を迎えた。

After the war, he returned to acting and attracted public attention as a talented comedian on a radio show.
 戦後、再び俳優として歩み始め、ラジオ番組での達者なコメディアンぶりが注目された。

Morishige made his name on the silver screen with "Santo Juyaku" (Third-class executive) released in 1952. In it, he played a happy-go-lucky section chief who helps an employee who became president after his predecessor stepped down to take responsibility for supporting the war effort.
 映画の出世作は、52年の「三等重役」。大物経営者が戦争協力を問われて退任し、代わりに社長になった社員を補佐する調子のいい課長を演じた。

Later, Morishige starred in the "Shacho" (company president) series that continued until the early 1970s. Comically depicting company workers, the shows fueled the golden age of Japanese cinema.
その後、70年代初めまで続く「社長シリーズ」などのサラリーマン喜劇は、日本映画の黄金期を支えた。

Since the mid-1960s, Morishige had appeared on many television home dramas, playing the parts of a grandfather or a father who was the mainstay of the family.
 60年代半ばからは、テレビのホームドラマに数多く出演。家族の中心にいる祖父や父親役で親しまれた。

In the 1973 film "Kokotsu no Hito" (A person in a state of ecstasy), Morishige gave a realistic performance of an old man suffering from dementia. It was decades before society started to seriously address the problem of nursing care.
 73年の映画「恍惚(こうこつ)の人」では、認知症の姿をリアルに見せた。介護の問題が社会で共有されるより、はるかに前のことである。

Morishige portrayed cheerful and energetic company workers during a period of high economic growth, fathers when society sought new images of the family, and then showed the reality of an aging society.
 高度成長期の陽気で活力あふれる会社員。新しい家族像が模索された時代のおとうさん。そして、高齢化社会の現実。森繁さんは戦後の日本社会に生きる人々を鮮やかに演じ続けた。

He was active in radio, movies and television, each of which was the most influential medium at the time.
 ラジオ、映画、そしてテレビと、活躍の場も、その時々に最も大きな影響力を持つメディアだった。

As a stage actor, Morishige was probably best known for his performance in the musical "Fiddler on the Roof," giving 900 performances from 1967. His portrayal of a Jewish father in czarist Russia struck a chord with Japanese audiences.
In 1982, the musical successfully completed a long run for six months, which was unusual at that time. Morishige was also one of the actors who built the foundation of the musical boom today.
 舞台人としての代表作は、67年から900回演じたミュージカル「屋根の上のヴァイオリン弾き」だろう。ロシアに暮らすユダヤ人の父親を日本人の情感に引きつけ、82年には当時としては異例の半年に及ぶロングランを成功させた。今日のミュージカル全盛の礎を築いた一人でもある。

In 1991, Morishige became the first actor of modern theater to be awarded the Order of Culture. Unlike such established traditional art forms as Kabuki and Noh, modern drama is a form of entertainment for ordinary contemporary people.
Morishige positioned modern drama as an authoritative form of performing art.
 91年には、現代劇の俳優として初めて文化勲章を受けた。歌舞伎や能など評価が定まった伝統芸能ではなく、いま、ここで生きる大衆のための芸能を、ひとつの権威の中に位置づけたのだ。

When he received the order, he said, "The doors to the 21st century have opened," underscoring his self-pride and deep emotion.
「21世紀の門が開かれた」という受章の言葉に自負と感慨があふれた。

Morishige's starting point was based on his harsh wartime experience of returning to Japan from Manchuria. He later repeatedly spoke and wrote about how he lived with a fear of death.
 森繁さんの原点には、旧満州からの過酷な引き揚げ体験がある。死と隣り合わせの日々を、後に繰り返し語り、書いている。

In his autobiography, he wrote that he built his own grave using the money he received for his first starring role in a film, which was released in 1950.
 50年に公開された最初の主演映画の出演料で自分の墓を建てたと自伝に記している。

"I picked up the second half of my life and I wanted to at least properly prepare my resting place," he wrote.
「拾った後半生、終着駅だけはちゃんとしておきたい」と。

It has nearly been 60 years since then. The curtain has finally dropped on Morishige's "illustrious and leisurely" life that he envisioned. He was 96. What a spectacular life.
 それからほぼ60年。自身が思い描いた「華々しく、悠々と」した人生の幕がおりた。96歳。見事な生涯である。

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ドクターと打ち合わせ

午前中ドクターと今後の治療につき打ち合わせしました。

ビールは血液中の尿酸値を著しく高めるのでご法度。
ウィスキー、日本酒、焼酎もアルコールは血圧を高めるので飲まないほうがよい。
結局1ヶ月間の断酒を約束させられてきました。

脳梗塞は順調に回復しています。

MRA脳内血管撮影にかかる費用はタイの公務員一ヶ月分の給料に相当します。
それでMRAを受診出来る人は限られています。
一般のタイ人にはその費用から受診できない状況です。

脳梗塞の投薬を引き続き1ヶ月継続
アトライティスの薬を変更、病名もOAというややこしい病気です。
この病気の特徴は複数の関節が同時進行でやられてしまう恐ろしい病気です。

本日の薬代、タイの労働者の一か月分の給料相当です。

早く回復したいですね。

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アフガン支援―できることを大胆に

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 13(IHT/Asahi: November 14,2009)
EDITORIAL: New aid to Afghanistan.
アフガン支援―できることを大胆に

In a new assistance package for Afghanistan, the government has pledged up to $5 billion (about 450 billion yen) over five years for a range of civilian aid programs, such as job training for former Taliban fighters and enhancing the capabilities of the police force.
 鳩山政権がアフガニスタンに対する新たな支援策を発表した。
 反政府武装勢力タリバーンの元兵士に対する職業訓練や警察支援など、今後5年間で最大50億ドル(約4500億円)を拠出する。

The security situation in Afghanistan is deteriorating steadily. The United States is considering sending additional troops. Improving the situation with military power alone would seem like a tall order. That explains growing expectations by the United States and European nations for civilian aid from Japan to help rebuild the war-torn nation.
 アフガンの治安は悪化するばかりだ。米国は軍の増派を検討しているものの、軍事力だけで事態を好転させるのは難しい。だから、オバマ政権も欧州諸国も国の再建につながる日本の民生支援への期待を高めている。

Because of the war raging in Afghanistan, Japan is unable to commit substantial human resources for aid activities. The government's decision to provide financial support for civilian assistance is eminently reasonable.
 現状では、日本が本格的に「人」を送り込む支援は難しい。だが、そんななかでも、民生面での支援に思い切った資金を提供するという政府の判断は、理にかなっている。

The former coalition government led by the Liberal Democratic Party dispatched Maritime Self-Defense Force vessels to the Indian Ocean to refuel the ships of allied forces targeting terrorists in Afghanistan. The new administration led by Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama plans to discontinue the mission in January. Given the fact that demand for refueling has been falling, there is a strong case for the decision, which is in line with an election promise made by Hatoyama's Democratic Party of Japan.
 自公政権時代、政府はインド洋に海上自衛隊を派遣し、多国籍軍の艦艇に給油を続けてきた。鳩山政権は来年1月に打ち切る方針だ。選挙前の主張にそったもので、最近減っている給油需要を考えても納得できる措置だ。

But some people say the decision amounts to "checkbook diplomacy." Critics contend that the refueling mission was intended to help international efforts in thwarting terrorists and that Japan's assistance was valued by the United States. They argue that Japan cannot make a meaningful contribution to such efforts only by providing money while bringing its troops home.
 この判断を「小切手外交」と批判する議論がある。インド洋での給油活動は「テロとの戦い」への貢献だ。米国からも評価されてきた。その自衛隊を退かせ、資金提供だけで国際社会への貢献を果たしたつもりになるのはおかしいという理屈だ。

The criticism may be a reflection of sensitivities that were aroused when Japan was roundly criticized for offering only financial assistance--albeit a large amount--when the Persian Gulf War flared 18 years ago.
巨額の資金援助をしながら国際的には評価されなかった18年前の湾岸戦争の時のトラウマが背景にあるのだろうか。

But the criticism is off the mark. Japan should consider and decide on its own what it can and should do to help restore stability in Afghanistan, instead of acting in response to pressures from other countries. With Japan's military role in Afghanistan restricted by its pacifist Constitution, the best it can do is to provide as much civilian assistance as possible.
 だが、批判は的外れだ。アフガン安定のために日本ができること、すべきことを、外圧によるのでなく、日本自らが冷静に考えるべきだ。それは、軍事面での役割に限界のある日本として、民生面でできる限りの支援を送ることなのではないのか。

Japan can be proud of its past achievements concerning civilian aid to Afghanistan. Long before the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan, Japan was providing technical support to ensure cities had stable supplies of drinking water and helping rice farming activities. The lessons learned from those experiences are being put to effective use for projects now being pushed by the Japan International Cooperation Agency and others.
 日本のアフガン民生支援には、誇るべき実績がある。ソ連軍の侵攻前にも主要都市での給水や稲作指導にあたってきた。当時の経験は今の国際協力機構(JICA)などのプロジェクトに受け継がれている。

Japan's long-term commitment to helping efforts to rebuild Afghanistan will contribute to eliminating the root causes of terrorism. Civilian aid from Japan will also give indirect support to military efforts by the United States and other countries deploying troops to the landlocked country. That was why the White House press secretary immediately issued a statement welcoming Tokyo's promise of fresh aid to Afghanistan.
 日本が長期的視点でアフガンの国造りを支えることは、結果としてテロリストの温床を断つことにつながる。兵員を派遣している米国などの努力を側面から支えることにもなる。米大統領報道官がさっそく歓迎する声明を出したのも、そうした文脈からだろう。

But the amount--$5 billion--does not represent specific spending plans. Apparently, the government hastily decided on the figure to placate President Barack Obama ahead of his visit to Japan over its decision to terminate the refueling mission.
 ただ、50億ドルという支援規模は、具体策を積み上げた結果ではない。オバマ大統領の訪日を控え、給油をやめることに理解を得るための、まず総額ありきの決定だったのも否めない。

To ensure that Japan's financial aid will not be consumed by rampant corruption in the government in Kabul headed by President Hamid Karzai, Tokyo needs to develop careful aid plans and closely monitor how the funds are spent.
 カルザイ政権の汚職・腐敗体質の中で日本の資金が消えてしまわないよう、政府は綿密な支援計画をたて、実施面でも厳しく目を光らせる責任がある。

The government should provide taxpayers with a convincing explanation about the importance of this costly aid package. It should also take effective steps to make Japan's contribution to Afghanistan's reconstruction known widely in the international community.
これだけの税金をつぎ込むのだ。その意義を日本の納税者に説明するとともに、国際社会に向けて日本の貢献策を積極的に発信してもらいたい。

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オバマ演説 アジア戦略の要は日米同盟だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 15, 2009)
Japan-U.S. alliance key to Asian peace, prosperity
オバマ演説 アジア戦略の要は日米同盟だ(11月15日付・読売社説)

U.S. President Barack Obama stressed in a speech he delivered in Tokyo, the first leg of his Asian tour, on Saturday that the United States places great importance on Asia and will actively engage in addressing issues across the region.
 オバマ米大統領は、アジア歴訪で最初に訪れた東京での演説で、アジアを重視し、この地域の問題に積極的に関与していく考えを強調した。

Obama stated that the Asia-Pacific region is a "vitally important part of the world" and that the United States is committed to the region's future.
 大統領は、アジア太平洋地域を米国にとって「死活的に重要な地域」と位置づけ、その将来に「米国が責任を担う」と述べた。

The words were an indication of Obama's eagerness to secure stability and prosperity in Asia under U.S. initiatives.
 米国主導のもとで、アジアの安定と繁栄を確保していく、との意欲を示したものと言えよう。

Recovery from the global recession hinges very much on the economies of Asia, the largest region in the world recording significant growth. Economic trends in the region, which purchases about 25 percent of the United States' merchandise exports, have a decisive impact on the U.S. economy and employment.
 世界同時不況からの回復は、最大の成長拠点であるアジア経済にかかっている。米国の景気や雇用も、輸出の4分の1を占めるこの地域の経済動向に左右される。

At the same time, the United States currently is facing many challenges it cannot overcome without cooperation with Asian nations, including North Korea's nuclear development, the ever-deteriorating situation in Afghanistan, energy security and global warming countermeasures.
 同時に、北朝鮮の核開発、混迷を深めるアフガニスタン情勢、エネルギー安全保障、地球温暖化対策など、アジア諸国との協力なしには解決できない課題も多い。

===

Hatoyama must improve ties

In Saturday's speech, Obama clarified his position on the Japan-U.S. alliance, saying it is the foundation for strengthening U.S. engagement with the whole of Asia.
 大統領は演説で、アジアへの関与を強めていく土台は「日米同盟」であることを明確にした。

Obama and Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama agreed during their summit talks Friday to deepen and develop the Japan-U.S. alliance. Hatoyama must, however, exercise leadership to improve this key relationship, which appears to be somewhat strained.
 13日の日米首脳会談で、両首脳は同盟の「深化」で合意した。鳩山首相は、きしみをみせ始めた日米関係を再構築するため、指導力を発揮していかねばならない。

The United States is watching its influence in Asia ebb away as an emergent China increases its influence in the region. Obama's speech apparently came about as a result of his concern regarding this situation.
 アジアでは、台頭する中国が影響力を拡大するにつれ、相対的に米国の存在感は低下している。今回の演説の背景には、そうした現実への危機感があるのだろう。

On U.S. relations with China, Obama said in the speech, "Cultivating spheres of cooperation--not competing spheres of influence--will lead to progress in the Asia-Pacific." And he added, "The United States does not seek to contain China."
 大統領は、中国とは「影響圏の拡大を競い合うのではなく、協力分野を開拓することがアジア太平洋地域の発展につながる」とし、「封じ込めの意図はない」と明言した。

Obama also said Washington will work to further deepen its strategic and economic dialogues with Beijing as well as to improve communication between their militaries.
戦略・経済対話や米中軍事対話も一層拡充する意向だ。

===

Greater U.S. role in Asia?

A key focus of attention is on what measures Obama will come up with to strengthen the U.S. relationship with China during meetings with Chinese leaders in Beijing this week.
 訪中するオバマ大統領が中国首脳との会談で、どのような関係強化策を打ち出すか注目される。

In Asia, there have been various initiatives put forward that seek to strengthen cooperation among the region's nations, such as Hatoyama's proposal for the creation of an East Asia community, and China's call for an East Asia free trade area.
 アジアには、鳩山首相の東アジア共同体構想をはじめ、中国提唱の東アジア自由貿易圏など、地域連携強化を模索する様々な動きがある。

In his speech, Obama referred to the United States more formally engaging with the East Asia Summit, in what was apparently a strategic move aimed at seeing the United States participate in the forum.
大統領は、東アジア首脳会議への関与にも言及した。米国の参加に向けた布石だろう。

As for North Korea, the largest destabilizing factor in the East Asian region, Obama sought a return by Pyongyang to the six-party talks aimed at denuclearizing the nation and to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. He also said the United States is committed to firmly maintaining sanctions on North Korea until it meets its international obligations.
 東アジアで最大の不安定要因である北朝鮮に対し、オバマ大統領は、6か国協議と核拡散防止条約(NPT)への復帰を求めた。北朝鮮が国際的な義務を果たすまで制裁を堅持する構えも見せた。

As for the issue of Japanese citizens abducted by North Korean agents, Obama said that "full normalization with its neighbors can only come if Japanese families receive a full accounting of those who have been abducted."
 日本人拉致問題についても、拉致被害者の家族への「全面的な説明」がない限り、「近隣諸国との完全な関係正常化はあり得ない」と断言した。

With a U.S.-North Korea dialogue looming, this is a powerful message that makes it clear Tokyo and Washington stand as one on this issue. Japan and the United States need to achieve results together through an unshakable Japan-U.S. alliance.
 近く始まる米朝協議を前に、日米が一つであると明示した力強いメッセージだ。揺るぎない日米同盟で成果をあげる必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 15, 2009)
(2009年11月15日00時22分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月14日 (土)

脳梗塞

脳梗塞

9月15日に脳梗塞を発症、死を覚悟しました。
MRA検査で脳内血管の詰まっている部分を特定でき、投薬のみで対処できました。
あれから約2ヶ月が経過、経過は順調です。
ドクターは2ヶ月の投薬で完治するといっていましたが、そのとおりでした。
以前はパソコンの前に座ると吐き気をもようしましたが、ようやく頭が回転するようになりました。
脳梗塞で死に至る人はタイでも多いということです。
私は早期発見できて全くラッキーだったと思います。
明日日曜日はドクターにお会いして、今後のリハビリにつき打ち合わせをします。
英語が主体ですが、タイ語も織り交ぜて打ち合わせを進めます。
脳梗塞と同時にアトライティス(arthritis)(関節炎)も同時に発症しています。
最初は足の指、それから足のくるぶし、ひざ、足全体と悪化していく、20年におよぶ生活習慣病です。
それが右手の指(中指、薬指)まで駆け上ってきて指が動きにくくなっています。
指の骨が炎症をおこしていて、血液中の尿酸過多が原因です。
中指、人差し指ともひとまわり大きくはれあがっています。
高速タイピングするのが私の信条だったのに、今ではゆっくりとしたタイピングしかできなくなってしましまいました。
今後は引き続き脳梗塞の投薬に加えてアトライティスの症状を緩和する様々な薬のうち、自分の体質に合うものを見つけ出し試してみようかと思っています。
毎日運動をしなければなりませんのでちょっと大変ですが、もう少し生きたいので面倒くさがらずに運動も生活メニューに加えて実践していきます。
今後とも英字新聞ブログのご愛読のほど、よろしくお願いいたします。

srachai from khonkaen, thailand

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Obama, Hatoyama prioritize alliance

extracted from Japan Times

この記事は英日対訳で何度も繰り返し読んでしまっているので、全部辞書なしで理解できました。
沖縄の基地移設問題、早急に解決しないと日米関係にしこり(禍根)を残す結果となります。
鳩山首相に早期解決をお願いしたいですね。
自衛隊のインド洋給油は継続する方向で早急に決断してほしいですね。
社民党に遠慮することはないと思います。

Saturday, Nov. 14, 2009

Obama, Hatoyama prioritize alliance
Cooperation on nuke arms, emissions; no Futenma deal

By MASAMI ITO
Staff writer

Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama and U.S. President Barack Obama vowed Friday to bolster the bilateral alliance and cooperate on pressing global issues, including climate change and nuclear disarmament.

The two also touched on the sensitive relocation of U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Okinawa. The issue has cast a shadow on bilateral relations. They said it was their common goal to resolve the issue as soon as possible.

Earlier this week, the two governments decided to form a ministerial-level working group to find a way to resolve the issue, just in time to avoid direct conflict at the summit.

The working group "will focus on the implementation of the agreement that our two governments reached with respect to the restructuring of the U.S. forces in Okinawa, and we hope to complete this work expeditiously," Obama said during a joint news conference. "Our goal remains the same ? and that is to provide for the defense of Japan with minimal intrusion on the lives of the people who share the space."

But the contentious relocation of the Futenma base continues to loom over the Hatoyama administration.

In 2006, the then Liberal Democratic Party-led government signed a bilateral agreement with the U.S. to move the Futenma base's flight operations in Ginowan to U.S. Marine Corps Camp Schwab in Nago on the northern part of Okinawa Island by 2014.

But Hatoyama's Democratic Party of Japan, which came to power in August amid a strong wave of anti-LDP sentiment, has promised to consider moving the base outside the prefecture or even outside Japan.

Obama arrived at Tokyo's Haneda airport aboard Air Force One earlier in the day on his first official trip to Japan. He will depart Saturday for Singapore to attend the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum summit.

"I began my trip here in Tokyo because the alliance between the United States and Japan is a foundation for security and prosperity not just for our two countries but for the Asia-Pacific region," Obama said.

With the 50th anniversary of the revision of the Japan-U.S. security treaty coming up next year, the two leaders promised to strengthen the bilateral ties to aim for a "world without nuclear weapons."

"I told Obama that the Japan-U.S. alliance is the foundation of everything in regards to Japan's diplomacy," Hatoyama said. "But the times and the situation of the world have changed and I suggested to further advance and develop the alliance, to create a constructive and future-oriented new Japan-U.S. alliance."

During the evening talks at the Prime Minister's Official Residence, Hatoyama and Obama issued a joint statement, pledging the two governments to work closely toward nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation. Obama won the Nobel Peace Prize last month for his vision of a nuclear-free world.

The statement declared that North Korea and Iran should "uphold and adhere to their respective international obligations." Pointing out Pyongyang's recent missile launches and nuclear test, the joint statement stressed, "North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons remains a major threat to peace and stability in Northeast Asia and the entire international community."

Japan and the U.S. also urged North Korea "to return immediately to the six-party (Pyongyang denuclearization) talks without precondition."

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日米漂流:オバマ大統領来日を前に/下 温室ガス数値目標

(Mainichi Japan) November 13, 2009
Japan, U.S. grow apart over efforts to tackle global warming
日米漂流:オバマ大統領来日を前に/下 温室ガス数値目標

 ◇「25%減」表明に冷淡 関心は新興国の動向
A representative of the Japanese government urged that the base year for setting targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions not be limited to 1990 during a U.N. special working group meeting in Barcelona on Nov. 6.
 「90年に限定しないようにしてほしい」。スペイン・バルセロナで今月開かれた国連の特別作業部会。
最終日の6日、非公開で行われていた交渉会議で、日本政府は温室効果ガス排出量削減率の基準年問題で、こう提案した。

The administration of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama earlier announced that Japan will seek to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 25 percent by 2020 and 80 percent by 2050. The base year for both targets is 1990.
The United States, which demands that the base year should be set at 2005, expressed support for Japan's demand that the base year should not be limited to 1990.
鳩山政権の「2020年に25%減」「50年に80%減」は「90年比」を基本にするが、05年を主張する米国は「日本の提案を支持する」と賛同。

Washington's demand was incorporated in proposals for the draft of green house gas reduction targets -- which parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change are aiming to agree on at an upcoming ministerial conference on climate change in Copenhagen next month.
気候変動枠組み条約第15回締約国会議(COP15)で閣僚合意を目指すたたき台案に残された。

The United States would be required to reduce its emissions less if the base year is set at any year after 1990, because its emissions have been growing since that year.
 90年以降、排出量が増えている米国は、同じ削減率なら90年より近年を基準とした方が、削減量が少なくなる。

An official of a nongovernmental organization on environmental protection expressed disappointment at the move. "Once again, Japan follows the United States."
環境NGOからは「米国が積極的提案を出さなくても、日本はやはり米国追従なのか」と落胆の声が漏れた。
 日本は、常に米国の動向を気にしてきた。

Japan set a target of reducing per-capita greenhouse gas emissions to 3 tons annually following the signing of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997.
 97年に採択された京都議定書をめぐる協議で、日本が「国民1人当たり年間3トン(炭素換算)」などとする数値目標の案を最初に示した相手は米国だった。

Tokyo then notified the United States of its numerical target.
The previous administration of Prime Minister Taro Aso announced in June this year that it would aim to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 15 percent from 2005 levels. It followed the United States in setting the base year at 2005.
今年6月、麻生前政権が「05年比15%減(90年比8%減)」を発表したが、05年基準は米国と同じだ。

However, the Hatoyama administration's announcement that Japan will seek to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 25 percent from 1990 levels has demonstrated a major change in Japan-U.S. relations in the field of global warming countermeasures.
 こうした流れの中、今年9月に公表された「90年比25%減」は、地球温暖化分野でも米国との関係の変化を印象付けた。

The move was appreciated by the United Nations and European countries while Washington remained silent about Japan's declaration.
発表直後、国連や欧州から賛辞が相次いだのとは対照的に、米国は押し黙った。

When asked about Japan's target during a special working group meeting in Bangkok in late September, U.S. chief negotiator Jonathan Pershing coolly replied that he had not yet analyzed the target.
 さらに9月末のバンコクでの特別作業部会で、記者から感想を求められた米政府交渉団のパーシング代表は「まだ分析していない」とにべもなかった。

Even though Japanese representatives made remarks in favor of Washington at the Barcelona meeting, U.S. negotiators did not appreciate the Hatoyama initiative, which includes measures to extend assistance to developing countries to help them reduce greenhouse gases.
日本が米国寄りの主張を繰り返したバルセロナの特別作業部会でも、米国は日本の途上国支援策を盛り込んだ「鳩山イニシアチブ」などの提案を評価することはなかった。

"The United States had viewed Japan as an ally. However, after listening to Prime Minister Hatoyama's speech, U.S. officials thought Japan is distancing itself from Washington," said a high-ranking official of the Foreign Ministry.
外務省幹部は「米国から見れば日本は仲間だった。鳩山由紀夫首相の演説を聞いて、日本は離れたとの思いがあるのではないか」と推測する。

In a meeting on greenhouse gases on Nov. 4, members of the U.S. House of Representatives diplomatic panel focused on a response to emerging countries such as China and India.
 今月4日の米下院外交委員会公聴会。議論は中国やインドなど新興国への対応に集中。

U.S. climate change special envoy Todd Stern warned that the United States would lose out to competition from emerging countries such as China and India in developing alternative energy sources, pointing to the possibility that technological innovation would occur in these countries.
国務省のスターン気候変動問題担当特使は「代替エネルギーの技術革命が中国やインドで起こり、我々は競争に遅れる」と訴えた。

Yutaka Miki, chief researcher for a strategy on combating global warming at the Japan Research Institute, pointed out that the U.S. government pays more attention to China than Japan over global warming countermeasures.
"The U.S. government is stepping up efforts to ensure an anti-global warming bill passes into law. It is paying attention to Chinese industry, a potential rival of its domestic market," he said.
日本総合研究所の三木優主任研究員(温暖化対応戦略)は「米国は、国内の温暖化対策法案の成立に力を注いでいる。国内産業のライバルとなる中国の動向に関心が向いている」と解説する。

Tokyo is attempting to take the initiative in combating global warming by setting such an ambitious target and getting major producers of greenhouse gases, such as the United States and China, involved in the process. However, Washington does not appear to be paying attention to Japan as the two countries grow apart.
 日本の戦略は、野心的な削減目標を掲げて主導権を握り、米中など主要排出国を巻き込もうとするものだった。だが、離れてはすり寄ろうとする日本を、米国はあまり眼中に入れていないようだ。

"The actions of China, which Congress is paying attention to, is the most important point for President Obama. At the Japan-U.S. summit, the two leaders will likely agree to cooperate in the field of energy and in efforts to form a consensus in the COP15, but the content of the agreement will not be substantive," a diplomatic source lamented.
 「オバマ米大統領にとって重要なのは、議会が強く意識している中国だ。日米首脳会談ではエネルギー分野やCOP15での協調努力で合意するにしても、踏み込んだ内容にならない」と外交筋は漏らす。

Even though bilateral relations have been strained over U.S. bases in Japan and other sticky issues, it should be easy for the two countries to cooperate on environmental issues such as global warming countermeasures.
 基地問題など難題を抱える日米関係にあって、温暖化など環境分野は連携しやすいはず。

However, Japan and the United States do not appear to be working closely in leading the deadlocked multilateral negotiations on climate change. (By Junko Adachi and Ai Oba, Environment and Science News Department. This is the last part of a five-part series on the Japan-U.S. alliance)
だが、膠着(こうちゃく)状態が続く多国間の温暖化交渉に、日米がそろってけん引役となる姿は見えてこない。【足立旬子、大場あい、ワシントン小松健一】

毎日新聞 2009年11月12日 東京朝刊

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オバマ氏来日―問われる同盟管理の意思

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 12(IHT/Asahi: November 13,2009)
EDITORIAL: Hatoyama-Obama talks.
オバマ氏来日―問われる同盟管理の意思

A year ago, Barack Obama, who will visit Japan on Friday, won the U.S. presidential election with his slogan of "change." Since he took office in January, Obama has come up with a number of innovative domestic and foreign policies.
 オバマ米大統領があす来日する。

 ちょうど1年前の大統領選挙で「チェンジ」を訴え、就任後は内政、外交で次々と新機軸を打ち出してきたオバマ氏。

International society is watching with interest how Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama, who also took the reins of government this year, will open new horizons in Japan-U.S. relations together with President Obama.
こちらも政権交代を果たした鳩山由紀夫首相がオバマ氏とともに、日米関係の新しい地平をどう開いていくか、国際社会が注目する。

Both administrations plan to promote multilateral cooperative diplomacy while attaching importance to such global issues as climate change and nuclear disarmament.
 ともに地球温暖化対策や核軍縮といった地球規模の課題を重視し、多国間の協調的な外交で取り組もうという政権だ。

We urge both leaders to confirm a solid alliance and draw a vision that is considerably different from the one embraced by the administrations of George W. Bush and the Liberal Democratic Party.
両首脳は、強固な同盟を確認しつつ、ブッシュ政権、自民党政権の時代とはひと味もふた味も違う構想を描いてほしいと願う。

However, the proposed relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Ginowan, Okinawa Prefecture, has become a sticking point in the alliance. U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates pressed the Japanese government to relocate the facility to Henoko in Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, as agreed upon three years ago.
But both Japan and the United States do not plan to make the Futenma issue a major item on the agenda at their summit.  だが、その同盟ののど元に太いとげがささっている。米海兵隊の普天間飛行場の移設問題だ。ゲーツ国防長官は、大統領来日までに3年前の合意通り名護市辺野古への移設を受け入れるよう迫ったが、日米とも今回の首脳会談では主要な議題にしない方針だ。

Instead, they decided to seek an early settlement in a ministerial working group. We also think it would be unwise to complicate the summit with this problem.
 代わりに、閣僚級の作業グループで移設問題の決着を急ぐことになった。確かに、この問題で首脳会談全体をこじらせてしまうのは得策ではない。

Yet, the situation is becoming increasingly serious. While the Okinawa governor and Nago mayor are ready to accept the relocation to Henoko, the change of government gave new hope to Okinawa citizens and Nago residents who want Futenma's functions to be transferred outside the prefecture. They are also growing impatient with Hatoyama, who has still not made a decision.
 しかし、事態はますます困難さを増している。沖縄県知事や地元の名護市長は辺野古移設を容認するが、政権交代によって県民や地元住民たちには県外移設への新たな期待が生まれている。方針がなかなか定まらない首相へのいらだちも募る。

Meanwhile, the dangerous situation of Futenma must be eliminated immediately. If no decision is made concerning the issue, one piece in the reorganization of U.S. forces, all plans to alleviate Okinawa's burden of hosting U.S. military bases, such as the return of Futenma and the relocation of Marines to Guam, would stall.
 一方で、普天間飛行場の危険な状態は一日も早く除かねばならない。日米合意を白紙にすることで、米軍再編という大きな構図のひとこまが埋まらなければ、普天間返還や海兵隊のグアム移転など沖縄の基地負担の軽減策がすべて足踏みしてしまう。

Hatoyama should frankly explain the difficulty and complexity of the problem when he meets Obama. Instead of avoiding the issue, the leaders should seriously exchange views because the issue affects the very foundation of the alliance.
 鳩山首相は会談で問題の難しさ、複雑さを率直に説明してはどうか。避けて通るのではなく、同盟の根幹にかかわるからこそ、真剣に意見を交わす。そうした姿勢が大事だ。

Whatever decision Hatoyama makes, considerable political energy is needed to change the actual situation. Both leaders need to show a strong political will to settle the problem as soon as possible.
 首相がいずれどういう決断を下すにせよ、それに基づいて現状を打開するには大変な政治的エネルギーがいる。この問題を早期に解決するという強い政治意思を両首脳が表明し、打開への弾みをつける必要がある。

In an interview with Japan Broadcasting Corp. (NHK), Obama said it was "perfectly appropriate" for the Hatoyama administration to review the Futenma relocation plan. But he also expressed hope that Tokyo will ultimately follow through on the agreement.
 オバマ氏はNHKのインタビューで、鳩山政権が辺野古移設をめぐる日米合意を検証していることに理解を示しつつ、最終的にはそのまま受け入れるよう期待を表明した。

Policies may change when a new administration takes over, leading to friction with allies. The maintenance of the Japan-U.S. alliance in an age of government change is now being tested.
 政権交代があれば、前政権からの政策の変更はありうるし、それによって摩擦が生じることもある。政権交代の時代の同盟管理のあり方が問われているのだ。

Next year marks the 50th anniversary of the revision of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty. Work to redefine the Japan-U.S. alliance in the 21st century and the division of roles started when governments changed hands in both countries. We hope the summit will befit this important occasion.
 来年は日米安保条約改定から50年にあたる。両国で政権が代わったこの機会に、21世紀の新しい日米同盟の姿と役割分担を描き直す作業が始まる。それにふさわしい会談にしたい。

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日米首脳会談 同盟深化へ「普天間」の決着急げ

英字新聞紙上でさいきんwhatever it (verb)の構文をよくみかけるが文法的に理解できない。
whatever which/that (verb)
もしくは
whatever (verb)
でよいのではないでしょか?

We urge Hatoyama to give serious consideration once again to the significance of the Japan-U.S. alliance and do whatever it takes to solve the Futenma relocation problem.
 鳩山首相は、日米同盟の意義を改めて熟慮したうえ、普天間問題の解決に取り組んでほしい。

We urge Hatoyama to give serious consideration once again to the significance of the Japan-U.S. alliance and do whatever which (that) takes to solve the Futenma relocation problem.
 鳩山首相は、日米同盟の意義を改めて熟慮したうえ、普天間問題の解決に取り組んでほしい。

We urge Hatoyama to give serious consideration once again to the significance of the Japan-U.S. alliance and do whatever  takes to solve the Futenma relocation problem.
 鳩山首相は、日米同盟の意義を改めて熟慮したうえ、普天間問題の解決に取り組んでほしい。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 14, 2009)
Settle Futenma issue to deepen alliance
日米首脳会談 同盟深化へ「普天間」の決着急げ(11月14日付・読売社説)

Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama and visiting U.S. President Barack Obama on Friday agreed to begin talks to deepen the Japan-U.S. alliance in a multilayered way next year, which will mark the 50th anniversary of the revision of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty.
 鳩山首相は、来日したオバマ米大統領との会談で、来年の日米安保条約改定50周年に向けて、同盟関係を重層的に深化させるための政府間協議を開始することで合意した。

This agreement to deepen the alliance means Tokyo and Washington cannot continue to shy away from discussing the planned relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps' Futenma Air Station in Ginowan, Okinawa Prefecture. The government should not simply allow this issue to fester, but decide to implement the current plan and settle the issue by the end of this year.
 同盟を深化させるという以上、米海兵隊普天間飛行場の移設問題は避けて通れない。政府は、いたずらに問題を先送りせず、今年中に現行計画の推進を決断し、決着させるべきだ。

 ◇戦略協議を深めよ◇
The bilateral treaty is based on an interdependent relationship in which Japan allows U.S. forces to be stationed here in return for a commitment to defend this country.
 安保条約の根幹は、米国が日本防衛の義務を負う代わりに、日本が米軍の国内駐留を認めるという相互依存の関係にある。

Japan was a member of the Western bloc during the period of confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. After the Cold War, Japan sought to contribute to peace in Asia and the rest of the world through the Japan-U.S. alliance. Japan's economic growth during this period depended largely on Japan-U.S. cooperation in a wide variety of fields, again based on the alliance.
 日本は米ソ対立の時代、西側の一員として行動し、冷戦終結後は日米同盟を活用しつつ、世界とアジアの平和に貢献することを目指した。この間の日本の経済発展は同盟関係による幅広い日米協力にあずかるところが大きい。

Reinforcement of the Japan-U.S. alliance will serve Japan's national interests in the future--just as it has in the past.
 今後も、従来と同様、日米同盟の強化が日本の国益にかなう道と言えよう。

===

Agreements reached

Hatoyama and Obama also announced written agreements on measures to tackle global warming--which included efforts by both countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases by 80 percent by 2050--and on working with each other to realize "a world without nuclear weapons."
 両首脳は、地球温暖化対策や核軍縮問題で合意文書を発表した。2050年までに日米両国が温室効果ガスの排出量を80%削減する目標を掲げた。「核のない世界」の実現に向けて日米が連携することも盛り込まれた。

Global issues such as the environment and nuclear nonproliferation are the policy areas on which Tokyo and Washington are working most closely at present.
We hope their close ties in these fields can produce concrete results.
 環境や核不拡散など地球規模の課題は今、日米の足並みが最もそろっている分野だ。具体的な成果につなげたい。

The agreements at the latest Japan-U.S. summit meeting should not end up as mere diplomatic lip service. Further efforts will be needed to continue cooperation between Japan and the United States in a wide variety of fields.
 今回の首脳合意を、言葉だけに終わらせてはなるまい。今後、様々な分野で日米協力を重ねる努力が欠かせない。

How should Japan and the United States cooperate and act to maintain global stability and prosperity? Both countries will need to exchange ideas thoughtfully and deepen their strategic discussions.
 世界の安定と繁栄を持続するため、日米がどう連携し、いかに行動するのか。両国が真剣にアイデアを出し合い、戦略的な協議を深めることも重要になる。

Obama is expected to visit Japan again next autumn to attend the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum summit meeting scheduled to be held in Yokohama. This will be a golden opportunity to compile the results of the strategic talks into a new joint document that will succeed the 1996 joint declaration on security.
 オバマ大統領は、来秋に横浜で開かれるアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議に出席するため再来日する見通しだ。戦略協議の成果を、1996年の日米安保共同宣言に次ぐ新共同宣言としてまとめる好機となろう。

 ◇新安保共同宣言を◇
The two sides staged amicable summit talks in Tokyo on Friday, with both agreeing that Obama's visit to Japan could not be allowed to be viewed as a failure.
 今回の首脳会談では、大統領来日を失敗させるわけにいかないとの日米共通の判断から、協調関係を演出した。

However, it is undeniable that Japan-U.S. relations have been strained in recent times. Hatoyama's inability to quickly settle the Futenma base relocation issue has been the biggest destablilizing factor on bilateral ties.
しかし、現在の日米関係にきしみが生じているのは否定しようのない事実だ。
 その最大の要因は、鳩山首相が普天間飛行場の移設問題を先送りし続けていることにある。

===

Group must achieve results

The two governments have agreed to set up a ministerial-level working group to intensively discuss this issue. But the working group should not be used as an excuse to keep kicking this can down the road.
 日米両政府は、この問題を集中的に協議する閣僚級の作業部会を設置することで合意した。だが、作業部会を、問題のさらなる先送りの口実にしてはならない。

In their talks, the two leaders agreed to reach an early conclusion at the working group. "I understand it will become more difficult to resolve the issue the longer we wait," Hatoyama told Obama during their talks.
We hope the working group, which will start discussions next week, will reach an early conclusion as the two leaders agreed.
 首脳会談では、来週にも始まる作業部会で早期に結論を出すことで一致した。鳩山首相も記者会見で、「時間がたてば、より解決が難しくなることを理解している」と表明した。

Many observers believe that if the issue remains unsettled by the end of the year, the current plan to relocate the Futenma airfield to Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, will effectively be deadlocked.
 実際、問題が年内に決着しなければ、普天間飛行場を沖縄県名護市に移設する現行計画は頓挫するとの見方が強い。

If the cost of the relocation is not earmarked in the fiscal 2010 budget to be compiled at the year-end, momentum to realize the plan will be lost in both Japan and the United States.
年末に編成する来年度予算案に移設費が計上されない場合、日米とも現行計画を実行する機運が失われよう。

This will also raise the prospects that the U.S. Congress will slash the budget for relocating 8,000 U.S. marines stationed in Okinawa Prefecture to Guam.
 米議会が海兵隊8000人のグアム移転の予算を大幅に削減する恐れも強まる。

An increasing number of people in Okinawa Prefecture are calling for Futenma Air Station to be moved outside the prefecture. This change in local sentiment has been aroused by Hatoyama's unwillingness to rule out such an option, saying it is necessary to respect the "consensus of the people in the prefecture." However, Hatoyama has not presented any concrete proposal to resolve this issue.
 沖縄でも、普天間飛行場の県外移設を求める声が徐々に広がり始めている。鳩山首相が、「沖縄県民の総意が大事だ」などとして、何の具体案もない県外移設に含みを持たせてきたためだ。

A Nago mayoral election is scheduled for January. If the incumbent mayor, who supports the present relocation plan, loses in the election, it could derail the Futenma relocation project.
 来年1月には名護市長選が予定されている。仮に現行計画を容認する現職が敗れれば、移設問題は暗礁に乗り上げかねない。

It is essential to prevent the result of one mayoral election from having serious ramifications on the security of the entire nation.
 一市長選の結果が、国全体の安全保障に重大な影響を与える事態は避ける必要がある。

Hatoyama must respect the agreement with Obama and urgently make a decision on this issue--a task he should complete as the head of the government.
 鳩山首相は、オバマ大統領との合意を尊重し、国の責任として、この問題について早急に政治決断を下すべきだ。

===

National security at stake

The original purpose of realigning U.S. forces stationed in Japan was to maintain the U.S. deterrent while, at the same time, lessening the burden shouldered by municipalities and residents hosting U.S. bases. We think the Hatoyama government should go back to the drawing board and rectify its policies that give excessive consideration to reducing the burdens on local communities.
 在日米軍再編の目的は「米軍の抑止力の維持」と「地元負担の軽減」の両立だった。鳩山政権はこの原点に戻り、後者に偏重した政策を見直すことが求められる。

 ◇米軍の抑止力は重要だ◇
Japan currently faces the most serious security situation in recent years: North Korea is relentlessly pursuing nuclear and missile development programs, China is rapidly building up its military and threats from international terrorists are becoming ever greater.
The presence of U.S. forces in Japan has served as a powerful deterrent against all manner of contingencies. It is important to face up to this reality.
 北朝鮮の核ミサイル開発や、中国の急激な軍事大国化、国際テロの脅威など、日本の安全保障環境はかつてなく厳しい。在日米軍の存在が様々な非常事態に対する強力な抑止力となっている現実を直視することが大切だ。

The United States provides Japan with intelligence when North Korea is preparing to launch ballistic missiles or when it detects suspicious troop movements on the Korean Peninsula, for example. This information is not provided just because of the joint security treaty.
 北朝鮮が弾道ミサイルの発射準備をしている。部隊に不穏な動きがある――。例えば、こうした機密情報が米国から日本に迅速に提供されるのは、単に安保条約が結ばれているからではない。

Japan and the United States have forged a relationship of trust through ceaseless efforts over many years, such as bilateral defense cooperation and expanded international peacekeeping activities by the Self-Defense Forces.
 長年にわたる日米の防衛協力や自衛隊の国際平和協力活動の拡大など、双方の努力の積み重ねに基づく信頼関係があるからだ。

We urge Hatoyama to give serious consideration once again to the significance of the Japan-U.S. alliance and do whatever it takes to solve the Futenma relocation problem.
 鳩山首相は、日米同盟の意義を改めて熟慮したうえ、普天間問題の解決に取り組んでほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 14, 2009)
(2009年11月14日01時11分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月13日 (金)

天皇陛下在位20周年記念式典

extracted from Japan Times

どうしても英和辞書から抜け出せない人にお勧めです。

http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20091113a1.html

サイト上で単語を左ダブルクリックで英英辞書が参照できます。

天皇陛下在位20周年記念式典の記事です。

何度も同じ内容の記事を英日対訳で読んだ後、辞書なしで概ね理解できました。

Emperor marks 20th year of reign

Celebrates anniversary with renewed call for global peace, plea not to forget wartime sacrifices

Staff writer

Emperor Akihito on Thursday voiced his deep anticipation for global peace, saying new generations must not forget the sacrifices made during the war.

News photo
Aglow: Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko wave lanterns before a crowd at an event at the Imperial Palace in Tokyo on Thursday to mark the 20th anniversary of the Emperor's enthronement. KYODO PHOTO

"Sixty-four years have passed since the war ended, and three out of every four Japanese now were born after the war," the Emperor said at a ceremony in Tokyo to celebrate the 20th anniversary of his coronation.

"It must not be forgotten that today's Japan is built on huge sacrifices, and it is important for this country's future to pass that on to those born after the war," he said.

Reflecting during the government-sponsored ceremony on the last two decades, the Emperor expressed condolences for those who have suffered in natural disasters, including the Great Hanshin Earthquake in 1995. He chose the collapse of the Soviet Union as the most memorable incident that took place overseas, saying he felt it would lead to the formation of "a more transparent world."

"But the world after that did not become peaceful as the people had waited for in hope," he said. "It is important for all nations to cooperate and continue working together, so that people can mutually enjoy peace and prosperity."

The Emperor formally ascended the Chrysanthemum Throne on Nov. 12, 1990, after his father, Emperor Hirohito (known posthumously as Emperor Showa), died on Jan. 7, 1989. Thursday's commemorative event took place at the National Theater of Japan in Chiyoda Ward and saw top government officials express their best wishes for the Emperor and Empress Michiko.

"I sincerely express my congratulations as the representative of the Japanese public," Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama said in his address.

Hatoyama touched on the Emperor's visit to quake-struck Niigata in 2004, saying the Imperial Couple for the past two decades have walked hand-in-hand with the public. The prime minister also said he was deeply moved by the Emperor's 2005 visit to war memorials in Saipan and his prayers for victims of war.

"We renewed our pledge again for peace" after the historic visit, Hatoyama said.

Thursday's ceremony was attended by more than 600 lawmakers, as well as Supreme Court justices and former prime ministers.

Ricardo Paredes, El Salvador's ambassador to Japan, gave a congratulatory speech as dean of the diplomatic corps.

"Your majesty in the 20 years as Emperor has guided and inspired the Japanese nation through several major events that have impacted the global order of things," Paredes said. "The entire world admires the contributions of your majesty."

No succession talk
Kyodo News

The government is not currently studying if the Imperial House Law, which only allows male heirs to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne, should be revised, Chief Cabinet Secretary Hirofumi Hirano said Thursday.

"We are not currently discussing the issue," he told reporters, declining to say if an amendment was needed.

The Imperial family currently has 23 members, but only seven princes are in line to the throne, of whom Prince Hisahito, 3, is the Emperor's only grandson. Prince Hisahito is third in line after Crown Prince Naruhito and Prince Akishino, the Emperor's sons.

In November 2005, a government panel on the Imperial succession submitted a report that proposed allowing females and their descendants to ascend to the throne by revising the current law enacted in 1947. An amended law would allow Princess Aiko, 7, the daughter of Crown Prince Naruhito and Crown Princess Masako, to become the first female monarch since the 18th century

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事業仕分け―国民だれもが点検できる

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 11(IHT/Asahi: November 12,2009)
EDITORIAL: Budget project review.
事業仕分け―国民だれもが点検できる

In moving to draw up the draft budget for next fiscal year, the Government Revitalization Unit starts work to categorize and review selected public projects.
 来年度の予算案づくりに向け、行政刷新会議の事業仕分けがきょう始まる。

Can this panel succeed in identifying wasteful budget expenditures and engineer the transition "from concrete to people" envisioned by Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama? The outcome on this front will directly influence public opinion of the new administration.
歳出の無駄を洗い出し、鳩山由紀夫首相の掲げる「コンクリートから人へ」の組み替えを実現できるか。その成否は新政権の評価に直結する。

Diet members from the ruling Democratic Party of Japan, local government officials, economists and other private-sector experts are serving as the reviewers. They will hold discussions with bureaucrats in charge of each program to scrutinize the necessity of individual projects.
 民主党の国会議員と自治体職員、エコノミストら民間の有識者が「仕分け人」となり、役所の担当者と議論しながら、ひとつひとつ事業の必要性を吟味する。

The goal is to slash 3 trillion yen from the record 95-trillion-yen budgetary requests from ministries and agencies for fiscal 2010. Under the review gun are 447 projects, or about 15 percent of all government endeavors. The panel's judgments will also be applied to other similar projects not on the review list.
 目標は、95兆円に膨らんだ来年度予算の概算要求から3兆円規模の削減を生み出すことだ。仕分け対象は政府の全事業の約15%にあたる447事業だが、対象外でも類似の事業には今回の判断をあてはめる。

Some projects are prone to be summarily dismissed as wasteful. However, each is characterized by its own reasons and objectives that benefit certain parties.
 一口に無駄といっても、それぞれの事業にはそれなりの理由と目的があり、恩恵を受ける人もいる。

Projects will be assessed from the following points of view: Do the effects warrant the outlays? Is there any overlap with other projects within the bureaucratic sectionalism? Are the projects really necessary amid the current fiscal pinch? Should the programs be consigned to local governments or the private sector?
In pursuing this end, the panel members must have the insight not to swallow every explanation given by the bureaucrats.
それらを仕分けるのは▽費用に見合う効果はあるのか▽縦割り行政のなかで重複はないか▽財政が苦しい中で今やる必要はあるのか▽地方や民間に任せるべきではないか、といった観点からの検討である。仕分け人には、官僚の説明に言いくるめられない眼力が求められる。

Assigned this formidable task are seven DPJ Diet legislators headed by Yukio Edano, former chairman of the DPJ's now-disbanded Policy Research Committee, along with 56 private-sector experts and others.
 作業にあたるのは枝野幸男元政調会長ら民主党の国会議員7人のほか、民間の有識者56人が起用された。

These members must mobilize their specialized knowledge in respective fields while simultaneously determining if the projects are credible from the perspective of ordinary people.
各分野での専門知識を生かすのはもちろんだが、一般市民の常識に照らしておかしくはないか、説得力はあるかという視点を大事にしてもらいたい。

Questions on the necessity of a project will also prompt reviews of the political systems used to determine the specific programs and the organizations that perform the work. Rather than merely cutting expenditures to meet the numerical target, the government should hold debate that leads to meaningful administrative reform.
 事業の必要性を問うことは、その事業を定めた制度や事業を担う組織の見直しにもつながる。単に削減額を積み上げるだけではなく、文字通り、将来の「行政の刷新」につながる議論も期待したい。

The Finance Ministry, which had single-handedly scrutinized the budget requests, provided full cooperation in selecting the projects for reviewing. In the review phase as well, budget bureau officials will attend and express their views. All this work will go for naught, however, if the process becomes a front for Finance Ministry-driven budget cuts. To prevent this, independent initiatives of the reviewers are of the utmost importance.
 これまで予算査定を一手に握ってきた財務省は、対象事業の選定に全面的に協力した。仕分けにも主計局の職員が出席して意見を述べる。財務省主導の予算削減の隠れみのになっては元も子もない。仕分け人たちの主体性が何よりも重要である。

Whether the results of the reviews are directly reflected in the draft budget rests on the final judgment of the Government Revitalization Unit, chaired by Hatoyama.
 仕分け作業の結果をその通りに予算案に反映させるかどうかは、首相が議長を務める行政刷新会議の判断にかかっている。

In examining the allocation of tax revenues to local governments, the government share of compulsory education expenses, host-nation support for U.S. military forces in Japan and other issues, attention will focus on the judgments delivered by the Hatoyama Cabinet as a whole.
地方交付税や義務教育費の国庫負担、在日米軍への思いやり予算といった案件では、内閣全体としての判断が問われることになる。

Of special note is the decision to allow full public disclosure of the review process. While there are naturally limits on the number of observers at the actual meeting venues, the proceedings are being carried on the Internet. This makes it possible to monitor the process from anywhere with Web access.
 特筆したいのは、仕分け作業が全面的に公開されることだ。会場で傍聴できる人は限られるだろうが、インターネットで中継され、全国どこでも見ることができる。

Studies are also reportedly under way to devise ways to field opinions from the general public.
国民からの意見を受け付ける仕組みも検討しているという。

This means that live images of the hallowed budget-making process will be open to the people. As taxpayers, this is a golden opportunity to take a hard look at just how the money we pay is divvied up for use, and conduct our own reviews of the origins of democracy.
 予算査定の生の現場が公開される。納税者としてこの機会を見逃す手はない。私たちの納めた税金がどのように使われようとしているのか、しっかり目をこらしていこう。民主主義の原点を確認する機会にもなる。

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英国人女性殺害 容疑者を追い詰めた民間情報

Tips from citizens closed net on Ichihashi
The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 13, 2009)
英国人女性殺害 容疑者を追い詰めた民間情報(11月13日付・読売社説)

Tatsuya Ichihashi, the man wanted on suspicion of abandoning the body of a British woman in Chiba Prefecture in 2007, has finally been arrested.
 英国人女性の死体遺棄容疑で指名手配されていた市橋達也容疑者が、やっと逮捕された。

The Chiba prefectural police intend to question Ichihashi on suspicion that he also murdered English-language teacher Lindsay Hawker. The police must leave no stone unturned as they obtain a detailed account of Ichihashi's life as a fugitive on the run for about two years and seven months.
 千葉県警は今後、殺人容疑で追及する。2年7か月に及ぶ逃亡生活の詳細も解明しなければならない。

Hawker's body was found on the balcony of Ichihashi's apartment in Ichikawa. Ichihashi fled the scene just before police officers, who were at his apartment to question him, found her body.
 市橋容疑者の住むマンションのベランダから女性の他殺体が見つかっていた。その直前、マンションを訪れた警察官の職務質問を振り切って逃げていた。

We wonder if the police investigation was conducted properly. Hard questions need to be asked about why it took so long until the suspect was finally brought into custody. This will include examining whether the initial investigations were appropriate, among other matters.
 職務質問の際の警察の態勢に問題はなかったのか。初動捜査のあり方を含め、捜査が長期化したことの検証が必要だ。

The incident took place in Chiba Prefecture. After making his escape, Ichihashi reportedly moved around cities including Fukuoka, Osaka and Nagoya. This suggests police forces across the nation must work more closely together on serious cases.
 千葉県で起きた事件だが、容疑者は福岡や大阪、名古屋を逃げ回っていた。全国警察の連携が、ますます重要になっている。

===

Surgeons not free from blame

Ichihashi altered his appearance by undergoing several plastic surgeries. Police only became aware of this after they were tipped off by a cosmetic surgery clinic in Nagoya that had performed rhinoplasty on him late last month. We applaud the clinic for coming forward.
 容疑者は、整形手術を繰り返して人相を変えていた。この事実がわかったのは、名古屋市の美容整形外科医院から警察に通報があったからだ。まさに、この医院の大手柄だった。

Ichihashi used an alias when he registered for the nose job. When he visited the clinic, his face reportedly showed traces of having undergone a number of plastic surgeries. Ichihashi's appearance was said to be already significantly different from that in a picture released by police when they put him on the wanted list.
 市橋容疑者は先月下旬、偽名を使って、この医院で鼻の整形手術を受けた。来院したときは、すでに何度か整形手術を受けた跡があり、指名手配中の写真とはまったく違っていたという。

Tidbits of information began trickling in from the public after the police released a photo of Ichihashi taken at the clinic. Details emerged from staff at a construction company at which Ichihashi worked as a live-in employee. The police finally swooped on Ichihashi after a tip from a ferry company employee.
 その後、警察が同医院で撮影された写真を公開し、住み込みで働いていた建設会社などから警察に情報が相次いだ。逮捕の決め手となったのも、フェリー会社の社員からの通報だった。

Many people must be wondering when and where Ichihashi had the operations that transformed his facial features. If any plastic surgeon was aware that he or she put the wanted man under the knife, it would without a shadow of doubt be an obstruction of a criminal investigation. Such an act could be considered harboring or enabling the escape of a perpetrator in violation of the Penal Code.
 それにしても、市橋容疑者は人相を変えてしまうような整形手術を、いつごろ、どこで受けたのだろうか。手配中の男と気づいて整形外科医が手術していれば、明白な捜査妨害だ。刑法の犯人隠避などに触れる可能性もある。

About 1,400 suspects are on the police wanted list. Police and medical institutions should take measures to prevent these suspects from undergoing plastic surgery in an attempt to continue evading the long arm of the law.
 警察が指名手配して行方を追っている容疑者は約1400人に上る。逃走手段としての整形手術を防ぐために、警察と医療機関側で対策を講じるべきだろう。

===

Rewards can play useful role

The National Police Agency offered a reward in Ichihashi's case. The agency is considering paying a reward to the person or people who provided key information that led to Ichihashi's arrest. Any such payments would be the first since the bounty system was introduced in April 2007.
 警察庁の公費懸賞金制度の対象事件でもあった。同庁は今回、有力情報の提供者に懸賞金を支払うことを検討しているが、そうなれば、2007年4月に制度ができて以来、初の適用例となる。

It is a given that the investigative abilities of police should be in the forefront of crime investigations. But the cooperation of the public is an essential tool when seeking the arrest of a suspect, regardless of whether a reward is on offer.
 まず警察の捜査能力が問われるのはもちろんだが、懸賞金の有無にかかわらず、容疑者逮捕には民間の協力も欠かせない。

Female university students in Chiba and Shimane prefectures recently have been brutally slain. Strings of suspicious deaths have been uncovered in the Tokyo metropolitan area and in Tottori Prefecture.
 島根や千葉の女子大生が殺害される凶悪な事件が起きた。首都圏や鳥取の連続不審死もある。

Police must constantly think about how and when leads they have gleaned in their investigations should be made public so they can unearth more information from citizens that leads to the resolution of criminal cases.
 民間からの情報を得る上で、どのように捜査情報を公開していくことが効果的か、警察も絶えず工夫すべきだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 13, 2009)
(2009年11月13日00時55分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月12日 (木)

社説:即位20年 「象徴天皇」へ実践重ね

(Mainichi Japan) November 12, 2009
Emperor opened new era for Imperial Family as symbol of state
社説:即位20年 「象徴天皇」へ実践重ね

A ceremony was held Thursday to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the enthronement of Emperor Akihito. We would like to express our congratulations to His Majesty.
 天皇陛下即位20年の記念式典が12日催される。お祝い申し上げたい。

Over the past 20 years, the Emperor has pursued how he should function as the symbol of the state and for the unity of the people as defined by the post-war Constitution. He has also blown fresh air into the Imperial Family and appears to have established his own style as symbol of state.
 この20年はたゆまず「象徴天皇」のあり方を求め、実践を積み重ねられた年月だった。それは平成の皇室に新しい風をもたらし、そして時を経るにつれて確かなかたちを成してきたように見える。

Emperor Akihito is the first Emperor to accede to the Imperial Throne under the current Constitution. On the occasion of his enthronement, the Emperor declared that he will "uphold the Constitution of Japan with the people and fulfill my duties in accordance with it (the Constitution)."
 陛下は象徴天皇制の現憲法下で初めて即位した天皇であり、即位に当たってはまず「皆さんとともに日本国憲法を守り、これに従って責務を果たすこと」を表明した。

The interpretation of "an Emperor as the symbol of the state and for the unity of the people" had not been established by the time he acceded to the throne.
 しかし、象徴天皇といっても必ずしも成熟した概念ではなく、そのまま引き継ぐものが用意されていたわけではない。

His father, Emperor Showa, assumed the throne when an Emperor was defined by the Meiji Constitution as the ruler of the country, and became the symbol of Japan after the current Constitution was enacted after World War II.
昭和天皇は統治の主権者から象徴天皇へと制度転換をはさんで在位した。

Even though the Imperial Household Agency attempted to make the Imperial Family open to the public, the people had an image that Emperor Showa was a sovereign lord. In that sense, Emperor Akihito has been in a position to open a new era for the Imperial Family.
「開かれた皇室」が進められたが、国民のイメージには「君主」的なものも一部重なっていた。その意味で陛下は皇室の新しい時代を開く立場にあった。

At a news conference prior to a ceremony Thursday to celebrate the 20th anniversary, Emperor Akihito cited the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 as the most impressive event he has seen since he assumed the throne. His enthronement coincided with the beginning of turbulent changes going on in the world.
 陛下は今回の記者会見でこの20年について「まず浮かぶのはベルリンの壁の崩壊(1989年)です」と振り返る。今に至る世界の激動の転換期に皇位継承が重なった。

The Emperor has been active in a wide diversity of fields. As a symbolic Emperor who is supposed to pray for peace and the happiness of the people, Emperor Akihito has visited sites of battles during World War II to console the souls of the war dead. Since he acceded to the throne, the Emperor has visited more than 30 countries to promote international friendship. He is also enthusiastic about supporting disabled people as is shown by his efforts to promote sports events for the disabled.
 行動は多岐にわたる。平和を祈り、人々の幸福を願う象徴天皇の原点に立ち、戦争犠牲者慰霊の戦跡巡りを国内外に続ける。友好親善の海外訪問は即位後でも30カ国を超えた。障害者スポーツの振興などハンディを負う人たちの支援に熱意を注ぐ。

His actions have been occasionally inconsistent with the Imperial Family's custom and ideas. For example, when he visited shelters for disaster victims and nursing care homes, the Emperor and the Empress often sat on the floor, took victims' hands and talked with them. Such actions by the Imperial Couple initially surprised people around him.
 過去の皇室の慣習、発想と相いれないこともあった。例えば、被災地や福祉施設で皇后さまとひざを屈し人々の中に入り、手を取り話をするという光景は当初周囲を驚かせた。

Before delivering speeches at national athletic meets and tree-planting ceremonies, the Emperor reportedly sat up late at night frequently to review and brush up the manuscripts.
 また国民体育大会や植樹祭など行事であいさつがあった時は、原稿は自ら何度も書き直し、深夜に及ぶことも珍しくなかったという。

Over the past 20 years, there have been numerous global challenges caused by the end of the Cold War, the advent of the information-oriented era, ethnic and religious conflicts, terrorism, environmental destruction and famine. A sense of political and economic uncertainty is prevailing in Japan as a result of the aging of the population, the declining birthrate, the recession and high unemployment rates.
 この20年、世界は冷戦終結、情報化、民族・宗教対立とテロ、環境破壊と飢餓など難題があふれる。日本も少子高齢化、不況と就職難など政治経済とも不安定感の中にある。

When asked about his views on these challenges at the recent news conference, he answered, "I'm rather concerned that past history may be gradually forgotten."
 会見でこの現状と将来について見方を問われた陛下は「むしろ心配なのは次第に過去の歴史が忘れられていくのではないかということです」と答えた。

"The 60-plus years of the Showa Era taught us many lessons. I believe it is essential for us to learn from the historical facts and prepare ourselves for the future," he continued.
そして「昭和の六十有余年は私どもにさまざまな教訓を与えてくれます。過去の歴史的事実を十分に知って未来に備えることが大切と思います」という考え方を示した。

His efforts to keep in mind painful lessons learned from the past and fully utilize the lessons reflect His Majesty's distinctive attitude.
 過去を切り離さず、その痛ましい教訓を常に忘れず生かす。この姿勢がまた大きな特徴といえるだろう。

There are many challenges in the Imperial Family, such as how to ensure a stable Imperial succession system in the future. There may be calls for a review of the role that the Imperial Family should play. It is important for the people to consider and discuss how the Imperial Family should function.
 一方、将来の安定した皇位継承システムなど皇室をめぐる課題は少なくない。次の時代はさらに新しい皇室のありようが求められるかもしれない。国民が皇室のあり方を考え、広く論じ合うことが肝要だろう。

毎日新聞 2009年11月12日 東京朝刊

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東アジア共同体―自由貿易圏づくりが先だ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 11(IHT/Asahi: November 12,2009)
EDITORIAL: East Asian community.
東アジア共同体―自由貿易圏づくりが先だ

Judging by recent developments in arenas for international diplomacy, the idea of setting up an East Asian community is picking up speed.
 「東アジア共同体」をめぐる発言や動きが国際舞台で目立つようになってきた。

Last month, the 4th East Asia Summit in Thailand agreed on the need to continue intergovernmental efforts to advance regional economic cooperation that would eventually take the form of an East Asian community, a concept championed by Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama.
鳩山由紀夫首相が推進を表明したことも力となって、先の東アジアサミットでは、政府間で域内の経済連携を研究することで合意した。

But specifics of the community Hatoyama has in mind are still vague. Given the differences between China and South Korea and those of other Southeast Asian nations in terms of population size, economic power, political systems and other factors, it verges on wishful thinking to believe this region can be integrated along the lines of the European Union with its common currency and shared political system.
 しかし、首相が語る共同体は、まだぼんやりした理念にすぎない。中国と韓国、東南アジア諸国などはそれぞれ、人口も経済力も格差が著しく、政治体制も異なる。この多様な地域を、欧州連合(EU)のように通貨から政治面まで含めて統合するというのは、なお夢物語に近い。

One realistic step toward creating an East Asian community may be to start with transforming the region into a "common market"--essentially a free trade zone resulting from expanded economic cooperation.
 現実的なのは、「共同体」への足がかりとなる「共通市場」化ではあるまいか。域内での経済連携の拡大による自由貿易圏づくりだ。

The thinking here is that a smooth flow of people, goods and money will promote regional economic growth. But that is easier said than done.
 ヒト、モノ、カネがスムーズに流れることで域内の経済成長につながる、という未来図である。だが、それさえも簡単なことではない。

China is a highly competitive exporting nation. South Korea does not want its trade deficit with Japan to grow. Japan wants to keep farm produce imports at bay. Each country has its own reason for hesitating to sign a free trade agreement.
 輸出競争力がある中国、対日貿易赤字の拡大を恐れる韓国、農産物輸入自由化に踏み切れない日本。それぞれの間で自由貿易協定(FTA)を結ぶことに尻込みしているのが実態だ。

The Hatoyama administration's first challenge is to try to change this situation. China, India and the region's other emerging powers are on their way to achieving greater prosperity. Asia will develop into the world's growth center.
 鳩山政権は、まずこうした現状を打開するために汗をかくべきだ。中国、インドを代表格とする新興国はますます繁栄の道を歩む。アジアは世界の成長センターとして発展するだろう。

Japan, which is on the decline on account of its shrinking and rapidly graying population, must latch on to the region's potential for growth and each nation's domestic demand in order to secure its own future growth.
 人口減少と超高齢化で陰りが出ている日本は、この地域の成長力や「アジア内需」と連動して未来を切り開く覚悟が必要である。

Specifically, Japan could try to promote a track record of cooperation that might help encourage other nations to go for a free trade agreement. Such cooperation projects could include the construction of transportation routes vertically across Asia, the establishment of common customs clearance rules and food safety standards, and cooperation on environmental issues--in short, projects that will mutually benefit everyone involved.
 まず域内でFTAの機運を盛り上げるような協力を積み重ねてはどうか。たとえば、アジアを縦断する交通路をつくることや、通関手続きや食品の安全基準の整備、環境問題での協力など、互いの利益が期待できるテーマで成果を上げていくことだ。

It will be a long time before an East Asian community is realized as nations in the region have widely divergent ideas about it.
 はるか先の「共同体」についてではあるが、構成メンバーについての意見は割れている。

China envisions a 13-nation entity made up of itself, Japan and South Korea plus the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Japan is proposing a 16-nation framework that includes India, Australia and New Zealand. China and Japan are still nowhere near seeing eye to eye on this matter.
中国は、日中韓と東南アジア諸国連合による13カ国を主張。日本はインドや豪州、ニュージーランドを加えた16カ国の枠組みを提唱し、隔たりは大きい。

Whether to include the United States is another source of conflict. Washington has voiced its displeasure at the prospect of an East Asian community that excludes the United States. And there is disarray within the Hatoyama administration, too. Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada said, "(The proposed community) is not designed to include the United States." But Hatoyama has made comments to the effect of asking the United States to get involved.
 米国の扱いも対立の火種だ。米国抜きの共同体をつくろうとする議論に対し、米国は不満を表明している。鳩山政権は、岡田克也外相が「米国まで含めることになっていない」と言うかと思えば、鳩山首相は米国の関与を求める発言をしている。

Trying to reach a hasty conclusion on the composition of the community will only complicate matters. It would be counterproductive. Japan, which is politically and economically tight with the United States, should concentrate on striving for a free trade agreement with the United States and another with Asian nations at the same time.
 共同体の構成について結論を急ぐことは問題をこじらせ、生産的ではない。日本はむしろ、政治的にも経済的にも緊密な米国とのFTAをアジア諸国とのFTAと同時に推進することに力を注ぐべきだろう。

We need to thoroughly mull over the community concept while working toward the creation of an East Asian and pan-Pacific common market.
 東アジアと環太平洋の共通市場化を進めながら「共同体」のありようをじっくり考えていきたい。

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日米漂流:オバマ大統領来日を前に/中 無視できぬ中国の存在

(Mainichi Japan) November 11, 2009
Japan, U.S. can no longer ignore the presence of China
日米漂流:オバマ大統領来日を前に/中 無視できぬ中国の存在

 ◇水面下で進んだG4 「鳩山論文」で亀裂、懸念
The plan to form a Group of Four (G4) between Japan, the United States, Europe and China has demonstrated that Beijing's growing presence and influence can no longer be ignored.
A European news organization's report that U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner would propose the formation of the G4 created a stir in the Group of Seven (G7) meeting of finance ministers and central bank governors held in Istanbul on Oct. 3.
 10月3日にトルコのイスタンブールで開かれた先進7カ国財務相・中央銀行総裁会議(G7)。直前に欧州メディアが「ガイトナー米財務長官、新たな枠組みG4(主要4カ国)を提案へ」と報じたことで会議に出席する各国代表は騒然となった。

Prior to the G7 meeting, the U.S. government had proposed behind the scenes that Japan, the United States, Europe and China should form the G4. The proposal was retracted in response to stiff opposition from European countries that feared the formation of the G4 would lead to a decline in their influence.
The confusion over the G4 plan has reminded global players of China's rising influence in the world.
 米政府はG7を前に、水面下で「日米欧プラス中国の4カ国・地域で新たな枠組みを作る」と打診。影響力低下を懸念した欧州勢の反発で「そのような発言は全くなかった」(カナダ・フレアティ財務相)と提案は封印されたが、「中国が不可欠なことを満天下に知らしめた」という印象は残った。

At the same time, the surfacing of the issue has reinforced to Japan, which has previously taken advantage of its close relations with the United States to represent Asia in G7 meetings, that it will soon lose such a privilege.
 米国との緊密な経済関係をテコにアジア代表として、G7に出席してきた日本にとっては「その特権を失う時期が近い」ことを意識させられた。

It appears that the G4 plan abruptly came about, but it had been carefully prepared in advance. In early 2005, Japan, the United States and China began unofficial talks on currency policy, say international financial sources.
 唐突に浮上したかに映るG4。しかし、実は念入りとも言える助走期間があった。国際金融筋によると、日米中3カ国は05年初めから非公式の通貨協議を開始。

Their talks prior to the G7 meeting in that year led to the appreciation of the yuan in July 2005, according to a high-ranking official of the Japanese government.
当時、溝口善兵衛財務官とテーラー米財務次官、中国の財務担当者が通貨政策を話し合った。G7開催前に3者による協議を行い、「05年7月には中国人民元の切り上げに結びついた」(日本政府高官)という。

They secretly began a G3 movement because they needed to clarify how Japan and China, which have huge amounts of U.S. government bonds, should support the dollar-led currency system.
 日米中が05年にG3をひそかに始めた背景には、「日中の2大米国債保有国がドル体制をどう支えるのか」という問題意識がある。

"The U.S. economy couldn't survive unless Japan and China help make up for the huge U.S. budget deficit," says an official of a major U.S. brokerage.
「日中が米国の巨額財政赤字を補てんしなければ、米経済は成り立たない」(米大手証券)状況であるためだ。

     ◇
Confidence in the U.S. economy and the dollar has sharply declined amid the global economic crisis triggered by the September 2008 collapse of Lehman Brothers, resulting in major changes in global economic relations.
 昨年9月のリーマン・ショック後、米経済とドルへの信認が急速に低下する中、国際経済の勢力図は大きく塗り替わりつつある。

China is enjoying high economic growth while Japan, the United States and Europe have fallen into negative growth.
日米欧がマイナス成長に陥る中、中国は高い成長を維持。

In 2008, China surpassed Japan in terms of the amount of U.S. government bonds they possess, and China's gross domestic product is forecast to exceed that of Japan possibly this year. China's presence and influence is undeniable.
中国は、米国債保有残高で08年に日本を抜き、国内総生産(GDP)は09年にも日本を上回る見通しだ。中国の存在感はますます大きくなっている。

However, there are many problems in China, such as its closed market and differences between its political system and those of Western countries. Therefore, Japan is indispensable for the United States as well as for the G4 to restrain China, says a top official of an international organization.
 ただ、中国には政治体制の違いや未開放の市場など課題も多く、「米政府としては、中国をけん制する意味でも日本は不可欠。G4にも必要だ」(国際機関首脳)。

Amid such a situation, an article -- which Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) leader Yukio Hatoyama contributed to the online edition of The New York Times in late August before he took over the reins of government -- came as a shock to U.S. government officials. In his article, Hatoyama criticized market fundamentalism in the United States.
 しかし、今年8月下旬、米紙ニューヨーク・タイムズ(電子版)に掲載された1本の原稿が米政府関係者にショックを与える。鳩山由紀夫民主党代表(当時)によるいわゆる鳩山論文は米国の市場原理主義を批判。

In response, the Wall Street Journal said there is no hope that Japan would achieve economic recovery if the DPJ takes over the reins of government, pointing out that Hatoyama did not sufficiently understand entrepreneurship.
「鳩山代表は企業家精神の理解不足。民主党政権下で日本経済の復活は期待できない」(米紙ウォールストリート・ジャーナル)と懸念を広げた。

Japan-U.S relations have been further strained since Hatoyama took office in mid-September over diplomatic and security issues, including the relocation of U.S. Air Station Futenma in Okinawa Prefecture.
Under the circumstances, U.S. officials have warned that the current disputes should not worsen bilateral economic ties.
 9月の鳩山政権成立後、日米関係は、普天間飛行場移転問題など外交安保分野でさらに難しい状況に立たされており、経済分野では亀裂を広げてはいけないとの声が米政府内でも出ていた。

The Obama administration consequently hastily dispatched Geithner to Japan one week before Obama is scheduled to visit Tokyo. "The move was aimed at maintaining normal economic relations with Japan by dispatching the pro-Japan secretary," a Japan-U.S. diplomatic source said.
オバマ米大統領訪日の1週間前に急きょ、ガイトナー米財務長官を派遣したのは「“知日派長官”の訪日で、経済だけは正常な状態を維持したいとの狙いがある」(日米外交筋)。

In the upcoming summit with Obama, Hatoyama is expected to not only confirm that the two countries should strengthen their bilateral alliance but also consider how Japan can serve as a go-between between the United States and China. (By Nozomu Saito, Economic News Department, and Nobuhiro Saito, Washington Bureau)
 今回の日米首脳会談では、鳩山政権は日米同盟強化の確認だけでなく、米中の仲介役として、どのように振る舞うべきか探ることになりそうだ。【斉藤望、ワシントン斉藤信宏】

(This is the fourth part of a five-part series on the Japan-U.S. alliance)

毎日新聞 2009年11月11日 東京朝刊

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オバマ大統領アフガン派兵増強?

column from The Wall Street Journal
(アフガン派兵最新情報)

Obama Considers New Afghan Option
オバマ大統領アフガン派兵増強?

When President Obama meets with his national security team today to discuss options for Afghanistan in advance of his Asia tour, a new "hybrid" option will be considered along with those that had already been proposed by Gen. Stanley McChrystal, the top U.S. commander in Afghanistan. This new hybrid option is "now drawing the most attention at the Pentagon," according to the Wall Street Journal, and would deploy 30,000 to 35,000 new troops, including as many as 10,000 military trainers. Regardless of which option the president chooses, they would all be "phased approaches," meaning that new forces would reach Afghanistan in waves rather than all at once. The New York Times doesn't mention the hybrid plan but does report that Defense Secretary Robert Gates, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff all seem to be supporting a proposal to send about 30,000 additional troops to Afghanistan. Obama, however, reportedly remains unconvinced.

30000-35000人の兵士を増強予定
増強は漸次行う(一気に増強はしない、様子を見ながら)
閣僚はおおむね増強を支持
オバマ大統領は(派兵が妥当か)確信がつかめない(迷っている)

Trend Match

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天皇在位20年 敬愛される皇室像が定着した

20 peaceful years with the Emperor
The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 12, 2009)
天皇在位20年 敬愛される皇室像が定着した(11月12日付・読売社説)

The government will hold a ceremony to mark the 20th year of the enthronement of the Emperor at the National Theater of Japan in Tokyo on Thursday.
 天皇陛下の在位20年を記念する政府主催の式典がきょう12日、東京・国立劇場で開かれる。

The Emperor assumed the throne on Jan. 7, 1989. However, since the enthronement ceremony was held as a national event on Nov. 12 the following year, the ceremony marking his 20th year on the throne is held on that date.
 陛下は1989年1月7日に即位されたが、その翌年、国の儀式として行われた「即位の礼」と同じ日に合わせての開催となる。

On the occasions of the 10th and 15th years of his enthronement, the Emperor said that in comparison with the 10th and 15th years marking his father Emperor Showa's enthronement, he was happy to see the Heisei years pass peacefully in spite of some difficulties and problems.
 陛下は在位10年、あるいは15年に当たり、昭和天皇の10年、15年とを比較し、平成の時代が「困難や課題を抱えつつも、平穏に過ぎたことを幸せに思います」などと語られてきた。

The global recession is affecting the lives of the Japanese people. We currently face many difficult issues. But, compared with the first 20 years of the Showa era, many people would agree with the sentiments of the Emperor that the Heisei years so far have passed "peacefully."
 世界不況が国民生活に影響を与えている。課題は多いものの、昭和の最初の20年と比べて「平穏に過ぎた」という感慨は、多くの国民に共通のものだろう。

===

Serving the people

The Emperor ascended to the throne as the symbol of the state and the unity of the people under the current Constitution.
 陛下は、現行憲法の下で、象徴天皇として即位した。

The Emperor has often said he thinks the best way to meet the expectations of the public is to serve the state and the people by bearing in mind the constitutional provision that the emperor is the symbol of the state.
常々「象徴であるという憲法の規定を念頭に置きながら国や国民のために尽くすことが、国民の期待にこたえる道であると思っています」と話されている。

The Emperor and the Empress have strived to share the feelings of the people. It is in the last 20 years that the image of the Imperial family as being approachable and respectable has prevailed among the public.
 皇后さまとお二人で、「国民と心を共にする」という姿勢を貫かれてきた。親しみやすく、敬愛される皇室像が国民の間に浸透していった20年でもある。

The Emperor is very busy every day with a variety of official duties.
 陛下には様々な公務があり、多忙な毎日だ。

He has many occasions to visit local areas to attend National Athletic Meets, tree-planting ceremonies and the other events. The Emperor has visited and talked to people at welfare facilities around the country. He also has ventured to areas hit by natural disasters and has encouraged disaster victims. The Emperor also has traveled to other countries to promote international friendship.
 国体や全国植樹祭など地方訪問の機会が多い。各地の福祉施設を訪ねて入所者に声をかけられ、災害現場に足を運び被災者を励まされてきた。海外を訪問して国際親善にも貢献されている。

The Emperor also has many occasions to meet recipients of decorations and distinguished guests from abroad, and also has to perform Imperial rituals inherited from the emperors before him.
 勲章受章者や外国の賓客にお会いになる回数も多い。天皇に受け継がれてきた宮中祭祀(さいし)もある。

Though the Emperor wholeheartedly believes that such official duties and Imperial rituals are very important, he will turn 76 next month and is not free of health concerns.
 陛下ご自身、こうした公務や宮中祭祀を心から大切にされているが、来月には76歳を迎える。健康面に不安がないわけではない。

===

Agreeable duties

At the beginning of this year, the Imperial Household Agency revealed measures to alleviate the burdens of the Emperor's official duties. We hope the agency will continue to take sufficient care with the Emperor's schedule so that not only he but also the Empress can stay in good health.
 宮内庁は今年初め、公務の負担軽減策を発表した。皇后さまともども、お体にさわらないよう、今後とも、日程などには十分な配慮をしてほしい。

Since Prince Hisahito was born to Prince Akishino and Princess Kiko in 2006, discussions on Imperial succession have settled down. The new government under Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama has not referred to the issue.
 秋篠宮ご夫妻に悠仁さまが誕生してから、皇位継承問題の論議は沈静化している。新政権もこの問題に特に言及していない。

Last month, Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada urged the Imperial Household Agency to arrange for the Emperor to deliver his own words to some degree at the opening ceremonies of the Diet. But Okada came under criticism from both ruling and opposition party members who said it was inappropriate to make political comments on what the Emperor says.
 先月、岡田外相が国会開会式での陛下のお言葉について、「陛下の思いが少しは入ったお言葉をいただく工夫ができないか」と発言した。与野党から「お言葉を政治的にあれこれ言うのは不適切だ」などと批判が相次いだ。

We think that such criticism is reasonable, as it is based on a point of view that Okada's remark might lead to the political exploitation of the Imperial family. We expect politicians, particularly Cabinet ministers, to be very careful in making remarks regarding the Imperial family.
 皇室の政治的な利用につながりかねないという観点からの批判であり、当然の反応だ。政治家、ことに閣僚は、皇室についての発言は慎重にしてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 12, 2009)
(2009年11月12日05時06分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月11日 (水)

アフガン支援策 「小切手外交」に戻るのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 11, 2009)
Is govt returning to 'checkbook diplomacy'?
アフガン支援策 「小切手外交」に戻るのか(11月11日付・読売社説)

The administration led by Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama has drawn up measures to help reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan.
鳩山政権が取り組むアフガニスタン支援策がまとまった。

The administration has decided to extend civilian assistance worth 5 billion dollars (about 450 billion yen) over five years for such measures as job training for former Taliban militants and the provision of funds to pay the salaries of Afghan police officers. Calculated in terms of the aid provided per fiscal year, this sum represents about four times the average aid provided up until now.
 元タリバン兵士に対する職業訓練や警察官の給与肩代わりなど、5年間で50億ドル(約4500億円)の民生支援を実施する。従来の支援額と比べ、単年度平均で約4倍となる。

However, the government stopped short of including the sending of Self-Defense Forces personnel in its measures.
The government is also planning to suspend the SDF's refueling mission in the Indian Ocean in January, when the law authorizing the mission expires.
 自衛隊による人的貢献策は盛り込まれなかった。政府は、来年1月に期限切れとなるインド洋での給油活動も中止する方針だ。

===

No body bags please

Without SDF participation in antiterrorism activities related to Afghanistan, the government will inevitably face criticism that the country has once again resorted to the so-called checkbook diplomacy approach, in which it provides economic aid and investment but no security personnel.
自衛隊のアフガン支援がなくなれば、「小切手外交」に逆戻り、との批判は免れそうにない。

Hatoyama is expected to explain the details of the aid program to U.S. President Barack Obama, who is scheduled to visit Japan later this week. The huge scale of the aid package is sure to win a certain level of recognition from the United States and European countries.
 鳩山首相は、来日するオバマ米大統領に支援内容を説明する。巨額の財政支援は、米国をはじめ、欧州各国からも一定の評価が得られるだろう。

The 5 billion dollars assistance will be extended to the war-torn country in the form of grant aid or through international organizations. The public will want the government to give a satisfactorily detailed explanation of how the funds will be spent. It also will be important for the government to implement the aid package while verifying its effectiveness.
 50億ドルは無償資金協力や国際機関を通じて拠出されるが、その具体的な使途について、政府は国民に十分に説明することが求められる。支援の効果も検証しつつ、実施していくことが大切だ。

The government insists the international community should provide measures to back the people of Afghanistan's own efforts to bring stability to daily life in their nation.
 政府は、アフガン人自身が民生安定に取り組む能力を強化するため、国際社会は「背後」から支えるべきだとしている。

To this end, the government plans to limit its personnel assistance to activities related directly to public welfare. It is also considering expanding the Japan International Cooperation Agency's agricultural training program in the country. Given the existing security situation in Afghanistan, however, it will be difficult to dramatically increase the number of JICA personnel dispatched to the nation.
 このため、人的支援策も民生分野に限り、国際協力機構(JICA)による現地での農業指導の拡充を検討しているという。だが、現地の治安情勢を考えれば、大幅な人員増は困難だ。

As long as Afghanistan's military and police forces fail to operate with sufficient effectiveness, the International Security Assistance Force, which comprises 42 countries, including the United States and European nations, remains at the forefront of efforts to maintain security in the country.
 アフガンの国軍や警察が十分に機能していない中で、治安維持の前面に立っているのは、欧米など42か国が参加する国際治安支援部隊(ISAF)である。

When the U.N. Security Council decided last month to extend ISAF activities in Afghanistan, Japan, a UNSC nonpermanent member, supported the decision.
 国連安全保障理事会が先月、ISAFの活動延長を決めた際、非常任理事国の日本も賛成した。

In drawing up the assistance measures for Afghanistan, Defense Minister Toshimi Kitazawa sought the possibility of dispatching SDF personnel to the ISAF headquarters and providing airlift assistance by the Air Self-Defense Force.
 支援策の検討にあたっては、北沢防衛相が、ISAF司令部への要員派遣や、航空自衛隊による空輸支援などの可能性を探った。

Ichiro Ozawa, secretary general of the ruling Democratic Party of Japan, has in the past indicated a willingness to send SDF officers to the ISAF.
 民主党の小沢幹事長は以前、ISAFへの自衛隊派遣に前向きな考えを示したことがある。

===

Insufficient debate

However, the idea of using the SDF has already been shelved by the government without sufficient debate. Apparently, the DPJ has instead placed priority on maintaining its governing coalition with the Social Democratic Party, which is against any SDF dispatch overseas.
 しかし、これらが十分論じられないまま、自衛隊活用策は見送られた。自衛隊の海外派遣に反対する社民党との連立維持を優先させたということだろう。

At the time of the Gulf War, the administration of then Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu decided not to send SDF officers to the region and instead provided only economic aid, drawing international criticism for Japan's checkbook diplomacy. The government should recall this bitter memory.
 かつての湾岸危機の際、当時の海部政権が自衛隊派遣を見送り、財政支援だけで対応して「小切手外交」と批判された苦い経験を思い起こす必要がある。

As the MSDF's refueling activity in the Indian Ocean has been highly evaluated by the international community, Japan will lose a lot of goodwill by ending the mission. What Hatoyama should do is to seek ways of continuing the mission.
 海上自衛隊による給油活動は国際社会から高く評価されており、中止によって失われるものは大きい。鳩山首相は、給油活動継続の道を探るべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 11, 2009)
(2009年11月11日01時10分  読売新聞)

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私とギター


私がまだ高校の生徒であったときにNHKの教育放送で「ギター教室」という
番組が初めて放送開始された。ギタリストの阿部保夫先生が講師として
この番組に招かれていた。第一回の放送開始のこのときには
楽譜も出版されていなくてNHKに手紙を出して薄っぺらな楽譜を郵送
してもらった。私は夢中でクラッシクギターの勉強をした。
その後この番組は多くの優秀な講師の方々に恵まれ、教則本も
第2回目の放送からは書店で購入できるようになっていた。
記憶に残っている講師の方々のお名前は、京本輔のり先生、小原聖子先生、
荘村清志先生などである。京本先生のギターの編曲は見事で楽譜を購入して
自分で弾いてはこっそり楽しんでいた。小原先生は小柄な清楚な感じの方で
小さな指を駆使して一生懸命に弾かれていた。荘村先生はおそらくギターの
テクニックは一番ではなかったかと記憶している。演奏会で聴いた荘村先生の
js bach の リュート組曲はそれは美しくて私はすっかり感動してしまった。
私は高知大学へと進学して大学時代はもっぱらギターを弾いて暮らしていた。
大学の1回生のときに高知大学ギターコンクールで1位に入賞して嬉しい
思いをした。それから2回生の時には徳島で開かれた四国ギターコンクール
に参加して5位か6位の成績であった。現代ギターという本に入賞者の名前と
して1行だけ見つけることができた。
高知に田村ギター製作所というギター工房があり、お兄さんの田村広先生、
弟さんの田村満先生、それにお弟子さんの梅原月夫という方が中心になって
このギター工房の切り盛りをやっておられた。
田村満先生は四国ギターコンクールのときの審査員の一人であり、
コンクール終了後、私をわざわざ車で徳島から高知まで送っていただいた。
田村先生は私にこう言われた。
「使っているギターが悪い、もっと良いものを購入しなさい」
私はすぐ田村先生のギター工房を訪れ当時としては本当に高価な
ギターを田村先生の特別のお計らいで半分以下の値段で私に譲って
くだされた。梅原月夫先生が私のギターを選んでくださった。
1972年の田村広先生の手工ギターであった。
私をこれを購入して随分長いあいだこのギターと苦楽を共にしてきた。
当時田村ギター工房には スペインのホセ ラミレス や
ドイツのハウザーがあり、私はこれらのギターを
それこそ夢中で弾いた。
同じギターでもこれほど違うものなのかと感嘆した。
ラミレスは派手な音色で演奏会向きだと思った。
またハウザーは地味ないぶし銀のような音色をしていたが
手にしっくりなじみ、大変弾きやすかったのを憶えている。

私は7年前にタイに移住して現在タイの東北部のコーンケーンという
小さな町で生活している。3年前に二人目の娘が誕生してからは
もっぱら子育てに時間をとられていて暇な時間がなくなってしまった。
子育ては戦争です。
会社勤めをしていたときには子育てがこれほど大変なものだとは
まったく思っておりませんでした。

私の愛娘が生まれる前まではもっぱらMIDIのクラッシク音楽のサイト
よりファイルをダウンロードしてそれをもとにして、
ギターに編曲する作業をしていました。
目的は自分で弾いて楽しむためです。
MIDIのような速いテンポでは弾くことは出来ませんが、
速度を半分以下にして自分で弾いては楽しんでいます。
随分多くの曲をギターで弾けるように編曲しました。
私のお気に入りの編曲の一つである
js bach の 無伴奏チェロ組曲6番(for classical guitar)
のMIDIを添付しておきます。
楽譜も運指の楽譜がすべて出来上がっていますが、
インターネットのホームページは今回が全く初めてのことで
まだ掲載できるようになっていません。
そのうちに必ず掲載するつもりです。

kiyoshi matsui from Khonkaen, Thailand

無伴奏チェロ組曲第6番(ギター編曲)

http://www.geocities.jp/srachai2000_2/guitar/guitar.htm

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2009年11月10日 (火)

トヨタF1撤退 エコが促した苦渋の決断

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 10, 2009)
Thinking green, Toyota quits F1
トヨタF1撤退 エコが促した苦渋の決断(11月10日付・読売社説)

An era in which speed has been the key yardstick of automobile performance seems to have reached a crossroad.
 速さがクルマの性能を決める時代が節目を迎えたということだろう。

Toyota Motor Corp. has announced that it is pulling out of Formula One racing at the end of the 2009 season due to its deteriorating business performance.
 トヨタ自動車が業績悪化を理由に、今年限りで自動車レースの最高峰、フォーミュラ・ワン(F1)から撤退すると発表した。

The world's No. 1 automaker, which made its debut in motor sport's top class in 2002, has participated in 140 championships over the past eight years, but has never won a grand prix. It must have been a tough decision for Toyota to walk away from F1 without producing any results.
 トヨタは2002年に参戦してから8年で140レースを戦ったが、一度も優勝できなかった。結果を出せないまま手を引くのは、苦渋の決断だったろう。

Toyota said it would channel the money and human resources it has devoted to F1 toward the development of eco-friendly cars. We hope the company will use technologies it gained from its participation in F1 to make production cars with superior performance.
 F1に投入してきた資金や人材は、エコカー開発などに振り向ける。培った技術を今後は市販車の性能向上に生かしてほしい。

===

Sport hardly eco-friendly

F1 teams need to have many racing cars, which cost as much as 2 billion yen each. They have to spend tens of billions of yen every season to take aim at the center of the podium.
 F1を戦うには、1台20億円とされるマシンが何台も必要だ。優勝を狙うには、毎年数百億円もの費用がかかる。

For Toyota, the main purpose of continuing to participate in this costly motor sport was to enhance its brand name. The automaker needed to showcase its technological prowess to gain an edge on General Motors Co., which had been the world's largest automaker in terms of sales volume.
 にもかかわらずトヨタが参戦し続けた最大の眼目は、ブランド力の向上にあった。販売台数で世界一だった米ゼネラル・モーターズ(GM)を抜くには、トヨタの技術力を示す必要があった。

F1, a popular motor sport held in circuits around the world, was the best stage for this endeavor. It also was a testing ground to analyze cars' basic performance factors, such as acceleration, braking and turning, as well as to improve Toyota's technological expertise.
 人気が高く、世界各地を転戦するF1は、その格好の舞台だった。走る、止まる、曲がるというクルマの基本性能を試し、技術力向上を図る「実験場」でもあった。

But gas-guzzling F1 grew incompatible with Toyota's need to promote its technological strengths in response to consumers' growing environmental awareness. There was little advantage in Toyota participating in F1 even before its massive losses forced it to withdraw from the sport.
 だが、消費者の環境志向の高まりで、ガソリンをがぶ飲みするF1は、技術力をPRする場としてはふさわしくなくなっていた。巨額の赤字を計上し、撤退を迫られる前から、トヨタがF1に参戦する意味は薄れていたといえる。

===

Car industry needs new draw

Other automakers are in the same situation. Honda Motor Co. pulled out of F1 in early 2009, and Bridgestone Corp. will stop supplying tires for F1 cars from 2011. Toyota's pullout means there will be no Japanese manufacturer in F1.
 トヨタ以外のメーカーも事情は同じだ。ホンダは今年はじめにF1から撤退し、ブリヂストンも来年いっぱいでタイヤ供給を打ち切る。トヨタの撤退で、F1から日本メーカーは姿を消す。

BMW AG of Germany announced in July that it would quit F1 at the end of 2009 season, and French automaker Renault SA reportedly is considering withdrawal. It is even possible that no mass-production automaker will be on the F1 grid next year.
 独BMWの参戦も今年限りで、仏ルノーも撤退を検討中とされる。来年には、F1のサーキットから量産車メーカーがすべて消えてしまう可能性すらある。

The automobile industry must respond to a revolutionary change in which electricity is superseding gasoline as the source of power for its products.
 自動車産業は、動力源がガソリンから電気にシフトする大変革への対応を迫られている。

The key to dealing with this drastic change is eco-friendly cars, which are at the opposite end of the spectrum from F1, and low-priced cars targeting emerging countries. Toyota's withdrawal from F1 may be a move that symbolizes a strategic shift in the automobile industry.
 カギを握るのは、F1マシンの対極に位置するエコカーや、新興国向けの低価格車だ。トヨタのF1撤退は、自動車産業の戦略転換を象徴する動きともいえる。

Many companies have pulled out of other motor sports. Mitsubishi Motors Corp. has withdrawn from the Dakar Rally, while Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd., the maker of Subaru cars, has stopped participating in the World Rally Championship.
 三菱自動車がダカール・ラリーから撤退し、富士重工業も世界ラリー選手権への参加をやめるなど、他の自動車レースでも撤退の動きが相次いでいる。

Motor sports are bound to decline if this situation continues. The automobile industry must ponder what it can do to promote the joys of driving.
 このままでは、モータースポーツは衰退する一方だ。走る魅力、運転の楽しさを伝えるために何をすべきか。自動車業界は真剣に考えなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 10, 2009)
(2009年11月10日01時17分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月 9日 (月)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:心休め、秋の夜長楽しく /東京

(Mainichi Japan) November 8, 2009
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: The fickleness of Seasonal Affective Disorder
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:心休め、秋の夜長楽しく /東京

It's already November. I love the relative peace in this month before the manic bustle of December, but it was different when I was in my 20s.
 もう11月。あわただしい12月を目前に落ち着いた気分ですごせるこの時期が今では大好きなのだが、20代のときはそうではなかった。

Having graduated from medical college in Tokyo and started work at a hospital in my hometown in Hokkaido, for me November was the month the weather changed.
 東京の医大を卒業して故郷の北海道の病院で働いていた私にとって、11月は「もっとも気候に格差がある月」に感じられたのだ。

In both Tokyo and Hokkaido, the summers are hot and the winters cold. When I start thinking, "Oh, I don't wanna go out," it doesn't really matter where I am. And since autumn and spring are so pleasant, the weather in the two places are pretty much the same.
 東京でも北海道でも、夏は暑いし冬は寒い。「外に出たくないなあ」と思う点では、私にとってはどこでも同じだった。春と秋がすごしやすいのも、だいたい同じ。

Except November.
 ところが、11月は違う。

In Hokkaido the temperature plummets and the first snows start to fall. Some years, there are days I wonder if I'm in a full-blown snowstorm.
 北海道は気温がぐっと下がり、初雪も降る。年によっては「これは吹雪か?」と思うほど本格的な降りになる日もあるのだ。

But on those days, when I see scenes of Tokyo on the TV it's the very picture of fall.
 そんな日でも、テレビに映る東京の景色はまだ秋そのもの。

"As people stroll among the autumn foliage of Gaien's ginkgo trees..." goes the morning news as I pull on my boots and brave the snow whirling outside, leaving me feeling miserable. Maybe it's a mild case of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD).
 「外苑のイチョウ並木も色づき、日差しの中、散歩を楽しむ人たちが……」といったニュースを横目に、防寒ブーツをはいて雪が舞う中を出勤する朝など、寂しい気持ちでいっぱいになったものだ。もしかすると、軽い季節性のうつ病状態だったのかもしれない。

During my mid-30s, I started working at a hospital in Kanto, and I fell in love again with Tokyo Novembers. Even with a brisk wind in the air, as I pull on a light jacket and go outside I think, "This is nothing compared to Hokkaido."
 30代半ばになって再び関東の病院に勤務することになった私は、「東京の11月」を心から楽しんだ。ちょっとくらい冷たい風が吹いても、「北海道に比べればまだまだ」と薄いジャケットで外に出たりした。

It was these kinds of days when I had a fellow Hokkaidan visit my clinic. The patient suffered from depression every November, after moving to Tokyo from Sapporo a few years ago.
 そんなとき、診察室に北海道出身という患者さんがやって来た。数年前に札幌から東京に異動になり、それから11月になると必ずうつ状態になるのだという。

"Even in Tokyo it gets cold around this time of year, right? So I look up at the sky to see if it's going to snow. But it never does. After a few times, it really starts to get me down ...
 「東京でもこの時期、ぐっと気温が下がるでしょう? 習慣で、そろそろ雪かなと空を見上げるわけですよ。でも、いっこうに雪は落ちてこない。そんなことを繰り返すうちに、なんだか気持ちが憂うつになってきちゃって……」

"I guess snow falling is part of winter after all," the patient says, and I feel embarrassed at my shallowness for not loving my hometown more.
 「やっぱり雪が降ってこそ冬ですよ」と言うその患者さんと話をしているうちに、なんだか自分が愛郷心のかけらもない、浅薄な人間のような気がしてきて恥ずかしくなった。

With less and less daylight during this season, it's easy to come down with SAD.
 日照時間がぐっと減るこの季節には、季節性のうつ病が起きやすくなる。

There are people like me who start to feel down when it snows, and those who get blue when it doesn't, and we should take more time out to relax during the long autumn evenings.
 雪が降ったと落ち込む私のような人間もいれば、雪がなくて滅入(めい)る人もいる。いずれにしても、いつもよりゆっくりリラックスできる時間を取って、心を休めて秋の夜長を楽しみたい。

By the way, I've completely turned around and joined the "I miss the snow" school of thought.
 ちなみに今では私は、すっかり“雪が恋しい派”になってしまった。

Humans can be fickle creatures, I realize, as I start looking forward to returning home. (By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
 人間、変われば変わるものだ、と自分の移り気にあきれながら、今から年末の帰省を楽しみにしている。

毎日新聞 2009年11月3日 地方版

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メコン地域 米中と連携して開発支援を

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 8, 2009)
Japan, China, U.S. can play joint role in Mekong
メコン地域 米中と連携して開発支援を(11月8日付・読売社説)

A neighbor to the countries that hug the Mekong River in Indochina, China has long had an interest in the region, but the United States has recently developed a growing interest in the nations as well.
 インドシナ半島を流れるメコン川一帯の国々には、国境を接する中国に加え、最近は米国も関心を強めている。

Japan should take this opportunity, therefore, to back development of the region in close cooperation with both China and the United States.
 日本は、米中両国と緊密に連携しながら、この地域の開発支援を進めるべきだ。

The leaders of Japan and Southeast Asia's five Mekong River nations--Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam--met in Tokyo for their first-ever Japan-Mekong summit meeting on Friday and Saturday.
 タイ、ベトナム、ラオス、カンボジア、ミャンマー5か国と日本との初の日本・メコン地域諸国首脳会議が、東京で開かれた。

The Tokyo Declaration adopted at the summit incorporates Japan's support measures, including the development of a distribution network linking production sites and industrial centers that are scattered across the region, as well as the expansion of assistance in the field of environmental protection.
 共同宣言には、日本の具体的な支援策として、地域に点在する生産拠点や産業集積地をつなぐ物流ネットワークの整備や、環境分野の支援の拡充が盛り込まれた。

Japan and China have found themselves competing for influence when it comes to development of the Mekong area, implementing their own plans regarding the building of transport corridors via the construction of roads, bridges and tunnels.
 メコン開発では、道路や橋、トンネルの建設による「回廊」(幹線道路)づくりを中国と日本が競い合う形で進めてきた。

China has provided assistance for the North-South Economic Corridor program, which covers an area stretching from China's Yunnan Province in the north to Thailand and Vietnam in the south.
 中国は、雲南省からタイやベトナムに南下する南北経済回廊の整備を支援した。

Japan, on the other hand, has provided official development assistance for the construction of both the East-West Economic Corridor program, which covers the Indochina area, and the Southern Economic Corridor program, which connects Bangkok with Ho Chi Minh City.
日本は、インドシナ半島を横断する東西経済回廊、タイのバンコクとベトナムのホーチミンをつなぐ南部経済回廊の建設をODA(政府開発援助)でサポートした。

===

Common rules needed

The use of land routes, such as the East-West Economic Corridor, could greatly reduce the time taken to transport goods compared with sending them by sea via the Malacca Straits.
 マラッカ海峡を経由する海上輸送と比べ、東西経済回廊などの陸路を使えば、輸送にかかる時間は大幅に短縮できる。

However, there are hurdles to be overcome to realize a smoothly functioning transport corridor, most notably that customs and quarantine procedures at borders will need to be unified and streamlined.
 だが、課題も多い。物流ルートとして使うには、国境を越える際の通関や検疫の手続きを統一し、簡素化を図ることが不可欠だ。

Therefore, the joint statement reached at the summit notes the importance of improving the basic infrastructure of the Mekong states, not only in terms of hardware such as roads, but software such as border controls.
 共同宣言が、ハード面だけでなくソフト面の基盤整備の重要性を指摘したのもこのためだ。

Japan should emphasize its support for the reshaping of such institutions and the training of customs and quarantine personnel.
今後は手続きの制度設計への支援や、通関・検疫業務に従事する人材の育成などに力を入れるべきだ。

===

Dialogue with China, U.S. key

Japan and China have provided development assistance to Mekong nations within their own frameworks. But to ensure goods can be transported and people can travel without problems along the three key corridors, it is necessary to establish common rules covering their use.
 日中はそれぞれ独自の枠組みで開発支援を行ってきた。今後、3回廊の往来をスムーズにするには共通のルールづくりが必要だ。

To that end, it is important that the Japan-China Mekong policy dialogue forum, set up by Tokyo and Beijing in 2008, be used to enable the exchange of opinions on future policies for the Mekong region to safeguard the region's development and stability.
そのためには、昨年から始まった日中メコン政策対話の場を活用していくことが大切になる。

Also of importance is cooperation with the United States. The administration of U.S. President Barack Obama has placed importance on strengthening its ties with Asian nations.
In July, the United States held its first-ever ministerial meeting with four Mekong nations in Thailand--Myanmar being the only nation excluded from the forum.
 さらに重要なのが、米国との連携だ。オバマ政権はアジア重視の政策を打ち出し、7月には、ミャンマーを除く4か国との閣僚会議をタイで初めて開催した。

To address the situation in Myanmar, the Obama administration has revised the previous administration's economic sanctions-only policy and told the Myanmar junta it is ready to improve relations with the country.
 対ミャンマー政策も、オバマ政権は、経済制裁一辺倒だった姿勢を改め、関係改善の用意があることを軍事政権側に伝えた。

China has been increasing its influence over Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, using economic aid as a strategic tool.
 中国は、経済援助を利用してミャンマー、ラオス、カンボジアなどへの影響力を強めている。

Washington's apprehension over Beijing's moves is thought to be a key reason the United States has adopted a policy of engagement with Myanmar.
それに対する警戒感が、米国を関与政策に向かわせた理由の一つとみられている。

As Japan builds a cooperative relationship with China, it must also work with the United States in a way that promotes a favorable outcome for all parties.
 日本が中国と協力関係を築く上でも、米国との連携は、プラスの効果をもたらすだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 8, 2009)
(2009年11月8日01時04分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月 8日 (日)

金融政策―デフレの悪循環を阻め

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 6(IHT/Asahi: November 7,2009)
EDITORIAL: Financial policies.
金融政策―デフレの悪循環を阻め

In a deflationary spiral, prices of goods and services go into a tailspin, trimming sales revenues, lowering production and shrinking payrolls at companies. In times like that, the economy as a whole continues to shrink, pushing down prices further. In light of the state of the domestic economy, it will have to keep walking, at least for the time being, on the brink of falling into a dreadful downward spiral.
 デフレスパイラル。物価が全般に下がり、企業の売上高や生産、雇用が減少する。経済全体が縮小し、物価はさらに下がる。そんな悪循環の縁を、日本経済は注意深く歩み続けなければならないようだ。

The Bank of Japan, in its latest report titled "Outlook for Economic Activity and Prices," said prices will keep falling through fiscal 2011. It said the economy will likely start growing again in fiscal 2010 on the back of increased exports to emerging economies, gradually decreasing the margin of decline in prices.
But it is by no means certain that this rather rosy scenario will come to pass. There is no room for optimism at the moment.
 日銀が先に発表した「展望リポート」で、物価下落は11年度まで続くとの予測が示された。新興国への輸出をテコに経済成長率は10年度からプラスに転じ、物価下落幅も徐々に小さくなるという見立てだが、そううまくいくかどうか。楽観は禁物である。

After the collapse of the asset-inflated economy in the early 1990s, Japan became the first industrial nation since the end of World War II to experience deflation. Now, the threat of full-blown deflation is growing again in the aftermath of the global economic crisis. Japan has yet to emerge fully from the situation where falling prices of a broad range of goods and services are putting a strain on its economy.
 日本はバブル経済の崩壊後、先進国として第2次大戦後初のデフレに陥った。広範な物価下落が経済を圧迫する構図から抜け出せないまま、世界危機でデフレが再び深刻化しつつある。

Policymakers need to take utmost care to prevent the economy from tumbling into a deflationary spiral.
スパイラルに落ち込まないよう細心の注意が必要なのだ。

Deflation is caused by a shortage of overall demand. The only effective remedy for deflation is a mix of fiscal and monetary expansion to stimulate the economy. It is, however, important to combine such economic stimulus measures with steps to nurture new industries and create jobs based on a strategy for medium- and long-term economic growth. Simply trying to relieve a demand shortage won't be enough.
 デフレは総需要の不足から起きる。これを克服するには当面、財政と金融の両面からの景気刺激に頼るしかないが、それを新しい産業と雇用の創出に向けた中長期の経済成長戦略と組み合わせることが大切だ。たんに需要不足を補うだけではいけない。

Meanwhile, the central bank has announced that it will phase out part of the measures to support corporate financing it introduced following the failure of U.S. investment bank Lehman Brothers in September last year. The BOJ will terminate its program to purchase commercial paper, a short-term unsecured promissory note, and corporate bonds at the end of this year.
 一方、日銀は昨秋のリーマン・ショック以降に打ち出した企業の資金繰り支援策の一部を段階的に解除すると発表した。手形の一種であるコマーシャルペーパーと、社債の買い入れを年内で終える。

As applications for the program have fallen sharply in recent months, the central bank has decided the program is no longer necessary.
最近は利用が減り、使命を終えたと判断した。

The BOJ has also decided to close at the end of March a special lending program to provide financial institutions with unlimited funds for corporate lending. Under this program, the BOJ extends loans to banks at an annual interest rate of 0.1 percent, securing corporate bonds submitted to the central bank and other debt securities as collateral.
 社債などを担保として金融機関に金利0.1%で無制限に企業向け資金を貸す企業金融支援特別オペレーションを来年3月で終えることも決めた。

These decisions reflect receding concerns about the serious credit contraction that temporarily made it hard even for large companies to raise funds. If, however, the economy falls into a second bottom, the central bank should not hesitate to revive these measures. Flexible responses to changing economic conditions are vital.
 いずれも、大企業の資金繰りすら危うくした異常な金融収縮がひとまず収まった状況を映したものだ。今後もし景気が二番底に陥れば、再び発動することもためらうべきではない。臨機応変の姿勢が欠かせない。

Market players should not regard these moves as the beginning of a so-called exit strategy, which means ending the extremely easy monetary policy that is now in place.
 市場関係者も、これらの措置が金融緩和に幕を引く「出口戦略」の始まりであると受け取ってはならない。

As the improved earnings results for the first half of the current fiscal year have indicated, large companies are beginning to recover. With industrial production still at a low level, however, small and midsize companies remain stuck in dire straits. A significant increase in bankruptcies among them could prolong this deflation and recession.
 中間決算の発表に表れたように大企業の収益は持ち直してきたが、鉱工業生産がなお低水準にあるため、中小企業の経営は危機的な状況が続いている。持ちこたえられなくなった企業の倒産が増えれば、デフレと不況はますます長期化しかねない。

Concerns about the crisis among small and midsize firms have prompted the government to submit a bill to the extraordinary Diet session to help ease their financing difficulties. The BOJ has also pledged to maintain easy credit conditions tenaciously, suggesting it intends to ensure that funds will be flowing from financial institutions into small and midsize businesses.
 政府が臨時国会に出した「貸し渋り対策」の法案も中小企業の危機を重視したものだ。日銀も「金融緩和の状態をねばり強く続ける」とし、金融機関から中小企業に資金がしみ出すことを狙っている。

To prevent the economy from slipping into a double-dip recession, policymakers should make every effort to support the financing of smaller businesses while enhancing measures to create jobs.
 景気を二番底に陥らせないためにも、当面は雇用対策の強化と並んで中小企業向けの金融に力を注ぐことが大切である。

We hope the government and the BOJ will work together to take effective policy measures to save the economy.
 政府と日銀が連動することで、大きな効果を発揮するよう期待したい。

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2009年11月 7日 (土)

オバマ来日 政府は日米同盟再構築に動け

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 7, 2009)
Govt must do more for U.S. security alliance
オバマ来日 政府は日米同盟再構築に動け(11月7日付・読売社説)

The government has yet to agree to a plan to relocate the U.S. Marine Corps' Futenma Air Station within Okinawa Prefecture. This plan is backed by the U.S. government and the Okinawa prefectural government. However, the central government is sticking to an alternative idea that is opposed by both. It is hard to understand the government's dithering on this matter.
 米政府と沖縄県がそろって賛成する案に同調せず、両者が反対する案に固執する。日本政府の対応は理解に苦しむ。

It appears almost certain that this issue will not be settled before U.S. President Barack Obama arrives in Japan on Thursday. This likely will strain the Japan-U.S. relationship. We think this is deplorable.
 沖縄県の米海兵隊普天間飛行場の移設問題は、12日のオバマ米大統領の来日前には決着しないことが確定的となった。日米関係への悪影響は避けられない。極めて遺憾な事態だ。

The blame lies basically with the administration of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama. The government has been putting off a decision on whether to accept the plan to relocate the air station from the city of Ginowan to the eastern coastal area of the city of Nago, saying it is still examining how the plan was drawn up.
 その責任は、基本的に鳩山政権にある。名護市東海岸に移設する現行計画について、政府は「過去の経緯を検証中」を理由に、受け入れの判断を先送りしている。

Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada is pursuing a plan to integrate Futenma Air Station with the U.S. Air Force's Kadena Air Base, which also is in Okinawa Prefecture. But persuading the United States and local governments to drop their opposition to this proposal will be anything but easy.
 岡田外相は、普天間飛行場を空軍嘉手納基地に統合する案を追求する。だが、米国や地元の反対を翻意させるのは困難だろう。

Most disturbing of all is that the government remains quite unaware of the negative repercussions that could be caused by delaying a resolution of the issue.
 問題は、決着先送りの負の面を政府が認識していないことだ。

===

Grumbling growing

Since the government called for relocating the Futenma base outside Okinawa Prefecture or even outside the nation--despite such plans being almost completely unfeasible--calls to support the idea have been growing among people in the prefecture. This has vexed the Okinawa prefectural government and the Nago city government, which threw their support behind the current plan not because it was the best one but because it was better than other options.
 政府が実現の見通しもないまま「県外・国外移設」を掲げたため沖縄県内では、これに同調する声が広がり始めた。「ベストではないが、ベターな案」として現行計画に賛成する沖縄県や名護市の立場を苦しくさせている。

Members of the U.S. Congress have begun to express their reluctance to allocate funds for transferring 8,000 U.S. marines currently stationed in Okinawa Prefecture to Guam.
 米連邦議会でも、海兵隊8000人のグアム移転の予算計上への慎重論がくすぶり出した。

To reduce the burden on communities that host U.S. bases in Okinawa Prefecture, we think the government should settle the issue by the end of this year at the latest by accepting the current plan.
 地元負担の軽減を実現するため政府は遅くとも年内に、現行計画での決着を目指す必要がある。

The Maritime Self-Defense Force's refueling mission in the Indian Ocean has become another headache for the government. The MSDF's mission is set to be discontinued when a special law authorizing it expires in January, yet the government has not presented any alternative measure.
 インド洋での海上自衛隊の給油活動も、代替策がないまま来年1月の期限で中止される方向だ。

Hatoyama has insisted he will not agree to a simple extension of the mission. But he also seems unwilling to consider a "not simple" extension of the mission through a revision of the law that requires the prior approval of the Diet, for example.
 鳩山首相は「単純な延長はしない」と強調していた。だが、法改正で国会の事前承認を加えて活動を継続するなど、「単純でない延長」もしないつもりのようだ。

The government intends to drastically increase its financial aid for the reconstruction of Afghanistan. But mere financial assistance pales as an alternative to sending personnel and providing actual physical support. Working hard on tough jobs with allies and sharing certain risks are essential for establishing international relationships of trust.
 政府はアフガニスタン復興支援を大幅に増額する方針だが、資金支援だけでは人的支援の代替策とはならない。ともに汗を流し、一定のリスクを共有することで、国際社会との信頼関係が築かれることを軽視してはなるまい。

===

Remarks sowing confusion

Hatoyama said he would deepen the multilayered Japan-U.S. alliance as next year marks the 50th anniversary of the revision of the bilateral security treaty.
 鳩山首相は、来年の日米安保条約改定50周年に向けて「同盟を重層的に深化させる」という。

But his remarks on delaying resolution of the Futenma issue, ending the refueling mission and reducing the so-called sympathy budget allocations for U.S. forces stationed in Japan have all served to erode the alliance.
 だが、普天間問題の先送りや給油の中止、在日米軍の思いやり予算の削減など、首相発言は同盟関係を後退させることばかりだ。

The bilateral alliance cannot be deepened unless Self-Defense Forces personnel are actively engaged in international peace and cooperation activities and Tokyo and Washington strengthen their defense cooperation.
 自衛隊による国際平和協力活動への積極的な参加や、日米防衛協力の強化に取り組まなければ、同盟の深化はあり得ない。

One reason behind this disconcerting disarray is the Social Democratic Party--a coalition partner of the Democratic Party of Japan. The SDP has squawked at attempts by the Hatoyama administration to shift policy course on those issues.
 一連の問題の背景の一つには、鳩山政権の政策転換に反対する連立与党の社民党の存在がある。

Easy compromises are not an option on foreign policy and security issues that affect the very foundation of the nation. Hatoyama must reestablish and strengthen the Japan-U.S. alliance relationship--even if he has to twist some arms in the SDP.
 国の基本である外交・安保政策での安易な妥協は禁物だ。鳩山首相は、社民党を説得してでも、同盟関係の再構築に動くべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 7, 2009)
(2009年11月7日01時43分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月 6日 (金)

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国会改革 脱・法制局長官答弁を支持する

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 6, 2009)
Legislation bureau chief should take backseat
国会改革 脱・法制局長官答弁を支持する(11月6日付・読売社説)

Discussions on Diet reform are moving into high gear. The person with his hands firmly on the wheel of this reform is Democratic Party of Japan Secretary General Ichiro Ozawa.
 国会改革の論議が本格化してきた。旗振り役は小沢民主党幹事長だ。

"Breaking the domination of the bureaucracy must start at the Diet," Ozawa said. "I also want to revise the Diet Law to make parliament a place where lawmakers discuss policies among one another."
 小沢氏は、「『脱官僚支配』は国会から始めなければいけない。政治家同士で議論できる国会にするため国会法の改正もしたい」と語っている。

We hope members of both ruling and opposition parties will discuss this issue in detail.
与野党でしっかり協議してもらいたい。

One pillar of Ozawa's Diet reform plan is to remove bureaucrats from debates in the Diet. Ozawa insists that the director general of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau should be no exception to this ejection.
 小沢氏の改革案の柱の一つは、国会論戦の場から官僚を排除することである。内閣法制局長官も、その例外ではないと言う。

According to the Diet Law, some bureaucrats--including the director general of the bureau and the president of the National Personnel Authority--are allowed to attend Diet deliberations as special assistants to the government.
 国会法で法制局長官は、首相や閣僚を補佐するため、人事院総裁らとともに「政府特別補佐人」として出席が認められている。

The bureau is dubbed "a guardian of the law" because it presents the government view on interpretations of the Constitution and examines bills in light of existing laws.
 内閣法制局は、憲法解釈の政府統一見解を示したり、法案を現行法に照らし審査したりすることから「法の番人」とも言われる。

===

Controversial interpretations

The bureau presented the controversial constitutional interpretation that Japan has the right to collective self-defense, but cannot exercise this right. This and some other interpretations put forward by the bureau have undeniably distorted constitutional debates in the past and imposed undue restrictions on Japan's international cooperation and peacekeeping activities.
 しかし、内閣法制局が集団的自衛権について、「保持しているが行使できない」とする解釈などを示してきたことが、これまでの憲法論議を歪(ゆが)め、日本の国際平和協力活動に必要以上の制約を課してきたことは否定できない。

During the Persian Gulf crisis in 1990, Ozawa, who was secretary general of the Liberal Democratic Party at that time, claimed the participation of the Self-Defense Forces in the U.N. force was constitutionally possible even if it involved exercising the use of force. However, his assertion was given short shrift by the director general of the bureau at that time.
 小沢氏も、自民党幹事長時代の湾岸危機の際、「自衛隊の国連軍参加は、武力行使を伴う場合でも憲法上可能」と主張した。だが、当時の内閣法制局長官の答弁によって否定されている。

Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama has said it is strange that the director general's opinion is treated as the be-all and end-all on matters of law. However, Hatoyama does not plan to deviate from the bureau's constitutional interpretation on the right to collective self-defense.
 鳩山首相は、集団的自衛権の解釈は変更しないものの、「法制局長官の考え方を金科玉条にするのはおかしい」と語った。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Hirofumi Hirano also said lawmakers under the Hatoyama Cabinet would make constitutional judgments without being swayed by remarks made by directors general of the bureau in the past. This seems only natural. We strongly support the opinions of the prime minister and the chief cabinet secretary.
 平野官房長官も、過去の法制局長官の答弁には縛られず、政治主導で憲法判断をすると表明した。当然のことであり、首相や官房長官の考えを強く支持する。

===

Lawmakers also to blame

The bureau has so far been treated as if it is authorized to determine government interpretations on the Constitution. This must be corrected. Doing so will require imposing restrictions on remarks by the bureau director general.
 内閣法制局は、これまで憲法解釈を確定する権限があるかのような扱いを受けてきた。これは改めていかなければならない。そのためには、法制局長官の国会答弁を制限していくことが必要だ。

However, it is wrong to lay the responsibility for all past Diet discussions on the Constitution with the bureau.
 ただ、過去の国会における憲法論議の責任をすべて法制局に帰するのは間違いである。

Past administrations ultimately are responsible for that because they punted constitutional interpretations to the bureau, which is just one small section of the Cabinet, and avoided making political judgments to change them.
 内閣の一部局に過ぎない法制局に解釈を委ね、憲法解釈を変更するという政治決断を避けてきた歴代政権に、最終的な責任があるのは明らかだからだ。

From now on, lawmakers will be required to make remarks in the Diet based on their own perceptiveness and responsibility--including on changes to constitutional interpretations.
 これからは、解釈変更を含め、政治家が、自らの見識と責任において、国会答弁にあたることが肝要になる。

On that premise, it will not be necessary to keep all bureaucrats completely out of Diet deliberations. Bureaucrats should be asked to attend the Diet when details of administrative measures are being discussed and administrative responsibilities are pursued.
 それを前提にすれば、官僚を国会審議からすべて締め出す必要はない。行政の細部にわたる施策を聴取し、行政責任を追及する場には、言うまでもなく、官僚の出席を求めるべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 6, 2009)
(2009年11月6日01時15分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月 5日 (木)

教員の質向上策 研修効果を検証し改善進めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Nov. 5, 2009)
Ensuring good teachers requires good checkups
教員の質向上策 研修効果を検証し改善進めよ(11月5日付・読売社説)

To raise the quality of education, it is essential to improve the abilities of teachers. Measures such as a teaching improvement program that started

last academic year should be reviewed in order to strengthen their effectiveness.
 教育の質を高めるには教員の指導力向上が不可欠だ。昨年度から始まった指導改善研修などの効果を検証し、充実していかねばならない。

According to the Education, Science and Technology Ministry, 306 teachers at public primary, middle and high schools were recognized as lacking

adequate teaching ability by education boards of each prefecture and major cities last academic year. It was the fourth consecutive year that the

number of underperforming teachers has gone down.
 文部科学省によると、都道府県と政令市の教育委員会が昨年度、「指導力不足」と認定した公立小中高校などの教員は306人で、4年連続で減少し

た。

These teachers comprise only a tiny fraction of the about 900,000 public school teachers in the nation. But coupled with the existence of teachers

who have been punished for misconduct, the issue of a lack of ability in teachers has been one of the reasons for a growing distrust of teachers

among the public.
 公立校教員約90万人のごく一部だが、不祥事で懲戒処分を受ける教員の存在と相まって、教員不信を高める要因になっている。

===

Revising criteria

Local education boards had been entrusted with judging under their own standards the competence of their teachers, and were responsible for

providing training for improvement.
 指導力不足の教員については、これまで各教委が独自の基準で判定し、研修を行っていた。

However, starting last academic year, boards of education are now required by law to provide improvement training for teachers deemed insufficient

in teaching skills. The education ministry also has listed examples of teaching practices that are regarded as lacking.
昨年度からは法律で教委に指導改善研修の実施が義務づけられ、文科省が基準の具体例を示した。

Teachers considered ill-qualified are those who are unable to make appropriate curriculum instructions, give appropriate guidance and counseling for

students and manage classroom operations. Improvement training programs include mock lessons. If these teachers fail to show any improvement

after undergoing as much as two years of training, education boards can take such measures as transferring or dismissing them.
 指導力不足と認定されるのは、学習指導や生徒指導、学級運営を適切にできない教員だ。指導改善研修では模擬授業などを行い、最長2年間で改

善しないと、教委が免職や転任などの措置を取る。

This system was introduced because it was decided that the license renewal system for teachers, which began this academic year, would focus on

encouraging teachers to obtain up-to-date knowledge and skills rather than removing ill-qualified teachers. These new goals dictate a strict

evaluation of a teacher's ability.
 教員免許更新制の目的が、不適格教員の排除から最新の知識・技能を教員に身につけさせることに変わったため、この研修が導入された。それだけ

に指導力不足の認定は厳格でなければならない。

Only about 40 percent of boards of education provide training programs for teachers who have problem areas among their otherwise adequate

abilities. Boards of education that have yet to offer such training programs should be proactive and introduce such schemes.
 指導力不足とまでは言えないが課題のある教員に、研修を行っている教委は4割未満だ。未実施の教委は積極的に導入すべきだ。

===

Educating the educators

Of the about 24,000 new teachers who started working last academic year, those not officially hired after a one-year probation period was a record

high 315, nearly three times the figure five years ago. Almost 30 percent of these teachers quit voluntarily, citing mental illness such as depression.
 新任教員約2万4000人中、1年間の条件付き採用期間を経て正式採用されなかったのは、5年前の3倍近い過去最多の315人に上った。3割近くは

うつ病など心の病による依願退職である。

Some education boards have taken such measures as setting up forums for information exchange among principals of schools that have taken on first

-time teachers and the incorporation of mental health issues in training programs for new teachers. These efforts need to be made more widely

available.
 一部の教委では、新任教員が赴任した学校の校長を集めて情報交換の場を設けたり、初任者研修に「心の健康」に関する内容を盛り込んだりしている

。こうした取り組みを広げる必要があろう。

The administration of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama intends to extend the duration of teacher-training courses from the current four years to six

years, aiming to improve teacher quality. The plan is intended to extend the amount of classroom training for would-be teachers.
 新政権は、教員の質向上のため教員養成課程を4年間から6年間に延ばす方針だ。教育実習期間などを長くするためという。

But how many universities could offer such a six-year course and the full-time staff to run it? It would also mean increased tuition burdens on

students. The envisaged system could backfire, resulting in a drop in the number of applications to become teachers, lower competition ratios in

teacher employment examinations and a reluctance among motivated and skilled people to choose a career in teaching.
 だが、6年制の課程と専任の教授陣を用意できる大学は、どれほどあるのか。学生の学費負担も増す。志願者が減り、採用試験の倍率も下がって、意

欲のある優秀な人材が敬遠しては本末転倒だ。

It is necessary to carefully examine the merits and demerits of such extended courses, and decide whether they would actually help enhance

teachers' quality.
 本当に質の向上につながるのかその功罪を見極めるべきだ。

Next spring, first-time teachers will complete their studies at graduate schools for education that opened from last academic year. The end of the

two-year maximum period for improvement programs also is approaching. We hope the effectiveness of courses and training programs will be closely

checked and that the results of the review process will be used to improve the teacher training courses and teacher employment examinations.
 来春には、昨年度から開設されている教職大学院を経て教員になる新卒者が出る。最長2年とされた指導改善研修の期限も来る。授業や研修の効果

を点検し、その結果を教員養成課程や採用試験の改善に生かしてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 5, 2009)
(2009年11月5日01時30分  読売新聞)

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2009年11月 4日 (水)

ご挨拶

ご挨拶 (11月4日)

9月15日に脳梗塞を発症18日にMRAの診断を受けました。
右手がしびれてしまって以前のようには素早くタイプできなくなりましたが、
命にかかわるほどではありませんでした。
現在リハビリ中で、脳内血管につまったコレステロールなどの不純物を溶かす薬を服用しています。
早期発見できたことは大変に幸運なことであると医者も申しておりました。
今後とも英字新聞のご愛読のほど、よろしくお願いいたします。

srachai from khonkaen, thailand

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Nov. 4, 2009)
Toll-free roads may hurt local transportation
高速道路無料化 地方の足が奪われかねない(11月4日付・読売社説)

Railroad, shipping and bus companies are opposing the decision by the Cabinet of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama to in principle end expressway tolls, saying that the move will deprive them of their customers.
 高速道路を原則無料化する鳩山内閣の方針に、鉄道、海運、バス業界などが、「利用者が奪われる」と反発している。

They insist that even the discount on expressway tolls, a measure launched under the previous government of the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito, has had a significant impact on their business. They argue that they would lose more customers in the event expressways are made toll-free and that they would become unable to maintain their regional transportation networks.
 自公政権が始めた高速料金の割引でさえ影響は大きく、無料になればさらに客離れが進み、地方交通網が維持できなくなる、という主張だ。

If regional public transportation wanes, "those who are disadvantaged in terms of transportation," or those who cannot afford to own or drive cars, will lose their means of transportation in their daily lives. Though the government said it would pay full attention to the plan's impact on other means of transportation, it has yet to present concrete measures.
 地方公共交通が衰退すれば、車を利用できない「交通弱者」は暮らしの足を失う。政府は「他の交通機関への影響には十分配慮する」としているが、その具体策は示されていない。

In the first place, toll-free expressways involve certain problems. It will become necessary to inject taxpayers' money to repay a massive amount of debts owed by the former Japan Highway Public Corporation and other entities concerned. In addition, the policy, which will certainly increase overall automobile use, runs counter to measures to tackle global warming.
 そもそも高速道路を無料化すれば、旧道路公団などの巨額の債務返済に税金投入が必要になる上、交通量が増えて地球温暖化対策と矛盾する。

===

Costly plan

In the face of such criticism, Hatoyama said he would phase in implementation of the toll-free expressway plan. But such an approach does not change the fact that the government will have to spend 1.3 trillion yen annually in the end.
 こうした批判を受け、鳩山首相は、無料化は段階的に実施していく考えを表明したが、最終的に年間1・3兆円の税金を使うことに変わりはない。

The government should first consider what form its comprehensive transportation policy will take before ending expressway tolls. Its principles on road improvement and maintenance and the toll system need to be reviewed as part of that process.
 政府は高速無料化を進める前に、まず、総合的な交通政策の在り方を考えなければならない。その中で、道路の整備方針や料金体系などを見直していくべきだ。

To deal with the criticism that expressway tolls are too high, the government could improve the discount system and change toll standards for individual regions. It is important for the government to flexibly deal with the issue, rather than sticking to the principle of toll-free expressways.
 高速道路料金が高すぎるという批判に対しては、割引制度の充実や、地域ごとの料金水準の変更といった手もある。はじめに無料化ありきではなく、柔軟に対応する姿勢が大事だ。

Six Japan Railways Group passenger rail companies project that their combined annual revenues would decline 75 billion yen once the government has eliminated expressway tolls. The plan is expected to adversely affect Hokkaido Railway Co. and Shikoku Railway Co. in particular, as they operate many lines running parallel to expressways. The JR firms are afraid they will be forced to close such lines.
 JR各社は、高速道路が無料化されれば、旅客6社であわせて年間750億円の減収になるとみている。高速道路と並行する路線が多いJR北海道、四国の影響は特に深刻で、廃線が相次ぐ可能性が高いという。

===

Spreading effect

Expressway toll discounts, which started this spring, already have had a significant impact on the ferry industry, with some firms having collapsed and others forced to cut their workforce.
 春からの高速料金割引の影響で、すでにフェリー業界では倒産や人減らしが相次いでいる。

The profitability of express bus services has deteriorated because customers have chosen to drive their own cars due to lower expressway tolls. As a result, they now find it inevitable to reduce or even end services on regular routes, which have been maintained with profits from their express bus services.
バス業界ではマイカーに客を奪われて高速バスの採算が悪化し、その利益で維持してきた路線バスの減便や廃止が避けられない状況だ。

As for the economic revitalization program stressed by the Democratic Party of Japan, many observers point out that it would accelerate the so-called straw effect, or a movement of economic activity from economically weak to economically strong areas with shoppers in regional areas heading into urban areas and regional economies further deteriorating.
 民主党が強調する経済活性化についても、「地方の買い物客が都市部に流れる『ストロー現象』が進み、かえって地方経済は衰退する」という指摘が多い。

European countries and the United States are set to adopt policies of reducing the use of cars by charging expressway tolls and upgrading high-speed railway services, for the purpose of cutting carbon dioxide emissions.
 欧米では、高速道路を有料にしたり、高速鉄道の整備を進めたりして車の利用を減らし、二酸化炭素(CO2)の排出を抑える政策を取りつつある。

In Germany, the government began collecting tolls from some large vehicles on the autobahn, which was previously free for all vehicles. The United States has a plan to build a high-speed railroad modeled after Japan's Shinkansen.
 無料だったドイツのアウトバーンも、大型車の一部は有料になった。米国には、日本の新幹線をモデルにした高速鉄道計画もある。

The government should be aware that the toll-free expressway plan runs counter to such global trends.
高速無料化はこうした世界の流れに逆行する政策であることを、政府は認識すべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 4, 2009)
(2009年11月4日00時53分  読売新聞)

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