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2009年11月24日 (火)

◆永住外国人地方参政権

(Mainichi Japan) November 24, 2009
Opinion split over giving permanent foreign residents local voting rights
◆永住外国人地方参政権

 結党時に「定住外国人の地方参政権などを早期に実現する」と掲げており、この方針は今後とも引き続き維持していく--民主党政策集INDEX2009

 ◇「国民」概念進む多様化
 ◇在日韓国人の一部、すでに選挙権行使

In the House of Representatives election on Aug. 30 this year, a 21-year-old South Korean man in Japan born to a Japanese mother and South Korean father exercised his right to vote for the first time.
 在日韓国人の父と日本人の母を持つ東京都内在住の男性(21)は8月30日の衆院選で初めての選挙権を行使した。

A revision to the Nationality Law in 1984 permitted children born from 1985 onwards to hold dual nationality up until the age of 22 if one of their parents was Japanese. Still, the existence of people such as the 21-year-old, who has both dual nationality and the right to vote, is not widely known in Japan.
1984年の国籍法改正に伴い、翌85年以降に出生し、片親が日本人なら22歳までは二重国籍が認められるようになった。男性も「選挙権を持つ在日韓国人」だが、こうした人の存在はあまり知られていない。

Next year, the 21-year-old, who must choose between the two nationalities, plans to follow the path of his brother, who is two years his elder, and select Japanese citizenship.
(日本語翻訳なし スラチャイ)

"I didn't know my Korean name until my third year of elementary school, and I can't speak Korean even now. I was teased about my Korean name in the past, and I have lots of Korean friends living in Japan, but my awareness as a Korean is, frankly speaking, low," he says.
 「小学校3年生まで自分の韓国名も知らず、今も韓国語を話せない。韓国名をからかわれたこともあるし、在日韓国人の友人は多いが、韓国人という意識は正直、低い」。来年、2歳上の兄と同じく日本国籍を選択するつもりだ。

In the Lower House election, the 21-year-old voted for the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), which has pushed for local-election voting rights for long-term foreign residents. He attended several meetings with South Koreans in Japan, and though he was unsympathetic with their call to be given suffrage in exchange for their obligation to pay taxes, he voted for the DPJ as he wanted his friends to be given the right to vote.
 衆院選では民主党に投票した。在日韓国人の集会に数回参加し、「納税の義務の代わりに参政権を」という主張には共感しなかったが、「友人たちに参政権を持ってほしい」という思いが決め手になった。

"The opponents (of voting rights for foreigners) say that Koreans living in Japan will cast anti-Japanese votes, but I don't think so. If they are given voting rights, then voting from the perspective of being a South Korean in Japan will cease. They will vote while thinking about how they can improve their lives," the 21-year-old said.
 「反対派は在日韓国人が反日的な投票行動を取るというが、そうは思わない。実現すれば、在日韓国人という意味をこめて投票することはなくなる。自分の生活を良くすることを考え投票する」と、男性は話した。

There are about 910,000 foreigners in Japan who hold permanent residence, comprising some 420,000 special permanent residents from the former colonized Korean Peninsula and Taiwan, and 490,000 who have met special requirements such as residing in Japan for 10 years or more. It is estimated that there are 470,000 Koreans with permanent residence, more than half of the total.
 永住外国人は旧植民地の朝鮮半島、台湾出身者らが対象の特別永住者約42万人と在日10年以上などの条件を満たす一般永住者約49万人の計約91万人。在日韓国・朝鮮人は全体で約47万人で過半数を占める。

A proposal made by the DPJ's federation of legislators in May last year suggested introducing voting rights only for residents from countries with which Japan has diplomatic relations, thereby excluding North Koreans. If the proposal materializes, then most of the foreign voters will be South Koreans, Chinese and Brazilians, who make up a large percentage of the foreign permanent residents in Japan.
 昨年5月に民主党の議連がまとめた提言では、対象を国交のある国の国籍保有者とし、在日朝鮮人は除外した。提言通り実現すれば、対象は永住者の多い韓国人、中国人、ブラジル人が大半を占めることになる。

Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama, DPJ Secretary-General Ichiro Ozawa and other party officials have pushed to give permanent foreign residents local voting rights, from both a historical perspective and the perspective of "fraternal" politics that the DPJ has promoted. Ozawa has called for the early submission of a bill to change the law, but the government's priorities remain unclear. The move was incorporated in the party's list of policies and its election promises, but was left out of its election manifesto.
 民主党では鳩山由紀夫首相、小沢一郎幹事長らが「友愛」政治や歴史的観点から推進論を説く。小沢氏は早期の法案提出を政府に呼び掛けているが、政府側の優先順位は明確ではない。公約も政策集には明記されているが、マニフェストへの盛り込みは見送られた。

Tomomi Inada, a Liberal Democratic Party legislator who opposes giving foreign permanent residents voting rights, argues, "If local assembly members and heads supported by foreigners appear, then it will influence local Diet members. It will constrain Japan's national interests." This line of thinking is also deeply rooted in the DPJ.
 反対派の論客、自民党の稲田朋美衆院議員は「外国人から支援された首長や地方議員が誕生すれば、地元の国会議員も影響を受ける。日本の国益の制約になる」と訴える。こうした考えは、民主党内にも根強くある。

Fears have been raised that if suffrage is granted in areas such as Osaka's Ikuno Ward, where foreigners account for 24 percent of the population, then it will lead to friction between supporters and opponents. This gives rise to the argument, "Japanese nationals should decide on the future of Japan -- permanent foreign residents can gain suffrage by obtaining Japanese citizenship."
 人口の24%を外国人が占める大阪市生野区などで参政権付与を認めれば、それに反対する人たちとの摩擦が生ずる恐れもある。「日本の行方は日本国民が決めるべきで、永住外国人が日本国籍を取得して参政権を得ればよい」との主張に結びつく。

At the same time, Katsuhiko Okazaki, a graduate professor at Aichi Gakuin University, who supports voting rights for foreign permanent residents, points out, "There are South Koreans living in Japan who obtain Japanese citizenship to get all the rights, but there is still resistance to losing their South Korean nationality. If dual citizenship were granted, the problem would be solved all at once."
 一方、推進派の岡崎勝彦・愛知学院大学大学院教授(外国人法)は「在日の人はすべての権利を得ようと日本国籍を取得する人もいるが、韓国籍を失うことへの抵抗はなおある。二重国籍を認めれば一気に解決する」と提案する。

Okazaki says that the principles of lineage and exclusivism are deeply rooted in Japan, but the fact that there are already cases of dual citizenship, as is the case with South Koreans in Japan who have voting rights, shows that the concept of what constitutes a national has diversified. He adds that there have been changes in the sense of belonging that is associated with nationality.
 岡崎氏は、日本は「血統主義」「排他主義」が根強くあるが、「選挙権を持つ在日韓国人」のような二重国籍状態がすでに現存するため、「国民という概念の多様化が進んでいる」と話し、国籍に対する帰属意識も変わりつつあることを指摘した。

Next year marks 100 years since Japan's annexation of the Korean Peninsula. It is certain the issue of suffrage for foreigners will emerge as a major point of discussion.
 来年は日韓併合から100年の節目。外国人参政権問題が大きな論点になるのは間違いない。【田所柳子】

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