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2011年1月12日 (水)

国境を越える若者―アジア支える大学教育を

2011/01/12
--The Asahi Shimbun, Jan. 11
EDITORIAL: Japan's role in Asia unity
国境を越える若者―アジア支える大学教育を

Asia is now facing a raft of common challenges, including pollution spreading across borders, increasing difficulty in securing energy and food, the rapid aging of the population and disputes over maritime interests and territories.
Seen from the broad regional perspective, it is clear that all these problems are challenges that need to be dealt with through unified efforts by Asian nations.
 アジアはいま、多くの共通課題に直面している。
 国境を越える環境汚染、エネルギーや食糧の確保、急速に進む高齢化。海洋権益や領土をめぐる対立も、空を飛ぶ鳥の目から見れば、アジア諸国が一緒になって、答えを見つけ出さねばならない共通の問題だ。

Europe is another area that has been wrestling with a similar situation.
 こうした時代認識を切実に抱えてきた地域がある。欧州だ。

Until the mid-20th century, countries in Europe had been constantly feuding and warring with each other.
 20世紀半ばまで、国々はいがみあい、戦争を繰り返してきた。

Faced with the gloomy prospect of declining from stagnation, Europe has been trying to avoid that fate by removing the walls of national borders for regional integration.
停滞から没落への転落をどうしたら避けられるのか。手がかりにしてきたのが、国境の壁を取り払う地域統合である。

Twenty-seven European countries have promoted economic integration under the banner of the European Union and, through the efforts, built a community of nations bound by a pledge not to wage war with each other.
 欧州27カ国は欧州連合(EU)の旗の下、経済統合を進め、不戦共同体を作り上げた。

Now, in the face of the euro crisis, these countries are working hard to find a regional remedy instead of tackling the challenge independently.
降りかかるユーロ危機にも、一国ではなく、地域全体の解決策を見つけようと苦闘している。

A one-hour train ride from Brussels, the capital of Belgium where the EU is headquartered, brought me to Bruges, a historic city where I visited the College of Europe.
 EUの拠点があるベルギーの首都ブリュッセルから鉄道で1時間。
 古都ブリュージュにある欧州大学院大学(カレッジ・オブ・ヨーロッパ)を訪ねた。

Some 400 young people from all over Europe study at the postgraduate institute.
欧州一円から集まった約400人の若者が学んでいる。

The university has produced many senior EU officials. And its graduates, who often have a large network of contacts within the EU, are sometimes called collectively as the "Bruges mafia."
多くのEU幹部が輩出しており、EU内に太い人脈を持つ卒業生たちは時に「ブリュージュ・マフィア」と呼ばれる。

The institute was founded in 1949, shortly after the end of World War II. At that time, there was none of the legal or political frameworks for European integration.
 創設は、第2次大戦直後の1949年。欧州統合の枠組みは何一つない時代だった。

European leaders in those days, including Winston Churchill, the former British prime minister who advocated the creation of a "United States of Europe," apparently thought building a school to develop human resources would be a good first step toward regional integration.
統合への一歩として、まず学校を開き、人材を育てる。「欧州合衆国」結成を訴えた英国のチャーチル元首相らはそう考えていたのだろう。

Cultivating a sense of identity
■「欧州人」意識育む

Classes at the institute are taught in English and French. Many different languages are heard at places like school cafeterias and dormitories. On weekends, parties are organized to introduce students to the foods and cultures of countries in the region.
 講義は英語とフランス語で行う。食堂や寮では多くの言語が飛び交い、週末には各国の料理や生活を紹介するパーティーが開かれる。

One year of living in a dorm helps students from various countries to develop a sense of identity as a European, separate from their national identity.
出身国とは別に「ヨーロッパ人」の意識を学生が持つようになるのは、こうした1年間の全寮制教育を経験するためだ。

Edouard Dirrig, a 28-year-old graduate of the school, is now an employee at the European Parliament. In addition to English and French, the languages of his parents, Dirrig also uses German and Italian, which he learned at the university, in his work of coordinating the interests of countries over a variety of issues.
 卒業生の欧州議会職員エドアルド・ディリグさん(28)と会った。両親の出身国である英仏両語に加えて、学校で覚えた独語やイタリア語を駆使して各国の利害調整に奔走する。

Dirrig says he finds it rewarding to work for the entire Europe instead of just serving national interests.
「国益ではなく欧州のために働くことにやりがいを感じる」と言う。

Behind the fact that many European students are multilingual speakers is an effective pan-European exchange program.
 欧州の多くの学生が複数の言語を話せる背景には、充実した留学制度がある。

Since the late 1980s, 2.2 million students have taken part in the Erasmus Program (European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students), an EU-funded student exchange program designed to promote studying abroad within Europe through a credit transfer system and a scholarship program.
単位互換制度や奨学金支給によって欧州内の留学を後押しするエラスムス計画には80年代末以来、約220万人もの学生が参加した。

Asia is different from Europe in many ways, such as historical backgrounds and political circumstances. Yet economic interdependence among countries in Asia is as high as that among European nations.
 アジアは欧州と歴史的背景や事情は異なる。それでも各国経済の相互依存は欧州並みに高い。

English as common language in Asia

Various forms of regional cooperation have been established. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and three East Asian powers--Japan, China and South Korea--are cooperating with each other for such purposes as financial system stability, disaster prevention and food security.
地域協力も進み、東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)と日中韓3カ国は金融の安定や防災、食糧安保で連携している。

Significant changes are also taking place in the area of education.
 教育でも変化の波が起きている。

■英語が共通言語に

Signs of a new future for Asia taking shape are visible at places like the campus building No. 11 of Waseda University in Tokyo.
 創設者大隈重信の銅像を見下ろす東京・早稲田大学の11号館。

Various foreign languages can be heard around the building, which is located close to the famous bronze statue of founder Shigenobu Okuma (1838-1922).
 一帯を歩くと、さまざまな外国語が聞こえてくる。

More than a third of the 3,100 students at the university's School of International Liberal Studies, housed by the building, are foreign nationals, with more than 60 percent from South Korea or China.
ここにある国際教養学部の約3100人の学生の3分の1強は外国人、その6割以上が韓国と中国から来る。

All classes are taught in English. Many of the foreign students become trilingual, speaking English, Japanese and their native language. Japanese students are required to spend at least one year studying abroad.
授業はすべて英語だ。外国人学生の多くが母国語、英語、日本語のトリリンガルになる。日本人学生は1年間の留学が必修だ。

The university's Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, located nearby, aims to develop human resources needed for regional integration in Asia as one of its goals. Classes here, too, are basically conducted in English.
 近くにある独立大学院アジア太平洋研究科は「アジア地域統合のための人材育成」を目標の一つに掲げている。ここの講義も英語が基本。

Many of the more than 300 students at the graduate school are from other parts of Asia.
300人を超える学生の多くがアジア出身だ。

It is not surprising that some classes are taught totally in English at a growing number of Japanese universities, including Akita International University in Akita Prefecture, Hosei University in Tokyo and Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University in Oita Prefecture.
 英語のみで授業を行う学部が秋田の国際教養大、法政、大分の立命館アジア太平洋大などに広がっているのは当然だ。

The wave of globalization is turning English into the common language in Asia.
グローバル化の波は英語をアジア共通の言語にしつつある。

About 140,000 foreign students are studying in Japan, and 90 percent of them are from other Asian nations. Classes taught in English have great significance as they help attract more foreign students to Japan. It is also important to increase the number of Japanese students studying abroad.
 日本で学ぶ外国人留学生は約14万人。9割がアジア出身だ。英語による授業にひかれて、留学生が増える意義は大きい。海外に向かう日本人留学生もさらに増やしたい。

■グローバルな発想で

But only increasing the number of foreign students is not enough for Japan's education system to meet the demands of the times.
 ただ、単に留学生の数を増やすだけでは時代の要請に応えたとはいえまい。

The rise of emerging countries like China, India and Brazil is changing the power structure of the international community.
中国やインド、ブラジルなど新興国の台頭によって、国際社会の構図は大きく変わりつつある。

What the education system is expected to do now is to make greater efforts to help students acquire broader knowledge that is not limited to what concerns their own nations and develop the ability to think in ways that help build constructive relations between nations.
 いま求められるのは、国境を越えたグローバルな知識を持ち、国と国を結びつけるような発想を持つ人材だ。

Education of today needs to free itself from the old thinking focused on developing inward-looking people within the national framework.
国家の枠内で内向きな人材を育てる考え方から脱しなければならない。

The first thing to do is to create the Asian version of the Erasmus Program to increase the number of Asian students studying in other parts of the region.
 まずアジア版のエラスムス計画を作り、学生の域内留学を増やす必要がある。

Promoting exchanges among schools

The "Campus Asia" plan, which has been considered since 2009 as a means to promote exchanges among universities in Japan, China and South Korea, is a good starting point. Details of the plan should be fleshed out swiftly.
日中韓の大学間交流を進めるために一昨年から論議されている「キャンパス・アジア」構想は足がかりになる。早急に肉付けしてもらいたい。

Education reform is also imperative. Japanese students often fail to hold their own in debate against their Chinese and South Korean counterparts.
 教育改革も急務だ。中韓の学生との討論で日本の学生が力負けしているのを見かける。

More efforts should be made to help Japanese students acquire the ability to deepen their thoughts and persuade others in addition to English language skills.
英語力とともに自分の考えを深め、説得する力を強めたい。

At the beginning of each school year in autumn, a political leader in Europe is invited to deliver a speech at the College of Europe. Last year, German Chancellor Angela Merkel told students at the school about the reunification of Germany brought about by the end of the Cold War.
 欧州大学院大学では毎年秋の開講にあたって、欧州の政治指導者が演説する。昨年招かれたメルケル独首相は学生を前に、冷戦終結によって起きたドイツ統一の体験を語った。

Freedom came suddenly, Merkel said in her speech. The reunification of Germany is unthinkable without integration of Europe, she argued, telling the students that they are the people who can take the best advantage of the opportunities offered by Europe.
 「自由は突然やってきました。ドイツ統一は欧州統合なしでは考えられません。欧州がもたらすチャンスを生かせるのは、あなたたちなのです」

There is still a divided nation in Asia. There is also deep-seated mutual distrust among some Asian nations.
 アジアにはまだ分断国家があり、地域内の不信や疑念も根強い。

The challenge facing the region is how to overcome this difficult situation and find a path toward harmonious and prosperous coexistence.
この厳しい状況をどう克服し、共生と共存の道をいかに切り開くのか。

How Asia will tackle this regional challenge will go a long way toward determining the fate of not just individual countries but of all the nations and people in the region.
その結果は一国にとどまらず、アジアのすべての国々と人々の運命を左右する。

It is vital to develop international-minded people who can push Asia toward a brighter future.
 アジアの未来を支える国際人を育てていかねばならない。

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