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2011年8月13日 (土)

社説:原発事故の賠償 救済の体制作りが必要

(Mainichi Japan) August 12, 2011
Legally supported compensation setup needed to provide relief for nuke crisis victims
社説:原発事故の賠償 救済の体制作りが必要

Aug. 11 marked the five-month anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, but the nuclear crisis at the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant has yet to be brought under control.
 東日本大震災の発生から11日で5カ月を迎えた。
 東京電力福島第1原発事故はいまだに収束していないが、

With a nuclear compensation panel within the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) establishing its midterm guidelines, however, an overall picture of the scope of compensation for damages caused by the crisis have finally begun to emerge.
事故による被害に対する賠償範囲の全体像がやっと固まった。文部科学省の原子力損害賠償紛争審査会がこのほど、中間指針をまとめたのだ。

The panel had heretofore expressed its intent to include costs incurred by residents forced to evacuate under government instruction, emotional pain caused by these evacuations, as well as damages and radioactive contamination fears caused by shipping bans imposed on agricultural and fisheries products as eligible for compensation.
 審査会はこれまで、政府指示による住民の避難費用や、避難に伴う精神的苦痛への賠償、農水産物の出荷制限に伴う損害や風評被害などを賠償対象とする方針を示してきた。

In its midterm guidelines, the panel expanded the scope of compensation eligibility to include the manufacturing and service industries.
 中間指針では、風評被害の範囲を製造業やサービス業にも拡大した。

The tourism industries in Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma prefectures are now eligible, in addition to Fukushima Prefecture's.
観光業は、福島以外の茨城、栃木、群馬各県に対象を広げた。

Furthermore, the panel approved the coverage of costs incurred across the nation from cancellations made by foreign tourists through the month of May.
また、外国人観光客の予約キャンセルによる被害は5月分まで全国で認めた。

The 17 prefectures where radiation-tainted rice straw was distributed -- leading to radiation-tainted beef -- will also be eligible for compensation.
 汚染牛問題では、汚染された稲わらが流通した17道県を賠償対象とした。

Private companies that sustained direct damage and other parties that were indirectly affected, such as the clients of farmers, fishermen and forestry operators, have also been included for compensation coverage.
さらに、損害を受けた企業や農林漁業者の取引先の間接被害も賠償の対象に加えた。

Based on the serious effects of the crisis, the effort made to expand the scope of compensation if a causal relationship exists, should be recognized.
 事故による深刻な影響を考え、因果関係があれば広く賠償を認めた姿勢は評価できる。

The panel also indicated that evacuations by residents living outside the government-mandated evacuation zones could be eligible for compensation if the evacuations are deemed appropriate under current social norms.
また、政府の指定した区域外から自主的に避難した住民についても、避難行動が社会通念上合理的ならば賠償対象になり得る、との認識も示した。

While in-depth deliberation of the latter has been deferred, the inclusion of such non-government-mandated evacuations under the scope of compensation payments would be a reasonable measure, considering the scale of radioactive contamination.
具体的な検討は持ち越されたが、放射能汚染の実態をみれば妥当な判断だ。

A claim for damages based on the midterm guidelines will be submitted in September to Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO), the operator of the stricken nuclear power plant.
 中間指針決定を受け、東電は9月にも賠償請求を受け付ける。

While some 400,000 to 500,000 individuals and companies were initially expected to be eligible for damages, the number is now predicted to be far higher, which increases the likelihood of negotiations that are both protracted and continuous.
当初、40万~50万の個人や企業が賠償対象になるとみられていたが、さらに増えるだろう。交渉が長期かつ継続的になることは避けられない。

First and foremost, TEPCO, which will expand the number of its staff dedicated to compensation issues to several thousand, should carefully listen to the voices of the crisis' victims.
 東電は補償担当者を数千人規模に拡充して対応する。まずは被害者の訴えに耳を傾けてほしい。

As was noted in the midterm guidelines, it is important that TEPCO maintain enough flexibility to compensate parties on a case-by-case basis if cause and effect is shown to exist, even if such parties are not specified in the guidelines as being eligible for compensation.
中間指針にも書かれているように、指針で賠償対象になっていなくても、因果関係があれば個別具体的な事情に応じて損害を認める柔軟性も必要だ。

Direct negotiations are ideal in promptly providing reparations to the victims.
被害者への早期賠償を実現するためには、できる限り直接交渉で合意にこぎつけるのが望ましい。

Still, the panel's midterm guidelines come with more than a few abstract stipulations and standards that could result in multiple interpretations.
 とはいえ、中間指針には抽象的な規定や、解釈で見解が分かれる基準も少なくない。

For this reason, committees will be set up under the panel's umbrella to mediate in case direct negotiations between involved parties break down.
そのため、当事者の直接交渉が決裂した場合、審査会の下に置かれる委員会が和解を仲介する。

Members of this committee will largely be comprised of lawyers based in Tokyo and Fukushima; bar associations have experience in alternative dispute resolution (ADR), aimed at resolving civil disputes without litigation.
メンバーは法律家が中心で、東京と福島に拠点を置く。
 弁護士会は、民事上のトラブルを裁判ではなく第三者の仲介で解決する「ADR(裁判外紛争解決手続き)」を運用してきた実績もある。

If disputes remain unresolved, parties will ultimately go to court, but this will take time and money.
 最終的に合意が成立しない場合、訴訟で争うが、費用や時間がかかる。

There are high hopes for a setup in which all parties reach a satisfactory settlement with both speed and fairness, and we hope that the legal community provides all the support it can provide.
迅速性や公平性を担保しながら当事者が納得する解決に導く和解の枠組みへの期待は大きい。法曹界にはしっかりとしたバックアップ体制を作ってもらいたい。

毎日新聞 2011年8月12日 2時31分

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