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2012年8月27日 (月)

教員養成改革 指導力ある若手の育成を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Aug. 27, 2012)
Improve training system to boost young teachers' skills
教員養成改革 指導力ある若手の育成を急げ (8月26日付・読売社説)

A draft report calls on people who wish to become teachers to acquire master's degrees after completing four years of undergraduate education.
 教員になる人には、大学の4年間に加え、大学院で修士レベルの教育を受けてもらう――。

The Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry's Central Education Council will shortly submit the report, which includes such a proposal to improve the quality of teacher, to the education minister.
 教員の資質向上策として、中央教育審議会が近く文部科学相に提出する答申案にそんな提言が盛り込まれた。

Public criticism has been mounting that teachers have failed to adequately fulfill their duties in the face of a surge of serious problems at schools such as bullying and truancy.
 いじめや不登校など、学校で深刻な問題が増えているにもかかわらず、教員が適切に対処できていないとの批判は根強い。

In recent years, the training of young teachers has been woefully insufficient because of such factors as veteran teachers--who entered the educational field in large numbers--reaching the mandatory retirement age and the increasing workload of teachers due to an expansion of the scope of their jobs.
 近年、教育現場では、大量採用されたベテラン教員の退職や業務の多忙化などで、若手教員を育てる余裕が失われつつある。

There seems to be little effort among teachers to learn from one another and have the teaching skills of experienced teachers handed down to younger teachers.
教員同士が学び合い、指導法を受け継ぐという雰囲気も乏しいようだ。

Revamping the teacher training system is apparently a pressing task for the entire educational field.
 教員養成システムが手直しを迫られているのは確かだろう。

According to the draft report, university graduates will receive "basic teaching certificates," which will be a type of temporary permit. After they finish the required graduate school courses, they will receive a "general certificate."
 答申案によると、学部4年を修了すると、仮免許ともいえる「基礎免許」、その後、大学院で必要な課程を履修すれば「一般免許」を付与する。

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Graduate schools too few

Even though people with basic certificates will be allowed to teach, they will be required to obtain general certificates within a certain period of time, the draft says.
基礎免許のみでも教壇に立てるが、一定期間内に一般免許の取得を求めるという。

The education council envisions that teachers with many years of experience, including those who served as school principals, will run the postgraduate teacher training program. Emphasis will be placed on training methods based on on-the-spot teaching practice at schools.
 校長経験者ら実務家が指導にあたり、学校での実習を重ねる養成方法の確立を目指す。

Graduate schools specializing in teacher training, which were launched in 2008, are expected to play a pivotal role in putting the envisaged training system into force.
その中核として想定しているのが、2008年に開設された教職大学院だ。

We support the idea of spending sufficient time to have future teachers acquire practical teaching capabilities through the teacher training courses.
 養成にある程度、時間をかけ、実践的な指導力を身につけさせるという狙いは理解できる。

However, there are only 25 graduate schools that specialize in training teachers in this country at present.
 ただ、教職大学院は現在、25校にとどまる。

Total enrollment at these schools stands at 815, a far cry from the number of newly recruited schoolteachers--about 30,000 every year at publicly operated schools alone. How to fully implement the projected teacher training program is a key task that must be addressed from now on.
定員は計815人で、毎年の教員採用数(公立で3万人)に遠く及ばない。受け皿整備は今後の重要な課題である。

School expenses needed for teacher training at graduate schools are another problem.
 大学院に通う学費負担の問題もある。

Without suitable support measures, including a scholarship system for graduate school students, there is a danger of excellent human resources hoping to become teachers being forced to abandon their aspirations for financial reasons.
奨学金など適切な支援がなければ、優秀で意欲のある人材が経済的な理由から教員志望を断念することになりかねない。

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Open teaching posts wider

Over the next 10 years, many teachers are expected to retire as they reach the mandatory age limit. One-third of all schoolteachers will have to be replaced, making the training of young teachers a matter of urgency.
 今後10年間は、定年を迎える教員の大量退職が見込まれ、教員全体の約3分の1が入れ替わる。若手教員の養成は喫緊の課題だ。

Along with the introduction of a master's degree system for teachers, it is important for all universities with teachers' courses to rapidly improve their curricula on their own initiatives.
 「修士制」導入の検討と並行して、教員養成に携わる大学が自ら、カリキュラムの改善を早急に進めることが肝要である。

Universities should exchange information closely with boards of education that hire and assign teachers to specific schools.
 大学側は、教員を採用して学校に配置する教育委員会と密接に情報交換を重ねるべきだ。

Through such exchanges, it should be worked out whether teaching content and methods suit the actual needs of teachers and students.
指導内容が現場のニーズに即しているかどうかについても、厳しく点検しなければならない。

It also is important to open the teaching profession to citizens engaged in other work.
 社会人に教員への門戸を開くことも大切だ。

For instance, if a science researcher is given a teaching post at a school, he or she may be able to convey the joy of learning about science to children who have a tendency to shy away from the subject.
例えば、科学の研究者が教員として、その面白さを伝えれば、子供の理科離れを防ぐ一助となろう。

Attention should be also paid to hiring people proficient in English help children improve their English-language skills.
子供の英語力向上に役立つ人材も登用したい。

Making use of people from a broad range of fields and with a variety of experiences should help reinvigorate the nation's school education.
 幅広い層の多彩な経験を生かすことが、教育現場の活性化につながるはずだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 26, 2012)
(2012年8月26日01時28分  読売新聞)

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