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2013年1月 4日 (金)

習政権と日本 戦略的外交で「互損」の脱却を

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 4, 2013)
Strategic approach important to deal with aggressive China
習政権と日本 戦略的外交で「互損」の脱却を(1月3日付・読売社説)

 ◆中国の強硬・膨張路線を牽制せよ◆

China's policy of avidly increasing its national prosperity and military strength is destabilizing East Asia. However, the existence of China as a giant yet expanding market is also vital for Japan's economic growth.
 富国強兵路線を突き進む中国が東アジア情勢を不安定化させている。同時に、中国は発展する巨大市場として日本の成長にも欠かせぬ存在だ。

The mission of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's administration will be to implement its foreign policy in a strategic manner. The administration needs to increase pressure on China to check the nation's expansionism, but at the same time tenaciously persuade its Asian neighbor to engage in international cooperation.
 安倍政権は、戦略的な外交を展開し、中国の力まかせの膨張を牽制(けんせい)するとともに、国際協調に向かうよう中国に粘り強く促していくことが、課題となろう。

In November, Xi Jinping became the head of the Chinese Communist Party by assuming the post of general secretary. Xi, who also heads the military, is scheduled to become president during the National People's Congress in March.
 昨年11月、共産党トップの総書記に就任した習近平氏は3月の全国人民代表大会(国会)で、党と軍の最高ポストに加えて国家主席にも就任する。

 ◆課題山積の国内情勢◆

The Xi administration's top concern is to maintain the Communist Party's sole grip on power. The key to achieving this goal is securing sustainable economic growth.
 習政権にとって、最優先事項は一党独裁をいかに維持していくかであり、そのためには持続的な経済発展がカギを握る。

However, a mountain of problems lies ahead of the administration.
 だが、問題は山積している。

===

Xi faced with internal problems

It has become difficult for China to sustain the high level of growth the nation had enjoyed, so public anger regarding the nation's chronic problems--such as serious income disparities, a corrupt bureaucracy, an unfair judicial system and environmental pollution--is primed to explode. Violent demonstrations are occurring frequently across the nation. The scale of the demonstrations is growing, and their actions are becoming more destructive.
 これまでのような高成長が望めない中、深刻な所得格差をはじめ、官僚腐敗や不公正な司法、環境問題などに対する民衆の不満は爆発寸前の状態にある。各地で頻発する暴動はより大規模化し、破壊行為はますます激化している。

Xi, the son of a former deputy prime minster, is known as the leader of the so-called princelings, the influential offspring of high-ranking party officials. It seems unlikely he will be bold enough to act against the vested interests of the privileged classes by carrying out drastic reforms to rectify income disparities and other problems. Xi's hard-line diplomacy is a reflection of the unstable internal domestic situation.
 元副首相を父に持つ習氏は高級幹部の子女グループ「太子党」の代表だ。既得権益層にメスを入れてまで、格差是正など大胆な改革に踏み切るようには見えない。習氏の対外強硬姿勢は不安定な国内情勢の裏返しでもある。

Since launching his administration, Xi has touted the slogan "great renewal of the Chinese nation." Though once a great empire, China could not stop the world powers from invading during the closing years of the Qing dynasty, partly due to its neglect of maritime interests. Xi's slogan is believed to reflect China's modern history of humiliation.
 習氏は政権発足以来、「中華民族の偉大な復興」というスローガンを掲げている。かつて大帝国だったにもかかわらず、海洋権益を軽視したため、清朝末期に列強の侵略を招いたという屈辱の近代史を踏まえたものだ。

Xi expressed his policy of expanding China's military capability when he inspected military troops in December. He said the nation's dream of "great renewal" means a dream of becoming "a great power" and possessing "a strong military."
 習氏は昨年12月、軍部隊を視察した際、「中華民族の偉大な復興の夢とは、強国の夢であり、強軍の夢だ」と語り、軍の強大化を目指す方針を表明している。

In a recent report, Japan's National Institute for Defense Studies said cooperation between China's military and marine authorities is deepening.
"If countries around China send their militaries to protect their [maritime] interests, it is likely Chinese forces will be dispatched," the institute said in the report.
 日本の防衛研究所は最近の報告書で、中国軍と海洋当局の連携が進展していることを指摘し、「周辺国が権益保護のために軍を派遣すれば、中国軍が投入される可能性が高い」と警鐘を鳴らした。

===

China's maritime ambitions
 ◆「海洋強国」建設が加速◆

China has surpassed Japan in gross domestic product, and is now chasing the world's largest economy, the United States. For China, a prerequisite to obtaining the status of a world superpower is to first become a major maritime power.
 国内総生産で日本を抜き、米国に迫ろうとする中国にとって、超大国への必須条件が「海洋強国」の実現である。

Backed by massive military forces, China will likely strengthen its policy of aggressively pursuing its maritime interests, such as resources and sea lanes.
強大な軍事力を背景に、資源や海上交通路(シーレーン)などの海洋権益を追求する姿勢は今後も強まるだろう。

The situation is extremely volatile, with China taking a hard-line stance supported by the nationalism that is growing as the country becomes a major economic power. China is likely to assert its presence more aggressively in the East China Sea and the South China Sea. The U.S. strategy of attaching greater importance to Asia is aimed at putting a brake on such attempts by China.
 経済大国化に伴うナショナリズムの高揚が政権の強硬路線を支える構図は極めて危険だ。東シナ海と南シナ海で中国が一層大胆な示威行動を展開すると見てよい。米国の「アジア重視」戦略には、これを牽制する狙いがある。

Japan should establish a long-term framework to allow authorities to do everything they can when conducting patrol and surveillance activities for the waters and airspace around the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture.
 日本は、尖閣諸島周辺の海域・空域の警戒監視活動に万全に取り組めるよう長期的な体制作りをしなければならない。

It is reasonable for Abe to regard Japan-China relations as "the biggest issue in the nation's foreign and security policy in the 21st century" and advocate the necessity of establishing strategic diplomacy in cooperation with other concerned countries.
 安倍首相が日中関係を「21世紀の外交・安全保障政策上最大の課題」と位置づけたうえで、関係各国と連携する戦略的な外交の必要性を主張するのは妥当だ。

===

Deterrence should be upgraded
 ◆日米連携で抑止力強化◆

It is most important for Japan to call on China to exercise self-restraint, in cooperation with Southeast Asian countries, India, Australia and other nations, while at the same time making the Japan-U.S. alliance much stronger.
 日米同盟をより強固にしつつ、東南アジア各国やインド、豪州などと協調し、中国に自制を促すことが何よりも大切である。

Japan-China ties today are the most strained since the two countries established diplomatic relations in 1972, and this situation has seriously affected the Japanese public's sentiment toward the neighboring country.
A public opinion survey conducted by the Cabinet Office last autumn found that a record 80 percent of Japanese "do not feel close to China."
 日中関係は1972年の国交樹立以来、最悪だ。国民感情に与えた影響も甚大で、昨年秋の内閣府の世論調査では、中国に「親しみを感じない」とする回答が過去最高の80%に達した。

China, which publicly claims sovereignty over the Senkaku Islands, has been dispatching ships and aircraft to intrude into the Japanese waters and airspace around the islets.
 中国は尖閣諸島に対する領有権を公然と主張し、日本の領海・領空への侵犯行為を行っている。

It is against international law for China to try to forcibly and unilaterally change the status quo regarding the Senkaku Islands, which Japan effectively controls. Japan should present China's false and improper actions and demonstrate the legitimacy of Japan's territorial claim to the islands to the international community.
 日本が実効支配する尖閣諸島に対し、中国が力によって一方的に現状を変更しようとするのは国際社会のルールに反する。日本は中国の不当な行為と日本の尖閣諸島領有権の正当性を国際社会に訴えていかねばならない。

The U.S. Senate has approved an amendment to the 2013 National Defense Authorization Act confirming that the Senkaku Islands are subject to Article 5 of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty obliging the United States to defend Japan in case of hostilities.
This should serve as a significant deterrent against China.
 米議会は、日米安保条約5条に基づく米国の対日防衛義務が尖閣諸島に適用されることを確認する国防権限法案を可決した。中国への重要な抑止力となろう。

Japan's participation in the U.S.-led Trans-Pacific Partnership multinational trade framework also could help keep China's influence from ballooning.
 米国主導の環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)に日本が参加することも、中国の影響力の膨張を食い止めることにつながる。

It is important to include China in an economic partnership framework for the Asia-Pacific region in the future.
 将来的には、その中国をアジア太平洋圏の経済連携の枠組みに取り込んでいくことが肝要だ。

China's recent boycott against Japanese goods has dampened investment sentiment in Japan toward that country.
 中国による日本製品の不買運動は対中投資機運に水を差した。

More and more Japanese companies are seeking to do business in countries other than China, as it has been losing its advantages as a manufacturing base.
 中国の生産拠点としての魅力が薄れ、中国以外に活路を模索する動きが広がっている。

China should be aware that the boycott has damaged not only the Japanese economy but also its own.
日本だけでなく、自国経済も損害を受けていることを中国は認識すべきだ。

Japan and China have to resume exchanges between their leaders. It is important for the two countries to maintain a mutually beneficial relationship based on common strategic interests by separating the Senkaku dispute from other political, economic and cultural ties.
 日中両国は首脳交流を再開する必要がある。尖閣問題と、その他の政治、経済、文化関係を切り離すことで、戦略的互恵関係を維持していくことが重要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 3, 2013)
(2013年1月3日01時14分  読売新聞)

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