« シャープ再建 サムスンの出資に頼る苦渋策 | トップページ | 福島の除染 「1ミリ・シーベルト」が阻む住民の帰還 »

2013年3月 9日 (土)

被災地の鉄道 街づくりと一体で復旧したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Mar. 9, 2013)
Disaster areas' railway repairs must be integrated with city planning
被災地の鉄道 街づくりと一体で復旧したい(3月8日付・読売社説)

What measures should be taken to rebuild railways in regions struck by the Great East Japan Earthquake, including lines that represent a mainstay of livelihood and tourism in the areas?
 生活や観光を支える被災地の鉄道をどう再建するのか。

This remains a weighty challenge even now as the second anniversary of the March 11, 2011, disaster draws near.
東日本大震災からまもなく2年を迎える今も重い課題だ。

Rail lines on the Pacific coast in the Tohoku region were devastated by the earthquake and tsunami.
 東北沿岸部の鉄道は地震や津波で甚大な被害を受けた。

A total of about 300 kilometers of tracks on eight lines of East Japan Railway Co. and Sanriku Railway Co., a joint venture of private firms and local municipalities in Iwate Prefecture, remain out of service to this day.
JR東日本と岩手県の第3セクターである三陸鉄道の8路線、約300キロが運休したままだ。

Operations on some sections of JR East's Ishinomaki Line and Joban Line will return to normal by the end of the month at long last, while the Sanriku Railway is scheduled to resume full operations in April next year.
 JR石巻線や常磐線の一部がようやく今月中に復旧し、三陸鉄道も来年4月に全線開通する。

There are no indications, however, that the other lines rendered inoperable will fully resume service in the foreseeable future.
 だが、その他の多くの路線で完全復旧の見通しが立たない。

The greatest problem has been the difficulty securing funding for repairing the crippled rail lines.
 最大の問題は、再建費用だ。

According to estimates by the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry, the total cost of fixing JR East's railways with damage over long sections--the Yamada Line in Iwate Prefecture, the Ofunato Line in Iwate and Miyagi prefectures and the Kesennuma Line in Miyagi Prefecture--will surpass 150 billion yen.
 国土交通省の試算では、被災区間が長いJR山田線(岩手県)、大船渡線(岩手・宮城県)、気仙沼線(宮城県)は、合わせて1500億円超にのぼる。

===

Bus system has its advantages

The huge repair expense is due to the necessity of specialized recovery work such as elevating ground levels and relocating routes to inland areas, according to the ministry.
 土地のかさあげや内陸部へのルート変更など従来の復旧にはない工事が必要だからだ。

As a temporary fix for the stalled train services, in August 2012 JR East incorporated a BRT (bus rapid transit) system into the Kesennuma Line. The buses run on the firm's exclusive lanes in areas where tracks have been removed on the line. BRT services were also launched this month to take the place of the Ofunato Line.
 JRは暫定措置として、線路跡の専用道にバスを走らせるバス高速輸送システム(BRT)を昨年8月、気仙沼線に導入した。大船渡線も今月から運行開始した。

BRT systems are less costly in terms of both construction and maintenance compared to railways.
 BRTは鉄道に比べて建設費や維持費が安い。

Buses on the Kesennuma Line are also three times as frequent as predisaster trains. Users of the route include high school students commuting to school and elderly people going to hospitals.
気仙沼線は、鉄道時代より運行本数が3倍に増え、高校生の通学や高齢者の通院などに利用されている。

However, the number of passengers on BRT buses is less than 300 a day, about one-third of the amount seen when the railway was in operation. This is because many disaster-hit residents have evacuated from areas along the lines and very few sightseers use the BRT.
 しかし、乗客数は1日300人弱で、鉄道の3分の1ほどだ。被災した住民が沿線外へ避難し、観光客もほとんど使わない。

The roadway sections dedicated to use by BRT systems are few, with most services run on ordinary highways, and the buses are often entangled in bumper-to-bumper traffic. This means more time is required to use the bus than the train and bus passengers often have to transfer before reaching their final destination. These inconveniences may have contributed to the waning number of BRT users.
 専用道は短く、大半は一般道を走るため、朝夕は渋滞に巻き込まれる。鉄道より時間がかかり、乗り継ぎの不便さも利用客離れにつながっているのだろう。

Municipalities along the Yamada Line have refused to accept plans to replace the line with a BRT system. Those municipal governments that have already introduced BRT systems agreed to do so on the condition that railway services are fully resumed in the future. They argue that resumption of railway services is a "prerequisite for revitalization" of the disaster-hit areas.
 山田線は、沿線自治体がBRT計画を拒否した。すでに導入した地域も将来の鉄道復旧を条件とした。「街の活性化にはあくまで鉄道が必要」と主張する。

===

Weigh options before acting

Even before the calamity, some railway services in the region were unprofitable because of a declining number of users due to the shrinking population.
 各線とも沿線人口の減少で、もともと利用客の少ない不採算路線だった。

Given that commuting by car or expressway bus has become the norm in the region, many observers are skeptical about whether restoring railway services would lead to a higher number of users than before the disaster.
マイカーや高速バス利用が定着し、鉄路が復活しても従来以上の乗客数を確保できるか疑問視する声は少なくない。

JR East and the municipal governments concerned should study ways to potentially restore railways in tandem with the requirements of city planning, by weighing the merits of railway recovery and the introduction of BRTs against their respective problems.
 JRと自治体は、鉄道復旧とBRT導入の長所と課題を比較し、街づくりをどのように進めるのか一体で検討すべきだ。

We hope officials will make the best possible choice in pursuit of an optimum means of public transportation through implementing reconstruction projects in the areas.
 被災地の復興計画に最適な公共交通を選択してほしい。

Under the government's current railway-related subsidy system, the cost of repairing lines of the Sanriku Railway, which has been in the red, will be almost fully covered by state funding. However, JR East, which has been earning a profit, is not entitled to any public assistance.
 現行制度では、赤字の三陸鉄道は、復旧費のほぼ全額が国費で手当てされるが、黒字会社であるJRは補助を受けられない。

Considering the extraordinary circumstances in the wake of the disaster, we believe the government should provide JR East with public assistance for rebuilding its rail lines. This should include a provision, for instance, for the government to subsidize part of JR East's repair expenses under the recovery budget earmarked for the disaster.
 大震災からの復旧という特殊性を考慮すれば、工事費の一部に復興予算を充てるなど、鉄道再建の公的支援も検討課題となろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 8, 2013)
(2013年3月8日01時30分  読売新聞)

|

« シャープ再建 サムスンの出資に頼る苦渋策 | トップページ | 福島の除染 「1ミリ・シーベルト」が阻む住民の帰還 »

01-英字新聞(読売)」カテゴリの記事

コメント

コメントを書く



(ウェブ上には掲載しません)




« シャープ再建 サムスンの出資に頼る苦渋策 | トップページ | 福島の除染 「1ミリ・シーベルト」が阻む住民の帰還 »