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2013年3月 4日 (月)

被曝健康評価 不安を和らげる対策が重要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Mar. 4, 2013)
More must be done to ease Fukushima radiation concerns
被曝健康評価 不安を和らげる対策が重要だ(3月3日付・読売社説)

The risk of adverse impacts on human health caused by radiation that leaked during the crisis at Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant is probably infinitesimal.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故による被(ひ)曝(ばく)で健康影響が出る恐れは極めて小さいだろう。

On Thursday, the World Health Organization released a report saying health hazards resulting from the nuclear crisis are low. The report also says the risk of people in radiation-affected areas getting cancer will not be higher than during their normal lifetime.
 この事故の健康リスクは低い、と評価した報告書を世界保健機関(WHO)が公表した。「一般住民のがん発生数が平時より増えることはないだろう」とも述べている。

The WHO investigation findings can be said to be consistent with evaluations done previously at home and abroad. We hope they alleviate the unease felt by many victims of the disaster.
 これまでの国内外の調査とも合致する評価結果と言えよう。被災者の不安軽減につなげたい。

The WHO presented estimates of the radiation doses received by residents of Fukushima Prefecture and elsewhere based on measurement data for radiation and other substances, and used these figures to calculate health risks from the disaster.
 WHOは、福島県などの放射線測定データなどから住民の被曝線量を推計し、これに基づいて、健康リスクを算出した。

Especially noteworthy is the fact that the WHO took special care "not to underestimate" the radiation doses.
 留意すべきは、WHOが「過小評価にならないようにした」という点だ。

For instance, it worked out the projections under the assumption that people in evacuation areas remained in highly contaminated districts and ate radiation-tainted food for up to four months after the nuclear crisis without evacuating--a situation highly unlikely to happen. The WHO evaluations are therefore based on an overestimated radiation dose.
例えば避難区域の住民が事故後4か月間、避難せずに汚染された物を食べ続けた、と実際はあり得ない条件を想定した。事実上、過大な評価となっている。

===

Risk higher, but still very low

The bulk of affected residents are estimated to have received 10 millisieverts or less of radiation in the first year after the disaster, according to surveys by the government and other organizations. This is about the same as a person would receive during a single precision radiological examination of the chest. Potential readings employed by the WHO are about five times this amount.
 政府などの調査では、ほとんどの住民の被曝線量は10ミリ・シーベルト以下と推計している。胸の精密放射線診断1回で浴びる程度の量だ。WHOの値はその約5倍になる。

Given this, health risks in some areas covered by the WHO investigation are higher than in normal times.
 このため、健康リスクは一部地域で平時より高く表れている。

In the town of Namie in the Fukushima Prefecture evacuation zone, the probability of a 1-year-old girl developing thyroid cancer before she turns 16 is set at 0.0365 percent in the WHO report, about nine times higher than the 0.004 percent in normal times.
 避難区域に含まれる福島県浪江町では、1歳女児が16歳までに甲状腺がんを発症する確率が、平時の0・0040%から、約9倍の0・0365%になった。

Using the WHO calculation, less than one girl in 100 currently aged 1 will develop the cancer after the nuclear crisis.
 それでも、対象年齢の女児が100人とすると、事故後の患者数は1人に満たない計算である。

It is generally said one in two Japanese develops cancer in their lifetime. The biggest causes are smoking and improper eating habits, according to experts. Radiation-induced health risks reported by the WHO are so minuscule as to be hardly detectable.
 一般に日本人の2人に1人はがんになる。最大の原因は喫煙や食生活だ。被曝の影響はデータとしては検出できないほど小さい。

The government must do more to provide sufficient information to the public to prevent the belief that health risks have increased in disaster-hit areas from taking on a life of its own. In addition, the WHO, which placed great emphasis on the anxieties of residents, stressed that due consideration should be paid to the "psychological and social effects" of the disaster. The government must respond appropriately to this.
 政府は「リスクが高くなる」という評価が独り歩きせぬよう情報提供に努めるべきだ。加えてWHOが、住民の不安を重視して「精神的、社会的な配慮が必要」と強調したことにも対応すべきだ。

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Facilitate health checkups

In particular, long-term health monitoring of people exposed to radiation must be considered a matter of high importance.
 特に、被曝した可能性がある人たちの健康調査は重要だろう。

Health checkups being carried out by the Fukushima prefectural government and others, however, have not progressed as hoped. Only 20 percent of people who authorities think should have had their radiation dosage checked have actually done so.
 福島県などが取り組んでいる住民の健康調査は、思うように進んでいない。前提となる個人の被曝線量は、対象となる住民の約2割しか把握できていない。

The Nuclear Regulation Authority plans to press the government shortly to beef up support to accelerate the pace of the health checkups. There is no time to waste in putting these arrangements in place.
 原子力規制委員会は近く、政府の支援を強化して、健康調査を加速するよう求める方針だ。支援の体制作りを急がねばならない。

To ease the concern of people in disaster-stricken areas, it is essential to review the goal of reducing annual radiation contamination levels in these places to one millisievert or less per year. The goal has widely been taken to mean that one millisievert is the threshold between danger and safety in areas affected by the nuclear crisis.
 不安軽減には、除染目標値の年間「1ミリ・シーベルト以下」の見直しも必要だ。危険と安全の境界が「1ミリ・シーベルト」と受け止められている。

The Fukushima prefectural government considers the strict decontamination goal as an impediment to encouraging residents to return to their homes, and has asked the central government to set a new target. The government should quickly start considering this request.
 福島県も避難住民の帰還の障害になっているとして、政府に新たな目標設定を求めている。政府は早急に検討を始めるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 3, 2013)
(2013年3月3日01時48分  読売新聞)

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