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2013年8月20日 (火)

大学入試改革 混乱招かぬよう丁寧な議論を

The Yomiuri Shimbun August 20, 2013
University entrance test reforms must be thoroughly discussed
大学入試改革 混乱招かぬよう丁寧な議論を(8月19日付・読売社説)

Reforming the university entrance examination system is an important issue that can greatly affect applicants, teachers, schools and others. The issue should be thoroughly discussed from various perspectives.
 入試制度の改革は、教育現場や受験生に大きな影響を与える重要テーマである。丁寧かつ多角的な検討が求められる。

The government’s Education Rebuilding Implementation Council earlier this month started discussions on reforms of the university entrance examination system, the crux of which is whether an achievement test should be introduced, as pledged by the Liberal Democratic Party during the July House of Councillors election campaign.
 政府の教育再生実行会議で、大学入試に関する議論が始まった。自民党が参院選の公約に盛り込んだ「達成度テスト」を導入するかどうかが焦点だ。

Under the plan being considered, an achievement test for high school students would be conducted several times a year. Students would submit the best score among the tests to the university of their choice. The university would use the score to determine the student’s basic scholastic ability and conduct its own screening test to gauge the student’s ability to think and find problems to solve.
 達成度テストは高校生を対象に、年に複数回実施される。受験生はテストの最も良い成績を大学に提出する。大学はその成績で基礎学力を把握し、思考力や問題設定能力を測る独自の選考も行う。そんな構想のようだ。

The current examination system, which gives students virtually one chance to do well in order to get into the university department of their choice, is criticized for putting excessive burdens on university applicants.
 「一発勝負型」の現行入試に対しては、受験生に過度の負担をかけているとの批判がある。

Giving students more opportunities to take screening tests would make it easier for them to demonstrate their ability without being at the mercy of luck. This works for universities and colleges, too, as it would be an effective way to find excellent students.
 選考の機会が増えれば、受験生は運に左右されずに実力を発揮しやすくなる。大学が優秀な人材を見いだすうえにも有効だろう。

Many have pointed out that more and more students are spending less time studying and fail to acquire the necessary scholastic ability, as a result of the growing practices of screening applicants mainly by interviews in the so-called AO (admission office) admission test and of admitting students based on recommendations by high schools.
 面接などで選抜するAO(アドミッション・オフィス)入試や推薦入試が広がった結果、高校生の勉強時間が減り、学力不足は深刻化したと指摘されている。

The achievement test is aimed at motivating high school students to study and raise their academic ability by establishing a new goal.
 達成度テストという新たな目標を設けることで、高校生の学習意欲を喚起し、学力の底上げにつなげたいとの狙いも理解できる。

Huge expense involved

We understand its aims, but how about its cost-effectiveness? As the achievement test is a totally new way to screen applicants, the costs of making examination questions that can appropriately gauge academic abilities and holding the examinations across the nation would be huge.
 だが、費用対効果はどうなのか。達成度テストは全く新しい選抜方式だけに、学力を正確に見極める問題の作成や、全国一斉に実施する試験の運営には多大なコストがかかると見られる。

How difficult the test should be and how many subjects should be included in it are key issues that must be addressed.
 難易度や教科数をどう設定するかという課題もある。

Another issue that must be tackled is whether the current National Center Test for University Admissions should be kept.
 大学入試センター試験の存廃も検討しなくてはならない。

The national center test, introduced in 1990, is a widely accepted unified test to gauge the scholastic achievement of high school students. It is used by all national and public universities and 90 percent of private institutions for screeing applicants.
 1990年にスタートしたセンター試験は、高校段階の学習到達度を判定する統一試験として、広く定着している。入試に利用している大学は国公立だけでなく、私立大学でも9割に達している。

Abolishing the national center test would inevitably cause tremendous confusion to students, teachers, schools and other parties.
 仮に廃止すれば、現場の混乱は避けられまい。

As for holding one of several achievement tests early in the third year of high school, this may force schools to cram as schools advance their curriculum schedules to prepare students for the tests.
 複数回行う試験が高校3年の早い時期から実施されれば、授業の前倒しによる詰め込み教育が加速することも想定される。

High school teachers and others concerned are worried that school events and club activities could be curbed as students would be busy preparing for the achievement tests. We believe their concerns are reasonable.
 「高校生がテスト対策に追われ、学校行事や部活動に大きな制約が出かねない」と高校関係者が危惧するのはもっともだ。

There is another issue that should not be forgotten: How can achievement tests be given to high school graduates trying to enter university after their previous attempts have failed or those wishing to study at an institution of higher learning after having worked some time?
 浪人生や社会人はどのように達成度テストを受けるのか、という問題も忘れてはならない。

The Education Rebuilding Implementation Council is scheduled to compile a set of proposals as early as autumn, but we believe it must not hastily reach conclusions. It is essential to review the nation’s university entrance examination system from the viewpoint of how we can raise the quality of education both at high schools and universities.
 教育再生実行会議は秋にも提言をまとめる予定だが、拙速な議論は禁物だろう。入試制度の見直しは、高校・大学双方の教育の質をいかに向上させるかという視点で進めることが肝要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 19, 2013)
(2013年8月19日02時06分  読売新聞)

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