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2013年9月 1日 (日)

地方分権改革 堅実な事務権限移譲が肝心だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun August 31, 2013
Power transfers to local govts must be undertaken steadily
地方分権改革 堅実な事務権限移譲が肝心だ(8月30日付・読売社説)

Instead of being swayed by temporary moods, it is of high importance to soundly move forward with the challenge of transfering administrative functions and authority from the central government to local governments in ways well suited to reality.
 一時のムードに惑わされず、国から地方への事務・権限の移譲を現実的な手法で着実に進めることが肝要である。

The government recently presented a set of draft proposals on a handover of power to local governments, to a panel of intellectuals on decentralization reform issues.
 政府が地方分権改革有識者会議に、地方への事務・権限移譲案を提示した。

Among other things, the draft calls for delegating the central government’s administrative authorization and supervision of 44 types of entities, such as barber and beautician training facilities, to prefectural governments on a uniform basis across the country. The decentralization of authority over 24 other items currently under the direct control of the central government, including the improvement and maintenance of major rivers and national highways, should be studied with some conditions attached.
 理容師や美容師の養成施設の指定・監督など44項目は、全国一律で都道府県に移譲する。国直轄の河川や国道の整備・管理など29項目は、条件付きで移譲を検討する。

These are major pillars of the government’s draft proposals.
こうした内容が柱である。

If the panel’s studies of some items are completed by the end of the year, the govenment is set to submit bills relevant to those items to an ordinary Diet session next year for the legislation and implementation of the power transfers.
 年内に結論が得られたものは、来年の通常国会に関連法案を提出し、移譲を実行する予定だ。

When the Democratic Party of Japan was in power, such reckless and irresponsible slogans as “local sovereignty” and “abolition in principle of all regional branches of the central government” were yelled out emptily. The result was that discussions about decentralization were long left stagnant.
 民主党政権下では、政府の役割を過小評価する「地域主権」、政府の出先機関の「原則廃止」といった、乱暴かつ無責任な掛け声ばかりが先行した。結果的に、分権論議は停滞が続いた。

A major factor behind the latest development may be the fact that the importance of the leading roles played by the central government and its regional branches has widely been recognized anew in connection with the recovery and reconstruction projects in the areas stricken by the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011.
 東日本大震災の復旧・復興で、政府や出先機関が主導的な役割を果たす重要性が再認識されたことも大きかったと言える。

Taking advantage of the shift to a Liberal Democtratic Party-New Komeito administration, it is of key significance to calmly reconsider the roles of the central government and local entities, striving to advance decentralization by eliminating the overlap between the two to improve administrative efficiency and reinvigorate local economies.
 自公政権への交代を機に、政府と自治体の役割を冷静に再検討して、二重行政を排し、行政の効率化や地域の活性化につながる分権を進めることが大切である。

Online employment services

The transfer of authority to local governments in the currently central government-controlled administration of rivers and national highways is a long-pending issue. Adressing this problem must be preceded, first of all, by achieving a major transfer of the fiscal resources and personnel involved.
 国直轄河川、国道の管理の地方移譲は長年の懸案だ。それにはまず、必要な財源や職員の移譲が大きな課題となる。

Detailed studies should also be undertaken on adequate involvement of the central government in the event of emergencies such as a massive disaster. An appropriate point of contact between the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry and local governments must be considered.
大規模災害など非常時の政府の関与についても検討すべきだ。国土交通省と地方の接点を探る必要がある。

The panel of intellectuals has formed proposals calling for the ministry to provide local governments with information on job offers at the ministry-run “Hello Work” employment agencies, and transfer to municipalities its authority over the registration and supervision of paid passenger transport businesses in depopulated regions and for welfare purposes.
 一方、有識者会議は、厚生労働省のハローワークの求人情報を自治体に提供することや、過疎地や福祉目的での有償旅客運送事業の登録・監督権限を国交省から市町村に移譲することを提言した。

Both of these ideas should be put into practice promptly.
 いずれも早期に実現したい。

The proposed service of online listings of job openings, of which about 9 million appear each year throughout the country, could be used effectively by local governments for such purposes as providing people on welfare with job placement services.
 年約900万件に上る求人情報のオンライン情報提供は、自治体による生活保護対象者らへの職業紹介などに有効利用できよう。

The online job information would also be provided to private staffing service companies. More fully employing women and young people through cooperation between the public and private sectors would definitely be in accordance with the government’s economic growth strategy.
 求人情報は民間人材ビジネス企業にも提供される。官民連携で若者や女性の労働力を活用することは政府の成長戦略に合致する。

It is urgent to secure transportation in underpopulated regions where bus and taxi businesses are not profitable, as well as for disabled people and those requiring nursing care.
 一般のバス・タクシー事業が成立しない過疎地や、身体障害者、要介護者の交通手段を確保することは重要課題だ。

Currently, a combined total of about 26 million people in such categories are receiving paid transportation services annually from about 3,000 corporations run by such organizations as municipalities and nonprofit groups.
現在は、市町村や非営利組織(NPO)法人など約3000団体が年間延べ2600万人を有償輸送している。

It is quite reasonable to delegate registration and supervision from the land and infrastructure ministry to the municipalities, which are well versed in their own local situations. Endeavors to realize this would lead to more opportunities for the transfer of powers to coincide with the respective regions’ comprehensive projects for reinvigorating their communities.
 登録・監督権限を国交省から、地域の実情を熟知する市町村に移すことは合理的だ。総合的な町づくりと連動させる創意工夫の余地も生まれる。

To ensure the smooth transfer of power, it is imperative for the land and infrastructure ministry and prefectural governments to extend sufficient support to municipal governments.
移譲を円滑に進めるには、国交省や都道府県が市町村を支援することが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 30, 2013)
(2013年8月30日01時28分  読売新聞)

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