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2013年9月 3日 (火)

TPP交渉 年内妥結へのハードルは高い

The Yomiuri Shimbun September 3, 2013
High hurdles must be overcome to reach TPP accord before year's end
TPP交渉 年内妥結へのハードルは高い(9月2日付・読売社説)

There are high hurdles that must be cleared for the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations to end within the year, as sought by the United States.
 米国が主張する「年内妥結」へのハードルは高い。

What should be done to achieve a breakthrough in the conflicting views in the multilateral talks?
対立をどう打開するか。

Given the circumstances, Japan must seek cooperation with other nations through sector-by-sector tariff reduction talks, while making redoubled efforts to craft its own strategy.
日本は分野ごとに他国との連携も探り、戦略を練らねばならない。

The TPP talks held in Brunei, in which Japan took part as a full-fledged member for the first time, have ended. Twelve Pacific Rim countries participated, including the United States and Australia.
 日本が初めて本格参加し、米国、豪州など12か国がブルネイで行っていた環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉が終了した。

The United States played a key role in the nine-day Brunei round, which began Aug. 22, but it seems to have failed to produce any major progress in key fields. Rather, it appears that the very complex situation surrounding the free trade negotiations has become all the more conspicuous, as exemplified by wide gaps between emerging and industrially developed countries concerning intellectual property rights.
 米国が交渉を主導したが、主要分野では大きな進展はなかったようだ。むしろ、知的財産権保護を巡る先進国と新興国の主張の隔たりなど、複雑な構図が一段と浮き彫りになったと言えよう。

The 12 countries participating in the TPP talks said in a joint statement released at the end of the Brunei round that their summit talks at a conference in October of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum in Bali, Indonesia, “will be an important milestone” regarding whether the 12 countries can conclude the talks before the end of the year.
 12か国は、10月のアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議の際に開かれるTPP首脳会合が「年内妥結する重要な節目になる」との共同声明を発表した。

The next TPP negotiations are scheduled for mid-September in Washington. It is uncertain, however, whether the Washington talks will lead to a broad agreement in October as envisioned by the United States to help conclude the talks by year’s end.
 次回交渉は9月中旬に米国で開かれる。米国の思惑通りに10月に大筋合意にこぎつけ、年内に決着できるかどうかは不透明だ。

One area where opinions have differed sharply among participating nations is the duration of patents on pharmaceutical products. The United States, home to giant pharmaceutical companies, wants the length of patents extended to make it easier for them to develop new pharmaceuticals.
 対立が先鋭化している代表例は医薬品の特許期間である。
 有力な製薬企業を抱える米国は新薬開発を促すために特許期間の延長を主張している。

Newly emerging economies such as Malaysia, however, have reacted harshly to the U.S. stand. They insist that the U.S.-proposed extension would hamper production of low-priced pharmaceuticals whose patents have expired.
しかし、マレーシアなど新興国は、特許が切れた安価な後発医薬品の製造が妨げられると反発した。

Avoid solely defensive stance

Developed countries such as the United States, trying to help their companies enter Asian markets, want to have preferential treatment of state-owned firms in Asian countries abandoned for competition on an equal footing with the rest of the countries. However, the Brunei round could not end the impasse on this subject, with Malaysia and Vietnam adamantly opposed to the U.S. views.
 自国企業の進出を狙う米国など先進国が、アジア各地の国有企業の優遇措置を撤廃して対等の競争条件を求めている問題でも、マレーシアとベトナムが抵抗し、膠着(こうちゃく)状態が続いた。

More difficulties are anticipated in negotiations on eliminating tariffs, on which the interests of the respective countries have been split in a complicated way.
 さらに難航が予想されるのが、先進国間も含め、各国の利害が錯綜(さくそう)する関税撤廃交渉だ。

In the Brunei round, Japan proposed eliminating tariffs on about 80 percent of imported products. It avoided in-depth talks on tariffs concerning five sensitive farm products such as rice, wheat and dairy products, stating Japan’s position on these products “has yet to be finalized.” The Liberal Democratic Party has called for retaining the tariffs on the five products.
 日本はブルネイで、関税を撤廃する品目の割合(自由化率)を80%台とする一方、自民党が聖域化を求めるコメ、麦、乳製品など農産品5項目の扱いは「未定」とし、踏み込んだ交渉を避けた。

The focus of the oncoming negotiations lies in what actions Japan will take in last-ditch talks for trade liberalization from September on.
 焦点は、9月以降の大詰めの自由化交渉に日本がどう臨むかだ。

Given that the TPP talks are designed to realize the “principle of elimination of tariffs,” this country will inevitably face strong pressure from the other participating countries to raise its percentage of tarifffree items. However, it would not be in keeping with this country’s national interests to take a flatly defensive stance regarding the domestic farm industry.
TPPは「関税撤廃が原則」で、日本が各国から高水準の自由化率を迫られるのは必至だが、守りを固めるだけが国益ではない。

While there are said to be five categories of highly sensitive farm products, the total number of items within these categories that are subject to tariffs is 586.
 5項目とはいっても、関税分類上は586品目もある。

Of these, which items should there be concessions on and which must be defended by all means? There must be accelerated discussions to make domestic arrangements on the matter.
その中で何を譲り、何を守るのか。国内調整を加速しなければならない。

Every country in the TPP talks has its own highly sensitive items: sugar for the United States and dairy products for Canada, for example.
 米国は砂糖、カナダは乳製品など、各国とも重要品目を抱える。

Japan will be tested as to whether it can truly be hard-nosed in negotiations, using other participants’ weak points and seeking out participants that will act in step with Japan.
相手の弱みを突いたり、連携する国を求めたり、日本はしたたかな交渉力が問われよう。

Japan must harness the vigor of other Asian countries to fuel its own economic growth.
 アジアの活力を取り込み、成長に弾みを付けることが日本の課題だ。

Instead of being swayed by U.S. intentions to play the pace-setter in the negotiations, this country should take a leading role in formulating TPP rules in such fields as intellectual property, investment and environment.
米国ペースに左右されず、知財、投資、環境分野などのルール作りも主導してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 2, 2013)
(2013年9月2日01時03分  読売新聞)

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