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2013年10月10日 (木)

ヘイトスピーチ 民族差別の言動を戒めた判決

The Yomiuri Shimbun October 10, 2013
Hate speech ruling laudable, but restrictions must be limited
ヘイトスピーチ 民族差別の言動を戒めた判決(10月9日付・読売社説)

The Kyoto District Court’s recent ruling on an ethnic discrimination case stated that a derogatory street campaign aimed at inciting ethnic discrimination constituted an unlawful act. The court decision can be seen as compatible with socially accepted moral norms.
 民族差別をあおる侮蔑的な街頭宣伝は不法行為にあたる――。常識的な司法判断と言えよう。

On Monday, the district court ordered a citizens group that had repeatedly engaged in a street campaign around a Kyoto primary school for ethnic Koreans in Japan to pay about ¥12 million in compensation.
 京都市の朝鮮学校周辺で街宣活動を繰り返した「在日特権を許さない市民の会」(在特会)と会員らに対し、京都地裁が計約1200万円の損害賠償などを命じた。

The group, known as Zaitoku-kai, had denounced the school for using a public park in its neighborhood without permission, insisting that the street campaign was intended to legitimately comment on the school’s conduct and express an opinion about the matter.
 在特会側は、朝鮮学校が無許可で近隣の公園を使用したことを非難し、街宣は公正な論評や意見表明だと主張してきた。

According to the ruling, Zaitoku-kai called Korean residents in Japan “cockroaches” during its street campaign, shouting, “Drive them out of Japan.” The court had good reason to conclude the group’s words were “discriminatory,” stating that its campaign could not be regarded as the act of expressing a legitimate opinion.
 判決によると、街宣では「ゴキブリ」「朝鮮人を日本からたたき出せ」などと叫んだ。地裁が意見表明とは見なさず、「差別的発言」と判断したのはもっともだ。

Monday’s sentence also ruled that Zaitoku-kai’s speech and behavior constituted “a case of ethnic discrimination, which is banned under the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.”
 判決は、在特会側の言動を「人種差別撤廃条約が禁じる人種差別に該当する」とも断じた。

The order for Zaitoku-kai to pay a large amount of compensation did not only indicate the court had judged that the school had been defamed and suffered interference in the execution of its duties. The ruling also showed that the court had perceived the group’s conduct to be a flagrant example of discrimination against ethnic Koreans in Japan.
高額賠償は、朝鮮学校が被った名誉毀損(きそん)、業務妨害に加え、民族差別の実態を深刻にとらえた結果である。

Zaitoku-kai has played a central role in staging anti-Korean demonstrations in Tokyo, Osaka and elsewhere. The group insists on rejecting South and North Korean residents in this country as members of our society. Its assertion has been repeated through what is called hate speech.
 在特会は、東京や大阪で、在日韓国・朝鮮人の排除を訴えるデモの中心となっている。ヘイトスピーチ(憎悪表現)と呼ばれる。

The speech and behavior of Zaitoku-kai demonstrators are said to have become even more radical since the summer of last year. The group stepped up its anti-Korean activities as tensions between Japan and South Korea rose, largely due to political leaders from the latter country visiting the Takeshima islets and condemning the Japanese government over the issue of so-called comfort women.
 デモ参加者の言動は昨夏ごろから一層過激になったとされる。韓国の指導者が竹島を訪問したり、いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題で日本政府を批判したりして、日韓の緊張が高まった時期に重なる。

In recent months, several people were arrested in fights that arose between Zaitoku-kai and groups that oppose their anti-Korean street protests.
 最近は、在特会側のデモに反発する集団との間でトラブルが発生し、逮捕者も出ている。

Enforce civility with caution

A clash of sentiments harbored by opposing groups can only breed hatred. They should speak and act in a manner that is free of nationalistic vitriol.
 こうした感情のぶつけ合いからは、憎しみしか生まれまい。偏狭なナショナリズムに陥らず、冷静な対応が求められる。

Meanwhile, caution must be exercised in restricting hate speech. This principle can also be applied to Monday’s ruling, which came down on the side of an educational corporation that runs the primary school for ethnic Korean children. The latest decision should not serve as an excuse for regulating the speech and behavior of an unlimited number of people and organizations.
 一方で、ヘイトスピーチの規制には、慎重な配慮が必要だ。朝鮮学校を運営する特定の学校法人の請求を認めた今回の判決についても、不特定多数に向けた言動の規制に結びつけてはならない。

The antidiscrimination treaty requires its signatory nations to place legal restraints on agitation and other activities aimed at fanning hatred between ethnic groups. Some European countries have laws setting punishments for such conduct.
 人種差別撤廃条約は、差別の扇動などを法律で規制するよう締約国に求めている。欧州などでは処罰法を制定している国もある。

However, it should be noted that when it comes to thinking about discrimination, Japan’s historical background greatly differs from that of Europe, where there still is a clear memory of the Holocaust perpe-trated by the Nazis.
 だが、ナチスによるユダヤ人虐殺の記憶が色濃い欧州と日本では、歴史的背景が大きく異なる点に留意せねばならない。

The Japanese government has been cautious about laying down legal restraints on potentially discriminatory speech and behavior, wary that such legislation might infringe on freedom of expression, a fundamental right guaranteed by the Constitution.
 日本政府は憲法が保障する「表現の自由」に抵触しかねないとして、法規制を留保している。

If such legal restrictions are in place, it would be difficult to draw a line between what is lawful and what is not. That could prompt public authorities to impose legal restrictions in a manner that would serve their own interests. There also is no denying that such legislation would discourage people from exercising their legitimate right to express their opinions. Given this, the government should adhere to its cautious stance on such legal restrictions.
 法で規制した場合、合法と違法の線引きは難しく、公権力による恣意(しい)的な運用を招く恐れがある。正当な言論活動を萎縮させる可能性も否めない。法規制に慎重な政府の立場は堅持すべきだ。

A realistic approach that could be adopted by the government in this respect is to apply existing laws, such as a ban on defamation under the Penal Code, to cases of unacceptably discriminatory speech and conduct.
 刑法の名誉毀損罪など、現行法令を適用し、行き過ぎた行為を抑えるのが現実的な対応だろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Oct. 9, 2013)
(2013年10月9日01時48分  読売新聞)

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