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2013年11月13日 (水)

タクシン氏の麻薬撲滅運動

2003年から始まったタクシン首相主導の麻薬撲滅運動で射殺された密売人たちの数は2500人に及ぶ。(タイ南部)
十分な取り調べや裁判を経ない、いきなり射殺という強硬な手段に、世界の人権団体などから、人道的見地からの非難の声があがっている。
この件に関してプミポン国王がコメントしている。(当時はまだ大変元気だった)

"ไอ้การชัยชนะของการปราบไอ้ยาเสพติดนี่ ดีที่ปราบ แล้วก็ที่เขาตำหนิบอกว่า เอ้ย คนตาย ตั้ง ๒,๕๐๐ คน อะไรนั่น เรื่องเล็ก ๒,๕๐๐ คน ถ้านายกฯ ไม่ได้ทำ นายกฯ ไม่ได้ทำ ทุกปี ๆ จดไว้นะ มีมากกว่า ๒,๕๐๐ คนที่ตาย"
"Victory in the War on Drugs is good. They may blame the crackdown for more than 2,500 deaths, but this is a small price to pay. If the prime minister failed to curb [the drug trade], over the years the number of deaths would easily surpass this toll.[86]"
麻薬撲滅戦争での勝利は望ましい。2500人もの犠牲者を出したことで責められるかも知れない。それでも密売人たちを放置しておれば、麻薬禍で命を落とす人たちは2500人ではすまない。(仕方のない犠牲だったのだ)

2006年のクーデターで宅診首相は失脚。
タクシン首相がニューヨークの国連総会に出席しているタイミングを計るようにして、クーデターは実行された。
暫定政権を経て、これも選挙なしに民主党が政権を奪取した。
アピシット氏が首相に選任された。
麻薬撲滅運動にともなう犠牲者たちにつき人権侵害で調査を始めた。
2011年の総選挙で、アピシット首相のこの調査は不発に終わった。
何ら証拠が立証出来なかったのだ。

で、インラック首相がひきいるタイ貢献党(プアタイ)が政権を奪回したというわけなんです。
麻薬撲滅運動の功罪に関してはタクシン氏に歩があると感じました。
焦点はタクシン氏を富豪にのし上げた携帯電話事業と、TOT(タイの国営電話局)との確執なんですが、このあたりが焦点になると睨んでいます。

以下のウィキペディアの記事を参照しました
cite from wkipedia,

The 'War on Drugs'[edit]
See also: Policies of the Thaksin administration#Anti-drug policies

Thaksin initiated several highly controversial policies to counter a perceived boom in the Thai drug market, particularly in methamphetamine. Earlier policies like border blocking (most methamphetamine is produced in Myanmar), education, sports, and promoting peer pressure had proved ineffective. In a 4 December 2002 speech on the eve of his birthday, King Bhumibol noted the rise in drug use and called for a "War on Drugs." Privy Councillor Phichit Kunlawanit called on the government to use its majority in parliament to establish a special court to deal with drug dealers, stating that “if we execute 60,000 the land will rise and our descendants will escape bad karma”.[78]

On 14 January 2003, Thaksin launched a campaign to rid "every square inch of the country" of drugs in three months.[79] It consisted of changing the punishment policy for drug addicts, setting provincial arrest and seizure targets including "blacklists", awarding government officials for achieving targets and threatening punishment for those who failed to make the quota, targeting dealers, and "ruthless" implementation. In the first three months, Human Rights Watch reports that 2,275 people were killed, almost double the number normally killed in drug-related violence.[80][81] The government claimed that only around 50 of the deaths were at the hands of the police, the rest being drug traffickers who were being silenced by their dealers and their dealers' dealers. Human rights critics claimed a large number were extrajudicially executed.[82][83] The government went out of its way to publicize the campaign, through daily announcements of arrest, seizure, and death statistics.

According to the Narcotics Control Board, the policy was effective in reducing drug consumption, especially in schools, by increasing the market price.[84]

King Bhumibol, in a 2003 birthday speech, praised Thaksin and criticized those who counted only dead drug dealers while ignoring deaths caused by drugs.[85]

"ไอ้การชัยชนะของการปราบไอ้ยาเสพติดนี่ ดีที่ปราบ แล้วก็ที่เขาตำหนิบอกว่า เอ้ย คนตาย ตั้ง ๒,๕๐๐ คน อะไรนั่น เรื่องเล็ก ๒,๕๐๐ คน ถ้านายกฯ ไม่ได้ทำ นายกฯ ไม่ได้ทำ ทุกปี ๆ จดไว้นะ มีมากกว่า ๒,๕๐๐ คนที่ตาย"

"Victory in the War on Drugs is good. They may blame the crackdown for more than 2,500 deaths, but this is a small price to pay. If the prime minister failed to curb [the drug trade], over the years the number of deaths would easily surpass this toll.[86]"

Bhumibol also asked the commander of the police to investigate the killings.[87] Police Commander Sant Sarutanond reopened investigations into the deaths, and again claimed that few of the deaths were at the hands of the police.

The war on drugs was widely criticized by the international community. Thaksin requested that the UN Commission on Human Rights send a special envoy to evaluate the situation, but said in an interview, "The United Nations is not my father. I am not worried about any UN visit to Thailand on this issue."[88]

After the 2006 coup, the military junta appointed a committee to investigate the anti-drug campaign.[89] Former Attorney General Kanit Na Nakorn led the committee. Concerning the committee's results The Economist reported in January 2008: "Over half of those killed in 2003 had no links to the drugs trade. The panel blamed the violence on a government 'shoot-to-kill' policy based on flawed blacklists. But far from leading to the prosecutions of those involved, its findings have been buried. The outgoing interim prime minister, Surayud Chulanont, took office vowing to right Mr Thaksin's wrongs. Yet this week he said there was insufficient evidence to take legal action over the killings. It is easy to see why the tide has turned. Sunai Phasuk, a researcher for Human Rights Watch, a lobbying group, says that the panel's original report named the politicians who egged on the gunmen. But after the PPP won last month's elections, those names were omitted."[90]

While he was opposition leader, Abhisit Vejjajiva accused Thaksin of crimes against humanity for his alleged role in the campaign. After being appointed Prime Minister, Abhisit opened an investigation into the killings, claiming that a successful probe could lead to prosecution by the International Criminal Court. Former attorney-general Kampee Kaewcharoen led the investigation and the investigation committee was approved by Abhisit's Cabinet. Abhisit denied that the probe was politically motivated. Witnesses and victims were urged to report to the Department of Special Investigation, which operated directly under Abhisit's control.[80][91][92] As of the August 2011 parliamentary elections, Abhisit's investigation failed to find or publicize any conclusive evidence linking Thaksin or members of his Government to any extrajudicial killings.

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