« 2013年12月 | トップページ | 2014年2月 »

2014年1月

2014年1月31日 (金)

NHK会長発言 中立・公正な報道で信頼築け

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 30, 2014
NHK president must build viewer trust through neutral, fair news coverage
NHK会長発言 中立・公正な報道で信頼築け(1月30日付・読売社説)

The new president of NHK should build a relationship of trust with viewers and fulfill his responsibilities as the head of a public broadcaster by continuing its neutral and fair news coverage and program production.
 中立で公正な報道や番組制作を続けることで、視聴者との信頼関係を築き、公共放送トップの責任を果たすべきだ。

Remarks made by Katsuto Momii, the new president of NHK, during his inaugural press conference have brought on public criticism.
 NHKの籾井勝人会長の就任記者会見での発言が物議を醸している。

When asked his opinion on the issue of so-called comfort women, Momii said, “It was evil according to today’s moral principles.” However, he added, “Every country at war in the past had such a system” and named Germany and France as examples. He even asked in return why there are still red-light districts in the Netherlands.
 籾井氏は、いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題への見解を聞かれ、「今のモラルでは悪い」としつつ、ドイツやフランスを例示し、「戦争している所にはつきものだった」と指摘した。オランダになぜ今、売春街があるのか、と反問もした。

It was seen as inappropriate for him to have gone so far as to cite the name of specific countries and to refer to licensed prostitution and the act of prostitution in the present day.
 具体的な国名を挙げ、現在の公娼(こうしょう)や売春にまで言及したのは、適切さを欠いているだろう。

Momii said he made his remarks on the issue “as an individual,” in response to a reporter’s persistent questioning. Nevertheless, it is inevitable that his remarks would be considered thoughtless. Momii’s expression of his personal opinions at a press conference for the new head of a public broadcaster has created confusion.
 籾井氏は、執拗(しつよう)な質問に「個人的見解」を示したというが、軽率だったと言われても仕方ない。会長会見で、個人的見解を披瀝(ひれき)したことが混乱を招いた。

Yet some of his remarks do not necessarily deserve strong criticism.
 ただ、発言には、必ずしも強い非難に値しないものもある。

“South Korea’s claims that it was only Japan that carried off [such women] by force makes matters more complicated,” he said.
 「韓国が、日本だけが強制連行したと言っているからややこしい。

Momii also said: “Internationally speaking, the issue [of compensation for damages during wartime] was resolved completely with the conclusion of the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and South Korea [signed in 1965]. Why has the issue been taken up again and again?”
(補償問題は)日韓基本条約ですべて解決している、国際的には。なぜ蒸し返されるのか」と疑問を呈したくだりなどだ。

Compensation settled in ’65

The issue of compensation for former comfort women was resolved at least legally with the conclusion of the bilateral agreement on property claims and economic cooperation in 1965. The Japanese side has implemented further measures for relief, including distributing compensation to former comfort women via the Japanese government-created Asian Women’s Fund. Despite such measures, however, the South Korean side has refused to accept such compensation, with some exceptions.
 元慰安婦への補償問題は、1965年の日韓請求権協定で法的には解決している。日本側は「アジア女性基金」による「償い金」の救済事業という対応もとった。それでも、韓国側は一部を除いて受け取りを拒んだ経緯がある。

With regards to NHK’s international broadcasting services, which transmit the network’s programs overseas, Momii said, “We cannot say the opposite of what the government says.” This remark has also drawn criticism that NHK would be playing up the government’s plans.
 籾井氏は、海外向けに発信している国際放送について、「政府が右と言っていることを左と言うわけにはいかない」と語った。この発言も、政府の意向におもねるのか、という批判を招いている。

Yet it is more reasonable than not for NHK’s international broadcasting service, which draws on taxpayers’ money, to transmit the views of the government and to seek understanding abroad.
 だが、税金も投入されている国際放送で政府見解を伝え、理解を求めるのは、むしろ当然だ。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said Momii made his recent remarks “as an individual” and that the government would not investigate them further.
 菅官房長官は、籾井氏の一連の発言について「個人としてのものだ」と述べ、政府としては不問に付す考えを示した。

The Board of Governors responsible for overseeing NHK has also decided not to consider potentially asking Momii to resign, but has instead issued a stern warning, saying, “We cannot help but say that Mr. Momii took the position as head of the public broadcaster lightly.” They have probably concluded that there is still space for Momii to recover the public’s faith.
 NHKの経営委員会も、「公共放送トップの立場を軽んじたと言わざるを得ない」として厳重注意にとどめ、進退は問わないことにした。なお信頼回復の余地があると判断したのだろう。

Political and business circles have recently pointed toward bias in NHK’s news coverage, for instance, on the restart of the nation’s idled nuclear power plants, the deployment of U.S. forces’ Osprey transport aircraft and the law concerning the protection of state secrets.
 NHKは最近、原子力発電所の再稼働や米軍輸送機オスプレイの配備、特定秘密保護法などの報道をめぐって、政財界から偏向しているとの指摘を受けている。

Momii said, “If we continue to follow the principles of the Broadcast Law, we will not simply always do what the government tells us to.”
 籾井氏は「放送法に沿ってやれば、政府の言いなりになることはない」と語っている。

We hope NHK will pursue the production of programs that meet viewer expectations and hold fast to its neutrality as a public broadcaster.
 NHKは、視聴者の期待に応える番組作りを進め、放送の不偏不党を貫いてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 30, 2014)
(2014年1月30日01時35分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

オバマ氏演説 そっけなかった「アジア重視」

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 30, 2014
Obama makes only brief reference to Asia in State of Union address
オバマ氏演説 そっけなかった「アジア重視」(1月30日付・読売社説)

U.S. President Barack Obama stressed on Tuesday night that he would put priority on supporting middle-class Americans, and promised to create more jobs and alleviate income disparities between rich and poor. It was apparently a speech aimed at restoring his floundering approval rate ahead of midterm elections in November.
 中間所得層への支援を優先課題に掲げ、雇用創出や所得格差是正の実現を約束した。11月の中間選挙に向け、低迷する支持率の回復を意識した演説と言えるだろう。

In his annual State of the Union address, a policy speech for the year, Obama expressed his strong determination to make 2014 “a year of action.”
 オバマ米大統領が、1年間の施政方針を示す一般教書演説を行って、今年を「行動の年」と位置づけた。固い決意がうかがえる。

Obama last year had a harsh confrontation with the Republican Party, which controls the House of Representatives, which resulted in a partial shutdown of government functions. He had a series of failures in both domestic and foreign affairs that temporarily sunk his approval rate to its lowest level since his inauguration.
 オバマ氏は、下院を支配する共和党と激しく対立し、政府機能の一部停止という事態を招いた。内政、外交とも失点続きで、支持率が一時は、就任以来最低の水準にまで落ち込んだ。

If his Democratic Party slips to a minority in both houses of Congress in this year’s mid-term elections, the Obama administration is certain to be rendered ineffectual for the remainder of its term. The question is what strategy he will use to recoup the lost ground.
 中間選挙で、民主党が上下両院で少数党に転落すれば、政権のレームダック化は決定的だ。巻き返しへの戦略が問われている。

Obama stressed in the speech what he has accomplished regarding the recovery of the U.S. economy after the financial crisis. He then proposed minimum wage hikes in consideration of low-income earners who have not yet benefited from the economic recovery. He also referred to the expansion of job opportunities with the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement and immigration reform.
 オバマ氏は演説で、金融危機後の経済再生の成果を強調した上で景気回復の恩恵を得ていない低所得者層に配慮し、最低賃金引き上げを提案した。環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)に伴う雇用拡大や移民制度改革も表明した。

All of these are policies that would help cement the support base for Democrats.
 いずれも、民主党の支持基盤固めにつながる政策だ。

Confrontation with GOP

It is noteworthy that Obama said he would use executive orders if his bills are not passed in Congress. Even if Republicans refuse to raise minimum wages, Obama stressed he would issue an executive order to raise the wages of some federal contract workers.
 特に注目されるのは、議会で法案が可決されない場合、大統領令を発すると述べたことだ。最低賃金引き上げを共和党が拒んでも、連邦政府契約職員に限っては、大統領令で引き上げるという。

This illustrates a point of conflict between his party and Republicans. But the GOP has reacted sharply against Obama, criticizing him for disrespecting Congress. There is concern that confrontation between the two parties will intensify.
 共和党との対立軸を鮮明にした形だが、共和党は早くも「議会軽視」と強く反発した。対立はかえって先鋭化する恐れがある。

Obama made relatively fewer references to foreign and security policies, as compared to domestic issues, as this is an election year. The president stressed U.S. combat troops will withdraw from Afghanistan by the end of this year and the U.S. war against terrorism “will finally be over.” But we hope Obama will maintain all possible measures against terrorism even after U.S. forces leave the country.
 選挙の年だけに、内政が重視され、外交・安全保障政策への言及は比較的少なかった。
 アフガニスタンに駐留する米軍戦闘部隊が今年末に撤収し、テロとの戦いが「ようやく終わる」と強調した。撤収後もテロ対策には万全を期してもらいたい。

Apparently with the so-called shale gas revolution in mind, the president also stressed “America is closer to energy independence.” But it would be a problem if this makes the United States less interested in Middle East affairs.
 エネルギー問題では、「シェールガス革命」を念頭に、「エネルギー自給に近づいた」と述べた。これが、中東への米国の関心の減退につながっては困る。

Obama also said: “We will continue to focus on the Asia-Pacific, where we support our allies [and] shape a future of greater security and prosperity.” The president clearly said he maintains a foreign policy with emphasis on Asia, but his reference to the region remained brief and dry.
 アジア太平洋については「引き続き、重視し、同盟国を支え、より安全で繁栄した未来を形作っていく」と主張した。「アジア重視」政策の継続は言明したものの、そっけない表現にとどまった。

For the second straight year, Obama did not attend an Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum summit meeting. We wonder how he will realize the United States’ “focus” on the region.
 オバマ氏はアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議を2年続けて欠席した。「重視」をどう具体化していくのだろうか。

With the rise of China, closer unity among the United States and its Asian allies, including Japan, is now needed more than ever before.
 中国の台頭を受け、米国と、日本など同盟国との結束が今ほど必要なときはない。

Obama should demonstrate his leadership more clearly during his tour of Asian countries scheduled for this spring.
オバマ氏は今春のアジア歴訪で、指導力を一層発揮することが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 30, 2014)
(2014年1月30日01時35分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月30日 (木)

衆院代表質問 「責任野党」の中身が問われる

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 29, 2014
Opposition parties should prove their policies are not empty theories
衆院代表質問 「責任野党」の中身が問われる(1月29日付・読売社説)

One party decides on policies based on issues, while another sticks to attacks on the government. The opposition parties’ distance from one another on their course of action is becoming clear.
 政策ごとに是々非々で臨むのか、政権への対決姿勢を貫くのか。野党の路線の違いが明確になってきたと言えよう。

Diet interpellations on Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s policy speech began Tuesday.
 安倍首相の施政方針演説に対する代表質問が始まった。

Yorihisa Matsuno, acting secretary general of Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party), said: “As a responsible opposition party, we are willing to cooperate [with the ruling parties] on diplomacy and national security, as well as constitutional amendments. However at the same time, we will make our differences [with the ruling parties] clear on other domestic issues and debate them thoroughly.”
日本維新の会の松野頼久幹事長代行は「責任野党として、外交・安保、憲法改正については協力するが、内政は対立軸を明確にして徹底議論する」と主張した。

Matsuno’s remarks were an apparent reply to Abe’s policy speech—the prime minister pledged the ruling parties will have “sincere policy talks with responsible opposition parties that work to make their policies real.”
 これは、首相が演説で、「政策の実現を目指す責任野党とは真摯(しんし)に政策協議を行う」と呼びかけたことに呼応したものだ。

Abe has already agreed with Your Party leader Yoshimi Watanabe to have “strategic dialogue” on issues such as national security and economic stimulation.
 首相はすでに、みんなの党の渡辺代表と、安全保障政策や経済対策に関する戦略対話を行うことで一致している。

Ishin no Kai and Your Party have agreed with the ruling parties on revising a bill on protecting specially designated secrets, which was then enacted at an extraordinary Diet session last month. It is also the duty of opposition parties to polish bills through discussions with ruling parties.
 維新の会、みんなの両党は昨年の臨時国会で、特定秘密保護法の修正で与党と合意した。与党との議論によって法案をより良く仕上げることも野党の責務である。

It will also be important for the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito to build good relations with opposition parties. In particular, the issue of revising the government’s interpretation of the Constitution as prohibiting Japan from exercising the right to collective self-defense would be a touchstone for the ruling parties.
 政府・与党もいかに野党と協力関係を築くかが問われよう。
 集団的自衛権の行使を可能にするよう憲法解釈を改める問題は、一つの試金石となる。

Matsuno expressed his party’s willingness to discuss the issue, saying that the interpretation should be revised “in line with changes in international circumstances.” We expect a constructive debate from the ruling and opposition parties on the issue.
 松野氏は「国際情勢の変化に合わせて見直すべきだ」と述べ、議論に応じる姿勢を示した。与野党の建設的な議論を期待したい。

A sad naysayer

Meanwhile, during the interpellation, Democratic Party of Japan President Banri Kaieda clarified the party’s stance of vying with the ruling parties. Kaieda said he is ready for a “head-on fight with Prime Minister Abe.”
 一方、民主党の海江田代表は質問で、「安倍首相と真正面から対峙(たいじ)」すると、対決姿勢を鮮明にした。

He went on to say, “Does the prime minister suggest that opposition parties that pander to the government are good opposition, while those that criticize are bad opposition?”
「すり寄ってくる野党は良い野党、批判する野党は悪い野党と言いたいのか」とも語った。

We assume Kaieda had Your Party in mind when making the remark. However, it will be difficult for the DPJ to form a solid opposition coalition if he maintains such a poor outlook.
 みんなの党を念頭に置いたものだろう。そんな認識では、野党共闘を築くのは難しい。

Kaieda has criticized the Abe administration for its “policies that neglect the lives of people.”
Although he has pledged the DPJ will make counterproposals to Abe’s policies, his words have yet to be put into practice.
 海江田氏の対応で疑問なのは、「国民を顧みない政策」に民主党の対案を提示すると言いながら、一向に実行しないことである。

Kaieda criticizes Abenomics as the prime minister’s economic policies have “begun squeezing the lives of people by causing a surge in fuel expenses and raw material expenses.” However, does the DPJ have a good proposal for conquering deflation?
 経済政策「アベノミクス」について「燃料費や原材料費の高騰など、国民生活を圧迫しつつある」と批判するが、では、民主党にデフレ脱却への妙案はあるのか。

The DPJ president said the right track for economic growth is to boost consumption by stabilizing employment. We ask him to reveal concrete proposals in achieving this idea.
 海江田氏は「雇用の安定によって消費を拡大することが経済成長の本道」と言う。それなら具体策を明らかにしてもらいたい。

Regarding the nuclear power plant issue, Kaieda criticized the Abe administration’s energy policy for its ambiguity.
“Do you have plans to seek the abolition of nuclear power plants in the future? Please clarify,” he said during the interpellation.
 原子力発電所の問題については、安倍政権のエネルギー政策があいまいだとして、「将来的に脱原発を目指すのか、そうではないのか」とただした。

Abe replied, “I cannot jump to conclusions on abolishing nuclear power plants that easily.” We believe Abe’s comments are the more reasonable.
 首相が「そう簡単に原発はもうやめたというわけにはいかない」と答えたのはもっともである。

The DPJ should realize it has the burden of showing a realistic energy policy to the public, taking into account the importance of securing a cheap and stable energy supply. It should also reflect the economic and environmental impact of abolishing nuclear power plants.
 民主党こそ、安価な電力の安定供給の重要性、脱原発による経済や環境への悪影響などを踏まえた現実的な政策を示すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 29, 2014)
(2014年1月29日01時50分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

学習指導解説書 「尖閣」「竹島」の明記を起点に

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 29, 2014
Manuals should help educate students about Senkakus, Takeshima
学習指導解説書 「尖閣」「竹島」の明記を起点に(1月29日付・読売社説)

It is essential for children in this country to be encouraged to acquire an accurate knowledge about Japanese territory, given that they will become a pillar of our future.
 日本の将来を担う子供たちに、領土に関する正しい知識を習得させることが大切である。

The education ministry has revised instruction manuals for its course of study for middle and high schools to state that the Senkaku Islands and Takeshima islets constitute “inherent parts of our nation’s territory.” The reference is the first of its kind to be included in the teaching manuals devised by the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry.
 文部科学省が、中学校と高校の学習指導要領の解説書に、尖閣諸島と竹島を初めて「我が国固有の領土」と明記する改定を行った。

The new manuals also reiterate our nation’s stance on the Senkaku Islands, which this country has placed, in effect, under state control. Students “need to understand there exists no territorial issue to be resolved,” the manuals say.
 日本が実効支配する尖閣諸島については、「解決すべき領有権の問題は存在しないことを理解させる必要がある」とも言及した。

Despite an increasing number of school textbooks that refer to the Senkakus and Takeshima, some textbooks still do not mention these islands.
 尖閣諸島や竹島について言及した教科書が増えてきたとはいえ、いまだに記述がない教科書も一部に残っている。

Though the ministry’s instruction manuals are not legally binding unlike its course of study, the former serves as a guide for publishing houses as they edit textbooks, as well as for teachers when they give lessons. We hope the latest revision of the manuals will ensure all textbooks include appropriate references to the Senkakus and Takeshima.
 解説書は、指導要領のように法的拘束力はないが、出版社の教科書編集や教師が授業を行う際の指針となる。今回の改定により、どの教科書にも適切な記述が盛り込まれることが期待される。

The education ministry has every reason to improve the quality of teaching programs on the nation’s territorial integrity, based on the government’s official views on relevant issues. Doing so is also significant for producing people capable of presenting our nation’s position in the international community.
 政府見解に基づいて、領土教育の充実を図るのは、文科省として当然のことだ。国際社会で日本の立場を主張できる人材を育成する上でも意味があろう。

The previous instruction manuals stated that the group of Takeshima islets should be included as part of geographic learning in middle school social studies classes. In doing so, however, the manuals avoided using such a direct phrase as “inherent [part of our] territory.” Such an evasive approach was also evident in the manuals for high school geography.
 従来の解説書では、竹島について、中学社会科の地理的分野で触れるよう求めていたが、「固有の領土」という直接的な表現は避けていた。

The latter manuals only stated that the study of Takeshima should “be based on middle school studies.”
高校の地理では「中学校における学習を踏まえる」としか記述されていなかった。

Neither the previous manuals for middle school studies nor those for high schools included any reference to the Senkakus.
 尖閣諸島に関しては、中高いずれも言及されていなかった。

Misleading notion

There is no denying that the manuals gave schoolteachers and administrators a misleading notion about territorial issues facing this country, prompting them to think that such problems should not necessarily be given importance.
 こうした解説書の内容が、領土問題を必ずしも重視しなくても構わないといった誤解を教育現場に与えた面は否定できない。

Our nation established its claim over Takeshima no later than the mid-17th century—during the early Edo period (1603-1867). In 1905, Takeshima was annexed to Shimane Prefecture, based on a decision made to that effect by the Cabinet.
 竹島は、遅くとも江戸時代初期の17世紀半ばに日本が領有権を確立し、1905年に閣議決定を経て、島根県に編入した。

However, a turnaround came in 1952, when South Korea unilaterally drew the so-called Syngman Rhee Line, which contained the Takeshima islets. That country has since unlawfully occupied the islets.
ところが、韓国が52年、竹島を取り込む形で一方的に「李承晩ライン」を設定し、不法占拠を続けている。

In January 1895, Japan incorporated the Senkaku Islands into its territory after establishing that areas under China’s control did not include them. The event preceded the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which ended the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95.
 尖閣諸島は、1895年1月、中国の支配が及んでいないことを確認した上で領土に編入した。これは、日清戦争を終結させた下関条約の調印前のことである。

In the 1970s and later, China laid claim to the Senkakus. The Chinese assertion came after it had been found that there were oil deposits in waters around the islands.
 中国側が領有権を主張し始めたのは、周辺海域で石油埋蔵が判明した後の1970年代以降だ。

Japanese students need to be properly taught that their government’s views on the Senkakus and Takeshima have legitimate grounds reflecting these historical developments, seen from the standpoint of international law.
 こうした歴史的経緯を踏まえ、日本政府の見解が国際法上、正当な根拠に基づくことを生徒にきちんと教える必要がある。

The South Korean government has issued a statement demanding the Japanese government to “immediately retract” the latest revisions to the instruction manuals. The Chinese government has also become more strongly antagonistic by the Japanese action.
 今回の改定に対し、韓国政府は「直ちに撤回することを求める」との声明を発表した。中国政府も反発を強めている。

What kind of education should a nation give its children with regard to its territory, which is part and parcel of its sovereignty? That is an internal matter of that country. No other nation should interfere over such an issue.
 国の主権にかかわる領土について、どのような教育を行うか。それは内政上の問題である。他国が口を挟むべきものではない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 29, 2014)
(2014年1月29日01時50分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月29日 (水)

春闘スタート 「好循環」を占う賃上げの行方

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 28, 2014
Labor-management wage talks key to spurring virtuous circle
春闘スタート 「好循環」を占う賃上げの行方(1月28日付・読売社説)

Can wage increases act as a driving force to the Abe administration’s efforts at achieving a virtuous circle through a package of economic measures referred to as Abenomics?
 賃上げで安倍政権の経済政策「アベノミクス」が目指す経済の好循環に弾みをつけられるか。

This year’s annual spring labor offensive will serve as a touchstone for this.
 今年の春闘はその試金石となる。

Top officials of the Japan Business Federation (Keidanren) and the Japanese Trade Union Confederation (Rengo) held an open forum Monday, effectively kicking off this year’s annual labor offensive for wage hikes.
 経団連と連合の労使トップらによる公開討論会が開かれ、今年の春闘が事実上スタートした。

Corporate performance has improved as the yen weakens. It is important for corporate profits to lead to pay hikes, thereby recovering consumption to further shore up the economy.
 円安などを背景に企業業績は回復している。利益を賃金アップにつなげ、消費回復で景気をさらに上向かせることが重要だ。

Rengo President Nobuaki Koga said at the open forum that the nation’s biggest trade union will “seek to raise the wage standards for all workers.” He stressed he would seek a regular pay hike of about 2 percent and a pay scale hike of more than 1 percent.
 連合の古賀伸明会長は討論会で「すべての働く人の賃金底上げを図る」と述べ、約2%の定期昇給に加え、1%以上のベースアップを求める考えを強調した。

In its basic policy for this year’s labor-management negotiations on wage hikes, Keidanren has said that “high-flying businesses will use their expanded profits to raise the pay of their employees.” The nation’s largest business group will approve a pay scale hike for the first time in six years.
 経団連は「業績好調な企業は、拡大した収益を賃金の引き上げに振り向けていく」とする春闘方針を示している。ベアの容認は6年ぶりのことである。

In a series of tripartite meetings last year with representatives from the labor and management sectors, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe called for pay hikes while offering corporate assistance measures such as reducing the corporate tax and promoting deregulation. It is encouraging to see that such efforts have led to heightening the momentum for pay increases.
 安倍首相は、政労使会議で賃上げを要請し、法人税の軽減措置や規制緩和など企業支援策を打ち出してきた。こうした取り組みが奏功し、賃上げの機運が高まってきたのは心強い。

Of course, wages are set through the labor-management negotiations of each firm. But we have to seriously face the fact that the average salary of workers has declined by about 13 percent over the past 15 years.
 むろん賃金は各労使の交渉で決まるものだが、デフレによって労働者の平均給与が15年で約13%も下がった事実は重い。

Pay scale hike vital

Consumer prices have been turning upward, and the consumption tax rate will rise from 5 percent to 8 percent in April. If households’ financial burdens increase without wages being raised, consumption could decline, thereby causing the economy to lose steam.
 消費者物価は上昇に転じ、今年4月には消費税率が5%から8%に上がる。賃金が上がらぬまま家計の負担が増せば、消費は冷え、景気失速を招く恐れがある。

In this year’s labor-management talks, pay scale increases must be discussed proactively centering on big businesses with robust corporate records.
 春闘では、好業績の大企業を中心に、ベア実施に前向きに取り組んでもらいたい。

Many companies are wary of pay scale increases that would push up wages permanently. As things stand, there are few alternatives but to reward improvements in corporate performance primarily through bonuses and overtime payments.
 人件費を恒常的に上昇させるベアに慎重な企業も少なくない。経営実態に応じて、主にボーナスや残業代で業績改善に報いることも現時点ではやむを得まい。

It will be essential to move forward with pay hikes and to move from big businesses to small and midsize companies and from regular employees to irregular workers.
 賃上げの動きを持続し、大企業から中小企業へ、正社員から非正規労働者へと波及させていくことが肝心である。

Businesses should aggressively pursue profits by investing surplus funds proactively for further growth. It will require cooperation from the labor side to implement measures to improve productivity, including a shift to sectors in which high growth can be expected and a review of employment conditions for the purpose of acquiring outstanding personnel.
 収益力の向上へ、余剰資金を成長への投資に積極活用する「攻めの経営」が求められる。高成長を期待できる事業への転換や、優秀な人材獲得のための処遇見直しなど、生産性向上の取り組みには労働側の協力も必要だ。

Raising the income and stabilizing the employment of irregular workers, who account for 40 percent of the total workforce, are tasks to be tackled jointly by the labor and management sectors.
 労働者の4割を占める非正規労働者の収入アップや雇用安定は、労使共通の課題と言える。

In-depth discussions are needed on the employment system to come up with such measures as expanding the door for capable and highly motivated part-time workers to be promoted as regular workers.
 有能で意欲のあるパートタイマーを正社員に登用する門戸を広げるなど、雇用制度のあり方についても論議を深めてほしい。

How to utilize a wide variety of human resources, including women and the elderly, as valuable workers also is a matter to be discussed during the annual labor-management negotiations.
 女性や高齢者など多様な人材を貴重な戦力として活用していく方策も、春闘で労使が論じるべき重要テーマである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 28, 2014)
(2014年1月28日01時11分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

日本史必修化 自国の軌跡を深く学びたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 28, 2014
High school students should receive better education in Japanese history
日本史必修化 自国の軌跡を深く学びたい(1月28日付・読売社説)

To cultivate their identity as Japanese, students should receive an adequate education in Japanese history.
 日本人としてのアイデンティティーを育んでいくためには、日本史の教育が欠かせない。

Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Minister Hakubun Shimomura announced that his ministry will study the possibility of making Japanese history a compulsory subject at high schools. By referring the idea to the Central Council for Education for deliberation, the minister hopes to realize the idea in five or six years’ time.
 下村文部科学相が、高校の日本史の必修化を検討する考えを表明した。中央教育審議会に諮問し、早ければ5~6年後の実施を目指すという。

For mapping out the future of Japan, it is essential for young people to study Japanese history. It is also important for them to be able to exhibit pride in the history of their own country. Making Japanese history compulsory at high schools is reasonable.
 日本の将来を考える上で、日本の歴史を学ぶことが必要だ。若者が自国の歴史に誇りを持てるようにすることも大切だ。日本史必修化の方向性は妥当だろう。

As globalization advances, there will be more opportunities for Japanese to talk about their country’s culture and other things abroad.
 国際化が進み、日本人が海外で自国の文化などを語る機会が増えてくる。

The idea of making the subject compulsory at high schools indicates a sense of crisis over the lack of education required to produce internationally minded people.
必修化の検討は、国際人の基盤となる教養が足りないことへの危機感の表れとも言える。

When school teaching guidelines were revised in 1989, social studies at high schools were divided into “geography and history” and “civics.” When studying “geography and history,” world history is compulsory. In addition, a student has to choose either Japanese history or geography as an elective subject.
 高校の「社会科」は、1989年の学習指導要領改定で、現行の「地理歴史」と「公民」に分かれた。地理歴史の中では、世界史が必修で、併せて、日本史か地理のいずれかを選択履修するという取り扱いになっている。

As a result, 30 percent to 40 percent of high school students in Japan are believed to graduate from high school without a sufficient grounding in Japanese history.
 その結果、高校生の3~4割は日本史を学ばないまま高校を卒業していると推定される。

Although students are supposed to have studied the basics of Japanese history in primary and middle schools, it is problematic that many students have no opportunity to deepen their knowledge of Japanese history in high school.
 義務教育段階で一通り、日本の歴史を履修しているとはいえ、高校で理解を深める機会を持たない生徒が少なくないのは問題だ。

Many problems remain

Making Japanese history a compulsory high school subject has been urged by local governments and other entities. The Tokyo metropolitan government and Kanagawa prefectural government have prepared textbooks, so that students have to learn Japanese history at the high schools they operate.
 日本史の必修化を求める声は自治体などから出ていた。東京都や神奈川県は、独自教材を作成し、都立校や県立校の生徒に日本史を必ず学ばせている。

However, many issues need to be discussed.
 ただ、必修化にあたっては、検討すべき課題も多い。

By making Japanese history a compulsory subject in place of world history, students may have few opportunities to learn about the history of foreign countries at primary, middle and high schools.
 世界史に代わって日本史だけを必修にすれば、小中高校を通じて外国の歴史に触れる機会がほとんどない生徒が出かねない。

It may be necessary to review the curriculum, including compulsory education subjects, by adopting elements of world history at middle schools, for instance.
 例えば、中学校で世界史の要素を取り入れるなど、義務教育も含めたカリキュラムの見直しを考える必要があるのではないか。

If both world history and Japanese history became required subjects, more high school students would not study geography. Some people have suggested the establishment of a general course of geography and history that would be made compulsory.
 世界史と日本史がともに必修となれば、今度は地理を学ばない高校生が増えるかもしれない。地理歴史の総合科目を新設して、必修とすべきだという意見もある。

There is also room to review the conventional way history is taught, which gives too much weight to memorization. It is natural for high school students to dislike studying history if they are forced to memorize a vast amount of terms.
 知識の詰め込みに偏りがちな従来の歴史教育の在り方にも、再考の余地がある。膨大な用語の暗記を強いるのでは、高校生が「歴史嫌い」になるのも無理はない。

It is desirable for educators and schools to tax their ingenuity to come up with educational content that stimulates the intellectual curiosity of students, for instance, by having them delve more deeply into historical events.
 歴史的事件の背景を掘り下げて考えさせるなど、生徒の知的好奇心を喚起するような教育内容を工夫すべきだろう。

It is also necessary to improve education in regard to modern and contemporary history. Such efforts will certainly cultivate students’ understanding of the current complex international situation, by correctly understanding the history between Japan and other Asian countries.
 近現代史に関する教育を充実させることも求められる。日本とアジア諸国の間に横たわる歴史を正しく理解する学習を通じて、現在の複雑な国際情勢を見る眼(め)が養われていくはずだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 28, 2014)
(2014年1月28日01時11分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月28日 (火)

農薬混入事件 「食の安全」揺るがす内部犯行

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 27, 2014
Sense of food safety badly shaken by in-company poisoning of food
農薬混入事件 「食の安全」揺るがす内部犯行(1月27日付・読売社説)

The latest food poisoning case has shaken Japan’s sense of food safety and increased people’s distrust of food makers. Investigators must expedite their efforts to elucidate the facts in this case.
 日本の「食の安全」を揺るがし、食品メーカーへの不信を増大させた。捜査当局は真相解明を急ぐべきである。

A 49-year-old contract worker at the plant where frozen food was laced with the agricultural chemical malathion has been arrested by the Gunma prefectural police on suspicion of obstructing business. The suspect worked at the Gunma plant of Aqli Foods Corp., a subsidiary of leading food maker Maruha Nichiro Holdings Inc.
 食品大手「マルハニチロホールディングス」の子会社「アクリフーズ」群馬工場で製造された冷凍食品に農薬マラチオンが混入された事件で、群馬県警が工場の契約社員の男(49)を偽計業務妨害容疑で逮捕した。

The man is suspected of lacing frozen food produced at the plant with malathion on four occasions in October.
 男は昨年10月、工場で製造する冷凍食品に4回にわたり、マラチオンを混入した疑いがある。

About 2,800 people across the country have complained of feeling ill after eating pizza and other frozen food produced at the plant.
 工場で製造されたピザなどを食べ、体調不良を訴えた人は全国で約2800人に上る。

During questioning, the man reportedly told police, “I don’t remember,” and his motive remains unclear.
 男は調べに対し、「覚えていない」と話しているという。まだ動機も判然としない。

We hope the Gunma prefectural police will probe the matter thoroughly to find out how the food was laced with the chemical and clarify the context of the inside job.
群馬県警は、農薬の混入方法、事件の背景などを徹底的に究明してもらいたい。

The presidents of Maruha Nichiro Holdings and Aqli Foods have announced they will resign at the end of March to take responsibility for the latest incident.
 マルハニチロの久代敏男社長とアクリフーズ社長は、3月末で引責辞任することを表明した。

The companies failed to respond promptly, taking 1½ months to launch a self-imposed recall of products after receiving a complaint in November of an odd odor from pizza manufactured at the plant. As both companies have lost their credibility with consumers, their resignation is natural.
 昨年11月、工場で製造されたピザを食べた消費者から異臭の苦情があってから自主回収まで1か月半も要し、対応が遅れた。信頼を失墜した以上、辞任は当然だ。

85% of frozen food recalled

The recall rate of frozen food produced since October at the Gunma plant remains at about 85 percent. Maruha Nichiro must continue calling on consumers to return the products in question.
 10月以降に群馬工場で製造した冷凍食品の回収率は約85%にとどまる。マルハは引き続き、返品を呼びかける必要がある。

A mindset of “food defense” to prevent food from being contaminated intentionally with foreign substances has prevailed in the food industry since pesticide-laced gyoza produced at a Chinese plant was imported into Japan in 2008.
 食品業界では2008年に発覚した中国製冷凍ギョーザ中毒事件後、意図的な異物混入を防ぐ「フードディフェンス(食品防御)」の考え方が広がっている。

At the Gunma plant, workers are required to wear uniforms without pockets, while monitors to keep an eye on other workers have been placed on production lines.
 この群馬工場でも、従業員にポケットのない作業着の着用を義務づけ、製造ラインに監視役の従業員も配置していた。

Yet there is no inspection of workers’ belongings when they enter the plant. Some workers said chemicals could be brought into the plant if they were hidden inside the lower sleeve of the uniform.
 しかし、工場に入る際の持ち物検査などはなく、「袖口に忍び込ませれば、農薬を持ち込むことはできる」と話す従業員もいる。

The present state of quality control, including the system for food safety control, of the entire Maruha group needs to be examined for possible defects, as does the system for educating employees.
 グループ全体の食品安全管理体制を含めた品質管理のあり方や、従業員教育などに問題がなかったか。検証が必要だろう。

The latest incident has also sounded an alarm bell for the entire food industry.
 今回の事件は、業界全体にも警鐘を鳴らしている。

Although it can be difficult for companies to take the view that human nature is inherently bad, it is essential to prevent workers with ill intentions from doing bad things. Companies must improve their in-house systems, including boosting monitoring of employees to make such illicit acts difficult.
 性悪説に立つことは難しいかもしれないが、悪意を持つ従業員の不正を防ぐことが何よりも重要だ。そうした行為を難しくするための監視強化など、社内体制の整備が各社に求められる。

Maruha Nichiro has revised downward its earnings forecast for the business term ending this March, primarily due to suspended production at the Gunma plant and its sluggish sales.
 マルハニチロは2014年3月期決算の業績予想を下方修正した。群馬工場の製造を中止し、販売不振に陥ったのが主因だ。

Companies in the food industry must understand it is difficult for a company that has lost consumers’ trust to recover it.
 いったん失った消費者の信頼回復の道が険しいことを、業界各社は肝に銘じなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 27, 2014)
(2014年1月27日01時32分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

日印首脳会談 潜在的な可能性を引き出せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 27, 2014
Japan must work closely with India to tap the country’s great potential
日印首脳会談 潜在的な可能性を引き出せ(1月27日付・読売社説)

It is extremely important for Japan to improve security and economic cooperation with India, which is enjoying remarkable growth.
 成長著しいインドと安全保障と経済で協力を進める意義は大きい。

On his visit to India, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe met with his Indian counterpart, Manmohan Singh, in New Delhi on Saturday.
 安倍首相がインドを訪問し、シン首相と会談した。

In their talks, Singh described Japan as India’s “key partner” for regional peace and stability and in his country’s economic development. In reply, Abe stressed that relations between Japan and India “have the greatest potential of any bilateral relationship anywhere in the world.”
シン首相は地域の平和安定や経済開発の「キーパートナー」と日本を位置づけた。安倍首相も「日印関係は世界で最も可能性を秘めている」と応じた。

This is Abe’s second trip to India. He visited the country in 2007 during his previous term as prime minister. For last weekend’s visit, he was invited to be chief guest at India’s annual Republic Day parade in New Delhi. It was the first time this honor has been extended to a Japanese prime minister and underscores the deepening ties between the two countries.
 安倍首相のインド訪問は2007年以来、2回目だ。今回は、インドの共和国記念日という重要な行事に、日本の首相では初めて主賓として招かれた。両国の関係の深まりの表れだろう。

On diplomacy and security, Abe was quoted as saying that Japan was resolved to make further contributions to the international community, elaborating on his policy of making a “proactive contribution to peace.” In a joint statement issued after the talks, the Indian prime minister said he “appreciated Japan’s efforts to contribute to peace and stability of the region and the world.”
 外交・安全保障では、安倍首相が「積極的平和主義」の立場で国際社会に貢献していく方針を説明した。シン首相は、「日本の努力を称賛した」という。

During their meeting, the two leaders agreed to hold regular consultations between Shotaro Yachi, secretary general of National Security Secretariat of Japan’s newly created National Security Council, and India’s national security adviser.
 新たに、国家安全保障会議(日本版NSC)の谷内正太郎国家安全保障局長と、インドの国家安全保障顧問が定期的に協議することで合意した。

Abe and Singh also agreed to continue joint maritime exercises between the Maritime Self-Defense Force and the Indian Navy, while continuing talks aimed at exporting the MSDF’s US2 amphibious maritime rescue aircraft to India.
 海上自衛隊とインド海軍の共同訓練を継続し、海自の救難飛行艇「US2」のインド輸出に向けた協議も進める。

Holding China in check

Bolstering cooperation on bilateral security is a prerequisite for Japan to ensure the security of its sea lanes, particularly routes used to transport such goods as crude oil.
 安保協力の強化は、日本にとって原油などを運ぶシーレーン(海上交通路)確保に不可欠だ。

With Japan and India sharing concerns over China’s expanding military might, the Abe-Singh agreements are aimed at keeping China in check.
 両国は、軍事面で台頭する中国への懸念を共有しており、中国へのけん制という意味もある。

The joint statement explicitly referred to the importance of “freedom of overflights and civil aviation safety” in connection with bilateral security cooperation. This reference has obviously been included in light of the high-handed, aggressive advances by China both at sea and in the air.
 会談で署名された共同声明には、安保協力に関し「航行の自由」と「上空飛行の自由」の重要性が明記されている。「海」と「空」で強権的に進出を図る中国を念頭に置いたものである。

Abe also has announced a yen loan worth more than ¥200 billion for infrastructure improvement projects in India, including the Delhi Metro subway system. Abe and Singh also agreed that the two countries will work together to expedite plans for a high-speed railway linking Mumbai and Ahmadabad in western India, as Japan hopes to see its Shinkansen technology sold abroad.
 一方、安倍首相はインドの地下鉄整備などのために、2000億円超の円借款供与を表明した。新幹線技術の輸出をにらみ、インド西部のムンバイ―アーメダバード間の高速鉄道計画に関して共同調査を急ぐことでも一致した。

India, which has the world’s second-largest population, is an extremely attractive market for Japan. However, two-way trade and investment between Japan and India is significantly lower than that between Japan and China, meaning there is considerable potential to expand Japan-India economic relations.
 日本にとって、世界第2位の人口を抱えるインド市場は魅力的だ。だが、日印間の貿易や投資額は日中間に比べると少なく、拡大の余地があると言える。

On his three-day visit to India, Abe was accompanied by a delegation of prominent business leaders. The Japanese government and private-sector businesses should work as one in boosting Japan’s economic ties with India.
 首相のインド訪問には日本企業の経営者らも多数同行した。官民一体でインドとの経済的な結びつきを強めていくべきだ。

The Japanese and Indian leaders also have agreed to accelerate negotiations to conclude as early as possible a civil nuclear pact that will enable Japan to export nuclear power generation technology and related equipment to India.
 両首脳は、日本からインドへ原子力発電技術や関連機器を輸出できるようにする原子力協定の早期妥結を目指すことも確認した。

Some are skeptical of the wisdom of concluding such an agreement with India, a nuclear state that has not joined the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.
 核拡散防止条約(NPT)に加盟していない核保有国のインドとの協定について、日本国内にはなお慎重論がある。

While taking this seriously into account, the government should accelerate the pace of negotiations for a Japan-India nuclear cooperation agreement.
そのことも念頭に置きながら、政府は交渉を加速させる必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 27, 2014)
(2014年1月27日01時34分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月27日 (月)

敦賀原発活断層 規制委は科学的判断に徹せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 26, 2014
NRA must base N-plant safety on purely scientific assessments
敦賀原発活断層 規制委は科学的判断に徹せよ(1月26日付・読売社説)

The Nuclear Regulation Authority will be tested as to whether it can make a swift, impartial judgment on the safety of Japan Atomic Power Co.’s Tsuruga nuclear power plant in Fukui Prefecture.
 いかに公正な判断を迅速に下すか。原子力規制委員会の姿勢が改めて問われている。

The NRA finished a two-day follow-up investigation into a fault beneath the compound of the nuclear power plant.
 日本原子力発電敦賀原子力発電所(福井県)敷地内にある断層を規制委が追加調査した。

In May last year, the NRA compiled a safety evaluation report that concluded a D-1 fault, a zone containing rock fragments that runs just beneath reactor No. 2 of the nuclear complex, was an active fault, increasing the likelihood that the reactor would not be restarted. Construction of a nuclear plant immediately above an active fault is banned by law.
 昨年5月、規制委が同原発2号機の真下を通る破砕帯(断層)を活断層と認定する評価書をまとめ、再稼働は困難とされていた。活断層の真上に原発を造ることは認められていないからだ。

However, Japan Atomic Power came up with a set of new data in July on the situation in an effort to have the NRA reassess its original conclusion, leading after much delay to the Jan. 20-21 follow-up investigation.
 しかし、原電が新たなデータを提示して再評価を求めたため、ようやく追加調査に至った。

Based on the new investigation, the NRA is scheduled to hold a meeting of the panel of experts that compiled the report in May to sift through the new set of data. Fair and objective discussions by the experts must take place.
 規制委は、評価書をまとめた専門家チーム会合を再度開き、検討する。公正な議論が不可欠だ。

Japan Atomic Power has insisted that on the basis of its own investigation the fault was formed “in the distant past,” indicating that the fault is unlikely to become active in the future.
 問題の断層について、原電は自社調査に基づき、「極めて古い時代にできたもので、今後活動する可能性はない」と主張する。

The NRA believes the D-1 fault could move in conjunction with a confirmed active fault at the northern extremity of the D-1. According to the company, however, an additional trenching survey it conducted determined that the two faults were not connected.
 これに対し、規制委は、断層北端に別の活断層があり、連動するとの見解だ。だが、原電の追加掘削調査で、二つの断層はつながっていないことが判明した。

The key element of the NRA evaluation report has therefore been called into question, with a number of experts supporting the plant operator’s argument.
 評価書の根幹は揺らいでいる。原電の主張を支持する専門家も少なくない。

Self-righteous attitude

Although Japan Atomic Power called on the NRA not to release its evaluation report before completing the operator’s own investigation, NRA Acting Chairman Kunihiko Shimazaki forged ahead, saying, “We consider it fortunate that no accident has occurred yet.” We cannot help but consider his conclusion to be a result of muddled thinking.
 原電は調査完了まで結論を待つよう要請していたのに、島崎邦彦規制委員長代理は「これまで事故がなかったのは幸い」と断じ、強引に結論を出していた。拙速だったと言わざるを得ない。

As the NRA wasted about six months before undertaking the new investigation, Fukui Gov. Issei Nishikawa took the NRA to task and said it should take responsibility for the delay.
 一方で追加調査まで半年も放置してきたことに、「(規制委は)遅滞の責任を問われる」(西川一誠・福井県知事)との指摘もある。

The NRA must proceed with the reassessment promptly, and it should listen to all opinions, even those critical of the authority.
規制委は再評価を速やかに進める必要がある。批判的な意見にも耳を傾けてもらいたい。

The furor over the Tsuruga plant’s fault seems to be a result of the clumsy way the NRA is operated, as pointed out by a Liberal Democratic Party study team in a set of proposals presented toward the end of last year to the government and the NRA.
 これまでの混乱の原因は、自民党検討チームが昨年末、政府と規制委に提言したように、組織運営のまずさと無縁ではあるまい。

The NRA is a collegial body comprising the chairman and four members. As far as earthquake hazards are concerned, however, Shimazaki, a seismological expert, has the decisive say. All seismological experts in charge of assessing nuclear power plant safety in the past have been excluded from the current body.
 規制委は委員長ら5人の合議制だが、地震については、専門家の島崎委員長代理が事実上の決定権者だ。過去に原発審査を経験した専門家は排除されている。

In the safety assessment process to determine whether to allow reactivation of idled reactors across the country, the NRA has called on power utilities to make safety assessments by taking it for granted that an active fault can move in conjunction with another fault adjoining it. In addition, the NRA has taken the position of refusing to accept any data from utilities if they point out the possibility of a fault not being in conjunction with another fault.
 全国で停止中の原発の再稼働に向けた安全審査でも、規制委は隣り合う活断層は連動するという前提で、電力会社に耐震性の評価を求めている。連動を否定する電力会社のデータは認めない。

The NRA faces mounting criticism that it lacks impartiality and tends to have a self-righteous attitude.
 規制委に対しては、中立性を欠き、独善的との批判が多い。

We wonder if the safety assessment process has been protracted longer than initially expected due in part to such a posture.
安全審査が当初の想定より長引いているのも、規制委のこうした姿勢が影響しているのではないか。

Measures based on unbiased, scientific discussions are essential to enhance the safety of nuclear plant operations. The NRA is urgently in need of reorganization.
 偏りのない科学的議論を踏まえた対策が安全性の向上には欠かせない。規制委の改革が急務だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 26, 2014)
(2014年1月26日01時11分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

日本版NIH 医療の競争力強化の司令塔に

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 26, 2014
Japanese NIH expected to enhance nation’s medical competitiveness
日本版NIH 医療の競争力強化の司令塔に(1月26日付・読売社説)

Excellent results in medical research must lead to the development of new drugs and remedies. A “headquarters for medicine” to be established soon is expected to play a significant role in enhancing Japan’s competitiveness in this field.
 優れた医学研究を医薬品開発や治療法に結実させる必要がある。日本の競争力強化へ、“医療の司令塔”が果たすべき役割は大きい。

The government has decided to create an independent administrative entity tentatively called the Japan medical research and development agency to promote research and development in the medical field. With creation of the agency, the government aims to unify various systems at different ministries and agencies to support the research and development of medicine.
 政府は、医療分野の研究開発を支援するため、独立行政法人「日本医療研究開発機構」を創設することを決めた。各省庁でばらばらだった研究支援体制を一元化する狙いがある。

The agency is called the Japanese version of the U.S. National Institutes of Health because it is being modeled on the U.S. organization, which leads the world in medical research and the creation of new drugs. The government plans to submit related bills to the current ordinary Diet session and to launch the new agency in April 2015.
 世界の医学研究や創薬をリードする米国の国立衛生研究所(NIH)をモデルに、「日本版NIH」と呼ばれる。政府は関連法案を通常国会に提出し、新法人を2015年4月に発足させる方針だ。

The medical field is expected to be a pillar of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s growth strategy. The government must not let the agency become an empty letter but make it a viable organization with power to drive the nation’s growth.
 医療分野は成長戦略の柱として期待される。成長の牽引(けんいん)力となるよう、看板倒れに終わらせず、実効性のある組織とすることが肝要である。

The new agency is tasked with managing research and development funds from various ministries and agencies in an integrated fashion, and with distributing them to universities and other research institutes. The agency will give priority to promising fields and provide constant support to them, from basic research to commercialization of products.
 新法人は、各省庁の研究開発予算を一括管理し、大学などの研究機関に配分する役割を担う。有望な分野を優先し、基礎研究から製品化までを継続的に支援する。

As the development of induced pluripotent stem cells by Kyoto University Prof. Shinya Yamanaka shows, the level of basic research in the medical field is very high in Japan.
 山中伸弥・京都大教授が作製したiPS細胞(人工多能性幹細胞)に代表されるように、日本の医学の基礎研究レベルは高い。

End sectionalism

Nonetheless, Japan lags behind the United States and European countries in the practical application of medical technology. For instance, imports of medicine and medical equipment exceed exports by about ¥3 trillion. It is problematic that a gap between basic research and clinical application has prevented companies from converting research results at universities and elsewhere into commercial realities.
 ところが、医薬品・医療機器の貿易で約3兆円の輸入超過となるなど、医療技術の実用化では米欧に後れをとっている。

Government support for research and development is sometimes not well coordinated.
 基礎研究と臨床応用の間に溝があり、大学などの研究成果が、企業による製品化に結びついていなかったのは問題と言える。

For example, the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry is in charge of supporting basic research; the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry is in charge of clinical application; and the Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry is in charge of industrialization. The ministries often compete with each other to win budget appropriations for similar research.
 研究開発に対する政府の支援は、基礎分野を文部科学省、臨床研究は厚生労働省、産業化は経済産業省がそれぞれ担当し、時にちぐはぐだ。類似研究に各省が予算を奪い合うケースも多い。

To help the new agency function appropriately, it is essential to end sectionalism among ministries and agencies, and to make their support for research and development more efficient.
 新法人を十分機能させるためには、まず省庁の縦割りをなくし、効率化を図ることが不可欠だ。

The new agency will be staffed by medical and pharmaceutical experts from the private sector, but it will not be easy to secure such people.
 新法人の職員は、医療や薬学の民間の専門家などで構成される予定だ。人材確保が難題である。

They will have to exercise good judgment in selecting research subjects with potential, and in connecting research institutes and companies to realize their product development.
 将来性の高い研究領域を見極め、製品開発に向けて研究機関と企業をどう結びつけるか。「目利き力」が求められよう。

There is a mountain of issues to be tackled jointly by the industrial, government and academic sectors. The creation of the Japanese version of the NIH is just a start.
 産官学で取り組むべき課題は山積している。日本版NIHの創設はスタートに過ぎない。

While seeking to change the mindset of university researchers, who tend to overemphasize basic research, the government also should help accelerate the nurturing of start-ups that tackle the development of innovative technology with a high risk of failure.
 基礎研究を偏重しがちな大学の研究者の意識改革を進めるとともに、失敗のリスクが大きい革新的な技術開発を手がけるベンチャー企業の育成も急ぐべきだ。

We expect the government to build a system together with all the related sectors in Japan to increase the nation’s international competitiveness in the medical field by developing the Japanese version of NIH into a major, solid organization.
 政府は、日本版NIHを大きく育てて、オールジャパンで医療分野の国際競争力を高める体制を築いてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 26, 2014)
(2014年1月26日01時11分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月26日 (日)

施政方針演説 不屈の精神で懸案解決に挑め

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 26, 2014
Prime minister must act decisively to ensure his goals for nation are met
施政方針演説 不屈の精神で懸案解決に挑め(1月25日付・読売社説)

“It always seems impossible until it’s done.”
 「何事も、達成するまでは、不可能に思えるものである」

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe referred to this comment by late South African President Nelson Mandela at the onset of his policy speech to the Diet on Friday, to underscore his resolve to tackle with an unbending spirit the myriad of thorny problems faced by Japan.
 安倍首相が施政方針演説の冒頭、南アフリカのネルソン・マンデラ元大統領の言葉を引用した。日本が直面する多くの難題に、不屈の精神で挑む決意を示したものだ。

The ball is now in Abe’s court to focus his efforts toward producing tangible results.
いかに結果を出すかが問われよう。

The speech was delivered at the ordinary Diet session convened on the same day.
 通常国会が開幕した。

As the prime minister called it a Diet session in which to “realize a virtuous economic circle,” it is essential, first and foremost, for the government to pull the economy out of deflation through the Abenomics economic policies. It must minimize adverse effects from the increase in the consumption tax rate in April.
 首相が「好循環実現国会」と銘打ったように、経済政策「アベノミクス」によるデフレ脱却に最優先で取り組む必要がある。4月の消費税率引き上げによる悪影響を最小限に抑えねばならない。

On the diplomatic front, Abe said he will push “top-level, strategic diplomacy while observing the world as a whole, as if looking at a globe.” He stressed that “a dialogue between the leaders of states will move things forward regardless of what challenges they may face [between the nations].”
 一方で、「地球儀を俯瞰(ふかん)する視点で戦略的なトップ外交」を進める意向を示した。「いかなる課題があっても首脳同士が対話することで物事が動く」と強調した。

But Japan’s relations with China and South Korea remain icy. Cooperation from China and South Korea is essential if Japan wants to see progress on issues over the abduction of Japanese nationals by North Korea and its nuclear and missile programs. Improving its relations with the two neighbors is therefore pivotal for the Abe administration.
 ただ、中国、韓国との関係は冷え切ったままだ。北朝鮮の拉致、核・ミサイル問題の進展には、中韓両国の協力が欠かせない。関係改善に取り組まねばなるまい。

Considering China’s drastic military buildup, Japan should employ active diplomatic and security policies.
 中国の急速な軍事力増強を踏まえれば、外交・安全保障政策をより能動的に展開すべきだ。

One of the pillars of his speech was a “proactive contribution to peace,” which is based on the principle of international cooperation. We support Abe’s notion that playing an active role for world peace and stability by working hand-in-hand with the United States will lead to the protection of Japan’s security.
 首相は、国際協調主義に基づく「積極的平和主義」を演説の一つの柱とした。米国と手を携え、世界の平和と安定に積極的役割を果たす。それが日本の安全を守る道だという考え方を支持したい。

Prepare for secrets law

To have the National Security Council—launched late last year—fulfill its potential, it is indispensable to accelerate preparations to enforce the law on protecting specially designated state secrets, which has been enacted to enable Japan to share confidential information with the United States and others.
 昨年末に創設した国家安全保障会議を十分機能させるには、米国などと機密情報を共有できるよう制定した特定秘密保護法の施行へ準備を急ぐことが肝要である。

The next challenge Japan must tackle is reviewing the government’s constitutional interpretation that prohibits the nation from exercising the right to collective self-defense.
 次の課題は集団的自衛権の行使を禁じた憲法解釈の見直しだ。

Abe has indicated the government would consider what position it should take on this issue after receiving a report from a panel of experts this spring. It is hoped that Abe will exercise leadership in settling the issue, which has long been considered difficult in the face of resistance from the Cabinet Legislation Bureau and others.
 首相は、今春に有識者会議の報告を受けて政府の対応を検討する考えを示している。内閣法制局などの抵抗で長年困難とされてきた集団的自衛権の問題に、首相主導で終止符を打ってもらいたい。

If Tokyo wants to strengthen the alliance between Japan and the United States, it is of great importance for Japan to rectify as much as possible the one-sided relationship in which Japan must remain idle when U.S. forces come under attack even though the U.S. military is protecting Japan.
 日米同盟を強化するには、日本を守っている米軍が攻撃を受けても日本は何もできない、という片務的な関係をできる限り是正していくべきだろう。

Meanwhile, the Okinawa governor approved a project last month to reclaim the publicly owned offshore areas in the Henoko district of Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, at long last putting in motion the issue of relocating the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station to the district. Further government efforts—including persuading local residents to accept the relocation—are essential to realizing the return of the Futenma facility.
 米軍普天間飛行場移設問題は沖縄県知事が辺野古移設に伴う公有水面埋め立てを承認し、ようやく動き始めた。政府には、返還が確かなものになるよう地元の説得を含め一層の努力が求められる。

The prime minister said he would sincerely talk to “responsible opposition parties” that want to see their policies realized. Momentum is gathering among some opposition parties to decide whether to support the government on an issue-by-issue basis instead of putting up resistance to everything the government does.
 首相は、政策実現を目指す「責任野党」とは真摯(しんし)に協議すると語った。野党の一部にも、政府に反対一辺倒ではなく、是々非々で対応する機運が高まっている。

We hope the ruling and opposition parties will carry out constructive discussions on such issues as Diet reform, electoral system reform and constitutional revisions.
 与野党には、国会改革や選挙制度改革、憲法改正などで建設的な議論を期待したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 25, 2014)
(2014年1月25日01時45分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

東京五輪組織委 オールジャパンで祭典準備を

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 26, 2014
Efforts of entire nation necessary to prepare for successful 2020 Games
東京五輪組織委 オールジャパンで祭典準備を(1月25日付・読売社説)

The organizing committee for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics, which was launched Friday, will promote preparations in coordination with the International Olympic Committee.
 2020年東京五輪・パラリンピックの運営母体となる大会組織委員会が発足した。
 今後、国際オリンピック委員会(IOC)と調整を図りながら、開催準備を進めていくことになる。

The efforts of the entire nation will be needed to make the Games successful, involving the government, the Tokyo metropolitan government, the Japanese Olympic Committee and business circles.
 政府、東京都、日本オリンピック委員会(JOC)、経済界が一体となったオールジャパンの準備体制を築き、大会を成功に導かねばならない。

Former Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori was named head of the organizing committee. Mori, who also serves as head of the Japan Sports Association and Japan Rugby Football Union, has a wide range of personal connections in the sports world. He must take full advantage of these connections to facilitate communication within the organizing committee.
 組織委の会長には、森元首相が就任した。森氏は、日本体育協会、日本ラグビー協会の会長を務めるなど、スポーツ界全般にも幅広い人脈を持つ。それをフルに生かし、組織委内の意思疎通を図ってもらいたい。

The committee will be tasked with working out basic organizing plans by February next year and will take the lead in implementing those plans. It will also undertake public relations activities.
 組織委は来年2月までに開催基本計画をまとめ、計画遂行の指揮を執る。PR活動も展開する。

To secure the ¥300 billion in management funds needed to pay for the Olympics and Paralympics up through their conclusion six years from now, it is necessary to seek sponsorship fees and donations from as many companies as possible. Toyota Motor Corp. President Akio Toyoda, who has been informally appointed as vice head of the organizing committee, will have to display his ability in this regard.
 6年後の大会終了までに必要な運営費3000億円を確保するため、多くの企業からスポンサー料や寄付金を募る必要がある。副会長に内定した豊田章男トヨタ自動車社長の手腕に期待がかかる。

Toshiro Muto, a former administrative vice finance minister, has assumed the post of secretary general in charge of supervising the practical business aspects of the Games. It will be vital for him to keep in mind the need to use the limited fiscal resources effectively.
 実務を取り仕切る事務総長には、元財務次官の武藤敏郎氏が就いた。限られた財源の有効活用に留意することが肝要だ。

Effective use of funds vital

The construction costs for the new National Stadium, which will be built with an injection of funds from state coffers, were initially estimated at ¥130 billion. But it was later found that the cost would balloon to ¥300 billion if the stadium was constructed based on the chosen design. Faced with criticism that this was excessive, the amount was reduced to ¥170 billion by adopting such measures as downsizing the total floor space.
 国費を投入する新国立競技場の建設費は当初、1300億円とされたが、デザイン通りに建設すると3000億円にまで膨らむことが分かった。巨大過ぎるとの批判も高まり、延べ床面積の縮小などで1700億円に圧縮した。

If such over-optimistic estimations occur again, people may come to distrust the entire organizing plan.
 こうした甘い見積もりを繰り返せば、開催計画全体への不信感が広がるだろう。

In line with a contract signed with the IOC, it was decided to launch the organizing committee by early February.
 大会組織委については、2月初めまでに発足させることが、IOCとの契約で決まっていた。

The committee’s inauguration came just days before the deadline. It was delayed until Friday due to the scandal involving former Tokyo Gov. Naoki Inose. The governor was supposed to participate in discussions on selecting the organizing committee’s chief, but the choice was made without him as a result of his unexpected resignation.
 ぎりぎりのスタートとなったのは、猪瀬直樹・前都知事の不祥事が影響したためだ。都知事は組織委会長の人選を協議する役割を担っていたが、不在のまま会長が決まる想定外の事態となった。

A Tokyo governor bears a heavy responsibility in the organizing committee. The new governor to be elected in voting on Feb. 9 will serve as a member of the coordination conference along with Mori, Olympic minister Hakubun Shimomura and JOC President Tsunekazu Takeda, among others, to coordinate important matters.
 組織委においても、都知事の責任は重い。2月9日投票の都知事選で選ばれる新知事は、森会長、下村五輪相、竹田恒和・JOC会長らとともに、「調整会議」のメンバーとして、大会運営に関わる重要事項の調整にあたる。

The new governor also needs to take responsibility over the use of ¥400 billion in funds held by the metropolitan government for construction of athletic facilities. In preparation for the Paralympics, it will also be necessary to build more barrier-free facilities in central Tokyo.
 競技場建設のために都が保有している4000億円の基金の使途にも、責任を持つ必要がある。パラリンピックに備え、都心のバリアフリー化の推進も課題だ。

To ensure the smooth management of events, seeking to secure a stable supply of cheap electric power is also a major task for the governor as head of the host city.
 大会の円滑な運営のためには、開催都市のトップとして、安価な電力の安定的な確保に努めることも、重要な責務である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 25, 2014)
(2014年1月25日01時45分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月25日 (土)

homework for siifaachan 2014-01-25

ยิงปืน
กิ้งกือ
นิ้วมือ
กลางคน
หนังสือ
มาสาย
เสื้อผ้า
ขออนุญาต
แกงจืด
นักเรียน
shooting
millipede
finger
middle-aged
book
arrive late
clothing
ask for permission
soup
student

| | コメント (0)

homework for siifaachan 2014-01-25

ปู
หนู
หู
ภูเขา
จมูก
หมู
ชมพู่
ประตู
กระดูก
นกยูง
crab
rat
ear
mountain
nose
pig
rose apple
door
bone
peacock

| | コメント (0)

シリア国際会議 和平への道筋は見えてくるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 24, 2014
Will international efforts bring hope of achieving peace in war-torn Syria?
シリア国際会議 和平への道筋は見えてくるか(1月24日付・読売社説)

Will prospects emerge of stopping the bloodshed in Syria?
 流血を止める道筋は見えてくるのだろうか。

An international, ministerial-level conference on ending the civil war in Syria was held Wednesday and Thursday in Montreux, Switzerland.
 シリア内戦の終結を目指す国際和平会議の閣僚級協議が、スイス・モントルーで行われた。

After nearly three years of bloodshed, the conference brought representatives of Syrian President Bashar Assad’s administration and antiregime forces to the negotiating table for the first time. This must be used as a chance to work toward realizing peace.
 3年近い内戦を通じてアサド政権と反体制派が話し合いのテーブルにつくのは初めてだ。和平に向けた節目としたい。

The conference was held under the auspices of the United Nations, with representatives attending from more than 40 countries, including Japan and the United States, and international organizations. Based on the agreement hammered out by the countries involved in the 2012 Geneva talks, the participants discussed the establishment of a transitional government that would include antiregime forces.
 国連主催の協議には、日米など40余りの国や国際機関の代表が参加した。2012年にジュネーブで開かれた関係国会合の合意に基づき、反体制派を含む移行政府の樹立を話し合った。

But the ministerial conference saw the differing views of representatives from the Assad administration and the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, as they criticized each other while dragging in other participants. This may underscore the grim prospects ahead.
 だが、閣僚級協議は、政権と反体制派代表の「国民連合」の主張がかみ合わず、他の出席者も巻き込んだ非難の応酬に終始した。前途の険しさを示したと言える。

Branding the civil war as a “battle against terrorism,” Syrian Foreign Minister Walid Moallem aggressively criticized the opposition forces. One factor behind his hard-line stance could be the strengthening of the country’s diplomatic position due to its cooperation in relinquishing chemical weapons and the fact that government forces have been maintaining superiority on the battlefield. Russia supported the position of the Assad government.
 シリア外相は、内戦を「テロとの戦い」と位置づけ、強気の姿勢で反体制派を非難した。化学兵器廃棄に協力していることで外交的立場が強まり、戦場でも優勢を保っているからだろう。ロシアも政権の擁護に回った。

Split over Assad exit

The president of the National Coalition, on the other hand, called for the exit of Assad and the establishment of a transitional government afterward. However, the coalition has not been able to bring together the antiregime forces, with groups under its umbrella leaving one after another. The international community’s confidence in the coalition is limited.
 これに対し、国民連合議長は、アサド大統領退陣を訴え、その上で移行政府を樹立すべきだと主張した。ただ、国民連合は、傘下組織の離反が相次いで、反体制派をまとめ切れていない。国際社会の信頼も限定的だ。

The United States sided with the Syrian National Coalition. This came against a backdrop of many countries, including Britain and Japan, endorsing a plan to establish a transitional government including the coalition, but not explicitly calling for the ouster of Assad.
 今回の協議で、米国は国民連合に同調した。英国や日本のように国民連合を含む移行政府樹立を支持しつつも、アサド退陣を明示的には求めない国も多かった。

The death toll from the Syrian civil war has topped 120,000, and about 9 million people have been forced to flee outside the country or become internally displaced. The relevant countries must do more to end the hostilities as early as possible.
 内戦の死者は12万人を超え、約900万人が、難民や国内避難民となっている。この危機を一刻も早く終わらせるため、関係各国はさらに努力せねばならない。

Taking advantage of the turmoil, radical Islam groups related to the Al-Qaida international terrorist organization have been ramping up their influence, complicating the situation further.
 混乱に乗じ、国際テロ組織アル・カーイダ系のイスラム過激派武装勢力が影響力を増していることも情勢を一層複雑化している。

The Assad administration and the National Coalition are scheduled to hold direct negotiations in Geneva, following the just-ended ministerial conference in Switzerland.
 アサド政権と国民連合は、閣僚級協議に続き、ジュネーブで直接交渉を行う予定だ。

Of note is the fact that the foreign ministers of the United States and Russia have proposed a ceasefire limited to Syria’s northern province of Aleppo. The United Nations will work on the two warring groups to accept the proposal in their direct talks.
 注目されるのは、米露外相が、北部アレッポに限定した停戦を提案していることである。国連は直接交渉で、政権と国民連合双方に、提案受け入れを働きかける。

The negotiations are certain to face rough going. But if at least a partial ceasefire can be realized, it will become possible for humanitarian assistance to be delivered to inhabitants in the regions where the conflict is taking place. Full efforts must be made to build a consensus on the matter.
 交渉は難航確実だが、部分停戦でも実現できれば、紛争地の住民に人道支援を届けられる。合意形成に全力を挙げてもらいたい。

In the ministerial conference, Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida talked about Japan’s efforts to bolster assistance to refugees, and Japan announced humanitarian aid of $400 million (about ¥42 billion). Japan’s contribution toward the stabilization of Syria will continue to be called for.
 閣僚級協議には岸田外相が出席し、難民支援などへの取り組みを強化していると述べた。日本の表明した人道支援額は、合計4億ドル(約420億円)に上る。今後もシリアの安定に向け、日本のできる貢献が問われ続けよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 24, 2014)
(2014年1月24日01時27分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

都知事選告示 東京の課題を幅広く論じよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 24, 2014
Tokyo gubernatorial candidates must debate wide range of policies
都知事選告示 東京の課題を幅広く論じよ(1月24日付・読売社説)

Campaigning has officially started for the Tokyo gubernatorial election. The capital faces a mountain of challenges, and candidates in the election are urged to actively engage in policy debates up to the polling day, Feb. 9.
 東京都知事選が告示された。首都が直面する課題は多い。2月9日の投票日に向け、候補者は活発な論戦を展開してもらいたい。

Among the major candidates in the Tokyo race are former Health, Labor and Welfare Minister Yoichi Masuzoe, supported by the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito; former Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa; former Japan Federation of Bar Associations President Kenji Utsunomiya, who is recommended by the Japanese Communist Party and Social Democratic Party; and former Air Self-Defense Force Chief of Staff Toshio Tamogami.
 自民、公明両党が支援する元厚生労働相の舛添要一氏、元首相の細川護熙氏、共産、社民両党が推薦する前日本弁護士連合会長の宇都宮健児氏、元航空幕僚長の田母神俊雄氏らが立候補した。

The issue of nuclear power plants has emerged as a key focal point in the Tokyo contest. Hosokawa, whose decision to run was spurred by former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi’s encouragement, has drawn a great deal of attention, as he is committed to pursuing an immediate end to the use of nuclear power together with Koizumi. Utsunomiya has likewise made the elimination of nuclear power generation one of his major campaign promises.
 争点に浮上してきたのが、原子力発電所の問題だ。出馬を後押しした小泉元首相とともに、細川氏が「即原発ゼロ」を掲げたことで、耳目を集めている。宇都宮氏も「脱原発」を公約としている。

Masuzoe, for his part, has pledged to build a society that is not dependent on nuclear energy on a mid- and long-term basis.
 舛添氏は、「中長期的に原発に依存しない社会を構築していく」と訴えている。

It may be meaningful, at least to some degree, that energy problems are being taken up as a subject of discussion in Tokyo, an area known as a mammoth consumer of power.
 電力の大消費地である東京で、エネルギー問題を論じることに一定の意義はあろう。

A proposal calling for a move away from nuclear power, however, should be deemed unrealistic and irresponsible if it fails to be accompanied by specific, convincing measures to ensure a stable, low-cost supply of electricity. We hope to see what the candidates favoring elimination of nuclear power generation have to say about the adverse impact of such a policy on the national economy, household budgets and the environment, due to a sharp rise in thermal power generation.
 しかし、脱原発を言うなら、安価な電力を安定的に確保する具体策を示さなければ、非現実的で無責任だ。火力発電の急増による経済、家計、環境への悪影響をどう考えるのかも聞きたい。

Given that the decision on the abolition or continuation of the country’s nuclear power plants is beyond the authority of the Tokyo governor, we wonder how the anti-nuclear power candidates specifically plan to push ahead with their policies of doing away with nuclear power generation.
 都知事には、原発の存廃を決める権限はないのに、どう脱原発を進めるのか。

Clarify policy specifics

As the upcoming Tokyo gubernatorial election follows the resignation of Naoki Inose as governor last month over his dubious receipt of ¥50 million in cash from scandal-tainted hospital operator Tokushukai, the candidates may inevitably find themselves unable to shy away from problems of money and politics.
 猪瀬直樹前知事が、5000万円の受領を巡って辞職したのを受けた知事選だけに、「政治とカネ」の問題は避けて通れまい。

Hosokawa, who resigned as prime minister 20 years ago to take responsibility for secretly borrowing ¥100 million from Tokyo Sagawa Kyubin, a major trucking company, has been stressing that he has finished repaying the loan. However, it seems he should be required to offer a more detailed explanation of what the money was for.
 東京佐川急便からの1億円借り入れ問題で、20年前に首相を辞任した細川氏は、「返済した」と強調している。だが、借り入れの目的などについて、より丁寧な説明が求められよう。

The new Tokyo governor will undertake the responsibility of smoothly preparing for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics.
 新しい都知事には、2020年東京五輪・パラリンピックの準備を遅滞なく進める責務もある。

Hosokawa earlier insisted that Tokyo should have bowed out of hosting the Games, but has changed his position. He is now calling for a review of “excessive construction plans.” Masuzoe, in contrast, says he wants to make the Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics one of the greatest events in history.
 細川氏は開催返上論を唱えていたが、「過大な施設計画を見直す」と考えを変えた。舛添氏は「史上最高の五輪」を目指すという。

How to address the problem of Tokyo’s aging population and persistently low birth rate is another important issue. In 2020, about one of every four metropolitan residents is projected to be aged 65 or older, and Tokyo’s total fertility rate is one of the lowest among all regions of the country.
 少子高齢化対策も重要なテーマである。20年には東京の人口のほぼ4人に1人が高齢者になる。都内の合計特殊出生率は全国で最低水準にある。

Masuzoe has promised to enhance the quality of Tokyo’s social welfare systems by leveraging his experience as health, labor and welfare minister.
 舛添氏は、厚労相を務めた経験を生かして社会保障制度を充実させると訴える。

How should Tokyo’s limited revenue sources be used to improve medical and nursing care services and boost child-rearing support measures? Every candidate in the Tokyo race must exercise his ingenuity in a battle of ideas.
医療・介護サービスの向上や育児支援に、限りある財源をどう使うか。各候補者にとっては知恵の出しどころだ。

Regarding safety precautions for a massive earthquake, namely what is called an epicentral temblor with its focus just below the metropolis, the candidates are urged to come up with realistic, concrete measures. Boosting fire-resistance in areas densely packed with wooden houses is an especially urgent challenge that Tokyo must face.
 首都直下地震に対する備えについては、具体的政策が問われている。木造住宅密集地の不燃化は喫緊の課題である。

Voters must carefully consider which candidates are competent enough to steadily implement policies by building a relationship of trust with the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly.
 都議会と信頼関係を築き、着実に政策を実行に移せる人物を有権者は見極めてほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 24, 2014)
(2014年1月24日01時27分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月24日 (金)

米情報機関改革 「盗聴」で問われた監視体制

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 23, 2014
U.S. surveillance system questioned as a result of widespread wiretapping
米情報機関改革 「盗聴」で問われた監視体制(1月23日付・読売社説)

How should national security and privacy protection be made compatible with each other? The effectiveness of the U.S. intelligence and surveillance system is being questioned.
 安全保障とプライバシー保護をどう両立させるか。米情報監視体制の実効性が問われている。

U.S. President Barack Obama has recently announced a reform plan for his country’s intelligence gathering activities by the National Security Agency.
 米国のオバマ大統領が国家安全保障局(NSA)による情報収集活動の改革案を発表した。

The plan includes policies of reinforcing oversight of intelligence collection, enhancing the transparency of such activities, and of not wiretapping, in principle, the phones of leaders of nations that are U.S. allies and friends.
 改革案は、情報収集活動に対する監視を強化し、活動の透明性を高めることや、同盟国や友好国の首脳への通信監視を原則として行わない方針などを盛り込んだ。

The NSA’s primary duties are to monitor telecommunication data. As a result of classified U.S. documents being taken by a former Central Intelligence Agency employee, however, the NSA was revealed to be involved in widespread bugging and the collection of a vast amount of phone and Internet data. This has drawn strong criticism both at home and abroad.
 NSAは通信傍受を主任務とするが、元中央情報局(CIA)職員が持ち出した機密文書により、大がかりな盗聴や通信記録の収集の実態が暴露され、国内外から激しい批判を浴びた。

The revelations of the collection of phone and e-mail data from leaders of foreign countries, including U.S. allies such as German Chancellor Angela Merkel, have developed into a diplomatic issue.
 同盟関係を結ぶドイツのメルケル首相ら外国首脳の携帯電話や電子メールを傍受していたとされたことは、外交問題に発展した。

The latest reforms spelled out by Obama are reasonable for Washington to recover the trust of the international community.
 国際社会で米国への信頼を取り戻すために、オバマ氏の打ち出した改革は妥当だろう。

Needless to say, the discontinuation of U.S. intelligence collection from foreign leaders does not mean they will no longer be monitored by foreign intelligence. Allied nations are required to establish their own counterespionage system.
 もとより、ドイツなどの首脳にとって、米国が通信監視をやめても、他国からの監視がなくなるわけではない。同盟国にも独自の防諜(ぼうちょう)体制の確立が求められる。

The vast amount of phone data collected within the United States and kept by the NSA included records of telephone numbers and the dates of phone conversations. Lawsuits have already been filed by people who claim the U.S. intelligence program collecting phone data from U.S. citizens was excessive.
 NSAが米国内で収集し、保管している膨大な電話通話記録は、電話番号や通話日時を記したものだ。米国では、政府の市民に対する情報収集は行き過ぎだとして、すでに訴訟も起きている。

Wiretapping to continue

It was reasonable of Obama to unveil a policy of not having phone conversation data kept within the government and instead commissioning it to an outside organization to prevent the collected data from being abused.
 政府が記録を乱用するのを防止するために、オバマ氏が通話記録を政府内で保管せずに、外部の機関に保管を委託する方針を示したのはもっともである。

On the other hand, Obama has made clear that wiretapping activities will continue as part of the NSA’s intelligence activities.
 一方、オバマ氏は、NSAの情報収集活動として通信傍受は今後も継続する、と明言した。

It cannot be denied that wiretapping has become more important in preventing terrorism and cyberattacks since the terror attacks on the United States on Sept. 11, 2001. Obama should be praised for making clear his determination to continue U.S. intelligence activities, if only with certain rules established for privacy protection.
 2001年の米同時テロ以降、テロやサイバー攻撃阻止のために通信傍受の役割が重要性を増しているのは間違いない。プライバシー保護のために一定のルールを設けて、情報機関の活動を続ける決意を示したのは、評価できる。

The massive data collected by the U.S. intelligence organizations also contributes to the national security of foreign countries.
 米国の収集した情報は、他国の安全保障にも役立っている。

The future task for U.S. intelligence organizations, such as the NSA, could be the prevention of such incidents as the leakage of classified documents by the former CIA employee, which prompted the Obama administration to reform the intelligence program in the first place.
 NSAなど米情報機関にとっての今後の課題は、改革の契機ともなった、元CIA職員による機密文書流出のような事件の再発を防ぐことだろう。

Some people in the United States say the former CIA employee should be treated as a whistle-blower, rather than a criminal. It should be reviewed whether there are weaknesses in the U.S. intelligence and security system itself.
 米国内には、元職員を犯罪者というより、内部告発者として扱うべきだとの声もある。情報保全体制に不備な点があるかどうか、検証すべきである。

Japan, which exchanges information with U.S. intelligence organizations, also needs to protect top secret data. The development of a relevant framework under the special state secret protection law should be the first step forward to that end.
 米情報機関と情報交換を行う日本にも、機密保護が求められる。特定秘密保護法による体制作りをその第一歩としたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 23, 2014)
(2014年1月23日01時52分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

ノロウイルス 入念な手洗いで感染を防ごう

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 23, 2014
Washing hands critical to prevent spread of norovirus infection
ノロウイルス 入念な手洗いで感染を防ごう(1月23日付・読売社説)

Noroviruses are raging throughout the country. There seems to be no end to the number of mass food poisoning cases caused by the nationwide epidemic. Everyone should be urged to wash their hands regularly, a habit necessary to prevent the further spread of norovirus infection.
 ノロウイルスが猛威を振るっている。全国各地で集団食中毒が後を絶たない。手洗いの励行で感染拡大を防ぎたい。

The mass norovirus-related food poisoning cases include one in Hamamatsu this month. After consuming bread served as part of the school lunch, more than 1,000 primary school students and others complained of such symptoms as nausea and diarrhea. The incident has forced a number of local schools to close temporarily.
 浜松市で今月、給食の食パンを食べた1000人以上の小学生らが嘔吐(おうと)や下痢などの症状を訴え、学校閉鎖が相次いだ。

Meanwhile, about 100 patients and others at a Kyoto hospital suffered similar symptoms. Four of them have died. Noroviruses have been detected in some of these patients.
 京都市の病院では、約100人の患者らが症状を訴え、うち4人が死亡した。一部の患者からノロウイルスが検出された。

Norovirus infection can result in violent nausea, diarrhea and stomachache. In most cases, adults can recover from such symptoms in a few days. However, those with lower resistance to norovirus-related diseases, such as infants and the elderly, are susceptible to more serious effects. In a number of cases, elderly people have died after choking on their own vomit.
 発症すると、激しい嘔吐や下痢、腹痛に襲われる。大人の場合、数日で治るが、抵抗力が弱い乳幼児や高齢者は重症になりやすい。嘔吐物をのどに詰まらせて死亡する高齢者も少なくない。

There were about 1,700 norovirus-infected patients nationwide in December, according to a preliminary estimate released by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry. The figure was lower than in 2006, when the spread of norovirus-related diseases was rampant. However, the number of patients has been steadily increasing since the start of the new year. The ongoing epidemic has been predicted to continue into February. Caution must be exercised at all times.
 厚生労働省の速報値によると、昨年12月の患者数は約1700人に上る。大流行した2006年ほどではないが、年が明けても患者は増えている。流行は2月まで続くという。警戒を怠れない。

People should be encouraged to better recognize the importance of taking precautions everywhere, whether at home, school or the workplace.
 家庭や学校、職場で、予防の意識を高めることが重要だ。

Noroviruses lurk in feces and vomit from infected patients, insufficiently cooked bivalve shellfish and elsewhere. Their most distinctive feature is that they are highly contagious. Even the transmission of a small amount of norovirus could cause infection.
 ノロウイルスは、患者の便や嘔吐物、加熱が不十分な二枚貝などに潜んでいる。感染力が強いことが、最大の特徴だ。わずかな数のウイルスが体内に入っただけで、感染してしまう恐れがある。

Precautions to take

For instance, if your hands touch a doorknob with noroviruses on it, you could wind up being infected orally. Norovirus transmission could also take place if a floor soiled by vomit from a patient was insufficiently disinfected. In such cases, noroviruses from the floor can be carried elsewhere once they are dry.
 ノロウイルスが付着したドアノブを触った手から経口感染する。床に飛散した嘔吐物の消毒が不十分だと、乾燥したウイルスが舞い上がり、感染が広がる。

If a member of your family develops symptoms, you are advised to stop sharing towels among your family and use paper towels instead. The infected person’s clothes should be washed separately from those of family members. Such precautions can go a long way toward preventing norovirus infection.
 家族が発症したら、タオルを共用せず、ペーパータオルを使う。衣服は別々に洗濯する。こうしたことが感染防止に役立つ。

Medical institutions and nursing care facilities must take meticulous care to prevent mass infection within their buildings. Healthcare facilities must pay close attention to any changes in the physical condition of their inpatients. Such care should also be given to those admitted to nursing care facilities.
 医療機関や介護施設などは、集団感染に細心の注意を払わねばならない。入院患者や入所者の体調の変化に留意する必要がある。

It is disturbing to realize that anyone infected with noroviruses could unknowingly be contagious if he or she shows no obvious symptoms. This is evident in the Hamamatsu case. Noroviruses were detected in four employees of a commercial bakery that supplied school lunch bread. However, none of them had complained of symptoms.
 やっかいなのは、感染者が自覚症状のないまま感染を広げるケースがあることだ。浜松市の場合、給食の食パンを納入していた製パン会社の従業員4人からノロウイルスが検出されたが、いずれも体調不良は訴えていなかった。

The company in question had instructed its employees to wear masks and gloves during work, but this failed to prevent infection in Hamamatsu schools.
 この製パン会社では、従業員にマスクや手袋の着用を指示していたが、防ぎきれなかった。

Food companies should not only encourage their employees to wash their hands after using the lavatory and before handling ingredients, but their cooking utensils should also be thoroughly disinfected.
 食品会社は、従業員にトイレの後や調理前の手洗いを徹底させるのはもちろん、調理器具を十分に消毒することが大切だ。

Alcohol is ineffective for sterilizing anything contaminated by noroviruses. A workable alternative is to soak clothes in water as hot as 85 C or higher for more than a minute. Cooking utensils should be sterilized through the use of a chlorinated disinfectant.
 ノロウイルスに対し、アルコール消毒は効果がない。衣服は85度以上の熱湯に1分以上浸す。調理器具には、塩素系の消毒剤を用いることがポイントだ。

There are no vaccines or cures for norovirus-related illnesses. This is why thorough precautions must be taken to prevent infection.
 ノロウイルスにはワクチンや治療薬がない。だからこそ、予防に万全を期すことが重要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 23, 2014)
(2014年1月23日01時52分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月23日 (木)

モンスターの感情を色で読み取れる 『みっくすりとる』がモンスターの感情を探知できる「りとたん」をプレゼント

スマホで使える、かわいい系モンスターアプリといえば、『みっくすりとる』が有名なんですが、随分流行っていますね。
娘たちは毎日『みっくすりとる』ゲームに夢中で、宿題がおろそかになるくらいのものなんです。
すかさず、スマホをとりあげて、宿題が済んだら、一緒に遊ぼ!、と優しくかつ厳しい言葉を投げかけます。
こんなわけで、『みっくすりとる』ゲームは父親と娘たちとをつなぐ、絆となっているんですね。
たかがゲーム、されどゲームといったところなんです。

さて、モンスターたちにも、もちろん感情というものがありますが、それがなかなか読み取れません。
もしも、対戦するモンスターの感情が、戦う前に読み取れれば、その時点で勝負はついたも同然なんです。
あの『みっくすりとる』がモンスターの感情を探知できる「りとたん 」をプレゼントしてくれます。

このチャンスをお見逃しなく!



あのスマートフォンアプリ『みっくすりとる』が、現実世界でモンスター“など”を探知できる「りとたん」をプレゼント!



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

使い捨てパスワードシステム、ゼタセキュリティ・オースを使うメリット

日本の無料ブログは、ほぼ全部契約して、毎日記事を更新していますが、これはアフィリエイトで使えると思ったからです。
ところが世の中そんなに甘くない。
アフィリエイトでは食べていけないのを実感させられました。

たくさんのサイトと契約しているので、大変なのがIDとパスワードの管理なんです。
私はエクセルでこれらの管理をやっているんですが、これが思ったよりたいへんです。
で、これに関連するんですが、ワンワードの使い捨てパスワードシステムというのを発見しました。
ZETA Security Auth (ゼタセキュリティ・オース)というのがあるんです。
これならば、たった一つのパスワードを使うだけでも、プログラム上で毎回、自動的にパスワードを変更してくれるので、大安心ですね。
例えば、インターネットカフェあたりで、IDとパスワードを消し忘れても、それが悪用される可能性がゼロになるんです。

無料のブログサイトあたりでは、悪用されたとしても、被害は最小限に済ませることが出来ます。
ですが、例えばそれが自分の銀行口座あたりになると、事態は深刻となります。
安心してIDとパスワードを使いまわすことが出来る、使い捨てパスワードシステム、ゼタセキュリティ・オースを使うメリットは計り知れません。

おすすめです。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

寒空の東京なんですが、オリジナルパーカーで乗り切れます

こんにちは。

現在、仕事の関係でタイ在住ですが、東京都文京区からタイにやってきました。
で、在外選挙はバンコクの日本大使館で毎回出来ています。
国政選挙は在外選挙が出来るのに、都知事の選挙はそれが出来ないようですね。
驚きました。

寒空(さむぞら)が続く日本ですが、皆様いかがお過ごしでしょうか?
この寒さを、かっこよく乗り切る方法を教えます。
オリジナルパーカー&スウェット新春SALE  というサイトを覗いてみてください。

こちらのオリジナルパーカーにはフードがついているので、冷たい北風が強くても、このフードでしのげます。
カラーとデザインが斬新で、ちょっと変わっているので、ファッションで差別化を図りたい人向けの、かっこいいパッカーなんです。
お値段がまた手ごろなので、これなら私の安月給でも簡単に手が出ます。
皆さんも如何でしょうか?



【SALE】tmaker(ティーメイカー)、人気のパーカーとスウェット(トレーナー)が10%オフで購入できる「新春オリジナルパーカー&スウェット祭り」を開始



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

「ギョーザ」判決 中国産食品の信頼確保が課題

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 22, 2014
After poisoning sentence, confidence in China's food exports must be ensured
「ギョーザ」判決 中国産食品の信頼確保が課題(1月22日付・読売社説)

How can the safety of the inexpensive Chinese food products that are eaten in Japan be ensured? This remains an important task facing both nations.
 安価な中国産食品の安全性をいかに確保するかは、今なお日中双方にとって重要な課題だ。

A Chinese defendant in the case involving the poisoning of frozen gyoza dumplings, which came to light in 2008, has been sentenced to life imprisonment.
 2008年に発覚した中国製冷凍ギョーザ中毒事件で、中国人被告に無期懲役が言い渡された。

The defendant, then a temporary worker at a manufacturer of frozen gyoza, snuck into a freezing room at a factory in Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, and injected organic phosphate insecticide into packages of gyoza, according to the ruling handed down by a court in the city Monday. The man wanted to cause a stir through the act, the sentence said, and through it push for better working conditions.
 中国河北省石家荘市の裁判所の判決によると、冷凍ギョーザの製造企業の臨時従業員だった被告は、工場内の冷凍庫に侵入し、注射器で有機リン系殺虫剤をギョーザに注入した。騒ぎを起こし、待遇改善を訴えたかったという。

Ten people in three families in Chiba and Hyogo prefectures developed symptoms of poisoning after eating imported gyoza that had been poisoned. One became temporarily unconscious. Several victims in China suffered similar symptoms as well.
 ギョーザを食べた千葉と兵庫の3家族10人が中毒症状を起こし、1人が一時意識不明となった。中国国内でも被害者が出た。

The Shijiazhuang court had every reason to conclude the defendant’s behavior constituted a serious premeditated crime that damaged the health of a number of people.
 判決が「計画的で不特定多数の健康に被害を与えた悪質な犯行」と断じたのは当然だ。

In the initial stages of the incident, the Chinese government attempted to blame the whole matter on the Japanese side, insisting it was “extremely unlikely pesticide was put [into the gyoza] in our country.”
 この事件で、中国政府は当初、「国内で殺虫剤が混入された可能性は極めて小さい」と主張し、日本に責任転嫁しようとした。

Japan refuted this, basing its conclusions on evidence that included the results of scientific tests on the pesticide injected into the gyoza. The matter developed into a diplomatic row between the two nations.
 混入された殺虫剤の科学鑑定結果などをもとに、日本側は反論し、外交問題に発展した。

However, an extensive investigation by China found the poisoning had in fact resulted from the deliberate injection of a toxic substance into the gyoza at the Chinese factory.
 長期にわたる中国側捜査の結果、中国の工場内における人為的な毒物混入だったと判明した。

Tainted image

The case greatly tarnished China’s image in Japan, contributing to a worsening of the bilateral relationship. Though the case can be described as an extraordinary crime committed by a single employee, the incident catalyzed distrust among Japanese over the safety of Chinese food products in general.
 事件によって、日本での中国のイメージは大きく傷つき、日中関係の悪化に拍車がかかった。ひとりの従業員による特異な犯罪だったにもかかわらず、中国産食品全般への信頼が揺らぐきっかけになったとも言える。

The poisoned gyoza incident was followed by a number of similar cases in China. Incidents that have come to light include the distribution of powdered milk mixed with a toxic chemical and cadmium-contaminated rice. All of this has contributed to rising concerns over the safety of Chinese food products.
 中国国内では、事件後も、粉ミルクへの有害化学物質混入やカドミウム汚染米流通などが相次いで表面化し、中国産食品の安全性への懸念は強まっている。

The poisoned gyoza case spurred Japanese companies to tighten quality controls on Chinese food products. Measures taken by the many manufacturers that operate in China and trading houses that market Chinese food for Japanese consumption include more stringent tests on the amounts of agricultural chemicals used at Chinese farms and on the quality of processing materials used at Chinese factories.
 事件を機に、日本向けの中国産食品を扱う日系のメーカーや商社の多くは、農場での農薬使用量や加工原料のチェックを強化するなど、より徹底した品質管理を行うようになった。

Some Japanese companies have adopted measures to prevent toxic and other dangerous substances from contaminating their products by, for example, setting up security cameras at their factories in China and requiring workers to wear pocketless uniforms.
 工場内に防犯カメラを設置したり、ポケットのない作業服を導入したりして、異物混入を防ぐ対策を講じている日系企業もある。

In fiscal 2012, the percentage of safety violations involving food imports from China fell below the overall average for all imported foods, according to Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry statistics released last year.
 厚生労働省が昨年発表した12年度の輸入食品監視統計によると、中国からの輸入食品のうち、安全面での違反件数の割合は、輸入食品全体の平均を下回った。

This has accompanied a recent rise in the volume of food imports from China. Though imports declined sharply after the poisoned gyoza case, the figure has almost returned to levels recorded prior to the incident.
 ギョーザ事件の影響により、いったん大きく落ち込んだ中国からの食品の輸入量は、現在ではほぼ回復している。

It is difficult to imagine eliminating Chinese food products from our household menus, as they can be produced at lower costs. Further efforts must be made to thoroughly ensure the safety of Chinese food, by manufacturers and all other entities involved in both nations.
 日本の食卓は、生産コストを低く抑えられる中国産食材を抜きにしては成り立たない。食の安全確保に万全を期す一層の努力が、双方の関係者に求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 22, 2014)
(2014年1月22日01時33分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

JR北海道 安全重視への体質改善を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 22, 2014
JR Hokkaido should go back to basics of ‘safety first’
JR北海道 安全重視への体質改善を急げ(1月22日付・読売社説)

Hokkaido Railway Co. must take to heart the recent orders issued by the transport ministry over a series of scandals involving the company, which included the falsification of track inspection data. It is essential that the railway overcome its habit of undervaluing safety.
 保線データ改ざんなどの不祥事が続くJR北海道は、命令を重く受け止め、安全軽視の体質を一掃せねばならない。

The Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry issued a supervision order based on the JR companies law regarding the incidents to JR Hokkaido on Tuesday. The ministry also ordered the company to improve its operations based on the Railway Business Law, and demanded that Makoto Toyota, chief of the railway’s operations headquarters, be removed as safety management chief.
 国土交通省がJR北海道に対し、JR会社法に基づく監督命令と、鉄道事業法の事業改善命令を通知した。鉄道事業本部長を安全統括管理者から解任することも命じている。

The transport ministry has never before issued a supervision order to a railway company. It was also the first time the ministry has ordered a railway to dismiss a safety management chief.
 鉄道会社に対する監督命令と解任命令は初めてだ。JR北海道は2011年の特急列車脱線炎上事故でも事業改善命令を受けた。

In addition, no other company has received two operation improvement orders. JR Hokkaido received its first order over a derailment and fire involving a limited express train in 2011.
再度の改善命令も、前例はない。

The top priority of railway companies should be passenger safety. JR Hokkaido, which operates in an area with difficult climate conditions, needs to pursue this goal with meticulous care. We believe the transport ministry had no choice but to issue these unprecedented orders to reform an organization with such slipshod safety measures.
 鉄道会社で最も重視すべきは安全の確保である。厳しい気象条件の下で運行するJR北海道には、なおのこと徹底が求められる。安全対策がずさんな組織を立て直すには、異例の命令を発する必要があったと言える。

The transport ministry is also considering bringing criminal charges against JR Hokkaido over the falsification of track inspection data. We believe such action is necessary to uncover exactly what happened in the incident.
 改ざんについて、国交省は刑事告発を検討している。実態の徹底解明に避けて通れない。

JR Hokkaido President Makoto Nojima said at a press conference that the company is in a “critical situation.”
“We will make utmost efforts to rebuild a safe railway system,” Nojima said.
 JR北海道の野島誠社長は記者会見で、「危機的状況にある。安全な鉄道の再構築に向けて全力で取り組む」と述べた。

We urge JR Hokkaido to undertake these reforms with a determination to start over from scratch.
一から出直す覚悟で改革に臨むべきだ。

Passengers betrayed

The transport ministry’s orders came out of its special safety inspection. During the probe, many workers at sections where data falsification was confirmed said falsification had become the norm. In many cases the practice was passed down from predecessors. Some said they were told to do so by superiors.
 一連の命令は、国交省による特別保安監査の結果に基づく。改ざんが確認された部署の多くの社員は、監査の過程で「前任者からの引き継ぎなどで改ざんが慣例化していた」と語った。上司の指示があったとの証言もある。

According to an in-house investigation by JR Hokkaido, data falsification was found at 33 of the 44 sections in charge of track inspections. In total, 75 employees, including top officials, were reprimanded, including a disciplinary dismissal. The extent of the malpractice is appalling.
 JR北海道の社内調査では、保線を担当する44部署のうち33部署で改ざんを行っていたことが分かった。計75人の役員、社員が、懲戒解雇を含む処分を受けた。不正の蔓延(まんえん)に驚くばかりだ。

Regarding a freight train derailment in September last year, falsified data was even reported to the Japan Transport Safety Board, a government organ that investigates the cause of accidents. If an accident’s true cause remains unknown, it is difficult to prevent similar accidents. The data falsification by JR Hokkaido is a clear and unforgivable betrayal of its passengers and other users.
 昨年9月の貨物列車脱線事故では、虚偽のデータが、原因を調査する国の運輸安全委員会にも報告された。原因が正しく解明されなければ、再発防止策も講じられない。改ざんは利用者への許し難い背信行為である。

In its orders, the transport ministry pointed out problematic habits at JR Hokkaido, such as a lack of safety awareness. It also indicated a lack of interest at JR Hokkaido’s main office about what was happening on the front lines of day-to-day train operations.
 JR北海道の体質として、国交省は命令の理由の中で安全意識の欠如に加え、現場の実態に対する本社の関心の薄さを指摘した。

It is essential that JR Hokkaido rebuilds its safety control system so it encompasses all departments and sections, from management and administrative sections to those working on the ground. The company must also review its employee training system.
 経営陣、管理部門から現場まで、全社的に安全管理体制を再構築することが肝要だ。社員教育の見直しも欠かせない。

The transport ministry, which is charged with supervising the company, should also take part in reforming the railway company in a responsible manner.
 監督権を持つ国交省も、JR北海道の改革に責任を持って取り組まねばならない。

The labor unions of JR Hokkaido are powerful, and observers have pointed out that this is part of the reason for the distance between the people working on the front lines and those in managerial positions. Although the ministry did not mention the labor union problem in its recent orders, we believe the ministry needs to continue studying this problem.
 JR北海道では労働組合が強い影響力を持ち、それが管理職と現場を隔てる一因になっているとの指摘もある。国交省は今回、労組の問題に触れていない。引き続き検証が必要だろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 22, 2014)
(2014年1月22日01時33分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月22日 (水)

安重根記念館 韓国の反日工作は執拗すぎる

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 21, 2014
South Korea’s anti-Japan diplomatic maneuvering goes too far
安重根記念館 韓国の反日工作は執拗すぎる(1月21日付・読売社説)

China and South Korea have intensified their cooperation in attempting to pressure Japan over historical issues. This is a worrisome situation.
 安重根記念館歴史問題で、日本に対する圧力を加えようとする中国と韓国の連携が一段と強まった。憂慮すべき事態である。

A memorial hall for Ahn Jung Geun has opened at Harbin Railway Station in China’s Heilongjiang Province. Ahn, a Korean independence activist, assassinated Hirobumi Ito, Japan’s first governor general of Korea. In South Korea, Ahn is seen as a hero for resisting Japan’s colonial rule of the Korean Peninsula.
 中国黒竜江省ハルビン駅に、「安重根義士記念館」が開館した。安重根は、朝鮮独立運動家で、初代韓国統監の伊藤博文を暗殺した人物だ。韓国では、日本支配に抵抗した英雄とされる。

In June, South Korean President Park Guen-hye asked Chinese President Xi Jinping to erect a monument at the railway station, the site of the assassination. China acceded and constructed the memorial hall.
 朴槿恵・韓国大統領が昨年6月、習近平・中国国家主席に、暗殺現場のハルビン駅に記念碑の設置を求めた。それに、中国側が記念館の設立で応えたものだ。

Park’s intent appears to have been to join forces with China over historical issues concerning Japan.
 朴氏には、日本の歴史問題で、中国と共闘する狙いがあったのだろう。

The South Korean Foreign Affairs Ministry has welcomed the opening of the hall, emphasizing that Ahn “is respected by the people of South Korea and China.”
韓国外交省は、開館を歓迎し、安重根が「韓中両国民から尊敬されている」と強調した。

Yet we feel the memorial hall—built with no regard for Japan’s position or its national sentiments—is absolutely unacceptable.
 しかし、日本の立場や国民感情を無視して作られた記念館は、到底受け入れがたい。

The Japanese government has repeatedly conveyed to both countries its concerns over the monument’s construction. It is only reasonable that the government has protested the opening of the hall to both the South Korean and Chinese governments through diplomatic channels.
 日本政府はこれまで再三、両国に懸念を伝えていた。開館に際して、韓国と中国に対し、外交ルートで抗議したのは当然だ。

Calling Ahn “a terrorist who killed our country’s first prime minister and was sentenced to death,” Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said the cooperation between China and South Korea over this issue “will not contribute to regional peace and to building cooperative relationships.”
 菅官房長官は、安重根について、「我が国の初代首相を殺害し、死刑判決を受けたテロリストだ」とし、この件での中韓連携は「地域の平和と協力の関係の構築に資するものではない」と述べた。

China’s decision to build the memorial hall in response to Park’s proposal is also questionable.
 朴氏の意向を受け入れ、記念館を設立した中国も問題である。

China is a multiethnic nation, and praising Ahn risks stirring up ethnic consciousness among the ethnic Koreans living within its borders.
 多民族国家の中国にとって、安重根を称揚することは、少数民族である朝鮮族の国境を超えた民族意識を刺激しかねない危険をはらんでいる。

China driving a wedge

Yet it appears that anti-Japan sentiments prodded China to open the memorial hall, probably out of a desire to curry favor with South Korea diplomatically. China seems to be attempting to drive a wedge into the diplomatic and security arrangements among Japan, the United States and South Korea.
 それでも、中国が記念館開設に踏み切ったのは、反日をテコに、韓国を外交的に取り込もうという打算が働いたのだろう。日米韓の外交・安全保障上の連帯にくさびを打ち込む狙いがうかがえる。

Meanwhile, apart from the issues surrounding the Ahn memorial, South Korea has intensified its one-sided assertions regarding its historical perceptions. We cannot overlook the fact that such assertions undermine Japan’s position in international institutions and in the eyes of other countries.
 一方、安重根記念館以外でも、韓国は、歴史認識に関する一方的な主張を強めている。国際機関や第三国で、日本の立場を損ねていることは看過できない。

The government of South Korea has begun preparations for registering testimonies by former “comfort women” with UNESCO’s Memory of the World program.
 韓国政府は、国連教育・科学・文化機関(ユネスコ)による世界記憶遺産に、いわゆる元従軍慰安婦らの証言記録を登録するための準備を始めた。

South Korea has also decided to display works of art that are based on the comfort women issue at an international comic book festival in France.
 フランスで行われる国際漫画祭では、慰安婦問題をテーマとする作品を展示すると決めた。

In the United States, a group affiliated with South Korea is lobbying for public school textbooks to refer the waters between Japan and South Korea the “East Sea,” as is called in South Korea, in addition to the “Sea of Japan.”
 米国では、韓国系団体が、教科書に「日本海」に加えて、韓国での呼称「東海」を併記するように求める運動を展開している。

The Japanese government must counter South Korea’s persistent diplomatic maneuvering by thoroughly and tenaciously presenting correct facts to the international community.
 日本政府は、韓国の執拗(しつよう)な外交工作に対抗して、正確な事実関係を丁寧にかつ粘り強く、世界に対して主張していくしかない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 21, 2014)
(2014年1月21日01時14分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

マイナー自衛権 円滑な危機対処法制を整えよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 21, 2014
Urgent need to establish legal framework for minor self-defense rights
マイナー自衛権 円滑な危機対処法制を整えよ(1月21日付・読売社説)

With the deteriorating security environment around Japan, establishing a legal framework that would enable the nation to deal with a variety of crises promptly and effectively is an urgent need.
 日本の安全保障環境が悪化する中、様々な危機に迅速かつ効果的に対処できる法制度を整えておくことが急務である。

The government is studying plans for legal arrangements and responses that fall under what have been called minor self-defense rights, which cover contingencies that stop short of full-scale military attacks.
 政府が、本格的な武力攻撃には至らないような緊急事態に対する自衛権(マイナー自衛権)に関する法整備や対応策の検討を進めている。

Possible scenarios in which such defense rights would be exercised include the occupation of a remote island by armed special forces of an unknown nationality or disguised as fishermen, and intrusions into Japanese territorial waters by foreign submarines that continue underwater operations in defiance of requests to exit the area.
 武装した国籍不明の特殊部隊や偽装漁民が離島を占拠する。他国の潜水艦が領海侵入し、退去要請に応じずに潜没航行を続ける。そんな事態を想定したものだ。

Last year, Chinese military vessels directed fire-control radar at Japanese vessels and the country unilaterally established an air defense identification zone. China’s intrusions into waters around the Senkaku Islands have become constant.
 中国は昨年、海軍艦船のレーダー照射や一方的な防空識別圏の設定を強行した。尖閣諸島周辺での領海侵入も恒常化させている。

Rather than being an unrealistic scenario, the occupation of a remote island is a “clear and present danger.”
 離島占拠などは、決して非現実的なシナリオではなく、「今そこにある危機」である。

There have been very few cases in contemporary warfare in which one country has launched an armed attack along with a large-scale invasion following a declaration of war. It is more likely that a small crisis would accidentally develop into a serious situation.
 現代戦では、国家が宣戦布告し、大規模な侵攻を伴う武力攻撃を仕掛ける例は少ない。むしろ小さな危機が重大な事態に発展する蓋然性の方が高い。

We are pleased that the new National Defense Program Guidelines highlight the importance of coping with events that fall into “gray areas” between peace and overt hostilities. Countermeasures must be implemented flexibly and seamlessly based on the situation from the first signs of an emergency.
 新防衛大綱が、平時と有事の中間にある「グレーゾーンの事態」への対応の重要性を指摘しているのは、適切だ。事態の兆候段階から、その進展に応じて、機動的でシームレスな(継ぎ目のない)対処が求められよう。

Weapon usage

The focal point is how to expand the Self-Defense Forces’ right to use weapons.
 焦点は、自衛隊の武器使用権限の拡大である。

Currently, the SDF has only slightly more discretion to use force than the police do, even when patrolling the seas. There is a large difference between what is currently permitted and allowing the defense forces to be mobilized based on the right of self-defense, with the discretion to use all weaponry at their disposal. Thus, the current rules cannot be considered sufficient to deal with a heavily armed group that has occupied a remote island.
 現在は、海上警備行動の発令時でも、武器使用の裁量は警察権より若干広いだけだ。自衛権に基づき、あらゆる武器使用が可能な防衛出動との落差は大きい。離島を占拠した重武装の集団などを制圧するのに十分とは言えない。

Ordering an SDF mobilization must meet three requirements: “an imminent and illegal incursion against this country,” “the lack of appropriate alternative measures” and “using the minimum amount of military force.” These are high hurdles to clear, and going through necessary procedures takes time.
 一方で、防衛出動の発令には、「我が国に対する急迫不正の侵害」「他に適当な代替手段がない」「必要最小限の武力行使」という自衛権発動の3要件を満たす必要がある。そのハードルは高く、手続きにも時間がかかる。

Filling the legal gaps in the Self-Defense Forces Law, which sets these three conditions, could enable smooth crisis management and help strengthen Japan’s deterrent force.
 この法の隙間を埋めることが円滑な危機対処を可能にする。抑止力の強化にもつながるはずだ。

One option could be, for example, revising the SDF law to establish new fields of duty, including territorial security, and giving the SDF discretion to use force accordingly.
 例えば、自衛隊法を改正し、自衛隊に領域警備任務などを新設して、それに応じた武器使用権限を与えることが、一つの有力な選択肢となるだろう。

However, there is concern that if the requirements are set too strictly, the SDF could not effectively perform their new duties. It is essential to adopt a system that would enable the flexible mobilization of defense forces.
 ただ、新たな任務の要件を厳しくしすぎると、実効性が失われる。自衛隊の柔軟な部隊運用が可能な仕組みにすることが肝心だ。

Minor self-defense rights fall within the range of individual self-defense rights. Discussions on the matter must be promoted along with the government’s revision of constitutional interpretation of the right of collective self-defense, which is indispensable for strengthening the Japan-U.S. alliance and furthering international cooperation.
 マイナー自衛権は、個別的自衛権の範囲内である。日米同盟と国際連携の強化に不可欠な集団的自衛権に関する政府の憲法解釈の見直しと同時並行で、検討作業を着実に進めてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 21, 2014)
(2014年1月21日01時14分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月21日 (火)

自民党大会 政府と一体で経済を再生せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 20, 2014
LDP, govt must work closely together to ensure nation’s economic recovery
自民党大会 政府と一体で経済を再生せよ(1月20日付・読売社説)

“We have been successful in blowing away the thick, black clouds that were covering Japan,” Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said in praise of Abenomics.
 「日本を覆っていた厚く、黒い雲を吹っ飛ばすことができた」と、安倍首相は経済政策「アベノミクス」を自賛した。

Yet at all costs the Abe administration must not relax its guard. The true value of Abenomics is yet to be tested.
 だが、油断は禁物だ。アベノミクスの真価が問われるのはこれからである。

The Liberal Democratic Party held its regular convention in Tokyo on Sunday. During the convention, Abe said emphatically, “It’s our responsibility to bring the economic recovery to the whole of Japan this year.”
 自民党が都内で定期党大会を開いた。首相は「景気回復を全国津々浦々まで届けることが今年の私たちの責任だ」と強調した。

Economic indicators have indeed shown signs of an economic upturn. Yet a hike in the consumption tax rate is scheduled for April. The LDP must support the government so the economy can overcome this hurdle without stalling again.
 確かに、経済指標は好転しているが、4月には消費税率の引き上げが控えている。このハードルを乗り越え、景気の腰折れを招かぬよう、自民党としても政府を支えていかねばならない。

The negotiations over the Trans-Pacific Partnership multilateral free-trade accord, which holds the key to the fate of the Abe administration’s growth strategy, will also soon enter their final stage. The LDP is calling for maintaining tariffs on five key agricultural items, including rice, wheat and barley. Yet the important thing is to promote the nation’s interests to the maximum. The party must take a broad perspective in deciding what should be protected and what should be conceded.
 成長戦略のカギを握る環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉も大詰めを迎える。自民党はコメや麦など重要5項目の関税維持を求めている。だが、大事なのは国益の最大化である。何を守り、何を譲るのか大局的に判断すべきだ。

The action plan the party adopted for this year clearly stated, “The government and ruling parties must make unified efforts in overcoming deflation and achieving economic recovery.” The action plan also says the party will work to persuade local governments hosting nuclear power plants to approve the restart of the plants. We hope the party will steadily proceed with these efforts.
 党大会で決まった運動方針は、「政府・与党が一体となって、デフレ脱却と景気回復に取り組む」と明記した。原子力発電所の再稼働に向けて地元自治体の説得に努力するとの記述もある。いずれも着実に進めてもらいたい。

The action plan also stated clearly that the party would proactively tackle constitutional revisions, including a plan to hold discussion meetings to gain public support of the party’s draft of the constitutional revisions.
 運動方針は憲法改正に積極的に取り組むことも明記し、党憲法改正草案への理解を求めるための対話集会の開催を盛り込んだ。

Constitutional revision slow

Since the House of Councillors election in July, the move toward realizing the constitutional revision has been slow. The party should make further efforts.
参院選後、憲法改正に向けた動きが鈍い。もっと力を入れるべきだ。

Party Secretary General Shigeru Ishiba, in reference to management of the party, appealed to party members to create an LDP that is “humble, polite, honest and kind [to the people],” by remembering the hard days when the party was in the opposition camp.
 石破幹事長は、党運営に関連し、野党時代のつらさを忘れず、「謙虚で丁寧で正直で親切」な自民党を目指そうと呼びかけた。

At an extraordinary Diet session last autumn, deliberations were thrown into turmoil over the bill to protect special state secrets, turning the session into a mudslinging match between the ruling and opposition parties. The turmoil has been partly due to the ruling parties’ high-handed management of Diet business. The LDP should not strut about because of its “force of numbers.”
 昨年秋の臨時国会で、特定秘密保護法の審議が混乱し、与野党の泥仕合になったのは、与党の強引な国会運営も一因だった。「数の力」に傲(おご)ってはならない。

It is also important for the LDP to build a consensus on each policy with opposition parties, including the Democratic Party of Japan, Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) and Your Party.
 民主党や日本維新の会、みんなの党など野党側と政策ごとの合意形成に努力することが大切だ。

New Komeito leader Natsuo Yamaguchi, who attended the LDP’s convention as a guest, said his party “would like to meet the people’s expectations by pooling the distinctive qualities” of both Komeito and the LDP, indicating his intention of rallying the strength of the ruling coalition of the two parties.
 党大会に来賓として出席した公明党の山口代表は「お互いの持ち味を出し合って国民の期待に応えたい」とし、自公連立政権の力を結集したいと語った。

Komeito has not relaxed its cautious stance over Abe’s conservative policies, as indicated, for instance, by his recent visit to Yasukuni Shrine. The LDP may also need to further take heed of its relations with Komeito.
 公明党は、靖国神社参拝など、首相が掲げる保守色の強い政策に慎重な姿勢を崩していない。公明党との関係にも一層、留意しなければなるまい。

A case in point, for example, is the issue of reviewing the government’s interpretation of the Constitution, which Abe plans to tackle from this spring. The review is expected to make it possible for the country to exercise its right to collective self-defense.
 例えば、安倍首相が春以降取り組む集団的自衛権の行使を可能にする憲法解釈の見直し問題だ。

Yamaguchi once went so far as to say that his party would “firmly oppose this position.” Abe will need to lay the groundwork by thoroughly explaining to Komeito the significance and the necessity of changing the constitutional interpretation.
 山口代表はかつて、「断固反対」とまで語っていた。首相は、憲法解釈変更の意義と必要性を公明党にきちんと説明し、周到に根回しすることが求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 20, 2014)
(2014年1月20日01時29分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

名護市長再選 普天間移設は着実に進めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 20, 2014
Futenma relocation must go ahead despite outcome of Nago mayoral race
名護市長再選 普天間移設は着実に進めたい(1月20日付・読売社説)

Despite the outcome of Sunday’s mayoral election in Nago, the government should push ahead steadily with the plan to relocate the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture to the city’s Henoko coastal district.
 選挙結果にとらわれずに、政府は、米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設を着実に進めるべきだ。

Incumbent Mayor Susumu Inamine, an adamant opponent of the relocation, secured a second term by defeating first-time candidate Bunshin Suematsu, a former Okinawa Prefectural Assembly member who supported the move.
 沖縄県名護市長選で、辺野古移設に反対する現職の稲嶺進市長が、移設の推進を訴えた新人の末松文信・前県議を破って、再選された。

In Nago’s five mayoral contests since 1998, candidates in favor of the relocation plan were victorious in the first three. Inamine won the other two.
 1998年以降の5回の市長選で、最初の3回は容認派が勝利し、前回以降は反対派が当選した。

The outcomes of the last two elections presumably were the result of the Democratic Party of Japan irresponsibly calling for the Futenma facility to be moved outside Okinawa Prefecture when it was in power, whipping up the expectations of residents of the prefecture. This helped lend ammunition to their arguments against the relocation of Futenma’s functions to Henoko, even among those voters who held conservative views.
民主党政権が無責任に「県外移設」を掲げ、地元の期待をあおった結果、保守層にも辺野古移設の反対論が増えたことが要因だろう。

Although New Komeito’s headquarters threw its support behind the relocation plan, the party allowed its members to freely cast their ballots in the mayoral race, while the party’s Okinawa prefectural chapter remained committed to having the facility relocated outside Okinawa Prefecture.
 公明党は、党本部が移設を支持しているのに、県本部は「県外移設」を崩さず、市長選を自主投票にした。

It was problematic for the party’s headquarters to give tacit approval to the prefectural chapter’s anti-relocation stance while supporting the relocation plan as a ruling party.
党本部がこの方針を“黙認”したのは、移設を推進する与党として問題だった。

In his campaign, Suematsu promised to promote the local economy of Nago by strengthening cooperation with the central and Okinawa prefectural governments.
 末松氏は、政府や沖縄県との連携を強化し、名護市の地域振興に力を入れる方針を前面に掲げた。

Suematsu was hampered in his efforts to make headway against Inamine by the delay in getting a former Nago mayor who supported the relocation to give up his plan to run, thereby unifying the pro-relocation camp.
だが、同じ容認派の前市長との候補一本化に時間を要するなど、出遅れが響き、及ばなかった。

As Okinawa Gov. Hirokazu Nakaima gave the green light toward the end of 2013 for the central government’s application to carry out a land reclamation project at Henoko, the basic direction of advancing the Henoko relocation plan has effectively been irreversibly settled.
 昨年末に仲井真弘多知事が公有水面埋め立てを承認したことにより、辺野古移設を進める方向性は既に、定まっている。

Delays must be avoided

The task of keeping intact the important functions of Futenma Air Station, which is responsible for transporting U.S. marines stationed in the prefecture, is of key significance to the Japan-U.S. alliance and Japan’s national security. This must not be affected by the outcome of a single local election.
 そもそも、在沖縄海兵隊の輸送任務を担う普天間飛行場の重要な機能を維持することは、日米同盟や日本全体の安全保障にかかわる問題だ。一地方選の結果で左右されるべきものではない。

Nakaima’s decision to approve the land reclamation prior to the mayoral election was appropriate from the standpoint of averting untoward developments.
 仲井真知事が市長選前に承認を決断したことは、そうした事態を避けるうえで、適切だった。

The mayor of Nago has the licensing authority on such matters as approval of building construction material depots necessary to construct the new Futenma facility, so he would be able to delay construction to a certain degree. The mayor’s power, however, is not strong enough to bring the Henoko relocation plan to a halt.
 名護市長には、代替施設の建設工事に伴う資材置き場の設置などの許可権限があり、工事をある程度遅らせることは可能だろう。ただ、権限は限定的で、辺野古移設の中止にまでは及ばない。

Taking into account the weight of the votes garnered by Suematsu, Inamine should not use his authority to block the landfill work.
 稲嶺市長は、末松氏が集めた票の重みも踏まえて、市長の権限を乱用し、工事を妨害する行為は自制してもらいたい。

The government, for its part, should make further efforts to enhance close cooperation with Okinawa Prefecture by speeding up the landfill project with the aim of making the deterrence of the U.S. forces in Japan compatible with the goal of alleviating the burden on Okinawa Prefecture residents in hosting U.S. military installations.
 政府は今後、在日米軍の抑止力の維持と沖縄の基地負担の軽減を両立させるため、沖縄県と緊密に協力し、建設工事を加速させることが肝要である。

The slower the pace of construction, the longer the perilous situation of Futenma Air Station will remain, as it is located in a densely populated area of a city.
 工事が遅れれば、市街地の中央に位置する普天間飛行場の危険な状況が、より長く続く。

Under the circumstances, schedules to implement other measures to alleviate the prefecture’s burdens, such as transferring U.S. marines to Guam and the return of U.S. military bases in the southern part of the prefecture to Japan, would also be delayed.
在沖縄海兵隊のグアム移転や県南部の米軍基地の返還といった基地負担の軽減策も遅れるだろう。

The cooperation of local communities is indispensable to ensure smooth progress and shorten the time needed to carry out such tasks as land reclamation work, which has been sought by Nakaima and other prefectural leaders.
 仲井真知事らが求める工事の期間短縮や、円滑な実施には、地元関係者の協力が欠かせない。

The government must continue its endeavors to obtain the understanding of the people about the importance of the Henoko relocation plan by providing thorough explanations.
政府は、辺野古移設の意義を粘り強く関係者に説明し、理解を広げる努力を続ける必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 20, 2014)
(2014年1月20日01時29分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月20日 (月)

国会改革 党首討論をもっと活用せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 19, 2014
Reform Diet with more debate among party leaders, electoral system review
国会改革 党首討論をもっと活用せよ(1月19日付・読売社説)

 ◆選挙制度の見直しは不可避だ

The Diet must respond appropriately to changes in and outside Japan and deal quickly with the issues it faces. To realize this, it is essential to reform the nation’s political decision-making system, which is often trapped in the old mold.
 内外の変化に的確に対応し、直面する懸案を迅速に処理していかねばならない。そのためには、旧弊にとらわれがちな政治の意思決定システムの改革が欠かせない。

The ordinary session of the Diet is to be convened Friday, and parliamentary reforms must be carried out as quickly as possible.
 通常国会が24日に召集される。国会改革を急ぎたい。

Reduce PM’s burden
 ◆必要な首相の負担軽減

Under the current system, the prime minister and other cabinet ministers are tied up in Diet deliberations far longer than their counterparts in Britain and Germany. It is important for the government to be completely accountable. But, if it prevents the ministers from working on domestic and foreign affairs, it is like putting the cart before the horse.
 首相や閣僚は英独などに比べてはるかに長時間、国会審議に縛られている。政府が説明責任を果たすことは大切だが、内政、外交の支障になるのでは本末転倒だ。

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party and its junior coalition partner, New Komeito, last month proposed a review of Diet management.
 自民、公明両党は先月、国会運営の見直し案を提示した。

The proposal calls for debates among party leaders in the Diet, which were held only twice last year, to be held once a month, although the prime minister is required only to attend plenary sessions of the Diet and budget committee meetings to answer basic questions. If cabinet ministers have to skip deliberations to attend international conferences or to deal with disasters, vice ministers or parliamentary secretaries should fill in for them, it says.
 昨年わずか2回しか開かれなかった党首討論を毎月1回必ず開催する。代わりに、首相の出席は本会議や予算委員会の基本的質疑などに限る。閣僚が国際会議や災害対応で欠席する際は副大臣、政務官が対応するといった内容だ。

We think the proposal’s basic direction is appropriate.
 方向性は妥当だろう。

“The proposal will give the prime minister and cabinet ministers an excuse to avoid Diet deliberations,” the main opposition Democratic Party of Japan said.
This objection is far from convincing because, when it was in office, the party proposed flexible management of the Diet “from the viewpoints of national interests and foreign policy.”
 民主党は「首相や閣僚が国会審議から逃げる口実になる」と反発しているが、これは説得力を欠く。与党時代には、「国益及び外交的な観点から」弾力的な国会運営を提案していたからだ。

After a change in government, a ruling party becomes an opposition party. Both the ruling and opposition parties should work together to constructively make new rules.
 政権交代すれば、野党も与党になる。建設的な姿勢でルール作りを進めることが肝要だ。

The substance of Diet deliberations must be enriched and the Diet’s management streamlined. A battle of words between the ruling and opposition parties tends to be nothing more than a tug-of-war about Diet schedules, with the ruling parties trying to pass bills as quickly as possible and the opposition parties attempting to scrap bills by drawing out the deliberations so they cannot be passed before the end of a Diet session. A typical example of that is the process to enact a bill to protect special state secrets.
 運営の効率化だけでなく、審議の内容も充実させねばならない。与野党攻防は、法案成立を急ぐ与党と会期末での審議未了、廃案を狙う野党との日程闘争に陥りがちだ。臨時国会の特定秘密保護法の成立過程が典型的だった。

In Japan, the cabinet submits most bills to the Diet. To make the Diet more functional as a legislature, more bills should be sponsored by Diet members.
 法案の大半は内閣提出である。国会が立法機関としてより機能するには、議員立法をもっと活発化させねばなるまい。

Since the state of the divided Diet in which the opposition controlled the House of Councillors has ended, the Diet must make preparations for a similar situation to occur in the future. For instance, it is necessary to review the system of a joint committee of both houses that is formed when different decisions are made by the two Diet chambers.
 国会は、衆参のねじれを解消した今こそ、将来の再度のねじれを想定し、備えておくべきだ。例えば、衆参の議決が異なった場合に設けられる両院協議会の在り方を見直すことである。

In practice, members of the committee, 10 each from the upper and lower houses, are all selected from the majority party at each chamber. This practice has robbed the committee of its substance and made it a place where 10 supporters and 10 opponents to a certain bill meet but can never reach an agreement, except to confirm that negotiations failed.
 現在は衆参各院の委員10人全員が、各院の多数派から選ばれるのが慣例だ。このため、法案の賛成者10人、反対者10人が出席して、結論が出ず、物別れを確認するだけで形骸化している。

We expect Diet members to come up with ideas to help the committee reach agreement, such as by changing the number and composition of its members, for instance.
 委員の数や構成を変えるなど、合意形成に役立つ運営方法を考えてもらいたい。

It is also necessary to come up with a decision on what to do about Yui no To, a party formed near the end of last year by defectors from Your Party, as it has been prevented from forming a new parliamentary group in the Diet.
 昨年末、みんなの党から分裂して旗揚げした結いの党が、国会で新会派を結成できない問題にも早急に結論を出す必要がある。

Resolve Yui no To issue
 ◆会派離脱問題にケリを

Yui no To, which comprises 15 lawmakers, submitted on Jan. 7 an application to the secretariats of both houses of the legislature for registration as a parliamentary group, but the secretariats turned it down.
 結いの党の15人は衆参両院に会派結成届を出したが、受理されなかった。

As Your Party rejected the defections of 13 of the 15 lawmakers, who won Diet seats in proportional representation contests, the application was blocked due to the Diet practice of leaving the authority for filing an application allowing certain members of a parliamentary group to secede up to the group’s top leader.
みんなの党が比例選出議員13人の離脱を認めず、会派代表者が届け出る慣例に阻まれた。

The result is that Yui no To has neither a waiting room nor has an interpellation slot been allotted to it. It also is ineligible to receive funds to cover legislative investigative activities that are paid from the state coffers to parliamentary groups. Under the circumstances, the party has difficulty in engaging in Diet activities.
 結いの党には控室や質問が割り振られない。立法事務費も受け取れない。国会活動は困難だ。

Your Party has demanded that the defectors who obtained Diet seats on the strength of ballots that were garnered in the name of the party in the proportional representation segments of the Diet elections should resign as legislators and return their seats to Your Party.
 みんなの党は、党の得票で当選した比例選出議員に辞職して議席を返上するよう求めている。

Your Party’s argument is reasonable, considering they were elected to the Diet solely on the strength of votes cast for the party in the proportional representation contest. It is also understandable, however, that the LDP has said the insistence of Your Party seeking to make Yui no To members remain in Your Party’s parliamentary group “in spite of their disagreements with Yui no To should be deemed unnatural.”]
 党名だけで選ばれた比例単独候補なら一理あるが、自民党が言うように「ケンカしているのに、同じ会派と言い続ける方が不自然」なのも確かである。

At a meeting of directors of the lower house’s Rules and Administration Committee, it was agreed that “the will of individual house members should be respected regarding their withdrawal from a parliamentary group.”
 衆院の議院運営委員会理事会は、会派の離脱に関して、「個人の意思を尊重する」と申し合わせている。

There have been a number of cases in which lawmakers who won seats through proportional representation and later broke away from their parties to be subsequently acknowledged as withdrawing from parliamentary groups.
これまでも、離党した比例選出議員の会派離脱が認められたケースは少なくない。

Participation of such a lawmaker who defects to a new party is allowed under the Public Offices Election Law. Preventing lawmakers from seceding from one parliamentary group to join another will hamper political realignment moves.
 比例選出議員が新党に参加できることは公職選挙法に根拠がある。その際、会派離脱も認めないと政界再編の足かせとなる。

If there are no prospects of resolving conflicts involving a parliamentary group, the speaker of the lower house or the president of the upper house should mediate to resolve the problem.
 当事者間で話がつかないのであれば、衆参両院議長が調整に乗り出すべきだろう。

A problem like that between Your Party and Yui no To can recur at any time. It is desirable to establish a set of rules governing the formation of a new parliamentary group and procedures concerning secession from an existing one.
 こうした事態は、今後も起きうる。会派結成・離脱についてルール化しておくことが望ましい。

Also problematic in this connection is that there has been little progress in reforming the electoral systems of both houses.
 選挙制度改革が、遅々として進んでいないことも問題だ。

Regarding the disparity in the value of votes in the lower house election in December 2012, the Supreme Court handed down a ruling that it was in a “state of unconstitutionality.” In lawsuits concerning the upper house poll in July last year, 13 high courts in various parts of the country ruled the election to be “in a state of unconstitutionality,” while three others bluntly called the election “unconstitutional.”
 一昨年12月の衆院選での「1票の格差」について、最高裁は「違憲状態」と判断した。昨年7月の参院選に対する全国の高裁判決は「違憲状態」が13件で、「違憲」は3件だった。

Don’t stick to seat cuts
 ◆定数削減にこだわるな

The courts all called for the legislature to tackle the task of drastically reforming the election system to rectify vote value disparities between the most and least represented constituencies.
 いずれも格差を是正する観点から、立法府に抜本的な制度改革を求めている。

Both the ruling and opposition camps in the lower and upper houses must realize the seriousness of the current state of affairs, which the judiciary refuses to call “constitutional.”
衆参両院とも司法から「合憲」と見なされていない現状を、与野党はもっと深刻に受け止めねばならない。

The main factor hindering an agreement between the ruling and opposition parties on electoral system reform is the difference in views concerning the reduction of lawmakers.
 与野党の合意を妨げる最大の要因は、議員定数の削減に関する考え方の違いである。

The parties should redouble efforts to come up with truly desirable and feasible electoral systems, by setting aside trimming the number of Diet seats, which has been influenced by opportunistic party interests intended to pander to the public.
大衆迎合的な色彩の強い定数削減は切り離して、望ましい制度の在り方を優先して議論すべきだろう。

If the ruling and opposition parties remain unable to craft specific reforms because of their partisan maneuvering, there is no other option than to leave the matter up to deliberations by an expert third-party organ, an idea proposed by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
 与野党が「党利党略」に固執し、具体案をまとめられないのなら、安倍首相が提案しているように、有識者による第三者機関に検討を委ねるしかない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 19, 2014)
(2014年1月19日01時29分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月19日 (日)

センター試験 改革に功罪の検証は不可欠だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 18, 2014
Merits, demerits of natl center test must be examined to promote reform
センター試験 改革に功罪の検証は不可欠だ(1月18日付・読売社説)

The two-day test organized by the National Center for University Entrance Examinations, which begins Saturday, involves 560,000 students applying to enter 843 universities and junior colleges nationwide.
 大学入試センター試験がきょうから2日間、実施される。
 参加する大学・短大は843校で、志願者は56万人にのぼる。

Many students no doubt studied hard day and night in preparation for the tests. We hope they can fully display their abilities.
 多くの受験生が日夜、勉強に励んできたことだろう。試験では実力を存分に発揮してほしい。

The center and officials concerned at each university need to focus their minds to prevent a recurrence of such trouble as the erroneous distribution of test question papers that happened two years ago.
 試験を実施する大学入試センターと各大学の担当者は、一昨年に起きた問題冊子の配布ミスなどのトラブルを繰り返さぬよう、気を引き締めて臨む必要がある。

The National Center Test for University Admissions was introduced in 1990 as a replacement for the standard preliminary test, opening the door for participation by private universities. Currently, about 90 percent of private universities and colleges participate.
 センター試験は1990年に導入された。共通一次試験から衣替えし、私立大にも参加の道が開かれた。現在、私立大の約9割が利用している。

Some universities use the center test together with the system to hold exams for candidates recommended by high schools and conduct interviews through their admissions offices.
 推薦入試や、面接などによるAO(アドミッション・オフィス)入試と併用する大学もある。

It may be said that the center test has become established as the uniform test to determine whether examinees have acquired basic scholastic abilities needed for advancing to universities.
 大学進学に必要な基礎的学力を身に着けているかどうかを判定するための共通試験として、定着してきたと言えるだろう。

Test questions, which take about two years to compile, are created by university teaching faculty members and others.
 試験の問題は、大学教員らが2年近くの時間をかけて作成している。

The questions are regarded as reasonable because they do not include unfairly difficult or tricky problems.
難問奇問を排した良質な問題が多いと評価が高い。

The number of test items, on the other hand, has increased to 29 areas in six subjects, as high school curricula became subdivided. Each university and college can freely choose sub-subjects, and the number of them, in an a la carte approach. From the standpoint of examinees, however, the system may be too complicated.
 一方、出題科目数は、高校の授業内容の細分化で6教科・29科目にまで増えた。各大学はアラカルト方式によって、利用科目や科目数を自由に決められる。受験生から見ると、科目選択が複雑になり過ぎているのではないか。

Pressure on examinees

Furthermore, examinees are undeniably forced to face excessive mental stress given that results of the national center test, held only once a year, largely determine whether they succeed or fail to gain entrance into their desired universities.
 加えて年1回の試験結果が受験の成否を大きく左右することが、受験生に過度の心理的負担を強いている面は否定できない。

Some observers have pointed out that it has become difficult to maintain the nationwide test under the current formula, in which more than 500,000 examinees sit for exams all at once at test venues across the country.
 全国の会場で50万人以上が一斉に受験する現行方式では、スムーズな運営が困難になっているとの指摘もある。

Discussions on reform of the national center test have been held at the Central Council for Education, in response to recommendations by the Education Rebuilding Implementation Council, a governmental advisory body, that propose the establishment of a new test method to assess achievement levels as the pillar of reform.
 センター試験を巡っては、中央教育審議会で見直し論議が進んでいる。「達成度テスト」の創設を柱とする政府の教育再生実行会議の提言を受けたものだ。

The recommendations call for holding a basic test to measure basic achievement levels for high school students and establishing a development-level test to be utilized for general university exams. The panel also proposes allowing students to take each test more than once. The realization of these measures will significantly change the university entrance exam system.
 提言は、高校生の基礎学力の到達度を測る「基礎」レベルと、大学の一般入試で活用する「発展」レベルのテストを新設し、それぞれ複数回の受験を認めるよう求めている。これが実現すれば、大学入試は大きく様変わりする。

We believe students should be given more opportunities to take tests.
 挑戦する機会が増えるのは、受験生にとって望ましいことだ。

The question is how to deal with the selection of sub-subjects for the achievement level test. The many other issues to be studied include which organization will organize the test.
 一方で、達成度テストには、出題科目はどうするのか、試験の運営はどこが担うのかといった検討すべき課題が多い。

Reform of the university entrance exam system will have a great impact on examinees and educational institutions.
 入試改革は、受験生や教育現場に与える影響が極めて大きい。

Foremost, close examination is needed of the merits and demerits of the national center test before in-depth discussions are held.
 まずは、センター試験の功罪をしっかりと検証し、議論を尽くすことが肝要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 18, 2014)
(2014年1月18日01時27分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

東京都知事選 五輪返上論はどこまで本気か

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 18, 2014
Is Hosokawa serious about his call for Tokyo to decline hosting Olympics?
東京都知事選 五輪返上論はどこまで本気か(1月18日付・読売社説)

It is meaningful to discuss the issue of nuclear energy in Tokyo, which consumes a massive amount of electricity, but it is unreasonable to exploit an election for the denuclearization movement.
 電力の大消費地である東京で原発問題を議論するのは有意義だが、「脱原発」運動に選挙を利用するのは筋違いだ。

Former Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa, who has expressed his intention to run in the upcoming Tokyo gubernatorial election, is drawing public attention.
 東京都知事選に出馬する意向を表明した細川護熙・元首相の動向が耳目を集めている。

Hosokawa has made an antinuclear agenda his main campaign pledge, saying, “I’m concerned that the issue of nuclear power determines the nation’s fate.” He is backed by former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, who advocates immediately breaking with nuclear power.
 細川氏は、「原発の問題は国の存亡に関わるという危機感を持っている」と強調し、脱原発を前面に掲げた。原発即時ゼロを唱える小泉元首相が支援する。

Both Hosokawa and Koizumi enjoyed high cabinet approval ratings as prime minister. They are adopting election tactics that seek to make the most of the wide public popularity they once enjoyed.
 細川、小泉両氏は、いずれも首相時代、内閣支持率が高かった。かつての国民的人気をあてにした選挙戦術である。

The Tokyo metropolitan government is certainly a major shareholder of Tokyo Electric Power Co. Yet, 50.1 percent of TEPCO shares are owned by the government’s Nuclear Damage Liability Facilitation Fund, which aims to resume operation of the nation’s unclear power stations. It would be irresponsible of Hosokawa to argue that he would be able to stop the restart of nuclear reactors.
 ただ、都は東京電力の主要株主ではあるが、東電株の50・1%は原発再稼働を目指す政府の原子力損害賠償支援機構が保有する。細川氏が再稼働を阻止できるかのように主張するなら無責任だ。

What must not be overlooked is how Koizumi has positioned the gubernatorial election. He said the election will be a “war between the group that says Japan can grow with zero nuclear power plants and the group that says it cannot.”
 看過できないのは、小泉氏が都知事選を、「原発ゼロでも日本は発展できるというグループと、原発なくして日本は発展できないというグループでの争いだ」と位置付けたことである。

He should not simplify the issue of nuclear energy into a choice between two options—zero nuclear power and nuclear promotion—making light of such complicated factors as the possible effect on industries and household finances, measures to cope with global warming and energy security.
 産業や家計への影響、地球温暖化対策、エネルギーの安全保障といった複雑な要因を軽視し、原発ゼロか、推進か、と二者択一で問題を単純化すべきではない。

Simplistic ideas not enough

Hosokawa has postponed his official press conference on his candidacy twice already, apparently because he has been unable to prepare his election pledges. This illustrates the fact that simplistic ideas do not prepare a person to cope with the variety of problems the Tokyo metropolitan government is facing.
 細川氏の正式な記者会見は、2度も延期されている。公約の準備が整わないからだ。付け焼き刃的な発想だけでは、都政の抱える様々な課題に対処できないことの表れとも言えるだろう。

When Tokyo won its bid for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics last year, Hosokawa called for Tokyo to renounce its selection as host, saying, “Tokyo should have declined to accept the decision because we still have the nuclear problem.” We wonder how serious he is.
 細川氏は昨年、2020年の東京五輪・パラリンピック開催が決まったことについて、「原発問題があるから辞退すべきだった」との返上論を述べていた。どこまで本気なのだろうか。

The upcoming gubernatorial election will be held because former Gov. Naoki Inose resigned over his suspicious borrowing of ¥50 million in cash from hospital operator Tokushukai. Therefore, we believe Hosokawa should explain his borrowing of ¥100 million from the Tokyo Sagawa Kyubin parcel company, which led to his resignation as prime minister.
 今回は、猪瀬直樹前知事が5000万円借入金問題で辞職しての出直し選挙だ。それだけに、細川氏には、首相辞任の要因となった東京佐川急便からの1億円借り入れについて説明が求められる。

Meanwhile, former Health, Labor and Welfare Minister Yoichi Masuzoe, another leading candidate, expressed his determination to pursue the “best Olympics in history,” antidisaster measures, improved medical and nursing care services, and employment measures. We would like Masuzoe to clearly state during the election campaign what concrete measures he plans.
 一方、舛添要一・元厚生労働相は記者会見で、「史上最高の五輪」を目指すことや、防災対策、医療・介護の充実、雇用対策などに意欲を示した。具体的な方策を選挙戦で明らかにしてもらいたい。

As for nuclear energy, Masuzoe said he will aim to create a society that does not depend on nuclear power generation, instead of immediately reducing nuclear energy use to zero. He also said he would promote energy-saving measures in Tokyo, making efforts to expand the use of renewable energy.
 原発に関しては、即時ゼロではなく「原発に依存しない社会」を作ると述べる一方、東京で省エネを進め、再生可能エネルギー拡大へ努力すると語っている。

The main question in the race to choose the face of the metropolis is which candidate has a clear vision of Tokyo’s future. Candidates must deepen their discussions through debate and other opportunities.
 首都の顔を選ぶ都知事選で問われるのは、東京をどういう都市に変えていくのかという明確なビジョンだ。候補者同士の討論会などで、議論を深めるべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 18, 2014)
(2014年1月18日01時27分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月18日 (土)

オウム公判再開 裁判員は事件をどう裁くか

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 17, 2014
How will lay judges deal with latest trial involving Aum cult?
オウム公判再開 裁判員は事件をどう裁くか(1月17日付・読売社説)

A former Aum Supreme Truth member is on trial facing charges in three cases in which lay judges will for the first time pass judgment on crimes allegedly committed by the cult that shocked society. We will closely watch how the trial unfolds.
 社会に大きな衝撃を与えたオウム真理教の事件が、初めて裁判員によって裁かれる。公判の行方を注視したい。

The trial of Makoto Hirata, who was arrested when he gave himself up at a police station after 17 years on the run, got under way at the Tokyo District Court on Thursday.
 17年に及ぶ逃亡生活の末に出頭し、逮捕された元教団幹部・平田信被告の裁判員裁判が東京地裁で始まった。

A series of Aum trials was concluded in 2011, with the death sentences of cult guru Chizuo Matsumoto and 12 of his followers finalized. The start of Hirata’s trial marks a resumption of trials on Aum-related incidents.
 教祖の松本智津夫死刑囚ら13人の死刑が確定し、2011年にいったん終結していたオウム公判の再開である。

Hirata was indicted on charges of kidnapping and imprisoning Kiyoshi Kariya, chief of the Meguro notary public office in Tokyo, and planting a bomb at a Tokyo condominium. Both incidents happened just prior to the cult’s sarin nerve gas attack on the Tokyo subway system in March 1995.
 平田被告は、目黒公証役場事務長の仮谷清志さん拉致事件や都内のマンションでの爆発事件などへの関与を問われ、逮捕監禁罪や爆発物取締罰則違反などで起訴された。いずれも1995年3月の地下鉄サリン事件直前に起きた。

In the first hearing, Hirata apologized to Kariya, who died in the aftermath of the kidnapping, and his bereaved family, but denied some of the charges. To what extent can the trial unravel the real picture behind a cult that repeatedly committed crimes as it evolved into a terrorist group?
 平田被告は初公判で被害者と遺族に謝罪したが、起訴内容の一部を否認した。テロ集団と化して凶行を重ねた教団の実態が、公判でどこまで解明されるだろうか。

Attention will center on what former cult leaders currently on death row will say as witnesses in Hirata’s trial.
 焦点の一つは、元教団幹部の死刑囚の証人尋問である。

Prosecutors plan to interrogate Yoshihiro Inoue, who served as leader at the two crime scenes, and two other death-row inmates to establish the background to the crimes. As the death-row inmates reportedly expressed their intention to comply with requests to testify as witnesses, new facts could emerge during the hearings.
 検察は、現場の指揮役を務めた井上嘉浩死刑囚ら3人を尋問し、犯行に至る経緯を立証する方針だ。死刑囚らは証言に応じる姿勢を示しており、何らかの新事実が明らかになる可能性もある。

It is extremely unusual for a death-row inmate to be questioned in a public court hearing.
 公開の法廷における死刑囚の尋問は極めて異例だ。

In preparation for this event, the court will install a bulletproof acrylic panel in front of the gallery. To help the death-row convicts compose themselves when they testify, the court will erect a barrier around the witness stand.
 裁判所は不測の事態に備えて、法廷の傍聴席前に防弾性のアクリル板を設置する。死刑囚の精神状態を安定させるため、証言台の周囲には遮蔽板を立てる。

Steps to lighten pressure

The court must take all possible measures to prevent the hearings from being disrupted.
 法廷で混乱が生じるようなことがあってはならない。万全の態勢で臨んでもらいたい。

A relative of Kariya, who died after being injected with a large amount of drugs, will participate in the court hearings by taking advantage of the system that allows crime victims or their family members to take part in trials. Under the system, introduced in 2008, crime victims or their family members can question defendants directly in hearings.
 薬物を大量投与された後に死亡した仮谷さんの遺族が、被害者参加制度を利用して、裁判に参加している。2008年から導入されたこの制度では、被害者・遺族が法廷で被告に対し、直接質問することができる。

Kariya’s family hopes the truth will emerge in court hearings. In the first hearing, Hirata said he had “only served as a lookout and had no awareness of committing a kidnapping.”
 遺族は真相解明に期待をかけている。平田被告は初公判で「見張りをしただけで、拉致するという認識はなかった」と述べた。

Attention is being focused on how the lay judges will determine the facts of the case.
裁判員の事実認定が注目される。

Hearings will be held three to four times a week, with a ruling scheduled for early March. Such a lengthy trial, lasting about two months, will no doubt impose a burden on the lay judges.
 公判は週3~4回のペースで進み、判決は3月上旬の予定だ。裁判員にとって、約2か月に及ぶ長期審理の負担は小さくない。

Furthermore, the trial involves a cult that committed heinous terrorist attacks. The district court initially chose 400 persons as lay judge candidates, but many of them declined to serve. This may be because they were concerned about the consequences of participating in the trial.
 しかも、凶悪テロを引き起こした教団を巡る裁判だ。地裁が裁判員候補者として400人を選んだものの、辞退希望者が相次いだ。裁判に関わることへの不安が背景にあったのだろう。

As the trial will impose significant pressure on the lay judges, the presiding judge must provide them with utmost support, paying due heed to their health.
 重圧のかかる審理だけに、裁判員の体調への配慮など、裁判官のきめ細かなサポートが必要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 17, 2014)
(2014年1月17日01時24分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

認知症対策 生活習慣の改善も予防になる

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 17, 2014
Govt must promote healthy lifestyle from young age to ward off dementia
認知症対策 生活習慣の改善も予防になる(1月17日付・読売社説)

The number of elderly Japanese people suffering from dementia is increasing much faster than predicted. The government must devise measures to prevent and treat the condition as quickly as possible.
 認知症の高齢者が、従来の予測を大幅に上回るペースで増えている。予防や診療の体制整備を急がねばならない。

According to an estimate by a research team of the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry, the number of elderly people diagnosed with dementia has reached 4.62 million. Research results by Kyushu University indicate the number is six times the level 20 years ago.
 厚生労働省研究班の推計によると、認知症の高齢者は462万人に達する。過去20年間で6倍に増えたという九州大の研究結果もある。

It must be noted that an increase in people suffering from diabetes, along with the quickly aging population, has boosted the number of dementia patients.
 急速な高齢化に加え、糖尿病の増加が認知症の患者数を押し上げている事実は見逃せない。

Domestic and overseas research has found that diabetics are about twice as likely as those without diabetes to develop Alzheimer’s-type dementia.
 国内外の調査で、糖尿病を患う人は、アルツハイマー型認知症の発症リスクが2倍前後に高まることが分かってきた。

Alzheimer’s-type dementia develops as a result of the accumulation of abnormal protein in the brain. People are more likely to develop this type of dementia if they become diabetic and a large amount of insulin is produced in their bodies, because insulin, which lowers blood sugar levels, also interrupts the dissolution of the protein and thus promotes its accumulation.
 アルツハイマー型認知症は、脳内に異常なたんぱく質がたまって発症する。糖尿病になり、血糖値を下げるインスリンが多量に分泌されると、このたんぱく質が分解されにくくなって蓄積し、認知症が起きやすくなるという。

Major causes for diabetes are overeating and obesity resulting from insufficient exercise. According to some data, people who pay attention to their lifestyles by exercising regularly and eating Japanese and other healthy foods are less likely to develop diabetes or dementia.
 糖尿病は、食べ過ぎや運動不足による肥満が主な原因だ。運動や和食を中心とした食事で生活習慣に気を配っている人は、糖尿病ばかりでなく、認知症の発症リスクが低いとのデータがある。

The health ministry should publicize such information, which could help people prevent these health problems by paying attention to their lifestyles from a young age.
 厚労省は、こうした情報を周知すべきだ。若い頃から生活習慣に注意して予防につなげたい。

As many as 4 million people are said to suffer from “mild cognitive impairment,” believed to be a stage before dementia. Symptoms include impaired memory and judgment. If treated at an early stage, however, it can likely be prevented from progressing to dementia, doctors say. We hope measures to prevent the condition will be established as soon as possible.
 認知症の前段階とされる「軽度認知障害」も400万人に上る。記憶力や判断力の低下といった症状が表れる。早く対処すれば、認知症への進行を抑えられる可能性があるという。予防法の早期確立が期待される。

Dementia could be controlled

It is still important to diagnose dementia as early as possible, even if a patient has already developed symptoms. If treated properly, dementia patients could recover in cases where the formation of a hematoma in the brain due to a blow to the head caused it, for instance.
 認知症になった場合でも、早期発見は重要である。頭部を強打したことで血腫が脳内にできた場合など、治療により回復可能なケースがあるからだ。

However, the conditions of many patients deteriorate if left undiagnosed. It is necessary to develop a system that can render an accurate diagnosis by increasing expert-staffed outpatient “forgetful” clinics around the country.
 だが、診断がつかないまま、症状が悪化する患者は少なくない。専門医による「物忘れ外来」を普及させるなど、正確に診断できる態勢作りが必要だ。

If diagnosed early, it might be possible for people with dementia to continue their family life and jobs longer with the understanding and cooperation of their families and people around them.
 早期に診断がつけば、医師の指導のもと、家族や周囲の理解と協力で、より長く家庭生活や仕事を続けることも可能だろう。

Developing measures to deal with dementia is a common concern among advanced countries, whose populations are aging quickly.
 認知症対策は、高齢化が進む先進国共通の課題となっている。

Japan, the United States and six other advanced countries held the first G-8 Dementia Summit last month in London. They agreed to drastically increase research funds for dementia and share research data with the aim of establishing treatment methods by 2025.
 日米など主要8か国は先月、ロンドンで初の「G8認知症サミット」を開いた。2025年までの治療法確立を目指し、研究費の大幅な増額や研究データの共有を図ることで合意した。

International cooperation is essential to study dementia, which still has many unexplained elements. We think Japan, whose population is aging the fastest in the world, should lead the research. The government should play a leading role and mobilize all Japanese researchers in this field to tackle the issue.
 未解明な部分が多い認知症の研究に、国際協力は欠かせない。世界で最も速く高齢化する日本が主導すべきだ。政府が先頭に立ち、研究陣の総力を結集して臨んでもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 17, 2014)
(2014年1月17日01時24分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月17日 (金)

東電新事業計画 今度こそ再建を軌道に乗せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 16, 2014
TEPCO must realize business plan to end N-crisis, speed reconstruction
東電新事業計画 今度こそ再建を軌道に乗せよ(1月16日付・読売社説)

To end the nuclear crisis at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant and accelerate reconstruction efforts of the areas hit by the 2011 disaster, TEPCO’s revised business rehabilitation plan must not end up as “pie in the sky.”
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故収束と復興加速のため、東電再建策を「絵に描いた餅」にしてはならない。

The government has approved TEPCO’s new comprehensive special business plan, by which the utility aims to rebuild its business.
 政府が、東電の経営再建を目指す新たな「総合特別事業計画」を認定した。

TEPCO was forced to drastically revise its original revenue and expenditure plan and add more streamlining programs, because prospects were low for the restart of idle reactors at its Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant in Niigata Prefecture. Their restart was assumed in the initial special plan of May 2012.
 2012年5月の当初計画で想定した東電柏崎刈羽原発(新潟県)の再稼働のメドが立たず、収支計画の抜本的な見直しや合理化策の上積みを迫られた。

The new comprehensive special business plan is based on the premise that four of the seven reactors at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant will be reactivated during fiscal 2014. Reactivation of one nuclear power reactor can cut the fuel costs of a thermal power station by more than ¥100 billion. A surplus of about ¥100 billion is expected to be secured for a year, according to the projection.
 新計画は、柏崎刈羽原発7基のうち4基を14年度中に再稼働することを前提とした。原発1基の稼働で火力発電の燃料費が1000億円以上減り、1000億円規模の黒字を確保できる見込みだ。

The government decided at the end of last year to share in the cost for decontamination as an additional measure to support the utility, which is also a positive factor for TEPCO.
 政府が昨年末に、除染関連の費用を一部負担する追加支援策を決めたことも好材料である。

When TEPCO’s business operations are put on the right track, the government plans to sell all the TEPCO shares it holds by the end of the early 2030s and use proceeds from the sale to supplement decontamination work.
 経営が軌道に乗れば、国は保有する東電株を30年代前半までにすべて売却し、売却益を除染費用に充てる方針だ。

However, we cannot help but fear that the new comprehensive special business plan will stumble from the start.
 ところが、新事業計画は出足からつまずく懸念が拭えない。

This is largely because Niigata Gov. Hirohiko Izumida still opposes the restart of reactors at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant, making such comments as, “The Fukushima No. 1 plant crisis should be thoroughly investigated [before reactivation of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant].”
 新潟県の泉田裕彦知事が柏崎刈羽原発の再稼働について「福島の事故検証が先」などと、否定的な姿勢を崩していないからだ。

The Nuclear Regulation Authority must conduct safety inspections of idle reactors without delay, ultimately based on the government’s safety regulation standards.
 原子力規制委員会はあくまで国の規制基準に基づいて、審査を遅滞なく進めなくてはならない。

To implement the special business plan, it is indispensable to steadily restart nuclear reactors that the regulatory committee has confirmed to be safe.
 事業計画の実現には、安全性を確認できた原発の着実な再稼働が不可欠である。

Local govt heads’ position

The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant is an important power source that supplies electricity to the Tokyo metropolitan area. The Tokyo governor and other heads of local governments around Tokyo, which consume the electricity supplied by TEPCO, need to be keenly aware they are in a position to insist that Izumida and other relevant parties show understanding to the restarting of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant.
Such action is necessary to ensure the stability of local economies and residents’ daily lives.
 柏崎刈羽原発は首都圏の電力供給を担う重要電源だ。東京都をはじめ電力消費地の首長は、地域経済と住民生活の安定を図るため、原発再稼働への理解を泉田知事らに求める立場であることを、自覚する必要がある。

In that sense, it is extremely irresponsible for anyone scheduled to run in the Tokyo gubernatorial election to advocate a zero nuclear power generation policy without proposing practical alternative sources of electricity.
 都知事選の候補予定者が、現実的な代替電源も示さずに脱原発を唱えるなら、あまりに無責任だ。

TEPCO has increased its goal for cost cutting over the next 10 years from ¥3.4 trillion in the initial plan to ¥4.8 trillion in the revised plan. It will ask 2,000 or more of its employees to voluntarily retire. Managerial-level staffers aged 50 or older, who numbered 500 at the time of the March 11, 2011, disaster, will be removed from their posts and specially assigned to the Fukushima plant and related jobs to handle compensation demands and other related tasks.
 東電は今後10年の経費節減の目標を、当初計画の3・4兆円から4・8兆円に増額した。希望退職を2000人規模で募り、震災時に50歳以上だった500人の管理職は役職を外して福島専任とし、賠償業務などにあたらせる。

It is important for TEPCO to carry out such restructuring programs to improve its earning capacity. However, if the morale of employees declines because of the programs, it will hinder work to decommission the crippled reactors and handle compensation requests—key tasks the company should steadily proceed with.
 収益力の向上へ、東電のリストラは大切だ。しかし、社員の士気が下がれば肝心の廃炉や賠償などの業務に支障が出かねない。

The revised special business plan also stipulates a policy of transforming TEPCO into a holding company system beginning in fiscal 2016.
 新計画は16年度に東電が持ち株会社制に移行する方針も示した。

The intent to make each business field into a separate corporation to clarify the responsibilities of each business sector is a reasonable one.
事業ごとに別会社にして、責任を明確化する狙いはわかる。

However, it is questionable to establish separate companies while dealing with such important issues as restoring a stable supply of electricity and devising countermeasures for radioactive contaminated water from the Fukushima plant.
 ただ、電力安定供給の回復や汚染水対策など重要課題を抱える時期の分社化は疑問だ。

For the time being, TEPCO must maintain its current management arrangement, in which it is easier to put the right people in the right jobs.
当面は、適材適所の人事配置をしやすい現体制を維持すべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 16, 2014)
(2014年1月16日01時36分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

タイ反政府デモ 選挙実現へ混乱収拾が急務だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 16, 2014
Urgent steps must be taken to unsnarl chaos disrupting Thailand election
タイ反政府デモ 選挙実現へ混乱収拾が急務だ(1月16日付・読売社説)

Disorder in Thailand has become protracted as the factional conflict intensifies. It is desirable to explore a way to unsnarl the chaos so the general election can be held.
 党派対立の激化によりタイの混乱が長期化している。総選挙の実現に向け、混乱収拾の道を模索することが望まれる。

Protests against the government led by Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra—a sister of former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra—have been occurring frequently over the past two months in Bangkok, with demonstrators calling for Yingluck’s resignation.
 首都バンコクでは2か月以上にわたり、タクシン元首相の妹、インラック首相の辞任を求める反タクシン派のデモが頻発している。

Since Monday, antigovernment protesters have occupied the key intersections of Bangkok and roads in front of government offices, partially paralyzing the functions of the capital city. The Yingluck administration has refrained from removing them by force, apparently for fear of a clash between the police and the protesters.
 デモ隊は13日から、主要交差点や官庁前道路などを占拠し、都市機能の一部が麻痺(まひ)する事態となった。インラック政権は、強制排除を控えている。警官隊とデモ隊の衝突を恐れているのだろう。

The latest wave of protests was triggered as the ruling Pheu Thai Party, in support of Thaksin, made a failed bid to push an amnesty bill through parliament that would have allowed Thaksin, who is in self-imposed exile to avoid jail time for a corruption conviction, to return to Thailand.
 デモの発端は、タクシン派与党のタイ貢献党が、汚職罪で実刑判決を受けて国外に逃れているタクシン氏の帰国に道を開く恩赦法を成立させようとしたことだ。

This high-handed approach of the ruling party has brought about angry responses from anti-Thaksin forces, including the main opposition Democrat Party.
強引な姿勢が、最大野党・民主党など反タクシン派の反発を招いた。

In a bid to calm the political crisis, Yingluck dissolved the lower house and called for a general election slated for Feb. 2. Then the anti-Thaksin forces vowed to boycott the vote, while calling for Yingluck to step down and for a transition to an interim government comprised of nonelected representatives from various sectors to oversee political and electoral reforms before any new polls.
 首相は混乱を収拾しようと、下院を解散し、2月2日投票の総選挙実施に打って出た。これに対し、反タクシン派は、選挙受け入れを拒否し、首相の辞任と、選挙を経ない各界代表による暫定統治への移行を要求した。

Undermining democracy

The pro-Thaksin party has paid particular attention to the poor, who make up a large part of the population, and enjoys overwhelming support among the poor and in rural areas. In recent general elections, the party has continuously been the victor. The anti-Thaksin forces have apparently concluded that there is no way for them to win in an election.
 弱者対策に力を入れてきたタクシン派政党は、人口が多い貧困層や農村で圧倒的に支持されており、近年の総選挙で連勝中だ。反タクシン派は、選挙では勝ち目がないと判断したとみられる。

Boycotting the vote and disturbing public order to make others accept their claim, primarily on the pretext of the opposition having little chance of winning an election, is just a self-serving stance in total disregard of democratic procedures. The right thing to do is for them to approve the holding of the election.
 勝算が乏しいことを理由に、選挙を拒否し、秩序を乱す行動で主張を通そうとするのは、民主的手続きを無視した利己的な態度と言わざるを得ない。選挙を受け入れるのが筋である。

Yet it now appears to be difficult to hold the election as planned.
 ただ、予定通りに選挙を実施するのは、もはや困難に見える。

Due to the obstruction by anti-Thaksin forces, there are many electoral districts that are devoid of candidates. Even if the election was forcibly carried out, there wouldn’t be enough members to fulfill the constitutional provisions for convening the lower house.
 反タクシン派の妨害によって、多くの選挙区で候補者が不在となったため、選挙を強行しても、憲法規定上、下院の招集に必要な議員数がそろわない。

Accordingly, the Election Committee has called for Yingluck to delay the election schedule.
 選挙管理委員会は、インラック首相に対して、選挙の日程を延期するよう求めている。

There are some within the anti-Thaksin forces who want military intervention. Even if the government was toppled with such means, it would only invite retaliation from pro-Thaksin forces.
 反タクシン派内には、軍の介入を望む声もあるという。たとえ、そうした手段で政権を倒しても、タクシン派からの報復を招くだけではないか。

The current turmoil is set to affect the economy.
 混乱は、経済にも影響を及ぼしつつある。

Some Japanese companies have taken measures such as shutting down the buildings of their local affiliates. It has also been reported that the government’s procedures for approving large-scale investment projects have been suspended.
 一部日本企業は、現地法人ビルの閉鎖などの措置をとった。大規模投資計画に対する政府の承認手続きも停止しているという。

Thailand, which has achieved its economic growth through foreign capital investments from countries such as Japan, has been called “an honor student among the member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.” Such global confidence accredited to the country has begun to be undermined.
 タイは、日本など海外からの投資で成長し、「東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)の優等生」と呼ばれてきた。その国際的な信用が揺らぎ始めている。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 16, 2014)
(2014年1月16日01時33分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月16日 (木)

経団連次期会長 産業再生の実現へ責任は重い

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 15, 2014
New Keidanren head should work to revitalize business sector
経団連次期会長 産業再生の実現へ責任は重い(1月15日付・読売社説)

The Japan Business Federation (Keidanren) chairman has a heavy responsibility to fulfill as the top figure of the business community.
 財界トップに課せられる責任は重い。

The Keidanren chief’s obligation is to firmly lead business corporations that comprise the mainstay of the Japanese economy, a task essential for contributing to full-scale economic growth.
 日本経済の主役である企業をしっかり束ね、本格成長の実現に貢献しなければならない。

Sadayuki Sakakibara, chairman of Toray Industries, Inc., has been informally designated as the successor to Hiromasa Yonekura, the incumbent at the nation’s largest business organization. Sakakibara, who previously served as vice chairman of Keidanren, is to be inaugurated as its new chairman in June.
 経団連の米倉弘昌会長の後任に、元経団連副会長で東レ会長の榊原定征氏が内定した。6月に就任する。

Sakakibara’s informal appointment as Keidanren leader comes after the laborious and stalled process of picking Yonekura’s successor. Sakakibara will be the first chairman to be chosen from among former Keidanren executives.
人選は難航し、経団連の役職を離れたOBから初めての会長起用となる。

Yonekura has described Sakakibara as “a business leader who attaches the greatest importance to technological innovation and is worthy of becoming the next chairman.” Sakakibara’s informal designation as Keidanren chief seems to strongly reflect Yonekura’s desire to ensure his successor is chosen from the manufacturing sector.
 米倉会長は、「イノベーション(技術革新)を最も重視する経営者で、次期会長にふさわしい」と述べた。製造業の出身者にこだわった米倉会長の意向が強く働いたと言えよう。

Sakakibara told a press corps that “I’ll do my utmost to revitalize the Japanese economy.” We hope he will spearhead efforts to invigorate the domestic industry, as it has remained on the defensive.
 榊原氏は記者団に「日本経済再生に全身全霊で頑張りたい」と語った。守勢に立つ日本産業の活性化へ、先頭に立ってほしい。

During his time as Toray president, Sakakibara earned his corporation’s carbon fiber business a predominant share of the international market. This transformed Toray into a global manufacturer of new materials, including carbon fiber used to produce aircraft and other products.
 東レの社長時代、榊原氏は航空機などに使う炭素繊維の事業を世界トップのシェア(占有率)に押し上げ、新素材のグローバル企業へと再生させた。

However, there is no denying that Toray is a minor player in the domestic industry when comparing its business size with that of some corporations that have seen their top officials named Keidanren chairman several times, such as Toshiba Corp. and Toyota Motor Corp.
 ただ、東芝やトヨタ自動車など経団連会長を輩出する常連企業に比べ、東レの企業規模が“小粒”である点は否めない。

The next Keidanren chairman should strive to manage the business community in a manner that considers the interests of all corporations, a task that requires paying close attention to various sectors of the broadly based domestic industry.
 すそ野の広い産業界に目配りして、全体の利益を考えた財界運営を心がけるべきだろう。

Improving proposals

Sakakibara is a private-sector member of the Industrial Competitiveness Council, a research and deliberative organ run by the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. He is known as an outspoken business leader who has actively advanced proposals for technological innovation and other aspects of business activity. One important task he will face is improving the quality of Keidanren’s policy proposals.
 榊原氏は安倍政権の産業競争力会議で民間議員を務め、技術革新などで積極的に提案する論客としても知られる。経団連の政策提言の充実が求められる。

In the initial stages of Abe’s current administration, relations between Keidanren and the government were strained, as Yonekura made critical comments about the prime minister’s economic policies. Sakakibara needs to mend ties between Keidanren and the government through his working relationship with Abe.
 米倉会長が安倍首相の経済政策を批判し、経団連と政権の関係は当初、ぎくしゃくした。榊原氏は首相とのパイプを生かし、関係改善に努める必要がある。

Given its scarcity of natural resources, Japan should continue to use its export drive as an engine of economic growth. However, the fact remains that the relative importance of manufacturing corporations in the domestic economy is declining.
 資源の乏しい日本では、引き続き輸出が成長のエンジンだが、製造業が国内経済に占める比率が低下しているのも事実である。

The key to success in achieving sustainable growth will be whether the productivity of information communications, services and other domestic demand-led industries can be improved. It also will be important to ensure the growth of businesses that can accommodate the needs arising from the advent of an aging society and a declining birthrate, including medical and nursing care services.
 情報通信やサービスなど、内需型産業の生産性向上が、持続的な成長実現のカギとなる。医療や介護など、少子高齢化時代に即したサービス産業の発展も重要だ。

A major task facing the Abe administration’s growth strategy is to reconsider regulations and tax treatments that benefit already-established industries. We hope Keidanren will cooperate with the government and play a proactive role in nurturing new businesses.
 安倍政権の成長戦略では、既存の産業に恩恵のある規制や税制優遇を見直すことが大きな課題である。経団連は政府と連携し、新たなビジネスの育成に積極的に取り組んでもらいたい。

Keidanren must shed its old skin as an organization long charged with attaining industrial development, among other tasks, in the manufacturing sector. Failure to do so would puts its raison d’etre seriously into question.
 製造業を中心とした産業振興を担ってきた経団連自身が変わらないと、その存在意義が厳しく問われるに違いない。

For many years, Sakakibara led Toray’s business operations, emphasizing to its employees the importance of having a sense of urgency about their company’s fate and changing their attitude accordingly. Sakakibara’s next task will be to demonstrate his leadership with which to revamp the business community.
 榊原氏は、東レ社員に危機感と意識改革の重要性を唱え、経営を推進してきた。今度は財界を変革させるため、リーダーシップを発揮する番である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 15, 2014)
(2014年1月15日01時33分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

アフリカ外交 「日本らしさ」を互恵に生かせ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 15, 2014
Japanese drive to help Africa offers benefits for both sides
アフリカ外交 「日本らしさ」を互恵に生かせ(1月15日付・読売社説)

The world has its eyes on Africa, a growing market blessed with rich natural resources. Japan, for its part, should strengthen relations with African countries, a move that will surely help revitalize the Japanese economy.
 豊かな天然資源を有する成長市場、アフリカに世界が注目している。日本も関係を一層強化しなければならない。それが日本経済の活性化にも好影響を与えるだろう。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has just wrapped up a visit to three African countries: Cote d’Ivoire, Mozambique and Ethiopia. The trip marked the first visit to sub-Saharan Africa by a Japanese prime minister since Junichiro Koizumi toured the region in 2006.
 安倍首相がアフリカのコートジボワール、モザンビーク、エチオピア3か国を訪問した。首相のサハラ砂漠以南のアフリカ歴訪は、2006年の小泉首相以来だ。

Cote d’Ivoire is a key logistical hub for West Africa, and Mozambique boasts a wealth of natural gas and other resources. Ethiopia, home to the headquarters of the African Union, is regarded as a political center of the continent. Abe’s choice to visit these three countries shows Japan’s consideration extends to the whole of Africa.
 コートジボワールは西アフリカの物流拠点で、モザンビークは天然ガスなどに恵まれている。エチオピアにはアフリカ連合(AU)本部があり、政治の中心と位置づけられている。訪問先にアフリカ全体への目配りがうかがえる。

In June last year, the Abe administration invited African leaders from 51 nations or their deputies to the fifth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD 5). Abe’s recent visit to the three nations was partly aimed at reinforcing a relationship of trust with African leaders.
 安倍政権は昨年6月、アフリカ各国の首脳を招いて第5回アフリカ開発会議(TICAD5)を開いた。今回の歴訪は首脳との信頼関係を強める目的もあった。

Abe delivered a policy address in Ethiopia stressing the need to build mutually beneficial ties between Japan and African countries.
 首相がエチオピアで行った政策スピーチは、日本とアフリカの互恵関係構築に重点を置いた。

The speech drew attention to Japanese companies operating in Africa and their efforts to train local workers while valuing the ingenuity of each individual. Strengthening the relationship between companies like these and the peoples of Africa will foster a win-win relationship, benefiting both Japan and African nations, he underscored.
 進出した日本企業が地元の従業員教育に努め、一人一人の創意工夫を大切にしていることを紹介した。日本企業との関係が強まれば、日本とアフリカは共に利益を得る「ウイン・ウインの関係」になれるとも強調した。

Creating mutual benefits

Abe announced Japanese government policies focusing on youth and women, aimed at developing human resources by promoting vocational training and welcoming African students to Japan, as well as providing support for childbirth and child rearing.
 政府としては、アフリカの若者と女性に焦点を当て、職業訓練や留学生受け入れなどの人材育成に加え、出産や子育てへの支援を進める方針も表明した。

In recent years, China has drastically expanded its presence in Africa with investments and loans. But the country has been criticized for unilaterally diverting resources and profits from Africa to itself. Many Chinese companies import workers from China to work in Africa—a practice that does not help in increasing local employment.
 アフリカには、中国が近年、投資や融資を急拡大している。だが、中国企業は、中国人労働者を流入させ、地元の雇用につながらず、資源や利益を一方的に自国に還元するだけだとの批判がある。

It is clear that Abe’s approach is to stress “Japaneseness” and to differentiate the country from China. Arriving in Africa accompanied by a delegation from the corporate sector was part of the effort to strengthen economic ties with Africa. Enhancing its presence in Africa is crucial for Japan.
 首相が、中国と差別化を図り、「日本らしさ」をアピールした狙いは理解できる。今回、日本企業の代表を同行させたのも経済関係強化の一環と言えよう。アフリカでの日本の存在感をもっと高めていく必要がある。

Also of great importance is improving the environment for Japanese companies to help them make inroads into Africa. It will be necessary to make use of Japanese ODA in improving public infrastructure, such as roads and power plants.
 肝要なのは、日本企業が進出しやすい環境を整えることだ。政府開発援助(ODA)を活用して、道路や発電所などのインフラ(社会基盤)をますます充実させていかねばならない。

Sadly, more than a few regions in Africa are still plagued by terrorist attacks and shaken by political instability. South Sudan, for example, is on the verge of slipping into civil war. Japan should help restore stability in these areas by making stronger contributions in the realm of public safety.
 アフリカにはなお、テロが横行し、政情が不安定な地域も少なくない。南スーダンは内戦に陥りかねない危機に直面している。日本は地域の安定のため、治安対策でもさらに貢献すべきだろう。

Abe has expressed a desire to make repeated visits to Africa. Japan must invest in joint endeavors through the public and private sectors to strengthen its ties with African countries from both mid- and long-term perspectives.
 首相は「何度でもアフリカを訪れたい」と語った。官民が連携し、中長期的な視点で、アフリカと関係を深めていくべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 15, 2014)
(2014年1月15日01時33分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月15日 (水)

日本経済再生 効果的な成長戦略に練り直せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 14, 2014
Govt must reshape growth strategy to bring about effective outcome
日本経済再生 効果的な成長戦略に練り直せ(1月14日付・読売社説)

 ◆TPP交渉で国益の最大化を

Business has been steadily picking up on the tailwind of the economic policies of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
 安倍政権の進める経済政策「アベノミクス」を追い風に、景気は明るさを増してきた。

The question now is how to maintain sustainable growth. It is essential to end the deflationary spiral that has continued for nearly 20 years.
 これから問われるのは成長の持続力である。20年近く続いた悪性デフレの病を、完治させることが肝心だ。

The government must accelerate the implementation of an effective growth strategy with a view to achieving self-sustaining growth led by the private sector.
 政府は、民間主導の自律的な成長を目指し、実効性のある成長戦略を加速させねばならない。

The Nikkei Stock Average currently is hovering around 16,000 at the Tokyo Stock Exchange after soaring by about 60 percent in the past year. The stronger yen that plagued the national economy has weakened significantly and remains low in relation to other currencies.
 東京市場の平均株価は、ここ1年で約60%上昇し、1万6000円前後で推移している。日本経済を苦しめた円高も大幅に修正され、円安傾向が続く。

Bold monetary easing and fiscal stimulus measures pushed by the Abe administration plus the business recovery of the United States have helped the Japanese economy. It is to ensure that the move toward improvement does not end up as a “false dawn.”
 安倍政権が打ち出した大胆な金融緩和と財政出動に加え、米国の景気回復も好材料となった。大切なのは、改善の動きを「偽りの夜明け」に終わらせないことだ。

Tax hike biggest hurdle
 ◆カンフル剤は効いたが

The biggest hurdle to this goal is the consumption tax hike set for April.
 最大のハードルは、4月の消費税率の引き上げである。

The tax burden on the nation’s households will increase by ¥6 trillion a year after the rate is raised from the current 5 percent to 8 percent. It is feared that consumption—which accounts for 60 percent of the gross domestic product—will cool off, causing a business slowdown.
 消費税率が5%から8%に上がると、家計全体の税負担は年6兆円も増える。国内総生産(GDP)の6割を占める消費が冷え込み、景気が失速する懸念がある。

Relying only on fiscal stimulus to prop up the economy will lead to the worsening of state finances. To attain economic revitalization and fiscal reconstruction together, it is indispensable to invigorate the economy through implementation of a radical growth strategy.
 景気テコ入れ策として財政出動に頼るだけでは、財政悪化に拍車がかかる。経済再生と財政再建を同時に達成するには、大胆な成長戦略で民間経済を活性化させることが欠かせない。

In connection with the law on enhancement of industrial competitiveness enacted in December and other growth strategy-related bills, the government will shortly work out implementation plans that include timetables and designation of Cabinet ministers in charge of implementation. The government should steadily carry out measures and assess their effectiveness.
 政府は昨年末に成立した産業競争力強化法をはじめ成長戦略の関連施策について、近く実行計画を策定し、実施時期や担当閣僚を明示する。各施策の着実な遂行と、効果の検証が求められよう。

It is problematic, however, that the growth strategy is lackluster.
 だが問題は、成長戦略の中身が物足りないことだ。

Deregulation steps insufficient
 ◆規制緩和が物足りない

A deregulation plan to establish special national strategy zones under the slogan “to provide the world’s most favorable business environment” fails to do away with regulations that are as hard as bedrock in such fields as employment, medical treatment and agriculture.
 「世界一ビジネスがしやすい環境を作る」とした国家戦略特区の規制緩和メニューは、雇用や医療、農業などの強固な「岩盤規制」を十分に突き崩せなかった。

Deregulation of working hours, which has been strongly requested by business circles, has been postponed. So has expansion of a mixed medical treatment system under which treatment covered and not covered by health insurance could be provided together.
 経済界が強く求める労働時間の規制緩和や、自由診療と保険診療を併用する混合診療の大幅拡充なども見送られた。

In his New Year’s press conference, Abe revealed a plan to reexamine the growth strategy in the middle of this year. Half-baked revision would make no sense. To ensure the success of deregulation, the prime minister must lead the way in containing the resistance of government ministries and agencies as well as their related organizations trying to protect their vested interests.
 首相は年頭の記者会見で、今年半ばに成長戦略を見直す方針を表明した。中途半端な改定では意味がない。既得権を守ろうとする各府省や関係団体の抵抗を、首相の指導力で封じ込め、規制緩和を前進させてもらいたい。

Another challenge for the growth strategy is lowering the effective corporate tax rate, which is higher than those in major countries in Europe and other parts of Asia.
 欧州やアジアの主要国よりも高い法人税実効税率の引き下げも、成長戦略の課題である。

The government must aim at reinforcing the international competitiveness of Japanese companies by realizing the tax cut as soon as possible, while at the same time revitalizing the Japanese market by promoting the inflow of foreign capital.
 早期に実現して、日本企業の競争力強化を図るとともに、外資の参入促進による日本市場の活性化を目指すべきだ。

The recovery of a cheap and stable power supply is the basis of economic growth. It is vital to steadily restart nuclear power reactors whose safety has been confirmed.
 安価で安定した電力供給の回復は、経済成長の基盤といえる。安全性の確認できた原発を着実に再稼働することも不可欠である。

Yet we cannot expect much from the growth strategy as long as the companies, who are to play the leading role under the strategy, “have not danced though we have piped unto them.”
 せっかくの成長戦略も、主役の企業が「笛吹けど踊らず」では成果は乏しい。

It is worrisome that many companies have not shaken free of their defensive stance. This is partly because their business performances were sluggish for a protracted period due to the deflationary trend and the strong yen.
 デフレや円高で業績不振が長引いたこともあり、多くの企業が守りの姿勢から抜け出せていないことが気がかりである。

Japanese companies hold a total of at least ¥200 trillion in cash and money on deposit. This shows they have refrained from investing in plant and equipment and manpower in order to set aside cash reserves for emergencies.
 日本企業は総額200兆円を超える現金と預金を保有している。万一に備えて手元資金を残しておこうと、設備や人材への投資を控えてきた証しといえる。

Although they have bailed themselves out of the plight caused by the superstrong yen, Japanese manufacturers have been fiercely competing abroad with their rivals from emerging economies. This comes at a time when the domestic market is expected to shrink, due to the declining population.
 超円高の苦境は脱したものの、製造業各社は海外市場で、新興国企業などと激しい競争を展開している。国内は、人口減少による市場の縮小が見込まれる。

‘Aggressive stance’ needed
 ◆「攻めの経営」が必要だ

Unless they rack their brains and boldly shift to a stance of conducting business aggressively, it will be difficult for companies to survive the harsh business environment.
 知恵を絞り、勇気をもって「攻めの経営」に転じないと、厳しい経営環境の中で企業が生き残るのは難しいだろう。

Manufacturers will have to enhance their manufacturing power to win against their global rivals.
 製造業は、グローバル競争を勝ち抜くため、モノ作りの力を鍛え直さねばならない。

Meanwhile, nonmanufacturers must urgently work to overcome their low productivity, which has long been considered their main challenge.
非製造業は、長年にわたり課題とされている低生産性の克服が急務である。

If companies increase their profits by aggressively implementing their corporate strategies and raise their workers’ pay in line with increased profits, consumption will rise and business will improve further. We hope companies will contribute to a “virtuous circle” of growth.
 各企業が積極的な経営戦略で利益を伸ばし、それに見合う賃上げに踏み切れば、消費が増え、さらに企業業績は上向く。成長の「好循環」に貢献してほしい。

For Japan to sustain economic growth, it is necessary to further promote free trade and exploit demand in growing markets such as that in other parts of Asia.
 日本が経済的な発展を続けるには、自由貿易を一層推進し、アジアなど成長市場の需要を取り込む必要がある。

The negotiations over the Trans-Pacific Partnership multilateral trade accord, with 12 countries, including Japan and the United States, taking part, are the key to this goal.
 大きなカギを握るのが、日米はじめ12か国による環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉だ。

As the conflicts between Japan and the United States deepened over demands for the elimination of tariffs on five sensitive agricultural products—including rice, wheat and barley—participating countries postponed a broad agreement on the creation of a new free trade zone, which they had hoped to realize by the end of last year. Concerning the delay, Japan and the United States, leaders of the negotiations, are much to blame.
 コメや麦など重要5項目の関税撤廃を巡る日米の対立が深まり、昨年末の大筋合意は見送られた。決着の遅れに関し、交渉を主導する日米両国の責任は重い。

An accord over the TPP trade talks would likely give a boost to talks on other economic partnerships between Japan and the European Union and the one among Japan, China and South Korea.
 TPPで合意できれば、日本と欧州連合(EU)、日中韓など他の経済連携にも弾みをつける効果が期待できよう。

What must Japan protect and how far should it compromise in maximizing its national interests? The government must negotiate tenaciously and try to break the deadlock.
 日本の国益を最大化するため、何を守り、どこまで譲るか。政府はしたたかに交渉を進め、難局の打開を図るべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 14, 2014)
(2014年1月14日01時37分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月14日 (火)

2014年に突入、新春オリジナルパーカーで流行の先端を狙ってみませんか

ここだけの話しなんですが、わたくし実は、昨年はあまり良いことがありませんでした。
急激な円安で、生活が物凄く苦しくなったからなんです。(20%くらい)
それでも生活費を切り詰めれば、何とか食べて行くことができるので、これは良しとしなければなりませんね。でも相当に我慢の生活なんです。

ここは、気分転換が必要です。
気分転換に新春オリジナルパーカーをつくることにしました。
新春オリジナルパーカー&スウェットSALE という通販サイトで簡単に購入できます。
オリジナルパーカーだけではなくって、素敵なカジュアルウェアもたくさん展示されているので、合わせて購入したいですね。
今年は、新春のカジュアルウェアーで気分転換をはかる、これが私の流儀なんです。
素敵なカジュアル商品が満載です。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

成人の日 堅実さと柔軟な発想求めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 14, 2014
New adults should combine realism with flexibility and entrepreneurship
成人の日 堅実さと柔軟な発想求めたい(1月13日付・読売社説)

Today is Coming-of-Age Day. We would like to celebrate the birth of 1.21 million new adults in Japan.
 きょうは成人の日。121万人の新成人の門出を祝いたい。

We hope they will step forward strongly with keen awareness as adults.
 大人としての自覚を胸に刻み、力強い一歩を踏み出してほしい。

They were born in 1993, when the Liberal Democratic Party-led government, which had held power since the merger of conservative parties in 1955, was replaced with a coalition government of non-LDP parties. Crown Prince and Princess Masako also married that year.
 新成人が生まれた1993年には、55年の保守合同以来続いた自民党政権に代わって、非自民の連立政権が誕生した。皇太子さまと雅子さまのご成婚もあった。

The years in which these young people grew up almost overlap the “two lost decades” when the Japanese economy faltered after the collapse of the asset-inflated bubble economy. There are concerns about a decline in their academic abilities because they received “cram-free education” from primary school to high school.
 この若者たちが育った時期は、バブル経済が崩壊して、日本経済が低迷を続けた「失われた20年」とほぼ重なる。小学校から高校までは、いわゆる「ゆとり教育」を受け、学力低下の懸念も指摘されてきた。

They are also a generation that mastered the skills needed in the age of information technology when they were still small, as the Internet and mobile phones have been available as long as they can remember.
 物心がついた頃にはネットや携帯電話が既に登場しており、情報化時代のスキルを子供のうちから身に着けた世代でもある。

Seiko Holdings Corp., which has conducted questionnaire surveys among new adults every year, says this year’s new adults tend to pursue a down-to-earth lifestyle.
 セイコーホールディングス社は毎年、新成人に対してアンケート調査を行っているが、それによると、今年の新成人は「堅実志向型」なのだという。

Asked what they place importance on, the largest number replied money. The largest number also said they want to spend more time studying. Of course, it is important to be down-to-earth like them, but we also hope they will have flexible mindsets and embrace challenges.
 大切にしたいものとして「お金」、増やしたい時間として「勉強」を挙げた人が最も多かった。そうした堅実さはもちろん大切だが、新成人には、柔軟な発想とチャレンジ精神も求めたい。

Young entrepreneurs needed

Aya Ozeki, now 21, used ¥300,000 that she saved to start a business to establish a fashion company in Tokyo when she was still in her second year of high school.
 例えば、現在21歳の大関綾さんは、高校2年生の時に、起業のために貯(た)めていた30万円を資本金として、東京都内にファッションの会社を設立した。

“I wanted to start a business when I could still capitalize on my youthful sensitivities,” she said.
「若い時の感性を生かせるうちに、起業したいと考えた」と話す。

Ozeki had a huge hit with her invention of a women’s necktie for businesswomen working actively in society, which nobody had conceived. She also developed a unique leather tie for men that is very easy to put on.
 社会で活躍するビジネスウーマンのために、誰もが思いつかなかった女性用のネクタイを考案し、大ヒットとなった。男性ネクタイでも、装着しやすいユニークな革製の商品を開発した。

The government is developing a system to help young people start companies through subsidies and other means. We hope many young entrepreneurs like Ozeki will emerge from among the new adults.
 政府も、補助金などによって、若者の起業を支援する体制を整えつつある。大関さんのような若い起業家が、新成人の中からも次々と出てくることを期待したい。

Japanese companies are facing fiercer-than-ever competition with both domestic and foreign rivals. If they are company employees, the new adults should clearly express their own ideas with the strong spirit to lead their companies.
 日本の企業は、国内だけでなく海外からも、これまで以上の激しい競争にさらされている。会社員なら、会社を引っ張る気概を持って、自分自身の考えをはっきりと主張していくことが重要だ。

Whether they are members of the working world or still students, we hope they will set a rock-steady goal and improve themselves toward achieving it.
 社会人であれ、学生であれ、しっかりと目標を立て、それに向かって自らを磨いてほしい。

By the time the new adults are 50, Japan is predicted to have transformed into a “piggyback” type of society, which means one working person will support one elderly person in a country with more elderly people and fewer children.
 新成人が50歳になる頃には、少子高齢化が一層進んで、現役世代1人の負担で高齢者1人の暮らしをまかなう「肩車型」の社会が到来するという。

However, it is the power of young people that will overcome the raging waves of the times, build a wealthy Japan and sustain the country’s future.
 時代の荒波を乗り越えて、豊かな日本を築き、未来を支えていくのは、若い力である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 13, 2014)
(2014年1月13日01時31分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

東京都知事選 「脱原発」訴える場に適するか

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 13, 2014
Tokyo gubernatorial race incongruous for blowing 'denuclearization' trumpet
東京都知事選 「脱原発」訴える場に適するか(1月13日付・読売社説)

There are indications the upcoming Tokyo gubernatorial election may adversely affect the conduct of state affairs.
 東京都知事選が国政に影響しかねない。そんな様相を呈してきた。

This is because former Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa has made clear his intention to run in the election, upsetting the widely expected scenario that former Health, Labor and Welfare Minister Yoichi Masuzoe would be the key figure in the Tokyo poll, as his bid is likely to be supported by the Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner, New Komeito.
 自民、公明両党の支援を受ける見通しの舛添要一元厚生労働相を軸に進んでいた選挙戦に細川護煕元首相が出馬の意向を固めたからだ。

Hosokawa apparently is poised to run on a campaign pledge to eliminate nuclear power plants and plans to seek the backing of another former prime minister, Junichiro Koizumi, who has called for “reducing the nation’s nuclear plants to zero.”
 細川氏は「脱原発」を掲げる意向で、「原発ゼロ」を唱える小泉元首相に近く協力を要請する。

Kenji Utsunomiya, former president of the Japan Federation of Bar Associations, who has already declared his intention to run in the Tokyo race with the support of the Japanese Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party, also argues that the nation should “break away from nuclear power generation.”
共産、社民両党が推す前日本弁護士連合会長の宇都宮健児氏も、「脱原発」を主張している。

What should be taken into consideration in this connection is that nuclear power generation is crucial to the central government’s overall energy policy. Any attempt to make the elimination of nuclear plants a major campaign issue in the Tokyo gubernatorial race is highly questionable.
 そもそも原子力発電は、国のエネルギー政策の根幹にかかわる問題だ。脱原発を都知事選の争点にしようとするのは疑問である。

Apparently in a move to prevent nuclear power from becoming a major issue in the Tokyo contest, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s administration is set to put off a decision, which was scheduled by the end of the month, on the government’s basic energy plan, a set of guidelines charting midterm and long-range energy policies. This means the Tokyo election has already begun to affect state affairs.
 都知事選での争点化を避ける狙いもあり、安倍政権は中長期的なエネルギー政策の指針となるエネルギー基本計画について、月内の決定を先送りする方針だ。国政への影響は早くも出始めている。

Should candidates spouting slogans to eliminate nuclear power generation garner large numbers of votes in the Tokyo poll, a mammoth power-consumption area, the prospects for reactivating some of the idled reactors would be adversely affected. The prime minister’s Abenomics business growth policy package, and the effort to rebuild the national economy, could be hampered.
 電力の大消費地である東京で、「脱原発」候補の票が伸びれば、原発再稼働への影響も避けられない。ひいては首相の経済政策「アベノミクス」の成長戦略、経済の再生に支障となる恐れもある。

Both LDP, DPJ disappointing

Developments over possible candidates in the Tokyo election also have begun to cast a shadow over the stability of the Abe Cabinet. There are signs in the ruling camp of a group distancing itself from the prime minister in the selection of a candidate for the Tokyo contest despite the current Diet situation that is referred to as “a single overwhelmingly strong party versus a host of weak ones.”
 政権の安定にも影を落としている。「1強多弱」と称される状況の中、都知事選の候補者選びを機に、与党内に安倍首相と距離を置く勢力が生まれつつある。

As former Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori put it: “There are those who are considering winning the election on the strength of support from Mr. Koizumi. I think this is a bit sneaky.” Mori’s remark indicates a strong sense of caution over the probable cooperation between Hosokawa and Koizumi, both of whom were popular as prime ministers.
 森元首相が「小泉さんの応援で選挙を勝とうと考える人たちがいるが、ちょっと卑怯(ひきょう)だ」と語ったのは、かつて国民的人気の高かった細川、小泉両氏が連携することへ警戒感を示したと言える。

Hosokawa’s intention of running for governor also has caused the opposition bloc to sit up and take notice.
 一方、野党側にも細川氏の出馬の意向は、波紋を広げている。

Some observers have pointed to the possibility of the Hosokawa-Koizumi alliance developing into a realignment of opposition parties with the aim of rallying anti-LDP political forces under the banner of ending Japan’s reliance on nuclear power generation.
脱原発を旗印に、自民党に対抗する政治勢力の結集を目指す野党再編に発展していく可能性があるとの指摘も出ている。

What we find disappointing is the stance the ruling and opposition camps have taken toward the Tokyo election. Neither the LDP nor the Democratic Party of Japan are fielding candidates on their own initiatives.
 情けないのは、都知事選に対する与野党の姿勢だ。自民、民主両党とも今回、党主導による候補擁立を見送った。

The LDP is set to throw its support behind Masuzoe. It should be noted that Masuzoe was expelled from the LDP after he criticized the party leadership when the LDP was out of power a few years ago. Understandably, there is a body of opinion within the LDP that is averse to Masuzoe, but he has won support from the ruling party because he is widely considered to emerge victorious.
 自民党は舛添氏を支援する。舛添氏は自民党の野党時代、党のあり方を批判して、除名された。党内には舛添氏への反発がくすぶっているものの、「勝てる候補」であることが優先された。

The DPJ, for its part, was initially inclined to back Masuzoe, but is now set to switch to Hosokawa. DPJ’s vacillation makes us wonder what the party really believes in.
 民主党は当初、舛添氏を推す考えだったが、細川氏支援に切り替えようとしている。党としての主体性はどこにあるのか。

The Tokyo gubernatorial election will be officially announced on Jan. 23 and voting and ballot counting will be held on Feb. 9.
 都知事選は23日に告示され、2月9日に投開票される。

A wide range of questions must be taken up in the campaign, including how to address the challenges leading up to the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics, the problem of the rapidly graying population and what measures should be taken if Tokyo is struck by an epicentral earthquake with its focus just below the metropolis.
2020年東京五輪・パラリンピックへの対応や、急速に進む人口の高齢化、首都直下地震への対策など様々な課題が問われる。

The issue of eliminating nuclear power generation must not be the sole focus of attention in the Tokyo election campaign.
脱原発だけに焦点をあててはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 13, 2014)
(2014年1月13日01時31分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月13日 (月)

国立文化施設 質の高い企画をもっと見たい

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 12, 2014
State-run museums should redouble efforts to improve exhibition quality
国立文化施設 質の高い企画をもっと見たい(1月12日付・読売社説)

Viewing master paintings and other cultural properties at museums and other places displaying fine art refreshes our hearts and minds.
 美術館や博物館で名画など数々の文化財に触れると心が洗われる。

As the new year starts, Tokyo National Museum is holding a special exhibition of such masterpieces as an Edo period folding screen designated as a national treasure.
 この正月、東京国立博物館は国宝の屏(びょう)風(ぶ)などを展示している。

Kyushu National Museum in Fukuoka Prefecture, which has been open since the first of the year, was reportedly thronged with people having just paid their first visit of the year to nearby Dazaifu Tenmangu shrine.
福岡県の九州国立博物館は、元日から開館し、太宰府天満宮での初詣を済ませた来館者でにぎわった。

We hope such facilities will continue to exercise their creative ingenuity in planning and managing a variety of events that will provide people with memorable experiences.
 各施設はこれからも創意工夫をこらした企画、運営で来館者を楽しませてほしい。

State-run cultural establishments have been earnestly working to attract larger numbers of visitors mainly in response to the launching in 2001 of the system of independent administrative institutions (IAIs), sometimes referred to in English as “incorporated administrative agencies.” Because of the adoption of the new system, the responsibility of managing the establishments was shifted from the central government to respective IAIs.
 国立の文化施設が集客に本腰を入れるようになったのは、2001年の独立行政法人制度の発足がきっかけだ。施設の運営主体が国から独法に移行した。

Up until the end of fiscal 2006, if the Finance Ministry recognized an IAI as having operated profitably due to its own managerial efforts, the IAI was allowed to spend its profits at its discretion to expand operations. This was thought to have greatly enhanced the willingness of the managers of the establishments to exert further efforts to draw spectators.
 「経営努力で利益が生じた」と財務省に認定されれば、利益を各独法の裁量で事業拡大に活用できた。それが、施設関係者の集客意欲を高めたと言えよう。

Three culture-related IAIs—the National Museum of Art, the National Institutes for Cultural Heritage and the Japan Art Council, all under the jurisdiction of the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry’s Cultural Affairs Agency—were provided with operating subsidies from the government, so that museums, art museums and theaters under the IAIs’ umbrellas would tackle newsworthy programs in collaboration with newspapers and other organizations.
 文化庁所管の国立美術館、国立文化財機構、日本芸術文化振興会の3独法は、政府から運営費交付金を受け、新聞社などと連携しながら美術館や博物館、劇場で話題性のある企画に取り組んだ。

Since fiscal 2007 on, however, the Finance Ministry has prohibited the three IAIs from spending at their own discretion even if they have operated profitably, making it obligatory for them to put any profits into the national coffers.
 しかし、07年度以降、財務省は3独法に収益があっても、独自に使うことを認めず、国庫に納付させるようになった。

Expand discretion of IAIs

Although the ministry took the measure because of the stringent conditions of government finances, there can be no denying that the step put the brakes on highly proactive projects of the culture-related establishments.
 国の厳しい財政事情はあるにせよ、文化施設の意欲的な試みにブレーキをかけた面は否めない。

Furthermore, when the Democratic Party of Japan was in power, the government decided to “abolish in principle” IAIs, and the Cabinet decided to integrate the three IAIs into a single entity.
 さらに、独法の「原則廃止」を掲げた民主党政権下では、3独法の統合が閣議決定された。

Government policies toward state-owned cultural establishments, however, have been changing significantly recently.
 国立文化施設に対するこうした政策は、変わりつつある。

As part of the changes, the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe decided toward the end of last year to ensure the three culture-related IAIs continue to operate as before.
 安倍内閣は昨年末、3独法の存続を決めた。

The current government basic stand of “implementing measures to abolish and integrate IAIs if and when doing so is considered truly useful in order to strengthen related policy enforcement functions, instead of making organizational changes solely to reduce their numbers” stands to reason.
「数合わせのための組織いじりではなく、真に政策実施機能の強化に資する統廃合のみを実施する」という政府の基本方針は理解できる。

In addition, the government, paying scrupulous attention to characteristics peculiar to the great variety of IAIs, has incorporated into its basic policy a plan to further encourage IAIs to expand the sphere of management of their activities at their own initiative. This is expected to expand the room for IAIs to use their profits at their own discretion.
 政府は、多種多様な独法の特性に留意し、自主的な運営をさらに推進することも方針に盛り込んだ。独法の裁量で収益を活用できる余地は広がる見通しだ。

One of the roles of the National Museum of Art, which is in charge of managing five state-owned art museums, is to help people nurture and enrich their cultural sensibility. The National Institutes for Cultural Heritage, which is tasked with running state-owned museums, must carry out the mission of preserving cultural properties to hand them down to posterity. The Japan Arts Council is charged with managing such facilities relating to Japan’s performing arts as the National Theater and National Noh Theater both in Tokyo.
 国立美術館には、人々の感性を育む役割がある。博物館を運営する国立文化財機構は、文化財を守り、次代に伝えていくことを使命としている。日本芸術文化振興会は、国立劇場や国立能楽堂などの運営を担っている。

Expectations will certainly surge for the three IAIs more strongly than ever to effectively execute their operations to promote the nation’s traditional culture by giving full play to their respective individuality.
 3独法には、独自性を発揮し、日本文化の振興につながる事業を展開していくことが、これまで以上に求められるだろう。

Given the three are public establishments, they are urged to pursue not only the goal of attracting more visitors but also the task of upgrading the quality of their exhibitions and public performances.
 公的施設である以上、集客だけでなく、展示や公演の質の向上も忘れてはならない。

They also should work out projects for using part of their profits for such things as building up their capabilities to conduct research and studies as well as collect cultural properties for preservation.
 調査研究機能の強化や文化財の収集などにも、事業収益を有効に活用すべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 12, 2014)
(2014年1月12日01時15分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

道徳の教科化 規範意識の涵養につながるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 12, 2014
Moral education classes could enhance social norms of kids
道徳の教科化 規範意識の涵養につながるか(1月12日付・読売社説)

It is important to cultivate from childhood the awareness to abide by the rules of society and show consideration to others. Therefore, it is crucial to improve moral education.
 社会のルールを守る規範意識を涵養(かんよう)し、他人を思いやる気持ちを培うことは大切だ。子供たちに対する道徳教育の充実が欠かせない。

A report, compiled by an experts’ panel on moral education set up by the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry, calls for moral education, which is not a regular subject at primary and middle school levels, to be treated as a “special subject” to improve the teaching of such classes.
 文部科学省の有識者会議が、正規の教科ではない小中学校の「道徳の時間」を「特別の教科」にして、授業のレベルアップを求める報告書をまとめた。

The experts’ panel examined the issue after the Education Rebuilding Implementation Council, which works directly under the prime minister, proposed in February that moral education should be made a regular subject as part of measures to prevent bullying at schools.
 政府の教育再生実行会議が昨年2月にいじめ防止対策の一つとして教科化を提言し、それを踏まえて検討が重ねられてきた。

It is reasonable that the government aims to call on schools to realize how important moral education is by giving it the status of a regular subject, thus improving teaching methods.
 教科としてきちんと位置付けることで、教育現場に道徳の重要性を再認識させ、指導の改善を図ろうとする方向性は妥当である。

Less value has been attached to moral education since the end of World War II in reaction to the moral education in prewar years that was propagated by nationalistic elements.
 戦後の道徳教育は、国家主義的色合いが濃かったとされる戦前の「修身」へのアレルギーから、必要以上に軽視されがちだった。

Currently, one moral education class is offered per week. However, it is up to teachers to decide how to conduct such classes because there is no official textbook. There are differences among schools and teachers in regard to moral education classes.
 現在、道徳の時間が週1コマ設けられているものの、教科書はなく、教え方は現場任せというのが実情だ。学校や教師によって、取り組み状況に差も見られる。

Some people have pointed out that moral education has lost substance, as some schools use slots designed for moral education to hold supplementary classes in other subjects.
 他の教科の補習などに振り替えられているケースもあり、かねて形骸化が指摘されていた。

However, many problems must be worked out before moral education can be made a regular subject.
 ただ、教科化を実現するにあたっては、課題が多い。

For instance, what kind of teaching materials should be used for moral education classes? The panel’s report called for the introduction of textbooks approved by the official screening system to provide teaching materials for such classes.
 例えば、どのような教材を用いるかだ。報告書は、教材を安定的に供給する観点から、検定教科書の導入を提案した。

Forcing values on children

Strong criticism has been voiced about making moral education a regular subject, with some people saying it could lead to the government forcing certain values on children. The panel apparently aimed to dispel these concerns by proposing that private-sector companies should compile textbooks for moral education.
 道徳の教科化に対しては、国による特定の価値観の押しつけにつながるとの批判が根強くある。民間の教科書会社に製作を委ねることにより、こうした懸念を払拭する目的もあるのだろう。

Innovative efforts by publishers on creating textbooks for moral education should be respected. However, to what extent should their products be approved if they are based on biased values or peculiar ideas?
 だが、教科書会社の創意工夫を尊重するにしても、仮に、偏った価値観や特定の主義主張に基づく教科書が作られた場合、どこまで認めていくのか。

When working out standards for screening textbooks for moral education, education authorities should have in-depth discussions by coming up with various scenarios.
 今後、具体的な検定基準を策定する際には、様々なケースを想定し、幅広い議論が求められる。

Moral education classes are supposed to be handled by homeroom teachers. This means that teacher-training programs at the university level and those for teachers offered by boards of education also should be reviewed. Teachers should be given access to appropriate methods for these classes.
 道徳の授業は、学級担任の教師が担当することになる。それなら大学の教員養成課程や教育委員会の研修を見直す必要もあろう。教師が適切な指導方法を習得できるようにすべきだ。

Providing academic assessments for children’s achievements in moral education classes is difficult, as they focus on students’ psychological development.
 道徳は子供の内面にかかわる分野だけに、成績評価が難しい。

It is understandable that the report proposed that children’s performances in moral education classes should be evaluated in written form, rather than numerical evaluations like Japanese, mathematics and other subjects.
 報告書が、国語や算数・数学など通常の教科のような数値評価ではなく、学習の様子を記述式で評価する方法を検討するよう促したのはうなずける。

Education authorities are encouraged to come up with an evaluation method under which teachers can make detailed records on each student’s efforts and development during moral education classes, rather than deciding who performs better than others.
 優劣をつけるのではなく、子供一人ひとりの努力や成長の足跡を丁寧に記録する。そんな評価の在り方を工夫したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 12, 2014)
(2014年1月12日01時15分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月12日 (日)

4月の消費増税 景気の腰折れ回避に万全期せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 10, 2014
Take firm measures to avoid severe downturn after consumption tax hike
4月の消費増税 景気の腰折れ回避に万全期せ(1月10日付・読売社説)

 ◆賃上げで「経済の好循環」実現を

The consumption tax is set to be raised to 8 percent from the current 5 percent, effective April 1.
 消費税率が4月に5%から8%に引き上げられる。

The government must make every possible effort to make the tax hike the first step toward achieving fiscal stability, while working with the private sector to prevent the business recovery from losing momentum further down the road.
財政健全化への第一歩にするとともに、官民で景気の腰折れを防がねばならない。

As a result of the Abenomics economic policy mix of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s administration, there have been clearer signs that business activities have embarked on a recovery path. Thanks to a rush in demand ahead of the tax increase, sales in such areas as durable goods have been doing well.
 安倍政権の経済政策「アベノミクス」の効果で景気の回復基調が鮮明になってきた。消費増税前の駆け込み需要で耐久消費財などの販売も好調だ。

The challenge of defeating deflation, however, is only half over, as the national economy has yet to be put on a sustainable growth track led by the private sector.
 だが、デフレ克服は道半ばで、日本経済はまだ、民間主導の持続的な成長には至っていない。

The possibility cannot be ruled out that consumer spending will stagnate in the wake of the upcoming tax hike, giving rise to fears that the economy could rapidly plunge into a severe downturn.
増税後、消費が低迷し、景気が急速に落ち込むことも懸念される。

It is only natural for the prime minister to have stressed that “should the economy lose the power to grow, everything could go wrong.”
 安倍首相が「成長する力を失ったら元も子もない」と強調しているのは当然だろう。

Burden on households
 ◆心配な家計の負担増

With a view to mitigating the negative impacts of the tax hike, the government is set to submit to an ordinary Diet session, to be convened late this month, a ¥5.5 trillion supplementary budget for fiscal 2013, as well as an initial state budget for fiscal 2014, of which the general account expenditures will run up to ¥95.9 trillion, an all-time high.
 政府は増税の影響を緩和するため、5・5兆円の2013年度補正予算案と、一般会計総額が95・9兆円と過去最大の14年度当初予算案を、今月下旬に始まる通常国会へ提出する。

The main pillars of both budgets will be disbursements for public works projects to stimulate business activities, but there has been a conspicuous number of cases in which no tender bids have been concluded, due to such reasons as labor shortages at construction sites and sharp rises in the cost of construction materials.
 両予算案とも公共事業が景気対策の柱だが、建設現場の人手不足や資材価格の値上がりで入札が不調となる例も目立つ。

Under the circumstances, the government must make both budgets become law as early as possible to implement them smoothly, giving priority to public works projects that are particularly necessary and will be highly effective in stimulating the economy.
 予算案を早期に成立させ、必要性や効果の高い事業を優先して円滑な執行を図るべきだ。

The government plans to provide businesses with generous measures, including the abolition in late March, a month earlier than scheduled, of special corporate tax levies to help resuscitate areas hit by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami. It will also introduce tax code revisions including tax cuts for corporate capital investment.
 政府は復興特別法人税を3月末に前倒しで廃止するほか、設備投資減税などの税制改正も行う方針で、企業向けの対策が手厚い。

What is worrisome is that the government can hardly be said to have paid adequate attention to household budgets.
 心配なのは、家計への配慮が十分とは言えないことだ。

After the tax hike takes effect, the burden on households will increase by more than ¥6 trillion a year, according to a Cabinet Office estimate. There are fears that the higher tax will damper consumers’ impetus to spend, possibly throwing cold water over prospects for a business pickup.
内閣府の試算によると、消費増税で家計の負担額は6兆円以上増える。増税が消費意欲を減退させ、景気に冷や水を浴びせる恐れがある。

With raw material prices soaring and a progressively weakening yen, markups have been continuing in one area after another, such as electricity bills and foodstuffs. If the consumption tax hike is accompanied by a vicious circle of price increases mainly due to rising costs, consumer sentiment may be dealt an even heavier blow.
 原材料価格の上昇と円安進行に伴い、電気料金や食料品などの値上げも相次いでいる。コスト高が主因の「悪い物価上昇」に消費増税が重なれば、消費への打撃はさらに大きくなろう。

The government is urged to materialize a virtuous economic circle in which businesses that are achieving improved profitability initiate wage hikes, which will lead to expanded consumer spending on the strength of higher household income, which in turn will further increase corporate profits.
 業績が好調な企業は、収益向上を賃上げにつなげ、家計の所得増で消費が伸び、企業収益がさらに拡大するという「経済の好循環」の実現に努めてもらいたい。

The prime minister has been calling for businesses to raise wages on such occasions as meetings since late late year between the government and representatives from large employers and trade unions, including the Japan Business Federation (Keidanren) and the Japanese Trade Union Confederation (Rengo).
 安倍首相は昨年来、経団連や連合との政労使協議などで企業に賃上げを求めている。

In his New Year’s press conference, Keidanren Chairman Hiromasa Yonekura said the nation’s most powerful business lobby has been asking member companies to raise salaries for their employees.
 経団連の米倉弘昌会長は新年の記者会見で「会員企業には賃上げをしてほしいとお願いしている」と述べた。

Yasuchika Hasegawa, chairman of the Japan Association of Corporate Executives (Keizai Doyukai), another major employers’ organization, has said, “The time is ripe for businesses to consider raising wages when a situation emerges in which prices are on the rise.”
経済同友会の長谷川閑史代表幹事も、「物価が上がる状況になれば賃上げを考える時期に来ている」と語った。

Annual spring wage negotiations between labor and management will kick off late this month. It is an encouraging sign that business circles are showing an increasing appreciation of the need for wage hikes.
 春闘は今月下旬から始まる。経済界で賃上げの必要性への理解が深まってきたのは心強い。

But no similar awareness has yet permeated small and midsize businesses that still have not seen the benefits of the business recovery. Expanding pay increases to include small and midsize companies in addition to big businesses is a part of the challenge ahead.
 ただ、景気回復の恩恵が行き渡っていない中小企業には、こうした認識は浸透していない。大企業に加えて、賃上げをいかに中小企業に拡大するかが課題である。

Smooth price shift vital
 ◆円滑な転嫁が不可欠だ

As Japan seeks to put the national economy on a steady path of growth, while at the same time dealing with the coming impact of the planned consumption tax hike, the management capability of individual firms will be tested as they are forced to make corporate decisions.
 消費増税を乗り越え、日本経済を着実に成長軌道に乗せる上で、経営体力に応じた企業各社の決断が問われよう。

Enabling businesses to pass on incremental costs that will be incurred with the April tax increase will be indispensable to a smooth transition in prices.
 4月の引き上げ時には、企業が増税分を円滑に価格転嫁できるようにすることも不可欠である。

In 1997, when the sales tax rate was lifted from 3 percent to 5 percent, the pleas of micro enterprises and small and midsize businesses to raise prices for their big business customers fell on deaf ears, leaving the smaller firms with no alternative but to hold prices steady.
 1997年の前回の増税時は、多くの中小・零細の納入業者が大企業に価格への上乗せを拒まれ、泣き寝入りを強いられた。

Last fall saw the government enforce a law on special measures to ensure a smooth and appropriate price pass-through, banning big enterprises from leveraging their positions of power to reject price shifts.
 政府は昨年秋に消費税転嫁対策特別措置法を施行し、大企業が強い立場を利用して価格転嫁を拒む行為などを禁止した。

However, it is difficult to discover this sort of irregularity in actual commercial transactions.
 商取引の現場で起きる不正を見抜くのは難しい。

We can expect suppliers to be hesitant to provide information to the government, for fear of being suspended from transactions by their customers, even if the suppliers have had their requests for price shifts rejected.
 転嫁を断られても納入業者が取引を停止されることを恐れ、政府への情報提供をためらうケースが想定される。

We urge the government to make it known to all concerned that this type of retaliatory action is banned under the law on special measures and to encourage all affected small and midsize companies to report these illegal acts.
 政府は対策法がこうした報復措置を禁じていることを周知徹底して、中小企業などに不当行為の通報を促してもらいたい。

Abe is expected to decide, possibly before the end of the year, on whether to further increase the sales tax to 10 percent in October 2015 as currently planned.
 首相は早ければ年末までに、消費税率を15年10月に10%へ引き上げるかどうかを決める意向だ。

Abe must choose prudently after a close examination of the impacts of the April tax increase.
 4月の増税が景気に与える影響を精査した上で、慎重に判断しなくてはなるまい。

Reduced rate system a priority
 ◆軽減税率の設計を急げ

If the rate is to be raised to 10 percent, a reduced tax rate system must be introduced simultaneously to keep taxes down on daily necessities.
 10%へ引き上げる場合は、生活必需品の税率を低く抑える軽減税率を同時に導入すべきだ。

The government plans to provide cash benefits to low-income earners as part of economic measures to accompany the upcoming jump to 8 percent.
 政府は消費税率を8%に引き上げる段階では、景気対策の一環として、低所得者に給付金を支払うことにしている。

But the effect of such a temporary provision of benefits is limited.
 だが、一時的な給付金の支給では、効果は限られる。

The adoption of a reduced rate system would be more effective because its benefits will be permanently extended to everyone, including low-income consumers.
 軽減税率なら低所得層を含む消費者全体へ持続的に恩恵が及び、より有効な手当てになろう。

In their tax system reform guidelines compiled late last year, the Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner New Komeito did not propose a clear date for adoption of the reduced tax rate system.
 自民、公明の与党は昨年末にまとめた税制改正大綱で、軽減税率の導入時期を明確にしなかった。

They must set its introduction to coincide with the introduction of the 10 percent tax rate, and they must also accelerate work on the design of the system, including determination of the reduced tax rates and the items to which these rates will apply.
10%への引き上げと同時の導入を決断し、税率や品目の選定など制度設計を急ぐ必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 10, 2014)
(2014年1月10日01時23分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

核燃料サイクル 公正な審査で前に進めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 11, 2014
Nuclear fuel recycling must be used to help supply nation with electricity
核燃料サイクル 公正な審査で前に進めたい(1月11日付・読売社説)

A plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and three related facilities in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, are of the utmost importance to Japan’s energy security. It is essential to advance works to check the safety of the facilities both scientifically and fairly.
 日本のエネルギー安全保障上、極めて重要な施設である。科学的かつ公正に、安全確認の作業を進めねばならない。

Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. has filed for regulatory safety screenings of the Rokkasho facilities with the Nuclear Regulation Authority.
 日本原燃が、使用済み核燃料の再処理工場(青森県六ヶ所村)と、関連する3施設について、安全審査を原子力規制委員会に申請した。

The spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is the core facility in nuclear fuel recycling. It is a massive chemical plant that discomposes spent nuclear fuel and extracts uranium and plutonium to use as fuel.
 再処理工場は、核燃料サイクルの中核となる施設である。使用済み核燃料を分解し、燃料として使えるウランやプルトニウムを取り出す巨大な化学プラントだ。

There is little equipment at the facilities that is subject to high temperatures and pressures. Therefore, the risk of an accident, in which the situation suddenly deteriorates during operations and large volumes of radioactive substances are emitted, is believed to be lower than that of nuclear power plants.
 高温高圧になる設備はほとんどなく、運転中に事態が急激に悪化して放射能が大量放出される事故のリスクは原子力発電所よりも低い、と考えられている。

The facilities, on the other hand, could trigger tremendous damage in the event of major fires and other accidents, impairing their ability to contain massive volumes of the radioactive substances they store.
 一方で、大量の放射性物質を貯蔵しているため、大規模火災などで放射能の封じ込め機能が損なわれると、被害は甚大になる。

It is essential for the NRA to conduct safety screening based on the characteristics of the Rokkasho facilities.
 規制委は、こうした再処理工場の特性に十分留意して、安全審査に臨むことが肝要である。

Based on what happened in the Great East Japan Earthquake, Japan Nuclear Fuel strengthened anti-quake measures and now has a far bigger earthquake in its disaster scenario. It also plans to improve ventilation equipment at the facilities. It is hoped that the NRA, as a regulatory body, will closely examine if these facilities are sufficiently prepared for natural disasters and terrorist attacks.
 原燃は東日本大震災を踏まえて地震対策を強化し、想定地震の規模を引き上げた。換気設備なども補強する。自然災害やテロへの備えは十分か。規制委として、しっかりと見極めてもらいたい。

Nuclear power is necessary

Nuclear power plants have a major role to play in the resource-scarce Japan. The country must utilize a certain portion of nuclear power to secure a stable supply of electricity.
 エネルギー資源に乏しい日本にとって原発の役割は大きい。今後も一定程度を活用し、電力の安定供給を図らねばならない。

For this, recycling nuclear fuel is a meaningful policy. Rather than discarding spent nuclear fuel, recycling will lead to the effective use of uranium resources and reduce the volume of radioactive waste.
 そのためにも、核燃料サイクルは有意義な政策である。使用済み核燃料を直接廃棄するより、ウラン資源の有効利用につながる。放射性廃棄物の量も減らせる。

Having begun research on nuclear fuel recycling in the 1960s, Japan has a good pool of technology it has developed. It is the only nonnuclear power that has been internationally sanctioned to use plutonium.
 日本は1960年代から核燃料サイクルの研究を始め、技術の蓄積がある。国際的にも、核兵器を持たない国として唯一、プルトニウム利用を認められている。

Making light of these achievements, the previous administrations of the Democratic Party of Japan considered abolishing the Rokkasho plant, only to decide to allow its continuation in the face of opposition from the Aomori prefectural government and other parties, which had cooperated with the government’s goal of introducing nuclear fuel recycling.
 こうした実績を軽んじ、民主党政権は、再処理工場の廃止を検討した。核燃料サイクル実現に協力してきた青森県などがこれに強く反発し、継続となった。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has made it clear the government will go ahead with nuclear fuel recycling.
“Our nation has a high level of technology by international standards,” Abe said at a meeting of the House of Councillors’ Budget Committee in May last year. “We will tackle [nuclear fuel recycling] in cooperation with other nations.”
 安倍首相は昨年5月に参院予算委員会で、「わが国は世界でも高い技術を有しており、世界各国と連携して取り組んでいく」と核燃料サイクルの活用を明言した。

The government should clearly define the nation’s nuclear power policies, including nuclear fuel recycling, in a basic energy program it plans to compile shortly and advance such policies accordingly.
 政府は近くまとめるエネルギー基本計画に、核燃料サイクルを含む原子力政策を明確に位置づけ、着実に進める必要がある。

Unless a certain number of nuclear power reactors go into operation again, there will be no use for recycled fuel. And if the nation stores a considerable amount of plutonium that can be used for nuclear weapons, it could come under criticism from the international community.
 一定数の原発が再稼働しないと、再処理で作った燃料の使い道はない。核兵器の材料にもなり得るプルトニウムをため込めば、国際的にも批判を浴びかねない。

The NRA, for its part, should accelerate its safety screening of nuclear power reactors, which are considerably lagging behind.
 規制委は、大幅に遅れている原発の安全審査を加速すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 11, 2014)
(2014年1月11日01時39分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

薬効データ改竄 捜査で真相は解明できるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 11, 2014
Prosecutors must find truth behind drug data manipulation
薬効データ改竄 捜査で真相は解明できるか(1月11日付・読売社説)

Public confidence in the effectiveness of pharmaceutical drugs has been badly damaged by the revelation of alleged manipulation of clinical research data.
 データ改竄(かいざん)により、医薬品の効能に対する信頼は著しく損なわれた。

Legal action against the company involved could be considered appropriate.
 刑事告発は当然の対応と言えよう。

The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has filed a criminal complaint with the Tokyo District Public Prosecutors Office against Novartis Pharma K.K. for allegedly using falsified clinical research data in its advertisements for the hypertension drug Diovan, in violation of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law.
 高血圧治療薬「ディオバン」の臨床研究データ改竄問題で、厚生労働省は、販売元のノバルティスファーマ社を薬事法違反(虚偽・誇大広告)の疑いで東京地検に告発した。

Who illegally manipulated the data? The key point in the alleged data fabrication has yet to be unraveled. We hope to see a full picture of what happened through investigations by the prosecutors office.
 誰がデータを不正に操作したのか。この問題では肝心な点が分かっていない。地検の捜査による全容解明を求めたい。

Clinical studies were conducted at five universities to monitor the effectiveness of Diovan. Research at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine and the Jikei University School of Medicine concluded that Diovan is effective in reducing the risk of stroke and other symptoms.
 ディオバンの効果を調べるための臨床研究は5大学で行われた。このうち、京都府立医大と慈恵医大では、脳卒中などのリスクが大幅に下がるとの結果が出た。

However, it was later found that essential data such as the number of patients and blood pressure counts had been fabricated.
 ところが、鍵となる発症者数や血圧のデータ改竄が判明した。

The key Novartis employee, now retired, who analyzed the data denied the alleged manipulation in investigations by the universities and the health ministry’s study team. This demonstrates the limit of investigations with no binding power.
 データを解析したノバ社の社員(退職済み)は、大学や厚労省検討会の調査で改竄を否定した。強制力のない調査の限界だろう。

Novartis advertised Diovan by utilizing papers from Jikei and other universities in medical journals and lecture meetings for doctors. Diovan posted annual sales of ¥100 billion in the total hypotensive drug market, where sales were about ¥900 billion a year.
 ノバ社は、慈恵医大などの論文を利用し、医学誌や医師向けの講演会で宣伝を展開した。年間約9000億円の降圧剤市場の中で、ディオバンの売り上げは年間1000億円に上った。

Heavy responsibility

The firm’s responsibility for advertising the drug based on groundless data is extremely heavy.
 根拠のないデータで薬を宣伝した企業の責任は極めて重い。

There are apparently many doctors who prescribed Diovan instead of lower-priced conventional drugs, taking for granted the truth of the advertisements. Drug costs are covered by health insurance premiums and money from state coffers. The alleged data manipulation therefore is believed to have had an adverse effect on medical insurance finances.
 宣伝を真に受けて、安価な既存薬の代わりにディオバンを処方した医師も多いとみられる。薬剤費は、保険料や国庫から拠出されている。医療保険財政に悪影響も及んだのではないか。

The universities that conducted the clinical research on Diovan are not subject to the criminal complaint, but they will have to take responsibility for publicizing papers based on the manipulated data. This is because they did not have their own experts on statistical analysis and left the data analysis entirely in the hands of the former Novartis employee.
 研究を行った大学は、刑事告発の対象にはならないが、改竄データに基づく論文を発表した責任は免れない。統計解析に関する自前の専門家がおらず、元社員に丸投げしていたからだ。

The pharmaceutical company has donated more than ¥1.1 billion to research laboratories of the five universities. A thorough probe must be conducted to find whether this led to distorting research results.
 5大学の研究室には、ノバ社から計11億円超の寄付金が支払われていた。研究がゆがめられたことと関係はないのか、徹底的に解明してもらいたい。

There are also many problems regarding medical societies.
 医学会にも問題は多い。

Despite the criticism against Jikei University’s papers that “the data is not trustworthy because the research program is liable to be regarded as overestimating Diovan’s effectiveness,” the Japanese Society of Hypertension adopted the papers as guidelines for treating hypertension.
 慈恵医大の論文に対しては、「ディオバンの効果が過大評価されやすい研究計画で、信用できない」という指摘もあった。それにもかかわらず、日本高血圧学会は、論文を診療指針に採用した。

Among those who compiled medical treatment guidelines and serve as executive members of medical societies are doctors who received a huge amount of donations from the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry.
 診療指針の作成者や学会幹部にも、製薬業界から多額の資金提供を受けた医師がいる。

Universities and related institutes need to tie up with businesses for drug research. But unless researchers can ensure a fair and impartial approach, such a tie-up amounts to nothing but collusion.
 大学などが医薬品研究で企業と連携することは必要だ。だが、研究者が中立公正の立場を保てなければ、それは癒着にすぎない。

Medical societies need to enhance the transparency of research expenses by fully disclosing the names of companies from which they have received financial donations.
 資金提供を受けた企業名の公開を徹底するなど、医学会は研究費の透明化に努める必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 11, 2014)
(2014年1月11日01時39分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月10日 (金)

米オバマ外交 問われる超大国の積極的関与

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 9, 2014
U.S. engagement essential for bringing peace, stability to global hot spots
米オバマ外交 問われる超大国の積極的関与(1月9日付・読売社説)

 ◆「アジア重視」具体化が課題だ

Stability in the international order is facing challenges in various regions, such as the Asia-Pacific region and the Middle East. To maintain peace and stability, a policy of forward engagement in these regions by the United States, the only superpower, is still essential.
 アジア太平洋地域や中東などで、国際秩序の流動化が進んでいる。平和と安定を維持するには、依然、唯一の超大国である米国による各地域への積極的な関与が欠かせない。

However, U.S. President Barack Obama’s plan to focus more on Asia—a strategic pivot of U.S. diplomacy and security policy more toward the Asia-Pacific region—has moved by fits and starts while the Obama administration is preoccupied with handling Middle East affairs.
 しかし、外交・安全保障政策の軸足をアジア太平洋に移すというオバマ米大統領の「アジア重視」路線は、中東政策に足を取られ、順調に進んでいない。

With his weak domestic political foundation, can Obama reshape his foreign policy? Various difficult issues await him ahead of his trip to several Asian countries scheduled for April.
 国内の政治基盤が弱いオバマ氏が、外交を立て直せるか。4月に予定されるアジア歴訪に向け、難題が待ち構えている。

Stumbling in Syria policy
 ◆シリア政策でつまずく

The Obama administration’s diplomatic limbo is epitomized by his Syria policy.
 オバマ外交の迷走ぶりを露呈したのが、シリア政策だ。

The civil war in Syria has killed at least 100,000 people. Last summer, Obama announced a plan to launch a military strike against Syria, on the grounds that the administration of President Bashar Assad had used chemical weapons. At the same time, he took the extremely unusual step of asking Congress to approve the military strike. His decision to have Congress share the burden of launching an attack on Syria gave his presidential prestige a black eye.
 10万人もの死者を出しているシリア内戦を巡り、オバマ氏は昨夏、アサド政権が化学兵器を使用したとして武力攻撃を表明した。同時に、攻撃の承認を議会に求めたのは極めて異例な措置だ。議会に攻撃の責任分担を促したことは大統領の威信低下にもつながった。

However, the U.S. pressure did produce a result. Before Congress was to vote on a resolution to approve the military attack, the Assad administration announced it would abandon its chemical weapons arsenal. The military strike was averted, and Assad was allowed to stay in power.
 米国の圧力が奏功した面もあり、議会が決議を行う前に、アサド政権は化学兵器の放棄に同意した。攻撃には至らず、政権の存続は容認された。

Neighboring countries of Syria that oppose the Assad administration, and antigovernment forces in Syria upbraided Obama over this “change of heart,” feeding distrust of the Obama administration. Obama himself probably thinks he made a miscalculation on this issue.
 アサド政権に反発する周辺諸国や国内の反政府勢力は、オバマ氏の態度を「変心」と見なし、不信感を募らせた。オバマ氏にも誤算だったのではないか。

On the issue of Iran’s nuclear program, Obama took the bold step of holding direct dialogue with new Iranian President Hassan Rouhani. The United States has since started negotiations with Iran, together with several other countries concerned, on the Iran nuclear issue. However, the future direction of these negotiations remains unclear because strong opposition to them remains within the U.S. Congress.
 イランの核問題では、オバマ氏はイラン大統領との直接対話に踏み切り、米国は関係国と共にイランとの核交渉を開始した。だが、米議会内に反対論が強く、交渉の行方は不透明になっている。

Most of the U.S. troops dispatched to Afghanistan are scheduled to withdraw from that country by the end of this year. As U.S. forces have already pulled out of Iraq, the United States is expected to put a tentative end to its war on terrorism, which has lasted for more than a decade since the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on U.S. soil.
 アフガニスタンに派遣されている米軍は、今年末をめどに大部分が撤収する。イラクの米軍は撤収済みであり、2001年の米同時テロ以来、十数年にわたる「テロとの戦い」には、一応の終止符が打たれる見通しだ。

War fatigue in U.S. society has generated a tendency among the public to dislike U.S. intervention and engagement in other countries’ affairs. This tendency to focus on domestic issues has also negatively affected Obama’s foreign policy.
 米社会では「戦争疲れ」のため、他国への介入や関与を嫌う傾向が顕著になっている。この米国民の「内向き志向」もオバマ外交に影を落としている。

Democrats vs Republicans
 ◆党派対立が懸念される

Obama is being forced to pay careful consideration to Congress, since his administration cannot make policy decisions as it would like because the ruling Democratic Party maintains a majority in the Senate but the Republican Party controls the House of Representatives.
 オバマ氏が議会への目配りを強いられるのは、与党の民主党が上院では過半数を維持するものの、下院は共和党に支配され、思うように政策決定できないからだ。

The Republican Party has continuously been on the offensive against the administration. Last year, the party thoroughly blocked the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, dubbed Obamacare, which Obama put into effect during his first term in office, resisting it even to the point of causing a partial shutdown of government functions in October.
 共和党は、政府に攻勢をかけ続けている。昨年は、大統領が1期目に成立させた医療保険改革(オバマケア)の実施を徹底的に妨害し、10月には政府機関の一部停止まで引き起こした。

Obama’s public approval rating briefly fell below 40 percent, his lowest ever.
 オバマ氏の支持率は一時、40%を切り、過去最低となった。

With a congressional midterm election set for November, it is certain that the Republicans will intensify their confrontational stance even further. Congressional management will be made more difficult for Obama. One cause for concern is that Obama’s diplomatic courses of action may be narrowed down.
 今年11月には、議会の中間選挙を控えており、共和党がより対決色を強めるのは確実だ。オバマ氏の議会運営は厳しいものとなろう。外交の選択肢が狭められることが懸念される。

Yet tension is only escalating in the Asia-Pacific region as China attempts to change the status quo by force. The situation in North Korea is also becoming ever more uncertain. We hope Obama will seriously tackle his diplomatic policy with emphasis placed on Asia.
 だが、アジア太平洋では、中国が力による現状変更を試み、地域の緊張は高まる一方だ。北朝鮮情勢も不透明感を増している。オバマ氏にはアジア重視路線に本腰を入れて取り組んでもらいたい。

Deterrence with allies
 ◆同盟国と共に抑止策を

The challenges the United States must tackle are obvious.
 米国が取り組むべき課題は明白だ。

One, in cooperation with its friends and allies in the region, is to hold back China’s expansionism, which deviates from international norms, as seen in its unilateral announcement of an air defense identification zone in the East China Sea.
東シナ海における一方的な防空識別圏設定で見られたような国際常識を逸脱した中国の膨張主義を、地域の同盟国や友好国と共に抑止することである。

The Obama administration has already worked out plans for boosting its navy ships in the Asia-Pacific region from the current 50 percent of the total U.S. fleet to 60 percent by 2020. The administration also plans to newly dispatch an additional 800 army troops to South Korea to boost its forces stationed there.
 オバマ政権は既に、アジア太平洋で活動する米海軍艦船を、20年までに全体の5割から6割に引き上げる構想を打ち出している。韓国には、800人規模の陸軍部隊を新たに派遣し、在韓米軍を増強するという。

In the economic field, negotiations on the conclusion of the Trans-Pacific Partnership accord, which will create a new free trade zone in the Asia-Pacific region with the United States and Japan taking the central roles, have entered the final stage.
 経済分野では、米国と日本が中心となって、アジア太平洋地域の新たな自由貿易圏となる環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)の交渉が大詰めを迎えている。

If the military plans or the trade accord, or both, become reality, they will have a strong restraining effect on China’s moves to seek hegemony in the region.
 いずれも実現すれば、中国の覇権を求める動きに対する強い牽制(けんせい)効果を持とう。

On the other hand, China’s President Xi Jinping told Obama, “The vast Pacific Ocean has enough space for two large countries like the United States and China,” calling for forging a new type of great-power relationship.
 一方、中国の習近平国家主席は、オバマ氏に「広大な太平洋には両大国を受け入れる十分な空間がある」と述べ、「新しいタイプの大国関係」の構築を求めた。

Xi’s remarks, made during their summit talks in June, are thought to indicate a scheme for dividing the Asia-Pacific region in two, and having the United States effectively approve the expansion of China’s sphere of influence in the western Pacific.
 アジア太平洋を二つに分割し、西太平洋における中国の勢力圏の拡大を米国に認めさせる構想と見られている。

It is worrisome that certain voices within the U.S. government seem to call for the country to side with China’s scheme of forging a new type of relationship between the two. Such calls are probably made in consideration of the two countries’ mutual economic dependence.
 気がかりなのは、米政府内に「新たな大国関係」に同調するかのような声があることだ。中国との経済面での相互依存に配慮しているからだろう。

Few countries—let alone U.S. allies such as Japan, South Korea, Australia and the Philippines—would be willing to accept a new international order led by China in place of the United States.
 日本や韓国、オーストラリア、フィリピンなどの同盟国はもとより、アジアで、米国の代わりに中国が主導する秩序を受け入れたい国はほとんどあるまい。

We hope Washington makes a cautious response.
米国には慎重な対応を望みたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 9, 2014)
(2014年1月9日01時57分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月 9日 (木)

homework 2014-01-09

หลอดไฟ
กรรไกร
ดอกไม้
รถไฟ
ร้องไห้
ไหว้
ลำไย
สไบ
บันได
lamp
scissors
flower
train
cry
pay respect
longan
breast cloth
ladder

| | コメント (0)

社会保障改革 消費増税を制度安定の契機に

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 8, 2014
Editorial / Consumption tax hike must support stable social security
社会保障改革 消費増税を制度安定の契機に(1月8日付・読売社説)

 ◆医療・介護費の抑制は不可避だ

In April, Japan’s consumption tax rate will be raised from 5 percent to 8 percent. The tax hike is placed as the main pillar of the nation’s integrated reform of the social security and tax systems, and the increase in tax revenues will be used exclusively for social security purposes.
 社会保障と税の一体改革の柱として、4月に消費税率が5%から8%に引き上げられる。増税分は全額、社会保障に充てられる。

We believe this is an opportunity to make 2014 the starting point to achieve the goal of building stable social security systems.
 今年を安定した社会保障制度の実現に向けた出発点としたい。

The rapid graying of society and the decrease in the working population have made our social security systems fragile.
 急速な高齢化と働く世代の減少により、日本の社会保障制度は揺らいでいる。

About a half century ago, about 10 working-age people supported each elderly person through our social security model. Now, just 2.4 working-age people shoulder the cost of supporting one elderly person. The scale of the human pyramid is expected to narrow even further by around 2050—when each elderly person will have to ride on the shoulders of one working-age person.
 約50年前には、10人の現役世代が1人の高齢者を支えていた。だが、今は2・4人で1人の「騎馬戦型」だ。2050年頃には、現役世代1人が1人の高齢者を支える「肩車型」社会が到来する。

Don’t let our children pay
 ◆次代につけを回すな

The nation is highly dependent on debt, chiefly government bonds, to cover the ballooning cost of pensions, medical care and nursing care. This has become the main source of the government’s deteriorating fiscal condition. We should no longer neglect the problem by simply passing down the current burden to future generations.
 増え続ける年金、医療、介護費用の財源は、国債など借金に大きく依存し、国の財政悪化を加速させる主因になっている。将来の世代への負担のつけ回しをこれ以上、放置できない。

The consumption tax hike will enable the government—at least for a while—to finance social security costs such as basic public pensions. It will increase the sustainability of our social security systems, a step toward the goal of achieving the systems’ long-term stability.
 消費増税によって、基礎年金などの財源をひとまず確保できる。社会保障制度の持続可能性が高まることは一歩前進である。

The increase in consumption tax revenues will also be used in building a system in which medical care and nursing care services join hands in supporting the lives of elderly people who choose to continue living at home. The money will also be used to reduce national health insurance premiums.
 増税分は、在宅の高齢者を支える医療と介護の連携体制の構築や、国民健康保険の保険料軽減などにも充てられる。

The government’s social security reform measures will be implemented under the assumption that the consumption tax rate will be further be raised to 10 percent in October 2015. It will be an important task for the government to steadily realize the second hike to solidify our social security systems. To do so, the government needs to carefully scrutinize how the nation’s economy reacts after the April hike.
 一連の改革は、2015年10月に予定される消費税率10%への引き上げが前提となっている。社会保障制度を強固にするには、景気の動向を見極め、税率8%からの再引き上げを着実に実施することが課題となる。

However, it is impossible to fully cover ballooning social security costs through consumption tax hikes, even after the second hike goes into effect.
 ただ、消費税率を10%に引き上げても、増大する社会保障費のすべてを賄うことはできない。

To realize the goal of achieving stable social security systems and putting the nation’s finances on a healthy footing, we cannot afford to put off trimming spending in the three fields of medical care, elderly care and pensions.
 安定した社会保障制度を実現し、財政健全化を図るには、医療、介護、年金の給付費抑制は待ったなしである。

The surge in medical care costs in particular is causing a headache. The government has decided to, in effect, decrease medical treatment fees paid from the national health insurance system to medical institutions for fiscal 2014, and we believe this judgment was appropriate.
 特に問題なのは、医療費の急増だ。政府が来年度の診療報酬の改定で実質的な引き下げを決めたのは適切な措置と言える。

It is also essential to improve efficiency and cut waste in medical services.
 医療を効率化し、無駄を省くことも欠かせない。

Currently, many elderly patients who have several diseases receive treatment at multiple medical institutions. As a result, the patients undergo unnecessary medical examinations and are administered drugs they do not need.
 複数の病気を持つ多くの高齢者が、いくつもの医療機関にかかり、検査や投薬を重複して受けている。

Not only is this is a waste of medical resources paid for by the government, but a considerable number of patients end up suffering from side effects of drugs excessively prescribed to them.
医療費の無駄遣いであるばかりでなく、薬の副作用により、かえって体調を悪化させているケースも少なくない。

Health insurance societies and other organizations that provide health insurance services should encourage subscribers not to seek unnecessary medical consultations. The medical expense statements of patients should be thoroughly examined, a possibility since record-keeping has improved through the use of computers.
 健康保険組合などの保険者は、電子化が進むレセプト(診療報酬明細書)の点検を徹底し、患者に重複受診の是正を促すべきだ。

In carrying out this plan, it will be advisable to take advantage of the “my number” system that will go into effect in 2016. The system will enable government offices in charge of three types of administrative duties and services—taxation, social security and disaster response—to manage the personal information of all individuals through 12-digit numbers.
 16年に創設される共通番号制度(マイナンバー)も活用したい。

After it goes into force, the system will for some time be used to carry out procedures for tax and social security benefit payments. If the scope of its use is expanded to include records of medical services received by individuals, it would do much to prevent them from seeking needless treatment and medication.
当面は納税や社会保障給付の手続きに使われるが、診療情報に利用範囲を拡大すれば、重複受診・投薬の防止に役立とう。

To relax the financial burdens shouldered by corporate and other workers, it also will be inevitable to require well-off elderly people to share burdens commensurate with their financial means in receiving medical services.
 現役世代の負担を軽減するため、経済力のある高齢者に相応の負担を求めることも不可避だ。

Excessive burden
 ◆過重な現役世代の負担

In April, there will be a rise in the percentage of medical fees paid by elderly people. The figure for those aged 70 to 74 will increase to 20 percent, as initially set in the revised Health Insurance Law of 2008. Despite this revision, the government has kept the ratio at 10 percent as an exceptional measure, fearing possible angry reactions from elderly people.
 70~74歳の医療費の窓口負担が4月、法定の2割に引き上げられる。

This means the government has had to dip into the national coffers to make up for massive losses since 2008. Therefore, it is reasonable for the government to raise the ratio of medical fees to be paid by those in that age bracket.
高齢者の反発を恐れ、政府は08年以降1割に据え置き、穴埋めに巨額の国費を投入してきた。引き上げは当然の措置である。

A similar measure will also be taken in regard to government-administered nursing care insurance services. The share of expenses covered by high-income recipients will be raised from 10 percent to 20 percent. This is essential if the state-run nursing care insurance system is to be maintained.
 介護保険サービスでは、高所得者を対象に、自己負担率を現在の1割から2割に引き上げる。制度維持のためにはやむを得まい。

What should be done to halt the drop in the number of workers, which form the backbone of the social security systems? The entire matter must be explored from this point of view, when it comes to sustaining the systems in future.
 担い手となる現役世代の減少をどう食い止めるか。社会保障制度を将来にわたって安定させるには、この視点も不可欠だ。

The nation’s total fertility rate (TFR)—the number of babies born to a woman during her lifetime—stands at only 1.41. The number of newborn babies was at an all-time low last year. The total population declined by a record 244,000 in 2013, an indication that the reduction will likely accelerate further in future. Efforts should be made to encourage young people to marry, while also assisting parents in raising their children.
 1人の女性が生涯に産む子供の数を示す合計特殊出生率は1・41にとどまり、昨年の出生数は過去最少だった。人口減は最大の24万4000人に達し、今後一層、加速する。若者の結婚、育児支援に力を入れる必要がある。

We hope the government will take a broad range of steps to address problems arising from the low birthrate. Measures should be taken to ensure no children are on waiting lists for day care centers. This would enable parents to raise their children while continuing to work outside their homes.
 働きながら子育てできる環境を整えるため、保育所の待機児童解消など、政府は幅広い少子化対策を講じてもらいたい。

The growth in the number of nonregular employees is another cause for worry. In most cases, they earn so little that they pay low taxes and social insurance premiums. Measures should be taken to improve their employment conditions.
 非正規労働者の増大も懸念材料である。所得が低く、税や社会保険料の納付額が少ないからだ。非正規雇用の待遇改善を図ることも求められる。

There is a mountain of tasks to be carried out in resolving problems related to social security systems. However, political leaders have been slow to reform these systems.
 社会保障制度を巡る問題は山積しているが、改革を進める政治の動きは鈍い。

Push 3-way discussions
 ◆自公民協議を推進せよ

This is evident in the fate of a three-party reform plan adopted in 2012, under an administration led by the then ruling Democratic Party of Japan. The DPJ, the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito agreed to reform the social security and tax systems in an integrated manner, mainly featuring an increase in the consumption tax rate.
 消費増税を柱とする社会保障と税の一体改革は、民主党政権時代に自民、公明、民主3党の合意で決定された。

However, the DPJ withdrew from three-party negotiations in August 2013 after the government’s National Council on Social Security System Reform put together a final report detailing its recommendations. The DPJ defended its move by saying its recommendations had not been reflected in the report.
 だが、昨年8月、社会保障制度改革国民会議の報告書がまとまった際、民主党は自らの主張が反映されていないことを理由に、3党協議から離脱した。

Though the DPJ said it would return to the three-party talks later, little progress has been made in facilitating discussions on the issue. It should cooperate in the talks, given its earlier initiative in forming the three-party accord.
 その後、協議に戻ることを表明したが、議論は停滞している。3党合意を主導した民主党は、協議の進展に協力すべきだ。

Social security reform is an important task that must be tackled by whatever political party is in power.
 どの党が政権を担っても、社会保障制度の改革は避けて通れない重い課題である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 8, 2014)
(2014年1月8日01時27分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月 8日 (水)

homework 2014-01-08

ดีใจ
เรือใบ
ใบไม้
ให้
ผู้ใหญ่
ในตู้
ใต้ถุน
ใส่
หัวใจ
สะใภ้
ปีใหม่
ของใช้

glad
sailboat
leaves
give
adult
in the closet
basement
wear
heart
daughter in law
new year
use

| | コメント (0)

ロシア連続テロ ソチ五輪の安全確保が急務だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 7, 2014
Ensuring security for Sochi Games essential in light of recent bombings
ロシア連続テロ ソチ五輪の安全確保が急務だ(1月7日付・読売社説)

The Russian government is urged to absolutely ensure the security of the Sochi Winter Olympic Games, which are set to open in one month.
 ロシア政府は、開幕が1か月後に迫ったソチ冬季五輪の安全確保に万全を期してもらいたい。

Late last month, suicide bombings that targeted a railway station and a trolleybus occurred two days in a row, killing more than 30 people, in Volgograd, a major city about 700 kilometers northeast of Sochi on the Black Sea coast.
 黒海沿岸のソチから北東約700キロに位置する大都市ボルゴグラードで先月末、鉄道駅やトロリーバスを狙った自爆テロが2日連続で発生し、計30人以上が死亡した。

In the Dagestan Republic in the North Caucasus region, adjacent to Sochi, terrorist attacks have occurred one after another, killing several people.
 ソチに隣接する北カフカス地方にあるダゲスタン共和国でもテロが相次ぎ、数人の死者が出た。

The recent series of indiscriminate terrorist attacks are believed to be the acts of Islamic extremists and may have been committed by an armed group, which has announced its intention to obstruct the Sochi Games through terror attacks, while calling for the independence of the North Caucasus, which has a large population of Muslims, and the establishment of an Islamic state there.
 一連の無差別テロは、イスラム過激派の犯行とみられている。中でも、イスラム教徒が多い北カフカスの独立とイスラム国家樹立を主張して、テロによるソチ五輪妨害を表明した武装組織が関与した可能性が指摘されている。

This is a worrisome situation. Whatever purposes these attacks may have, terrorism must not be tolerated.
 憂慮すべき事態である。犯行目的が何であれ、テロは決して許されない。

Yet there is no denying that the high-handed political stance of Russian President Vladimir Putin has exacerbated the opposition among Muslims, as he has repressed minorities, media and political forces that do not agree with his administration.
 ただ、プーチン露大統領の強権的な政治姿勢が、イスラム教徒らの反発を増幅させている側面も否定できない。政権の意に沿わない少数派やメディア、政治勢力を力で抑圧してきたからだ。

It is deemed inevitable the leaders of such countries as the United States, Germany and France have decided not to attend the opening ceremony of the Sochi Olympics, on the grounds of human-rights issues in Russia.
 米独仏などの首脳が、人権問題を理由に、ソチ五輪開会式への出席を見送ることにしたのは、やむを得ないのではないか。

At least for now, it is a matter of urgency to prevent terrorist attacks at the Winter Games, where athletes, senior officials of foreign governments and spectators will gather from around the world.
 当面は、世界中のアスリートや政府要人、観客らが集う五輪をテロから守ることが急務である。

Areas in and around Sochi have already been put under tight security, with the police and military forces mobilized. But even tighter security is needed.
 ソチ周辺では既に、警察や軍による厳戒態勢が敷かれているが、一層の警戒が必要だ。

Other targets possible

Other cities and areas, such as Moscow, may also become a target of terrorism. We hope the Russian government will be on alert against terrorism nationwide.
 モスクワなど他の地域が狙われる可能性もある。ロシア全土でテロ対策を強化してほしい。

Following the deadly attacks in Volgograd, Putin said, “We'll fiercely and consistently continue the fight against terrorists until their complete annihilation.” He may also intend to show regional stability both at home and abroad by hosting a successful Winter Games, set to be held near the unstable region of the North Caucasus.
 プーチン氏はテロ発生後、「テロリストを完全に壊滅させるまで徹底した戦いを続ける」と述べた。不安定な北カフカス近くで五輪を成功させ、地域の安定を内外に誇示する意図もあるようだ。

The Russian authorities have said that last year they killed 260 members of extremist groups in the North Caucasus region and elsewhere. It is certain that they will continue to vigorously carry out cleanup operations.
 ロシア当局は昨年、北カフカスなどで過激派260人を殺害したと発表した。さらに激しいテロ掃討作戦が行われるのは確実だ。

Yet it is difficult for force alone to end terrorism and solve the fundamental problem.
 だが、武力だけでテロを終息させることは難しく、根本的な問題解決にはつながるまい。

The Putin administration has used force to bring an armed Islamic force under control in Chechnya in the same region. However, rebels who escaped the offensives by Russian forces have continued to operate in Dagestan and elsewhere.
 プーチン政権は、北カフカスにあるチェチェン共和国のイスラム武装勢力を軍事力で制圧した。その際、攻撃を逃れた残党がダゲスタンなどで活動を続けている。

To bring about lasting regional stability, it is essential to help enhance the poverty-stricken people’s livelihood in the region so as to keep the area from becoming a hotbed of terrorism.
 地域の長期的安定には、貧しい北カフカスの住民生活を向上させ、テロの温床にならないようにすることが肝要である。

In Sochi, a Group of Eight summit meeting will also be held in June. It can be said the credibility of the Putin administration is at stake over its ability to maintain public peace.
 ソチでは今年6月、主要8か国(G8)首脳会議も開かれる。治安の維持に、プーチン政権の威信がかかっていると言えよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 7, 2014)
(2014年1月7日01時32分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

首相年頭会見 「好循環」を看板倒れにするな

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 7, 2014
Abe mustn’t allow ‘virtuous circle’ to end up as a mere empty slogan
首相年頭会見 「好循環」を看板倒れにするな(1月7日付・読売社説)

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe will be tested this year on whether the government will be able to overcome the impact of the consumption tax hike scheduled for April and revitalize the economy.
 4月の消費税率引き上げを克服し、経済再生を実現できるか、結果が問われる1年となろう。

In a New Year’s news conference in Ise, Mie Prefecture, on Monday, Abe expressed his firm resolve to place top priority on ending deflation, saying the government will work toward “ensuring the economic recovery is felt by the people in the form of an increase in their income.”
 安倍首相は、三重県伊勢市で年頭の記者会見を行い、デフレ脱却に最優先で取り組む決意を表明した。「景気回復の実感を収入アップという形で国民に届けたい」と強調した。

To prevent business from being adversely affected because of the consumption tax increase and to conquer deflation, it is indispensable to realize a virtuous business circle in which pay raises by high-flying firms help boost personal consumption and lead to an increase in corporate profits.
 消費増税に伴う景気腰折れを防ぎ、デフレから抜け出すには、業績好調な企業が賃上げして個人消費を伸ばし、それを企業の収益増に結びつけるという経済の好循環を実現することが欠かせない。

The prime minister has said the ordinary Diet session to be convened later this month should “realize a virtuous circle.” This must not end up as a mere empty slogan.
 首相は、通常国会を「好循環実現国会」と位置づけたが、看板倒れにしてはなるまい。

First and foremost, it is necessary to realize early Diet passage of the supplementary budget for fiscal 2013, including a stimulus package totaling about ¥5.5 trillion, a large-scale budget for fiscal 2014, starting in April, and tax system reform-related bills.
 まず、約5・5兆円の経済対策を盛り込んだ2013年度補正予算案と、14年度の大型予算案、税制改正関連法案の早期成立を図る必要がある。

Abe also expressed his intention to push forward regulatory reform centering on employment, human resources, agriculture, medical treatment and nursing care as the government aims to revise its growth strategy in the middle of 2014.
 首相はまた、今年半ばの成長戦略改訂を目指し、雇用、人材、農業、医療、介護を中心に規制改革を進める意向も明らかにした。

The growth strategy, the third arrow to the Abenomics quiver of economic policies, is lackluster. We hope the government will break through the regulation wall, which is as hard as bedrock, thereby giving momentum to economic growth.
 アベノミクスの第3の矢である成長戦略は物足りない。岩盤のような規制の打破に踏み込み、成長に弾みをつけてもらいたい。

Array of challenges

In regard to the Liberal Democratic Party’s demand for tariffs on rice, wheat and three other items to be treated exceptionally in the ongoing Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations on a multinational free trade agreement, Abe said the government “will try to come up with various ideas before deciding where to make a final landing from a comprehensive viewpoint.”
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉で自民党がコメ、麦など重要5項目の関税を聖域扱いにするよう要求している点について、首相は「最終的な着地点をどう見いだすか。知恵を出して大局的な判断をする」と語った。

Due to the wide gap between Tokyo and Washington, the target to reach an agreement on the TPP before the end of last year was postponed. The government must explore ways to break the logjam.
 日米の溝が深く、昨年中の合意は見送られた。政府は、事態の打開策を探るべきだ。

Concerning nuclear reactors that have been idled, Abe said the government “will judge whether to restart them after they pass strict new safety standards.” His statement means his administration will press ahead on restarting reactors pending confirmation of their safety.
 首相は、運転停止中の原子力発電所について、「厳格な新安全基準を乗り越えた原発の再稼働を判断していく」と述べた。安全性を確認できた原発については再稼働を進める意向なのだろう。

Utility rates have soared due to the rise in fuel costs for thermal power generation, which is substituting for nuclear power. This has adversely affected corporate activities and households. Abe must give detailed explanations on the need to restart reactors when he seeks the understanding of local governments and residents concerned.
 原発を代替する火力発電の燃料費増で、電気料金が値上がりし、企業活動や家庭に悪影響を及ぼしている。首相は再稼働の必要性について丁寧に説明し、地元の理解を得なければならない。

China and South Korea have been increasingly protesting Abe’s recent visit to Yasukuni Shrine, and Washington has expressed “disappointment” at his visit. In this connection, Abe only said, “I would like to explain my real intentions directly [to Beijing and Seoul].”
 首相の靖国神社参拝について、中国、韓国は反発を強めている。米国も参拝に「失望」を表明した。これに関し、首相は、中韓両国に対し「私の真意を、直接、誠意をもって説明したい」と述べるにとどめた。

Abe should take steps to ensure the Japan-U.S. alliance remains firm, while exploring ways to improve relations with China and South Korea.
 首相は中韓との関係改善を探るとともに、日米同盟が揺らがぬよう手立てを講じるべきだ。

He also said he planned nationwide discussions in preparation for changing the constitutional interpretation of the country’s right to collective self-defense and revising the Constitution. It is essential to steadily move ahead with these matters.
 集団的自衛権の憲法解釈変更や憲法改正に向けて、国民的議論を深める意向も表明した。着実に前へ進めていくことが肝要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 7, 2014)
(2014年1月7日01時32分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月 7日 (火)

安倍外交と安保 日米で対中国戦略を強化せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 6, 2014
Japan, U.S. must bolster strategy for coping effectively with China
安倍外交と安保 日米で対中国戦略を強化せよ(1月6日付・読売社説)

 ◆集団的自衛権の「行使」を可能に

The international situation surrounding Japan remains opaque.
 日本を取り巻く国際情勢は「視界不良」の状態が続いている。

To maintain our nation’s peace and prosperity, it is imperative to map out and implement diplomatic and security policies more actively and strategically than ever before.
自国の平和と繁栄の維持には、より能動的で戦略的な外交・安全保障政策を展開することが欠かせない。

The most important task in addressing this challenge is to beef up Japan’s alliance with the United States.
 その中核的な役割を担うのは、やはり日米同盟の強化である。

In particular, North Korea’s nuclear weapons and missile development programs and China’s arms buildup and maritime advances have been destabilizing the whole Asia-Pacific region.
 北朝鮮の核・ミサイル開発や中国の軍備増強と海洋進出は、アジア太平洋地域全体を不安定化させている。

Under the circumstances, it is crucial to enhance the deterrent power of the Japan-U.S. alliance, which has been rated highly by many countries in the region as an “international public good.”
多くの域内国から「国際公共財」と評価される日米同盟の抑止力を高めることが急務だ。

Beef up defense guidelines
 ◆防衛指針の改定が重要

Toward the end of last year, the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe created the Japanese version of the U.S. National Security Council and mapped out the National Security Strategy.
 安倍内閣は昨年末、国家安全保障会議(日本版NSC)を設置し、国家安保戦略を策定した。

The Abe administration has also won approval from the Okinawa prefectural government for land reclamation required to relocate the functions of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station in the prefecture to the Henoko district on the prefecture’s northeastern coast.
米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設に伴う埋め立て承認も沖縄県から取り付けた。

Both the establishment of the NSC and the progress on the Futenma relocation are highly conducive to solidifying the alliance.
いずれも強固な同盟関係の構築に向けて重要な意義を持つ。

As its top priority this year, the government should conduct a long-overdue review of the conventional interpretation of the Constitution regarding this country’s right to collective self-defense.
 今年、優先して取り組むべきは、長年の懸案である集団的自衛権の憲法解釈の見直しである。

Under the current interpretation, the Self-Defense Forces are not allowed to retaliate even if a nearby U.S. military vessel is attacked, having no choice but to turn a blind eye to the situation. This could cause the Japan-U.S. alliance to crumble at its foundation.
 近くで米軍艦船が攻撃されても自衛隊は反撃できず、看過するしかない。そんな事態に陥ったら同盟関係は成り立たない。

Changing the existing constitutional interpretation that this country “has the right to collective self-defense but cannot exercise it,” thereby making exercise of the right possible, would represent a major step toward rectifying the asymmetry in the bilateral alliance, in which the United States has “an obligation to defend Japan, but Japan has no obligation to defend the United States.”
 「集団的自衛権を有するが、行使できない」との憲法解釈を変更し、行使を可能にすれば、「米国は日本を守るが、日本は米国を守らない」という非対称の同盟を是正する大きな一歩となる。

It is crucial for the government to iron out differences between its views and those of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau and New Komeito, which either oppose altering the current constitutional interpretation or are wary of such a change. Abe should lead the way in calibrating these views.
 その実現には、反対・慎重論が強い内閣法制局や公明党との調整がカギだ。安倍首相は、指導力を発揮してもらいたい。

Also high on the agenda is yet another revision to the guidelines for defense cooperation between Japan and the United States scheduled for late this year.
 年末に予定される日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)の再改定も、重要課題となる。

The current guidelines resulted from the revision in 1997 of earlier ones. The current guidelines primarily take into account a possible crisis on the Korean Peninsula, providing specifics about the SDF’s logistic support for U.S. forces. A law was passed in 1999 concerning SDF operations to assist U.S. military forces during an emergency in areas surrounding Japan, but as yet the government has had no occasion to recognize such an emergency as stipulated by the law.
 1997年に改定された現指針は、朝鮮半島有事を念頭に、自衛隊の米軍支援の具体的な内容を定めた。99年には周辺事態法も制定されたが、その後、周辺事態の認定は一度もない。

To make it possible for the SDF to deal promptly with such crises as the seizure of a remote island in Japan’s territory by Chinese agents pretending to be fishermen, the forthcoming Japan-U.S. security guidelines should specify a new framework for close cooperation between the SDF and U.S. forces even in “gray areas” between peacetime and emergencies.
 中国の偽装漁民による離島占拠といった事態に迅速に対処するため、平時と有事の中間にある「グレーゾーンの事態」の段階から自衛隊と米軍が緊密に連携する枠組みを新指針で示すべきだ。

Another essential task is to ramp up the SDF’s patrol and surveillance capabilities as well as rapid response preparedness based on the new National Defense Program Outline drawn up toward the end of 2013.
 昨年末に策定した新防衛大綱に基づき、自衛隊の警戒監視・即応体制を増強することも大切だ。

Some argue that strengthening Japan’s defense capabilities would stir up adverse reactions from neighboring countries, thus worsening the nation’s security environment.
 防衛力の強化は周辺国の反発を招き、むしろ安全保障環境が悪化する、との主張が一部にある。

It should be noted, however, that China continued its large-scale arms buildup even as Japan’s defense expenditures shrank for 10 consecutive years.
だが、中国などは、日本の防衛予算が10年連続で減少している間も大幅な軍備増強を続けてきた。

Diplomacy and military affairs are closely connected. Unless both are reinforced, Japan cannot defend its territory and our national interests.
 外交と軍事は車の両輪だ。双方を強化しないと、領土を守り、国益を確保することはできない。

The issue of how to face China, which has gained power militarily and economically and does not mind changing the international order by force, is a concern not only for Japan but also for the international community.
 軍事、経済面で台頭し、力による国際秩序の変更も辞さない中国とどう向き合うかは、日本だけでなく、国際社会共通の懸案だ。

Recover lost ground
 ◆靖国の失点を回復せよ

There is no denying that Abe’s recent visit to Yasukuni Shrine has given China an excuse to criticize Japan and has weakened Japan's partnership with other friendly countries.
 安倍首相の靖国神社参拝が、中国に日本批判の口実を与え、国際連携を弱めたのは否めない。

Before Abe’s visit to the shrine, it was China’s self-righteous behavior, including its unilateral establishment of an air defense identification zone, that drew criticism from the international community. But Japan, too, may be held responsible for worsening the regional situation. The government should not make light of the fact that the United States, Japan’s ally, expressed “disappointment” with Abe’s visit to the shrine.
 従来は、防空識別圏の一方的な設定など、中国の独善的な振る舞いが国際社会で問題視されていたが、今後、日本にも情勢悪化の責任があるとの見方が広がりかねない。同盟国の米国による「失望」表明を軽視すべきではない。

It is important that Abe, first of all, hold close talks with the U.S. side and explain the true intention of his visit, while at the same time working out Japan’s mid- and long-term strategies toward China.
 安倍首相はまず、米国と緊密に協議し、靖国参拝の真意を説明するとともに、中長期的な対中国戦略を練ることが肝要だ。

In cooperation with South Korea, Australia and Southeast Asian countries, Japan must persistently urge China to comply with international standards and “act responsibly.”
 韓国、豪州、東南アジアとも連携し、中国に、国際規範を順守し、「責任ある行動」を取るよう粘り強く促さねばならない。

Since the government nationalized some of the Senkaku Islands in September 2012, Japan-China relations have plunged to what is said to be their worst level in postwar history, and no summit talks have been held since the nationalization. Japan must assume this situation may last for a protracted period.
 日中関係は一昨年9月の尖閣諸島の国有化以来、首脳会談が開けず、戦後最悪と言われる。この長期化も覚悟する必要がある。

Needless to say, Japan must not make any concessions whatsoever over territorial issues.
 無論、日本は領土問題で一切の譲歩をすべきではない。

But closing the door on bilateral dialogue and cooperation in such fields as economic and environmental issues would be detrimental to both countries.
ただ、経済、環境などの分野の対話や協力まで閉ざすことは、日中双方にマイナスだ。

To explore ways to cooperate on these practical issues may help both countries take a step forward toward returning to the “mutually beneficial relationship based on common strategic interests.”
こうした実務的な連携を模索することが「戦略的互恵関係」に回帰する一歩となろう。

Foreign visits important
 ◆国益重視の外国訪問を

Advocating “proactive contributions to peace,” Abe went abroad on 13 occasions last year, visiting 25 countries, including all the 10 members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. He will visit India, Ethiopia and four other countries this month.
 「積極的平和主義」を主唱する安倍首相は昨年、13回も外遊し、東南アジア全10か国を含む25か国を訪問した。今月も、インド、エチオピアなど6か国を訪れる。

Diplomacy is a hardheaded game in which a country has to do its utmost to gain more friends and expand its national interests to the maximum. Strategically building amicable relations with as many countries as possible will become an asset for Japan’s diplomacy.
 外交は、いかに仲間を増やし、自国の利益を極大化するか、という冷徹なゲームだ。より多くの国と良好な関係を戦略的に構築することが日本外交の財産となる。

In recent years, prime ministers were replaced almost annually, making it difficult for Japan to pursue head-of-state diplomacy. Visits to foreign countries by Abe, who can expect a long-term administration, can be utilized as an important diplomatic card.
 近年は、首相交代が年中行事化し、首脳外交もままならなかったが、長期政権を視野に入れた安倍首相の外国訪問は重要な外交カードとして活用できる。

It is essential for Japan to enhance its presence internationally by proactively becoming involved in crafting international security rules, such as those on maritime activities and nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, in addition to pursuing its economic diplomacy in such fields as exports of infra-structure-related technology, energy and free trade agreements.
 インフラ輸出やエネルギー、自由貿易協定など経済外交に加え、海洋活動、大量破壊兵器の拡散防止など安全保障分野の国際ルール作りにも積極的に関与し、日本の存在感を高めることが肝要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 6, 2014)
(2014年1月6日01時31分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月 6日 (月)

ミヤンマー進出をお考えの企業ならば、まずファンワードへコンタクト

私事で恐縮ですが、現役時代にミヤンマーで働いた経験があります。
当時はミヤンマーが、まだビルマと呼ばれていた時代なんですが、当時の首都はラングーン(現在のヤンゴン)と呼ばれていました。
ミヤンマー人と机を並べて仕事をした経験もあるのですが、ミヤンマーは中国と同じように、大変に親日家が多い国なんです。
滞在したのはわずか一年間なんですが、その間、幾多の困難に見舞われたプロジェクトもミヤンマー側のエンジニアたちの努力により救われたりしました。
で、私にとっては、まさにミヤンマーは天国のようなところだったのです。

さて、尖閣列島問題で先行き不透明な日中関係なんですが、リスクを予感して現地から引き上げる会社が後を経ちません。
それで、中国の代替え地として注目されているのがミヤンマーなんです。
ミヤンマーの首都はヤンゴン(ラングーン)とマンダレーの中間点にあるネピドーに移されていますが、経済の中心がヤンゴン(ラングーン)であることは当時とまったく変わりません。
日本企業のミヤンマー進出を支援する会社として、ファンワードという会社を紹介します。

日本の企業が現実にミヤンマーに進出するために必要欠くべからざるものがあります。
日本の商社の協力と現地技術者の協力が不可欠なんです。
ファンワードは現地技術者の協力という側面で、日本のミヤンマー進出企業を強力にサポートしてくれる会社なんです。
ビルマ進出企業にはファンワード のご利用をおすすめします。

余談ですが、ビルマ語にはタイ語のように、発音に声調がないので、とても覚えやすい言葉のひとつなんです。楽しいですよ。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

朝鮮半島の変動 警戒すべき中韓の「反日」接近

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 5, 2014
Vigilance must be maintained over China-ROK ‘anti-Japan’ ties
朝鮮半島の変動 警戒すべき中韓の「反日」接近(1月5日付・読売社説)

 ◆米との連携で「北」の急変に備えよ

There has been a seismic change on the Korean Peninsula, where the Cold War structure remains, as South Korea, with Japan and the United States in the background, is in a military face-off with North Korea, which is supported by China.
 日米両国を背にした韓国と、中国が支える北朝鮮とが軍事的に対峙(たいじ)する冷戦構造が今なお続く朝鮮半島で、大きな地殻変動が起きている。

China, the world’s second-largest economic power, and South Korea are becoming rapidly closer to each other, indicating they are set to strengthen ties through their mutually shared anti-Japan sentiment. How will this affect the course of Northeast Asia, coupled with uncertain prospects over North Korea?
 経済強国に成長した中国と韓国の急速な接近である。反日を触媒に、その紐帯(ちゅうたい)を強める気配だ。不透明な北朝鮮情勢と合わせ、新たな動きは北東アジアの行方にどう影響するのか。

Japan should remain coolheaded in assessing this development so it can decide on appropriate countermeasures.
 日本は冷静に見極め、適切な対策を練らねばならない。

Working on history issues
 ◆「歴史認識」で共闘も

South Korean President Park Geun Hye, whose administration will enter its second year next month, apparently regards China as an important partner, while at the same time stepping up criticism against Japan.
 2月に就任2年目に入る韓国の朴槿恵大統領は、中国を重視する一方、対日批判を強めている。

Last year, China became the second country for Park to visit as South Korean president following the United States. This was not just because China is her country’s biggest trading partner. Apparently, she aimed to showcase close ties with her Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, to check North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, who has not visited China since the inauguration of his regime.
 朴氏が昨年、米国に次ぐ訪問先に、日本でなく中国を選んだのは、最大の貿易相手国という理由だけではない。習近平国家主席との密接な関係を見せつけ、訪中していない北朝鮮の金正恩第1書記を牽制(けんせい)する狙いもあったのだろう。

Park’s visit also caused speculation that she plans to form a united front with China against Japan over the perception of history and territorial issues.
 同時に、中国と歴史認識や領土問題で対日共闘を図ろうとしているのかと警戒せざるを得ない。

China and South Korea took advantage of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s visit to the war-related Yasukuni Shrine at the end of last year to justify their anti-Japan stance, calling the visit proof of the revival of Japan’s militarism and its drift to the right.
 中韓は、昨年末の安倍首相の靖国神社参拝を「右傾化、軍国主義復活の証しだ」と、反日主張の正当化に利用している。

If China and South Korea form a united front against Japan, it could lead to weakening cooperation among Tokyo, Washington and Seoul, which is centered on the Japan-U.S. and U.S.-South Korea alliances.
 中韓の共闘が進むのは、憂慮すべき事態だ。日米と米韓の同盟関係を軸にした日米韓連携を弱める動きにつながるからだ。

Park even criticized Japan during her talks with U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel when he visited South Korea in September. The president countered Hagel when he referred to the importance of security cooperation among the three countries, saying, “Trust has not been established due to the [Japanese] leadership, which has repeatedly made regressive remarks on historical and territorial issues.”
 朴氏は昨年9月、日米韓の安保協力の重要性を説くヘーゲル米国防長官に、「歴史や領土問題で時代逆行発言を繰り返す(日本)指導部のせいで信頼が築けない」と、対日批判を披瀝(ひれき)した。

It is highly questionable for a country’s leader to criticize Japan during a meeting with a senior official from a third country. In particular, it is hard to accept her self-centered opinions that blame Japan for the failure to maintain security cooperation between the two countries.
 第三国の要人を相手に日本を批判してやまぬ朴氏の言動は、一国の指導者としていかがなものか。特に、日本と安保協力ができない責任は日本にある、という身勝手な主張は、到底容認できない。

South Korea postponed the signing of the General Security of Military Information Agreement in 2012 just before it was to be concluded between Tokyo and Seoul. The agreement is crucial for sharing confidential information on North Korea.
 北朝鮮にかかわる機密の共有に不可欠な日韓軍事情報包括保護協定(GSOMIA)の締結を、直前になってキャンセルしたのは韓国ではなかったか。

Last month, the Ground Self-Defense Force, now participating in a U.N. peacekeeping mission in South Sudan, provided South Korean forces with 10,000 rounds of ammunition for assault rifles without asking for payment. This development highlighted how important it is for the two countries to regularly build cooperation so that they can provide military materials and share duties with each other.
 昨年12月、南スーダン派遣の国連平和維持活動(PKO)で陸上自衛隊が韓国軍に小銃弾1万発を無償提供した事例は、日韓が普段から、軍需物資や役務を相互提供できる協力体制を作っておくことの重要性を示したと言えよう。

For China, which has been trying to change the status quo by force in the East and South China seas, closer ties with South Korea mean it can exercise more influence over the Yellow Sea and the Korean Peninsula.
 東シナ海や南シナ海で力による現状変更を迫る中国にとって、韓国との緊密化は、黄海や朝鮮半島への影響力強化を意味する。

There are indications Xi could visit South Korea, possibly even this year. Could his trip add momentum to South Korea’s tilt toward China regarding security affairs, too? Given that closer Beijing-Seoul relations could weaken the alliance between the United States and South Korea, the outcome of the possible China-South Korea summit talks must be watched closely.
 年内にも、習氏が韓国を訪れる可能性がある。韓国が、安全保障面でも対中傾斜を深める契機となるのかどうか。米韓同盟の弱体化につながり得るだけに中韓首脳会談の行方を注視したい。

Keep framework intact
 ◆正常化の枠組み崩すな

Chilled relations between Japan and South Korea have prevented Abe and Park from meeting for talks. The relationship could be irrevocably damaged depending on a ruling South Korea’s Supreme Court is expected to hand down, possibly in January, over damage compensation litigation filed against Japanese companies that forced Koreans to labor for them during World War II.
 安倍首相と朴氏の会談が開けずにいる日韓関係を、決定的に悪化させかねないのが、月内にも見込まれる韓国人元徴用工の損害賠償請求訴訟の韓国最高裁判決だ。

Should a decision by the top court against the Japanese firms be finalized, and should the South Korean government acknowledge this ruling, the foundation of the framework formed by the 1965 basic bilateral treaty to normalize bilateral diplomatic ties could crumble.
 日本企業の敗訴が確定し、それを韓国政府が追認するなら、1965年の日韓国交正常化の枠組みは根底から崩れる。

The South Korean government, which signed an agreement attached to the 1965 pact that states problems regarding property and claims between the two countries “have been settled completely and finally,” should declare that the Japanese companies have no obligation to pay any compensation. This would be the obvious duty in the international community of a nation governed by the rule of law.
 「完全かつ最終的に解決された」と明記した請求権協定に署名した韓国政府は、日本側に支払い義務はないと明言すべきだ。それが、国際社会における法治国家としての当然の務めである。

The situation in North Korea remains worrisome. The power base of supreme leader Kim Jong Un, two years after taking over power from his father, can hardly be said to have solidified. Attesting to this is the dismissal and execution in December of Jang Sung Taek, vice chairman of Pyongyang’s National Defense Commission.
 一方、北朝鮮では権力の父子継承から2年を経て、金正恩氏の権力基盤はなお盤石でない。張成沢・国防委員会副委員長の解任・処刑は、その証左だ。

Because of the instability of the power structure upholding this regime of terror, Kim will likely become more reliant on the military and push ahead with strengthening his country’s nuclear weapons capability. The political setup that places top priority on military affairs, however, is bound only to hamper alleviation of international economic sanctions against Pyongyang. Under the circumstances, the North’s policy of rebuilding its dwindling economy is doomed to fail.
 恐怖政治が支配する不安定な権力構造の下、金氏は軍への依存を強め、核戦力増強に一層邁進(まいしん)するだろう。軍事最優先の政治は、国際社会による経済制裁の緩和を妨げるだけだ。じり貧状態の経済の再建路線は破綻するほかない。

Concerns are rising that the Kim regime, in a bid to divert swelling popular discontent in the country, may resort to yet another military provocation. Vigilance must be paid to the possibility of Pyongyang charging ahead with a new nuclear test or firing a long-range ballistic missile under the guise of “a satellite launch.”
 金政権が国内の不満をかわすため、武力挑発する懸念は深まっている。核実験や「人工衛星打ち上げ」と称する長距離ミサイル発射の強行に、警戒が必要である。

Kim regime raises risks
 ◆リスク増す金正恩政権

It cannot be ruled out that North Korea might resort to an armed attack on South Korea, like its shelling of the island of Yeonpyeong in November 2010. If such an event were to happen again, South Korea has declared it is prepared to strike back ferociously. The risk of military conflict between the North and South should never be underestimated.
 北朝鮮が、2010年11月の延坪島砲撃のように韓国へ武力攻撃を加える可能性も排除できない。その場合、韓国は今度は強力に反撃する構えだ。南北の武力衝突リスクも軽視すべきではない。

Cooperation between Japan, the United States, China, South Korea and Russia has never been as necessary as it is now, given the urgent need to rein in North Korea’s wild behavior and prepare for a sudden crisis there such as a political coup. It is especially important to strengthen strategic cooperation between Japan, the United States and South Korea on the basis of the alliance ties Tokyo and Seoul have with Washington.
 北朝鮮の“暴走”を抑止し、政変などの急変事態に備えるため、日本と米国、中国、韓国、ロシアの関係国の協調が、今ほど必要な時はない。とりわけ重要なのが、米国との同盟関係を軸とする日米韓の戦略的連携の強化である。

Japan is seeking comprehensive solutions to North Korea’s nuclear and missile issues as well as the abductions of Japanese nationals by Pyongyang. It will need the assistance of China and South Korea to find these solutions. But in light of the difficulty Japan faces in receiving such cooperation under the current circumstances, it should view the role of its alliance with the United States as having even greater significance in ensuring the security of the region.
 核、ミサイルと拉致問題の包括的解決を目指す日本には、中韓との協力も必要だが、それが難しい現状を踏まえれば、地域の安全保障で、日米同盟の役割がその重みを一層増したと見るべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 5, 2014)
(2014年1月5日01時33分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月 5日 (日)

安倍政権2年目 数に傲らず幅広い合意形成を

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 4, 2014
Ruling coalition should build wide consensus with opposition parties
安倍政権2年目 数に傲らず幅広い合意形成を(1月4日付・読売社説)

 ◆野党再編はどこまで進むか

The administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe appears determined to make all-out efforts to revitalize the Japanese economy and resolve long-pending issues such as the right to collective self-defense.
 安倍政権は、日本経済再生に向けて全力を挙げるとともに、集団的自衛権の問題など長年の懸案解決にも挑む構えだ。

To make effective use of limited time, it is imperative that the Abe administration devise a well-prepared strategy to implement measures and manage the government in a humble manner to avoid unnecessary criticism.
 限られた時間をいかに効果的に使うか。それには、政策実現への周到な戦略とともに、無用な反発を招かぬ謙虚な政権運営が欠かせない。

The second Abe administration has made it this far without collapsing apparently because of a well-functioning “Team Abe,” comprising Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga, in whom Abe has deep trust, as well as Finance Minister Taro Aso, who doubles as deputy prime minister, and Akira Amari, minister in charge of economic revitalization, both Abe’s political allies.
 第2次安倍政権が、破綻なく政権を運営してきたのは、安倍首相の信頼が厚い菅官房長官、盟友の麻生副総理・財務相、甘利経済再生相ら「チーム安倍」が、しっかり機能していたからだろう。

Coordination key
 ◆自公の調整を入念に

It is also worth mentioning that members of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, such as Secretary General Shigeru Ishiba, have provided significant support to the government. Close cooperation with the ruling coalition helped the government decide to join negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement and win the Okinawa prefectural government’s approval of the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station.
 石破幹事長ら自民党側が政府を支えたことも見逃せない。環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉参加への決断や、沖縄県の米軍普天間飛行場移設問題では、政府と与党の協力が奏功したと言える。

New Komeito, the LDP’s junior coalition partner, has also played a significant role.
 自民党と連立を組む公明党の役割も小さくはなかった。

During the last extraordinary Diet session, a bill to protect specially designated state secrets was revised with consideration given to the public’s right to know and freedom of the press after Komeito called for such consideration. Without this revision, Diet deliberations on the bill could have been even more difficult.
 先の臨時国会では、特定秘密保護法案の調整過程で、公明党の主張によって「知る権利」「報道・取材の自由」への配慮が法案に盛り込まれた。この修正がなければ、国会審議はもっと難航しただろう。

Komeito also strongly sought the introduction of a reduced tax rate system on daily necessities and other items to ease the impact of the upcoming consumption tax rate increase. The LDP and Komeito then reached an agreement to introduce such a system “when the consumption tax is 10 percent.” We applaud Komeito for this contribution.
 生活必需品などの消費税を低く抑える軽減税率の導入に関しても、公明党が強く求め、「税率10%時」に導入することで決着した。これについても高く評価したい。

However, the LDP and Komeito do not necessarily take the same stance on issues like amending the Constitution and nuclear policy. Abe and Komeito leader Natsuo Yamaguchi have been deeply divided over issues related to politicians’ visits to Yasukuni Shrine and the interpretations of history, such as a 1993 statement on so-called comfort women during World War II issued by then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono, as well as a review of the government’s constitutional interpretation aimed at allowing the nation to exercise the right to collective self-defense.
 ただし、自公両党は、憲法改正や原発政策などで必ずしも一致しているわけではない。安倍首相と公明党の山口代表は、靖国神社参拝や、河野談話など歴史認識問題、集団的自衛権の憲法解釈見直しについて隔たりが大きい。

The more Abe attempts to push his pet policies, the more strongly Komeito will oppose and resist them. How the two parties deal with such challenges will bear directly on the stability of national politics.
 首相が「安倍カラー」の強い政策を進めようとすればするほど、公明党は反発、抵抗する。自公両党がそれをどう乗り越えるかが、政治の安定度にも直結しよう。

Regarding the Jan. 19 mayoral election in Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, Komeito’s Okinawa chapter has yet to decide whether it will support a conservative candidate who would give the green light to the government’s plan on the Futenma relocation. The issue will serve as a test of whether the LDP and Komeito can coordinate their views.
 1月19日投票の沖縄・名護市長選で、公明党の沖縄県本部は、米軍普天間飛行場移設容認の保守系候補を推すかどうかまだ態度を決めていない。ここでも自公協力の真価が試される。

The ruling coalition must build a consensus with the opposition camp without relying on its dominant number of Diet seats.
 与党は、議席の数に傲(おご)らず、野党との合意形成を丁寧に進めていかねばならない。

Above all, social security and national security systems should not be too transformed no matter what party takes office. The next election is as much as 2.5 years away. The ruling and opposition parties should take this as an opportunity to tackle these issues in earnest.
 とくに社会保障や安全保障政策は、どの党が政権を担っても、そのたびに制度を大きく変更するわけにはいかない。次の国政選挙まで最大2年半あるこの好機に、与野党とも腰を据えて取り組むべき課題である。

Partial coalition must be sought
 ◆追求すべき「部分連合」

The LDP, Komeito and the Democratic Party of Japan have established a working-level conference on social security policies. We urge them to use this forum to deepen their discussions.
 社会保障政策は自民、公明、民主の3党が実務者会議を設けている。ここでの議論を深めたい。

In the security field, a step forward was marked when the bill to establish a Japanese version of the U.S. National Security Council cleared the extraordinary Diet session in late November with the approval of the DPJ, Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) and Your Party, as well as the LDP and Komeito.
 安全保障の分野では、先の臨時国会で、国家安全保障会議(日本版NSC)設置法が民主党と日本維新の会、みんなの党も賛成して成立したことは前進だった。

Regarding the bill to protect specially designated states secrets, Ishin no Kai and Your Party accepted the modifications to the bill but boycotted voting in the plenary session of the House of Councillors, in a show of criticism of the ruling parties over their management of Diet business.
 特定秘密保護法では、維新、みんな両党は法案修正に応じながら、与党の国会運営を批判して参院本会議の採決時に退席した。

The ruling coalition must rebuild its relationship with Ishin no Kai and Your Party.
 与党は、維新、みんなとの関係を再構築しなければならない。

Ishin no Kai coleader Shintaro Ishihara has expressed his intention to cooperate with Abe in dealing with such issues as constitutional revision.
 維新の石原共同代表はかねて、憲法改正などのテーマで首相に協力する意向を示している。

Meanwhile, Your Party leader Yoshimi Watanabe has proposed what he called a regular “strategic dialogue” with Abe on such key issues as deregulation and reviewing the constitutional interpretation of the nation’s collective self-defense right.
 みんなの党の渡辺代表も、首相に対し、規制改革や集団的自衛権の憲法解釈見直しなど、重要政策を定期的に協議する「戦略的対話」を呼び掛けている。

How will the government and ruling parties form a partial coalition with Ishin no Kai and Your Party? The answer could affect the future course of parliamentary and electoral system reforms.
 政府・与党が維新、みんな両党とどう部分連合を形成していくか。それが、国会改革や選挙制度改革の行方にも影響しよう。

DPJ in need of reform
 ◆民主も党改革が必要だ

The DPJ’s handling of parliamentary matters gives us the impression the party has returned to its former role as a resistant opposition party, despite its experience of serving as a ruling party. It has yet to form a joint struggle with other opposition parties.
 民主党は政権与党を経験したにもかかわらず、抵抗野党に立ち返ったような国会対応が目立つ。野党共闘も実現できていない。

In the aftermath of the upper house election in July, DPJ members, particularly those who lost elections, have defected from the party one after another for such reasons as discontent with the party leadership. This undeniably indicates that Banri Kaieda’s leadership as party president has been waning.
 参院選後、党執行部への不満などから、落選議員を中心に離党が相次いでいる。海江田代表の求心力の低下は否めない。

To regain voters’ confidence, Kaieda needs to form an intraparty consensus on basic policies on the Constitution and national security and strengthen the party’s local organizations. He is urged to demonstrate his leadership in reconstructing his party.
 有権者の信頼を取り戻すには憲法、安全保障など基本政策で党内をまとめ、地方組織を強化する必要がある。海江田代表は党再建に指導力を発揮してもらいたい。

The DPJ must hold discussions this year with other opposition parties on campaign strategies for unified local elections set for the spring of 2015. Such talks will lead to prompting moves for a realignment of opposition parties.
 2015年春の統一地方選をどう戦うか。選挙協力についても、他の党と今年中に議論しなければなるまい。それが、野党再編の引き金を引く可能性もあろう。

It has also become a focus of attention whether the Yui no To party, led by Kenji Eda, a defector from Your Party, will be able to work closely with some members of the DPJ and Ishin no Kai.
 みんなの党とたもとを分かった江田憲司氏率いる結いの党が、民主党の一部や維新の会と勢力を結集できるかどうかも焦点だ。

Eda has formed a suprapartisan study group with Goshi Hosono, a former secretary general of the DPJ, and Yorihisa Matsuno, secretary general of Ishin no Kai’s group of Diet members. To what extent can the study group’s members firmly unite on policies and ideals?
 江田氏や、民主党の細野豪志前幹事長、維新の松野頼久国会議員団幹事長は、超党派の勉強会を結成した。政策・理念でどこまで一致団結できるだろうか。

We would like to see a unified opposition party that is capable of presenting constructive policies without taking a stance of always criticizing the government.
 政府への批判一辺倒ではなく、建設的な政策立案能力のある野党勢力の結集を望みたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 4, 2014)
(2014年1月4日01時40分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月 4日 (土)

上向く世界経済 本格再生へ「分水嶺」の1年だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 3, 2014
Steady leadership needed as world economy at crossroads
上向く世界経済 本格再生へ「分水嶺」の1年だ(1月3日付・読売社説)

 ◆先進国と新興国にくすぶる不安

Signs of a bright future for the global economy seem to have begun twinkling, with advanced economies picking up gradually after managing to break out of monetary and fiscal crises.
 金融・財政危機を収束した先進国の景気が持ち直し、世界経済の前途に明るさが見えてきた。

Uncertainties remain, however, concerning the policy handling of the United States and European countries. Caution is also needed regarding a slowdown of emerging market economies such as China.
 ただし、米欧の政策運営には、まだ不透明感が残る。中国など新興国経済の減速にも注意が必要だ。

This year will most likely mark a watershed regarding whether the world economy can realize sufficiently robust growth to get onto a full-fledged recovery path.
 より力強い成長を実現し、本格的な景気回復軌道に乗れるかどうか、分水嶺(れい)の1年となろう。

In its report last autumn, the International Monetary Fund forecast the 2014 world economy would log 3.6 percent growth after inflation. It is noteworthy that the growth of the world economy this year is expected to expand a little on the strength of advanced economies’ pickup, compared to 2013’s growth, which the IMF estimates at 2.9 percent.
 国際通貨基金(IMF)は昨秋、2014年の世界経済を実質3・6%成長と予想した。2・9%成長が見込まれる13年と比べると、先進国の伸びを背景に、やや増進するのがポイントである。

U.S. debt ceiling accord a key
 ◆米債務上限の合意急げ

The world financial woes triggered by the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy in the autumn of 2008 embroiled Greece, developing into a crisis for all European economies.
 世界経済は、08年秋のリーマン・ショックがギリシャに飛び火し、欧州危機へ発展した。

What made it possible for the global economy to begin finding a way out of a chain of negative occurrences at long last was, first of all, indications of a solid business recovery in the United States, the epicenter of the global financial hardships. The European economies, after experiencing a series of business downturns, have now returned to positive growth, signifying a breakaway from the worst phase of their economic conditions.
 「負の連鎖」をようやく抜け出しつつあるのは、危機の震源地だった米国の景気が底堅く推移し始めたのが主因だ。景気後退が続いた欧州経済もプラス成長に転じ、最悪期を脱した。

Symbolic of the signs of uptrend is the decision late last year by the U.S. Federal Reserve Board to modify its extraordinary easy money policy in response to improvements in U.S. unemployment rates and other key economic indicators.
 雇用改善などを受けて、米連邦準備制度理事会(FRB)が決めた異例の金融政策の修正が象徴的である。

Starting this month, the Fed is scheduled to embark on an “exit strategy” designed to scale down bit by bit Phase Three of its quantitative monetary easing, or QE3, in which the U.S. central bank has been purchasing a huge amount of U.S. treasury bonds and other financial assets every month.
 米国債などを毎月購入してきた量的緩和策第3弾(QE3)の規模を小刻みに縮小する「出口戦略」に今月から一歩踏み出す。

It seems the world’s market players have been reassured to see the Fed spearheading a move in favor of an exit strategy, amid large-scale monetary easing policies in place in Japan, the United States and Europe. Consequently, stock prices are on the rise in New York and other markets.
 日米欧が大規模な緩和策を続ける中、FRBが先陣を切って慎重に動き出したことで、安心感を与えたのだろう。ニューヨーク市場などの株価が上昇している。

The Fed reportedly intends to continue tapering its QE3 asset purchases, with a view to terminating the easy money policy as early as the end of the year. Next year and afterward, the Fed is seen probing timing for an end to its zero-interest rate policy while looking for an opportune time to raise rates.
 FRBはQE3縮小を継続し、年内にも終了させる方針という。来年以降、ゼロ金利政策の終了と利上げ時期も探るとみられる。

Due attention should be paid to the adverse impact of colossal money supplies worldwide that have so far been in place, as they could lead to rekindling of economic bubbles in the United States, emerging market countries and elsewhere.
 これまでの巨額マネーの供給で米国や新興国にバブルが再燃する副作用への警戒も必要だ。

Implementation of the exit strategy, however, will require a considerably long period of time. The ability of incoming Fed chair Janet Yellen, who is to take the place of Chairman Ben Bernanke toward the end of January, will certainly be tested through her efforts to ensure that no danger arises of the world economy and markets plunging into turmoil in the process of the implementation of the Fed’s exit strategy.
 とは言え、出口戦略は長い道のりになる。世界経済や市場に混乱を招かないよう、1月末にバーナンキ議長と交代するイエレン新議長の手腕が問われる。

How things evolve regarding U.S. congressional discussions on fiscal measures is also of key significance.
 米国の財政協議も焦点だ。

It is a highly welcome development that Democrats and Republicans in Congress have reached common ground on a federal budget deal, successfully averting a recurrence of a partial shutdown of government functions.
 議会の与野党が、予算確保で合意し、政府機関の一部閉鎖(シャットダウン)の再来を回避したことは評価したい。

Should the two parties fail to strike an agreement on raising the federal government’s debt ceiling in time for the Feb. 7 deadline, however, there would be a high risk of U.S. treasury bonds going into default. If U.S. treasury bonds actually went into default, there would be serious damage to not only the United States but also the rest of the world economy.
 だが、2月7日までに与野党が連邦債務上限引き上げで合意しないと、米国債がデフォルト(債務不履行)に陥る別のリスクが迫っている。現実に起きれば米国だけでなく、世界に打撃を与える。

Therefore, it was reasonable for U.S. President Barack Obama to ask Republican Party members in Congress to unconditionally approve raising the debt ceiling. The confrontation between the Democrats and Republicans is expected to continue ahead of midterm elections in November, but an early agreement on the matter is needed.
 オバマ大統領が野党共和党に無条件での上限引き上げを求めたのはもっともだ。11月の中間選挙を控えて与野党の対立は続くが、早期合意を図ってもらいたい。

The European Central Bank carried out an additional interest rate cut in November despite having been able to stem the business slowdown because it was wary about prices hovering at low levels.
 景気後退を食い止めたのに、欧州中央銀行(ECB)が昨年11月に追加利下げしたのは、物価低迷を警戒しているためだ。

Europe must avoid deflation
 ◆欧州はデフレ回避を

The growth rate in consumer prices has been held to less than 1 percent, lower than the 2 percent targeted by the ECB. There is concern that Europe will fall into deflation like Japan.
 ユーロ圏の消費者物価上昇率は0%台にとどまり、ECBが目標とする2%を下回る。日本のようなデフレ転落も懸念される。

If Europe’s favorable economic turn should prove to be a “false dawn,” it will hobble the world economy again.
 欧州の経済好転が「偽りの夜明け」に終われば、再び世界経済の足かせになろう。

The ECB should not hesitate to take the next steps, including an additional interest rate cut. Deflation must be avoided while keeping a close watch on price and business trends at the same time.
 ECBは追加利下げなどの「次の一手」を躊躇(ちゅうちょ)してはならない。物価と景気を両にらみしつつ、デフレを食い止めるべきだ。

ECB stress tests on eurozone banks will start shortly ahead of its integrated supervision of the banks starting this autumn.
 今秋、ECBに域内の銀行監督が一元化されるのに先立ち、銀行の資産査定(ストレステスト)がまもなく始まる。

It is indispensable to promote the strengthening of the financial underpinnings of banks with capital shortages to prevent financial uncertainty from flaring up again.
 資本不足行の財務基盤強化を進め、金融不安の再燃を防ぐことも欠かせない。

The pace of growth has been slowing down across the board in emerging economies. Difficult economic management is expected to continue in China, and the country is likely to see a growth rate of about 7.5 percent this year, unlike the double-digit growth it once marked.
 新興国では、成長が軒並み減速している。難しい経済運営が続く中国は、今年もかつての2ケタ成長を下回る7・5%程度の成長にとどまる見通しだ。

In China, nonbanks and other financial institutions have collected funds from individuals by selling high-interest financial products. These funds have been used to promote public works projects and real estate development in regional areas. It is problematic that the real situation of such shadow banking remains unknown.
 ノンバンクなどが高金利の金融商品で個人から集めた資金が、地方の公共事業や不動産開発を後押しする。そうした「影の銀行(シャドーバンキング)」の実態が依然不透明なことは問題である。

Shadow banking problematic
 ◆中国「影の銀行」問題

Investment firms under the umbrella of Chinese local governments have a huge amount of debts. It is vital to prevent a situation in which the Chinese financial system is shaken by deferred debt repayment.
 地方政府傘下の投資会社は巨額債務を抱える。債務返済が滞り、中国の金融システムを揺るがす事態を防ぐことが肝要だ。

How can China break away from an investment-dependent economy and achieve a soft landing for stable growth? Correcting economic disparities is also a tough challenge. China should accelerate reform.
 投資依存型経済から脱却し、安定成長にどう軟着陸させるか。経済格差是正も難題である。中国の改革加速が求められよう。

Due to the U.S. “exit strategy” of scaling down quantitative monetary easing, investment money has been withdrawn from Brazil and India among other countries, and there is now a real possibility of a vicious circle in which the weakening of their currencies leads to the stagnation of their real economies.
 ブラジル、インドなどでは、米国の量的緩和縮小に伴って、投資マネーが引き揚げられ、自国通貨安が実体経済の低迷をもたらす悪循環が現実味を帯びる。

As it has become an urgent task to rein in high prices, central banks of various countries have been tightening their money supply.
 一方、物価高の抑制も急務になり、各国の中央銀行が金融引き締めを強化している。

To broaden the vision of the world economy, now lighted by a faint hope, advanced and emerging economies must overcome their own challenges and promote policy coordination.
 薄明かりがともった世界経済の展望を広げるには、先進国と新興国がそれぞれの課題を克服し、政策協調を図らねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 3, 2014)
(2014年1月3日01時38分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月 3日 (金)

漫画家を目指したことがある人たちの登竜門は4コマ漫画です 「4KOMA PARTY(4コマパーティー)」

かなり昔の話で恐縮なんですが、私の実弟が慢画家志望でした。
弟子入りするために一人で大きなバイク(単車)に乗って、九州から東京に乗り込みました。
漫画家になるんだったら、登竜門は4コマ漫画と決まっていました。
弟は4コマ漫画を書きまくっていました。

時は流れ、今では4コマ漫画がサイトで楽しめるようになりました。
たくさんサイトがありますが、私のおすすめは「4KOMA PARTY(4コマパーティー)」 というサイトなんです。
このサイトなんですが、実に面白いのです。
昔の4コマ漫画と基本的な構成は何ら変わっていないのですが、これも時代背景というのでしょうか、思わずはっとさせられるようなストーリーのものが多いようです。
一度是非覗いて見て下さい。



日本発世界!連載作家は全て女性!作品制作は在宅で! 
無料で読めるWEB4コマ漫画メディア
「4KOMA PARTY(4コマパーティー)」のリリースに関するお知らせ



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

童心に返って自分だけのモンスターを育ててみませんか?

現役時代、翌日仕事があるのにドラクエにはまり、朝まで遊んだ経験があります。
様々な怪獣たちとの戦いで、自分の持っているゲーム経験値が、どんどん向上していくドラクエは、独特の充実感があり、さして仕事の出来るほうでない私にとっては心の救いでした。
ドラクエとは一味違うんですが、アイフォンやアンドロイドなどのスマホを使ったゲームはいかがでしょうか。
これは息抜きには最適なんですが、バーチャルとはいえ、モンスターを育てる楽しみは現実の子育てに通じるものがあります。
モンスター育成無料ゲーム、みっくすりとる なんですが、いい大人がこれにはまっています。
戦いのステージはドラクエほど多くはありませんが、戦いに勝利すると相手のモンスターの卵がもらえたりするストーリーの設定がかなりユニークですね。
現役を退くと、とかく酒びたりの人生になり勝ちなんですが、このゲームがあれば、寂しさからかなり解放されます。
バーチャルでも、ここまで面白いモンスター育成無料ゲーム、みっくすりとる を試してください。




「みっくすりとる」一周年記念!大型アップデートのお知らせ



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

オレンジタグスの充実のラインナップをみてください 導入は企業でも個人サイトでも

オレンジタグスといえばNFC技術(近距離無線通信技術)で有名な会社なんですが、最近販売されているカードやシステムのラインナップが充実して来ています。
企業で導入すべき、お勧めのシステムは、オレンジタグスの勤怠管理システムなんですが、販売されているのは勤怠管理システムばかりではありません。
例えば、オレンジタグスのポイントカードシステムというのがありますが、これは紙で出来ているクーポンなんかに比べると断然かっこ良いですね。
そのうちに日本でもクーポンの標準となるような気がします。
個人ならば、NFCスタートキット101シリーズがおすすめです。
自分が開発した仕組みを使って、例えば、アイフォンやアンドロイド、スマホなどから相手に工夫を凝らした熱いメッセージを伝える事だって出来ます。
このNFCスタートキットとPCさえあれば、自分でどんどん仕組みを開発出来るのが魅力的な商品なんです。
サイトで、ICカード価格一覧が、すぐに確認できますよ。
おすすめです。



オレンジタグス、初心者向けNFC開発キットの教育用アカデミーパック提供プロ向け製品もラーニングセットに追加(http://www.orangetags.co.jp)



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

毎回アンケートに答えるだけで抽選でプレゼントがもらえる!「AWESOMEモニター会員」募集開始に関するお知らせ 株式会社AWESOME JAPAN

| | コメント (0)

コミッショナー NPBの体制強化を最優先に

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 2, 2014
New commissioner must place top priority on strengthening NPB
コミッショナー NPBの体制強化を最優先に(12月31日付・読売社説)

We hope the new commissioner of the Nippon Professional Baseball Organization will throw his energy into making Japan’s professional baseball even more loved.
 プロ野球が一層、国民に愛されるよう、力を注いでほしい。

Lawyer Katsuhiko Kumazaki, former chief of the Tokyo District Public Prosecutors Office’s special investigation squad, will become NPB’s new commissioner as of Wednesday.
 東京地検特捜部長などを務めた弁護士の熊崎勝彦氏が、1月1日付でプロ野球の新コミッショナーに就任することが決まった。

“I want to make the most of my abilities to make Japanese pro baseball more vigorous so it can contribute to society,” Kumazaki said at a press conference.
 熊崎氏は記者会見で、「プロ野球界を活力あるものにし、社会に貢献できるように持ち味を発揮したい」と抱負を語った。

Kumazaki has been in charge of compliance issues as an adviser to NPB’s commissioner since 2005. Expectations are high that he will exercise leadership to work out the problems that Japan’s professional baseball is currently saddled with by utilizing that experience.
 2005年からコミッショナー顧問として、コンプライアンス(法令順守)問題などを担当してきた。その経験を生かし、プロ野球界が抱える問題点を改善するリーダーシップが期待される。

What Kumazaki must work on first is to carry out reform in NPB after it lost the trust of baseball fans due to a problem concerning the introduction of unified ball.
 まず、手がけねばならないのは、足元の日本野球機構(NPB)の改革である。統一球問題で、NPBはファンの信頼を失った。

Ryozo Kato, former NPB commissioner, said he did not know the unified ball’s coefficient of restitution had been increased. Reforming NPB, in which such important information does not reach the head of the organization, is an urgent task.
 加藤良三・前コミッショナーは、統一球の反発力が高まった事実を把握していなかったという。重要情報がトップに伝わらないNPBの組織改革が急務だ。

Kumazaki said he needs a full-time assistant who will meticulously keep watch on things in NPB. It is necessary to establish governance functions that enable the commissioner to make appropriate decisions.
 熊崎氏は、細かく目配りできる常勤の補佐役が必要だとの考えを示した。コミッショナーが的確な判断を下せるガバナンス(統治機能)を確立する必要がある。

A decisive moment

The status of professional baseball remains severe. Although the number of spectators increased this season both in the Central League and the Pacific League compared to last season, four teams saw their spectators decrease. The number of professional baseball games aired on terrestrial broadcasting also fell.
 プロ野球を取り巻く環境は依然、厳しい。今季はセ・パ両リーグとも昨季より観客数が増えたものの、4球団では減少した。テレビの地上波中継も減っている。

We urge the new commissioner to cooperate with the 12 teams and do his utmost to improve various services for baseball fans.
 ファンサービス向上のため、新コミッショナーは12球団と連携し、知恵を絞ってもらいたい。

In particular, Kumazaki must devise a strategy to enhance the appeal of Japan’s national team—called Samurai Japan, which has been formed on a permanent basis—to help increase NPB’s earnings. His ability will be tested, for example, in setting up international games that will please baseball fans.
 特に、常設化した日本代表(侍ジャパン)の魅力を高め、収益につなげる戦略が求められる。ファンが喜ぶ国際試合の設定などで、手腕が問われよう。

Meanwhile, the Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles have recently allowed ace Masahiro Tanaka to move to the major leagues.
 楽天は、エースの田中将大投手の米大リーグ移籍を容認した。

A professional baseball player’s dream to take on the challenge of playing in the major leagues and make a leap forward deserves respect.
 大リーグに挑戦し、飛躍したいという選手の夢は、可能な限り尊重すべきだろう。

However, the fact is that Japan’s professional baseball will inevitably decline if star players continue to flow out to the major leagues.
 一方で、スター選手の流出が続けば、プロ野球の地盤沈下が避けられないのも事実である。

The posting system used when a Japanese player moves to the major leagues has significantly changed. Under the revised system, a Japanese team that allows a player to go to the major leagues sets a posting fee of up to $20 million, or ¥2 billion.
 今回、日本選手が大リーグに移籍するためのポスティングシステムが、大きく変更された。移籍を容認した日本の球団が、2000万ドル(約20億円)を上限に譲渡金を設定する仕組みになった。

The revision apparently reflects the major leagues’ wish to hold down the money the clubs pay to acquire Japanese players, which previously had no limit.
 上限がなかった日本選手の獲得金額を抑えたい大リーグ側の意向を反映した制度変更と言える。

For baseball to further develop around the world, it is indispensable for the Japanese and U.S. professional baseball worlds, the two axes of the sport, to ensure coexistence and mutual prosperity.
 野球が世界的にさらに発展するには、軸となる日米の球界が共存共栄していくことが欠かせない。

Formulating fair rules between Japan and the United States on the acquisition of Japanese players is also an important task that the new commissioner must work on.
選手獲得における日米の公平なルール作りも、新コミッショナーの重要な課題である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 31, 2013)
(2013年12月31日02時07分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

独大連立政権 欧州経済の再生に責任は重い

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 2, 2014
Germany should bolster efforts to lift eurozone out of crisis
独大連立政権 欧州経済の再生に責任は重い(12月31日付・読売社説)

We expect German Chancellor Angela Merkel to exercise leadership to overcome the European fiscal and financial crisis now that she has secured a stable political foundation.
 安定的な政権基盤を得たメルケル・ドイツ首相が欧州財政・金融危機の克服に指導力を発揮することを期待したい。

The third Merkel Cabinet was launched in Europe’s biggest economic power through the formation of a grand coalition between Germany’s two major political parties—her center-right Christian Democratic Union and Christian Social Union (CDU/CSU) and the center-left Social Democratic Party (SPD)—for the first time in four years.
 欧州一の経済大国、ドイツで、中道左右の2大政党が4年ぶりに大連立を組み、第3次メルケル政権が発足した。

As the German Bundestag, or lower house, has members elected basically by proportional representation, it is difficult for even a major party to secure a majority on its own. Negotiations to form a coalition government are thus inevitable.
 ドイツ連邦議会(下院)の選挙制度は基本的に比例代表制であるため、大政党でも単独過半数を占めることは難しく、政権作りには連立交渉が避けられない。

The CDU/CSU secured a stunning victory in the September general election, after which it negotiated with the SPD, the largest opposition party, to form the grand coalition.
 9月の総選挙で大勝したのは、首相率いる中道右派、キリスト教民主・社会同盟(CDU・CSU)で、最大野党の中道左派、社会民主党(SPD)と交渉した。

However, it took more than 80 days to launch the new coalition because the SPD adamantly demanded that the coalition government realize SPD’s campaign pledges, including the introduction of a nationwide minimum wage system, when formulating an accord to form the coalition. It cannot be denied that this created a political vacuum in Germany and stalled debates in the European Union to address the financial crisis.
 だが、社民党が連立合意作りで、全国一律の最低賃金制度導入などの公約実現を強く主張し、政権発足に80日以上も要した。国内の政治空白が生じ、欧州連合(EU)における危機対策をめぐる論議の停滞を招いたのは否めない。

The coalition agreement signed by the two parties called for fiscal rehabilitation and structural reform by eurozone countries. Their accord opposed initiatives that could increase the burden on Germany, saying that the measures, including a proposal to issue common euro-area bonds to procure funds based on the credibility of the eurozone, could foster laxity among indebted nations.
 両党がまとめた連立合意書は、ユーロ加盟国に対して財政健全化と構造改革を求めた。ユーロ圏の信用で資金調達する「ユーロ共通債」など、ドイツの負担増につながる構想には、債務国の甘えを助長するとして、反対している。

That is what the Merkel administration has been asserting, but it nonetheless demonstrated again its basic stance in overcoming the European crisis.
 メルケル政権の従来路線の踏襲だ。危機克服に取り組む基本姿勢を改めて示したと言えよう。

Danger of deflation

Greece and other south European nations are plagued with aggravated unemployment, prompting some observers to point out the risk of the eurozone plunging into deflation.
 ギリシャなど南欧諸国は失業増に苦しみ、ユーロ圏がデフレに陥る危険も指摘される。

Germany, which achieved the world’s largest current account surplus in 2012, is essentially the only economically sound nation in Europe. Germany should consider policies to facilitate economic recovery in Europe, including increasing imports from other eurozone nations by boosting its domestic consumption.
 経済が堅調で、昨年経常黒字が世界最大だったドイツは、「独り勝ち」の状況だ。欧州の景気回復に向け、内需拡大で域内諸国から輸入増を図るなど、成長に資する政策を検討する必要がある。

The coalition agreement reconfirmed the existing “nuclear phaseout” stance to reduce the number of nuclear power plants to zero by the end of 2022.
 連立合意書は、エネルギー分野では、2022年までに原子力発電所を全廃するというこれまでの「脱原発」政策も再確認した。

But it said the coalition government will overhaul the nation’s feed-in tariff system, which requires utility companies to buy renewable energy—expected by many to be an alternative energy source for nuclear energy—at a high rate for certain number of years.
 ただ、代替電力として期待される再生可能エネルギーについては、電力会社が電力を一定年数、高値で買い取る「固定価格買い取り制度」を抜本的に見直す。

The grand coalition plans to make it a fundamental principle to trade renewable energy generated at newly established facilities in the market and introduce other measures to ensure a competitive environment in this field.
 新設の再生エネ施設で発電された電力は市場での取引を原則とするなど、競争原理が働きやすい仕組みを取り入れるという。

The feed-in tariff system was introduced in 2000 as a pillar of a program to promote the proliferation of renewable energy use. Since then, the electricity rate for households has continuously increased to its present figure, which is double the 2000 level. We believe the move to overhaul the system is appropriate, considering the widespread public criticism of it.
 再生エネ普及促進策の核として、この制度が2000年に導入されて以来、家庭の電力料金は右肩上がりで上昇し、現在約2倍にまでなっている。国民の反発は強く、見直しは当然と言える。

Japan’s feed-in tariff system was modeled after the German system. Japan should also review this system by closely paying attention to Germany’s moves in this regard.
 日本の固定価格買い取り制度は、ドイツを参考にして作られた。日本は、ドイツの現状を注視し、制度見直しを進めるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 31, 2013)
(2013年12月31日02時07分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月 2日 (木)

homework 2014-01-02

เสือดาว
เนื้อ
เสื้อเชิ้ต
เสื่อ
เรือ
มะเขือยาว
ผีเสื้อ
เชือก
เลื่อย
มะเฟือง
เดือด
เลื้อย
leopard
meat
shirt
mat
ship
eggplant
butterfly
rope
saw
star apple
boil
creep

| | コメント (0)

homework 2014-01-02

เลือด
เนือง
เผือก
เครื่องบิน
กระเบื้อง
to
ship
tiger
Khua
month
blood
due to
Taro
plane
tile

| | コメント (0)

2014年1月 1日 (水)

日本浮上へ総力を結集せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun January 1, 2014
Deal with economy, China to ensure Japan can rise again
日本浮上へ総力を結集せよ(1月1日付・読売社説)

 ◆「経済」と「中国」に万全の備えを

This nation must be saved from drowning in the sea of deflation, a challenge essential for putting its economy onto an upward trend.
 デフレの海で溺れている日本を救い出し、上昇気流に乗せなければならない。

Doing so will definitely require success in achieving the targets set in Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s economic policy line, known as Abenomics, through efforts to ensure his administration is kept running even more stably.
 それには、安倍政権が政治の安定を維持し、首相の経済政策「アベノミクス」が成功を収めることが不可欠である。

With this in mind, the government should place priority on economic growth over fiscal reconstruction for the time being, a task necessary to revitalize the economy and increase tax revenue.
 当面は、財政再建より経済成長を優先して日本経済を再生させ、税収を増やす道を選ぶべきだ。

This must be accompanied by efforts to disburse financial resources in such fields as pensions, medical and other forms of social security, along with national security, crisis management and energy. Success in that endeavor is indispensable for boosting Japan’s national strength from the mid- and long-term standpoints.
 そのうえで、年金・医療などの社会保障、安全保障・危機管理、エネルギーなどの政策分野に投資し、中長期的に国力を上昇させていくことが肝要である。

In promoting good external relations, the government needs to ensure stability in the Asia-Pacific region.
 対外的には、アジア太平洋地域の安定が望ましい。

China has been escalating its high-handed behavior in the East China Sea and in the sky above the area in recent months. Few eyebrows would be raised if an accidental conflict erupted between Japan and China at any time. This situation will likely continue for the foreseeable future.
 中国が東シナ海とその上空で、強圧的な行動をエスカレートさせている。日本との間に偶発的衝突がいつあってもおかしくない、厳しい情勢が続く。

Perceived military tensions in this region must be relaxed through repeated dialogue between Japanese and Chinese diplomatic and defense authorities, coupled with efforts to improve the functions of the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 日中両国の外交・防衛当局者による対話を重ねつつ、日米同盟の機能を高めることで、軍事的緊張を和らげねばならない。

The economy and China will likely be the two major focuses of government policy this year. Failure to squarely confront the two tasks—one domestic, the other external—will render useless any attempt by Japan to start rising to prominence, economically or otherwise.
 今年も「経済」と「中国」が焦点となろう。この内外のテーマに正面から立ち向かわずに、日本が浮上することはない。

Crunch time for Abenomics
 ◆アベノミクスに試練

One year has passed since Abe inaugurated his second Cabinet. The prime minister was at the forefront of his ruling coalition’s victory in the House of Councillors election last summer, a triumph that sealed an end to the divided Diet. This has enabled the Liberal Democratic Party to emerge as the sole dominant power in the political arena, reducing all other parties to lesser forces.
 第2次安倍内閣が発足して1年が経過した。首相は昨年夏の参院選で衆参両院のねじれを解消し、自民党が突出する「1強多弱」体制を作り上げた。

His Cabinet has consistently enjoyed a high popular support rating. Despite a drop in the rating due to turmoil arising from the enactment of the state secrets protection law during an extraordinary Diet session last year, the figure still stands in the 50 percent range.
 内閣支持率は一貫して高い。昨年の臨時国会での特定秘密保護法成立の混乱によって低下したが、なお50%台を維持している。

This should be solely attributed to Abe’s focused efforts on economic recovery, a task that comes first in the list of his policy priorities.
 安倍首相が、政策課題に優先順位をつけ、専ら「経済」に力を注いできたからにほかならない。

The prime minister’s pursuit of his Abenomics policy is accomplishing a certain degree of success. This is evident in the fact, for example, that two of the three pillars stipulated in his policy—bold monetary relaxation and flexible fiscal stimulus—have apparently caused the economy to pick up. This has been accompanied by realizing higher stock prices and a decline in the value of the yen. There is no doubt that the current situation has helped make Japan’s presence felt more strongly in the international community.
 アベノミクスは、3本の矢のうち、大胆な金融緩和と機動的な財政出動の2本の矢によって、日本の景気を持ち直し、株高・円安も実現するなど、一定の成果を上げている。日本の国際社会での存在感が増したことも確かだ。

However, it is still uncertain whether—and how, for that matter—the Bank of Japan will be able to bring the annual price increase rate to 2 percent, a target set by the central bank to overcome protracted deflation. Furthermore, there is a limit to how long the benefits of the fiscal measures taken by the government to underpin the economy will endure. The Abe Cabinet’s high support rating is primarily because the public expect he will be able to recharge the economy. His high popularity does not mean people actually feel their living conditions are improving under the current administration.
 だが、日銀がデフレ克服の目標に掲げる「2%の物価上昇率」の実現への道筋は、なお不透明だ。景気を下支えする財政出動は持続力に限りがある。世論の支持も、景気回復への期待が先行し、必ずしも生活向上を実感できたからではない。

Given this, the Abenomics policy will be tested over whether it can truly achieve its purpose this year.
 今年は、アベノミクスの真価が問われる。

The prime minister’s decision in October to implement a consumption tax rate hike, as initially planned, means the rate will rise from 5 percent to 8 percent in April.
 首相の決断によって、4月に消費税率が5%から8%に引き上げられる。

The economy will likely remain more or less upbeat until the end of March, partly due to last-minute rise in demand for such commodities as consumer durables. In April and beyond, however, the economy could take a downturn due to dampened consumer appetite in reaction to the tax rate increase.
 3月までは、耐久消費財などの「駆け込み需要」もあって、景気は回復基調で推移するだろう。だが、消費が冷え込む「反動減」が予想される4月以降は、景気が腰折れしかねない。

To minimize the effect of the tax hike on consumption, the government put together an economic stimulus package worth about ¥5.5 trillion at government expense, the main pillars of which include financial and other support for business corporations and public works projects. With a similar purpose in mind, the government has devised a bloated budget for fiscal 2014.
 政府は消費増税の影響を最小限に抑えるため、企業支援や公共事業を柱に国費で5・5兆円規模の経済対策を打ち出した。2014年度予算案も大きく膨らんだ。

However, we think the package is less than satisfactory when it comes to supporting ordinary household finances. It includes a one-shot financial support for low-income households, or what the government calls “simple benefit payment.” Meanwhile, the government decided not to introduce a lower tax rate for such essential goods as foodstuffs and newspapers. We hope the government and the ruling parties will prepare to introduce a mitigated tax rate system covering such necessities when a planned rate hike from 8 percent to 10 percent is implemented.
 一方、家計への支援は物足りない。低所得者へ1回限りの「簡素な給付措置」が盛り込まれたが、食料品や新聞への軽減税率は導入が見送られた。政府・与党は10%への消費増税と同時導入を期して準備を進めてもらいたい。

Abe must lead from front
 ◆成長戦略は首相主導で

The third pillar of Abenomics calls for translating a growth strategy into action. Success in ensuring the government’s growth strategy fulfills its aim is essential for accomplishing a sustainable economic growth led by the private sector, aided by job creation and higher wages that could be made possible through Abenomics.
 アベノミクスが雇用や賃上げに波及して、民間主導の持続的な経済成長を実現するには、成長戦略という3本目の矢が、的を射なければならない。

However, it is uncertain whether the growth strategy will accomplish its goal. This was underlined by the large cut in the number of deregulatory steps to be implemented in what are called national strategy special zones, due to objections from various government offices and organizations that would be affected by this deregulation.
 だが、国家戦略特区で行う規制緩和のメニューが各府省や関係団体の抵抗で大幅に後退するなど、戦略の実効性は心もとない。

The prime minister should play a leadership role in encouraging the private sector to inject its vitality, economic or otherwise, into growth markets, thus accelerating the effects of the third pillar of Abenomics.
 首相が指導力を発揮し、民間活力を成長市場へ誘導することで、3本目の矢を加速させたい。

A recent rise in consumer prices cannot be considered a favorable trend triggered by increased demand, given that a surge in the prices of imported goods and higher electricity bills are major factors behind the situation. A favorable cycle—in which private corporations buoyed by improved business performance raise wages for their employees, which in turn improves family budgets and leads to increased consumption—must be created.
 最近の消費者物価の上昇は、輸入物価や電気料金の値上げが背景にあり、需要増を契機とした「良い物価上昇」とは言えない。業績を上げた企業が賃金を引き上げ、家計の収入増が消費を拡大する好循環を実現せねばならない。

Success—or the lack thereof—of this policy depends on whether a stable supply of inexpensive electricity will be secured.
 その成否のカギを握るのが、安価な電力の安定供給である。

Operations at all 50 reactors at nuclear power plants in Japan remain suspended. As things stand, the nation must shoulder a hefty ¥10 billion in additional costs for imported fuel for power generation such as liquefied natural gas each day. The additional burden is to operate thermal power plants to their fullest, thus making up for an electric power shortage while nuclear power reactors remain idled. This is an extra drain of national wealth to energy resource exporting countries.
 原子力発電所は全50基が停止している。電力不足を火力発電所のフル稼働で補うため、液化天然ガスなど輸入発電燃料の追加負担は1日100億円に上る。国富が資源国に余計に流出している。

Nuclear power stations must be steadily brought back online once they have been confirmed safe to operate.
 安全が確認できた原発を着実に再稼働させなければならない。

One worrisome factor is the delay in the Nuclear Regulation Authority’s safety checks that must be conducted before nuclear reactors can be brought back online. Given the time needed to obtain consent from local governments concerned and other necessary procedures, the reactors now being screened will be able to resume operations in summer at the earliest.
 気がかりなのは、原子力規制委員会による原発再稼働の審査が遅れていることだ。地元の了解などの手続きを考慮すれば、再稼働は早くて夏ごろになってしまう。

With its low energy self-sufficiency rate, how Japan ensures a stable supply of electricity will be directly linked with its national strategy.
 エネルギー自給率の低い日本が今後、どう電力を確保していくかは、国家戦略にも直結する。

The Abe administration plans to position nuclear energy as an “important basic energy source” in its basic plan on energy to be adopted by the Cabinet in January. We support the administration’s decision to drop the Democratic Party of Japan’s irresponsible “zero nuclear power” policy, leaving open the possibility of building new nuclear power plants or reactors.
 安倍政権は1月中に閣議決定するエネルギー基本計画で、原発を「重要なベース電源」と位置づける。民主党政権の無責任な「原発ゼロ」路線と決別し、新増設に含みを残した点は支持したい。

Japan possesses some of the world’s most sophisticated nuclear technologies. Constructing safe, next-generation nuclear power stations is also necessary from the viewpoint of maintaining and nurturing human resources in this field. The nation also needs to expand exports of nuclear power infrastructure to boost economic growth.
 日本は世界有数の原子力技術を保持している。安全な次世代型原発の新増設は、人材維持・育成の観点からも必要だ。原発のインフラ輸出を成長にも生かしたい。

In addition, the government must accelerate discussions on preparing an optimal combination of nuclear power, thermal power, solar power and other renewable energy sources.
 政府は、電源として原子力、火力、太陽光発電など再生可能エネルギーをどう組み合わせるか、という議論を加速させるべきだ。

Accidental clashes
 ◆偶発的衝突の恐れも

China is attempting to change the status quo in the Asia-Pacific region by force, intensifying friction with its neighbors.
 アジア太平洋地域では、中国が力による現状変更を試み、周辺国との摩擦を強めている。

Touting a policy of increasing wealth and military power it has labeled the “Chinese dream,” the administration of Chinese President Xi Jinping is increasingly conducting naval and airspace drills with its fleet and aircraft in the West Pacific, and strengthening its effective control of the South China Sea. China’s anti-access area-denial strategy against the United States is poised to bear fruit.
 中国の習近平政権は、「中国の夢」と称する富国強兵路線を掲げて、西太平洋での艦隊・航空機演習や南シナ海の実効支配強化の動きを活発化させている。米軍への接近阻止・領域拒否(A2AD)戦略が実を結ぼうとしている。

As for Japan, Chinese state vessels are stationed almost around-the-clock around the Senkaku Islands and repeatedly intrude into Japanese waters. Its unmanned aircraft fly over Japanese waters. Furthermore, it unilaterally declared an air defense identification zone over the East China Sea that included the Senkaku Islands.
 日本には、尖閣諸島周辺での公船常駐化と領海侵入、無人機の海上飛行を繰り返し、さらには尖閣を含む東シナ海上空に一方的に防空識別圏を設定した。

China has demanded that all aircraft flying within the ADIZ submit flight plans in advance, and threatened to adopt “emergency defensive measures” by the Chinese military against any plane that refuses to obey its instructions. We think it is extremely problematic that China treats the ADIZ like its territorial airspace.
 中国は、識別圏内を飛行する全航空機に飛行計画の提出を求め、従わないなら「防御的緊急措置」の対象だと警告している。領空のごとく扱うのは極めて問題だ。

If this situation remains in place, Japan could become entangled in a military clash. The two countries urgently need to set up a liaison mechanism to help prevent an unexpected situation from erupting between the Self-Defense Forces and the Chinese military.
 このままでは日本が武力衝突の当事者になりかねない。自衛隊と中国軍との間に、不測の事態を回避する連絡メカニズムを構築することが急務となる。

China must not use Abe’s recent visit to Yasukuni Shrine as an excuse to refuse dialogue with Japan.
 安倍首相の靖国神社参拝が、中国側に対話を拒む口実に使われることがあってはならない。

It will also be important to hold China in check by deepening the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 日米同盟の深化によって、中国を牽制(けんせい)することも重要だ。

The United States maintains the position that the Senkaku Islands fall within the scope of Article 5 of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, which stipulates U.S. defense obligations to Japan. To ensure this article functions without fail, Japan will need to boost the roles it can play with the United States.
 米国は尖閣諸島に対し、日米安保条約の対日防衛義務を定めた条項が適用される、という立場を変えていない。この条項が確実に機能するよう、米国との間で日本の役割も増強しなければならない。

It is timely that the Abe administration will review the Japan-U.S. defense cooperation guidelines at the end of this year.
 安倍政権が今年末に、日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)を見直すのは時宜にかなっている。

The new guidelines should stipulate what additional assistance the SDF can provide to U.S. forces and the U.S. forces’ expanded involvement in the defense of Japan’s remote islands such as the Senkakus so Tokyo and Washington can jointly operate smoothly and handle any crisis as it escalates from a time of peace to a contingency.
 平時から有事へ、危機の拡大に応じた継ぎ目のない日米共同対処ができるよう、自衛隊の米軍支援の拡充、尖閣など離島防衛での米軍の関与拡大を打ち出したい。

It will also be unavoidable for the government to change its interpretation of the Constitution to enable Japan to exercise its right to collective self-defense.
 集団的自衛権の行使を可能にする憲法解釈の変更に踏み切ることも、避けて通れない。

The government and the ruling Liberal Democratic Party are considering a new interpretation under which exercising the right to collective self-defense will be part of the “minimum necessary” exercise of force for self-defense. Given the worsening security environment surrounding the country, expanding the scope of what constitutes the “minimum necessary” exercise of force is quite understandable.
 政府・自民党は、自衛のための「必要最小限の武力行使」に、集団的自衛権の行使も含める、とする新しい解釈を検討している。安全保障環境の悪化を受けて「必要最小限」の範囲を広げるのは、十分理解できる。

Along with the right to collective self-defense, it will also be necessary to deepen discussions on the right to individual self-defense. For instance, if intruders disguised as fishermen unlawfully occupy a remote island, a development that does not reach a military attack, how would the SDF respond? It will be necessary to spell out rules on the possible use of weapons in a scenario like this that could be described as the exercise of “the minor right to self-defense.”
 集団的自衛権とともに、個別自衛権の議論も深めたい。例えば、偽装漁民による離島占拠という武力攻撃に至らない段階で、自衛隊は、どう対処するのか。こうした「マイナー自衛権」の武器使用の問題も詰めておく必要がある。

Contribute to regional stability
 ◆地域の安定に寄与せよ

The relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture recently saw a development. Okinawa Gov. Hirokazu Nakaima has approved the central government’s request to carry out a land reclamation project in waters off the Henoko district in Nago in the prefecture, a necessary step for ultimately relocating the air station to the district. His decision has cleared the path for an issue that has remained unresolved between Japan and the United States since 1996.
 沖縄県の米軍普天間飛行場移設問題は、進展を見せている。仲井真弘多知事が名護市辺野古の公有水面埋め立てを承認したことで、1996年以来の日米間の懸案が解決に向かいつつある。

Relocating the air base to Henoko would significantly reduce the burden Okinawa Prefecture shoulders by hosting U.S. bases, and enhance the deterrent provided by U.S. forces.
 辺野古への移設が実現すれば、沖縄の基地負担軽減と、抑止力の向上に大きく貢献するだろう。

In December, the government decided on its first National Security Strategy. It urges China to play responsible and constructive roles for peace, stability and prosperity in the region. It also stipulates that Japan will continue to respond firmly but calmly against China’s attempts to forcibly change the present situation.
 昨年12月に初めて決定された国家安全保障戦略は、中国に、地域の平和と安定、繁栄のために責任ある建設的役割を果たすよう促すとともに、力による現状変更の試みには、冷静かつ毅然(きぜん)として対応していく、と記している。

With its birthrate declining and population aging, China’s working and manufacturing populations have started to decline. Under these circumstances, will China’s economic growth slow? How long will the United States place priority on the Asian region? How will such changes affect Japan’s security and economy?
 中国は、少子高齢化が進行し、労働生産人口が減少し始めた。経済成長はどう鈍化していくのか。米国のアジア重視はいつまで続くのか。日本の安全保障や経済にどう影響を与えるのか。

Unlocking the answers to such questions will require analyzing information and drawing up strategic policies toward China.
 情報を分析し、戦略的な対中政策を練り上げねばならない。

In the mid- and long-term, it is crucial for Japan to continue to contribute to the region’s security. In cooperation with the United States and members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Japan must continuously persuade China to be aware of its responsibilities as a member of the international community, and to act accordingly. That is a key duty of Japan.
 中長期的には、日本が地域の安全保障に寄与することが肝要だ。米国や東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)などと連携し、中国に対し、国際社会の一員としての責任を自覚して行動するよう説得し続けることが日本の責務である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 1, 2014)
(2014年1月1日00時57分  読売新聞)

| | コメント (0)

« 2013年12月 | トップページ | 2014年2月 »