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2014年3月 1日 (土)

教育委員会改革 責任の明確化で機能強化図れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun February 28, 2014
Education board reform must lead to clarification of responsibilities
教育委員会改革 責任の明確化で機能強化図れ(2月28日付・読売社説)

To ensure that education board reform will result in a rebuilt system that can adequately deal with the mounting problems that it faces, discussions must be further deepened.
 教育現場の諸問題に、適切に対処できる体制の構築に向けて、一層議論を深めてもらいたい。

Having drawn up a set of reform proposals on the board of education system, the Liberal Democratic Party has been in consultation with ruling coalition partner New Komeito.
 自民党が教育委員会制度の改革案をまとめ、公明党との協議を進めている。

Based on the outcome of discussions within the ruling camp, the government plans to submit a bill for revising the law on local education administration in the current Diet session.
政府は与党協議の結果を踏まえ、今国会に地方教育行政法の改正案を提出する方針だ。

The LDP draft focuses on making it easier for the head of a local government to exert his or her influence in the area of education administration, while allowing ultimate authority to be retained by the local entity’s board of education to ensure political neutrality in education.
 自民党案のポイントは、地方教育行政の最終権限を教委に残して、政治的中立性を確保しつつ、自治体の首長の意向を従来より反映しやすくしたことにある。

Specifically, the LDP plan calls for integration of the post of education board chief, who acts as the board representative, and that of the superintendent of education, who serves as the education board’s secretariat chief. It also seeks to give the head of each local government the right to appoint and dismiss the person who will assume the proposed post to be created by merging the two roles.
 具体的には、教委を代表する教育委員長と実務を統括する教育長を統合し、首長に任免権を与えた。教育委員長と教育長が併存し、責任の所在が不明確な現状を是正する方向性は妥当である。

The plan rightly aims to rectify the current situation in which the locus of responsibility is often blurred due to the simultaneous existence of separate posts for the education board chief and superintendent of education.
 現行制度は、地方の有識者ら教育委員が合議で意思決定する仕組みになっている。

The current system utilizes a framework of making decisions through exchanges of views among members of a local education board comprising intellectuals and others from each local entity. With all the board members except the superintendent of education working part-time, the education board system has long been criticized as having become a mere facade. System reform is urgently needed.
教育長以外の委員は非常勤で、形骸化が指摘されてきた。改革は急務だ。

The Central Council for Education, an advisory body to the education, culture, sports, science and technology minister, issued a report in December last year proposing that the ultimate authority in local education administration be shifted from education boards to local government heads.
 中央教育審議会は昨年12月、地方教育行政の最終権限を教委から首長に移す答申をまとめた。

However, there were fears that the council’s proposal, if effected as was, could lead to the danger of local government heads exerting their influence based on personal bias in a bid to assert greater control over educational matters, with no means of reining in their behavior.
 中教審の改革案では、首長が特定の立場に偏って影響力を行使しようとした場合、歯止めがきかなくなる恐れがあった。

Division of roles unclear

If education boards are allowed to retain final authority on education matters as envisaged in the LDP draft, there will be at least a modicum of hope of preventing the abuse of power by local government heads over education administration.
 自民党案のように教委に最終権限を残せば、首長の暴走を防ぐ上で一定の効果が期待できよう。

On the other hand, the LDP plan also calls for the creation of what it tentatively calls a “general education policy council.” The envisaged council would be presided over by each local local government head who holds the authority to enforce budgetary appropriations, with a view to having the council tasked with compiling important education administration measures.
 一方で、自民党案は、予算の執行権を握る首長が主宰する「総合教育施策会議」を新設し、重要施策を策定することも提言した。

The proposal to create the council seems to be designed to ensure local government heads’ chances of demonstrating leadership in the enforcement of education administration. What is of the highest importance, however, is to have the local education administration function properly by maintaining a balance of power between local government heads and education boards.
 首長の指導力を発揮できる場を確保する意味合いがあるが、大切なのは、首長と教委の権限の均衡を保ちながら、地方教育行政をしっかり機能させることである。

The LDP-envisioned general education policy council would be in charge of such tasks as the establishment and abolition of publicly operated schools and quotas of schoolteachers, while education boards would engage in such matters as personnel shuffles of schoolteachers and selection of textbooks to be used in the areas under their jurisdiction.
 自民党案では、総合教育施策会議は、公立学校の設置や廃止、教職員の定数などを協議し、教委は教職員人事や使用教科書を決めることを想定している。

The relationship between the planned council and education boards under the LPD draft, however, appears to be more or less unintelligible. Should public entities implement the envisaged system without clarifying the roles of each, it could result in confusion that would affect day-to-day school education, possibly impeding the smooth implementation of education administration.
 だが、両者の関係は今ひとつ分かりにくい。自治体が役割分担を明確にして運用しないと、かえって教育現場に混乱が生じ、円滑な教育行政の遂行の障害となる。

Also incorporated into the LDP plan is a proposal that local government heads be authorized to demand that education boards take appropriate steps in response to such emergency situations as the suicide of a student. The proposal came in light of the fact that education boards lacked crisis-management capabilities to take swift action, an issue that was brought to the fore in the case of the bullying-induced suicide of an Otsu middle school student in 2011.
 自民党案には、児童・生徒の自殺など重大事案が発生した際、首長が教委に対して適切な措置を要求できることも盛り込まれた。大津市のいじめ自殺事件で、迅速な対応がとれない教委の危機管理能力の欠如が露呈したからだ。

The secretariats of education boards are frequently comprised of former schoolteachers. There is a strong body of opinion that they, due to a sense of camaraderie with problem-stricken schools, often fail to address the task of rigorously probing the causes of serious problems.
 教委事務局には教師出身者が多い。学校関係者に対する身内意識から、厳しい姿勢で原因調査に臨めないとの批判が根強くある。

In effecting the envisaged system reform, it is very important to take up the attitude of doing away with this tendency of boards of education.
制度改革では、こうした体質を改める視点も重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Feb. 28, 2014)
(2014年2月28日01時21分  読売新聞)

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