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2014年3月 6日 (木)

自衛隊災害派遣 訓練重ねて「想定外」を防ごう

The Yomiuri Shimbun March 05, 2014
Repeating disaster drills essential for preventing the unthinkable
自衛隊災害派遣 訓練重ねて「想定外」を防ごう(3月5日付・読売社説)

Achieving success in minimizing damage from a large-scale calamity requires ensuring lessons learned in disaster-response drills are steadily reflected in plans on how to deal with such a situation, especially in the initial stages. This is essential for preparing for various situations that could arise from a major disaster.
 大規模災害の被害を極小化するには、災害対処訓練の教訓を対処計画や初動体制に着実に反映させて、様々な事態に備える必要がある。

From Feb. 4 to 6, an earthquake disaster simulation exercise was conducted by the general headquarters of the Ground Self-Defense Force’s North Eastern Army, a Sendai-based GSDF organ that played the role of chief commander in working to rescue and aid victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011.
 東日本大震災で被災者救出・支援活動の司令塔となった陸上自衛隊東北方面総監部(仙台市)は先月4~6日、震災対応の総合図上訓練を実施した。

The mock disaster exercise was based on the premise that an earthquake measuring a magnitude of 9 on the open-ended Richter scale had occurred in waters off Miyagi Prefecture. The scenario also stipulated the quake had generated tsunami up to 10 meters in height, and caused fires in urban sections of the area and a loss of power at a local nuclear power plant. About 960 personnel participated, mainly from the GSDF and other organizations in charge of disaster management, including local governments, police and fire stations.
 宮城沖でM9・0の地震が発生し、最大10メートルの津波や市街地火災、原子力発電所での電源喪失が起きた――。そんなシナリオの下、陸自と自治体・警察・消防の関係者ら約960人が参加した。

The simulation drill required these participants to act with a great deal of uncertainty, which they would have felt in the initial stages of response to the 2011 disaster. During the three-day exercise, a computer screen displayed moment-to-moment changes in hypothetical damage from the quake. Telephone services were disrupted, making it impossible to determine the extent of the damage.
 コンピューター上で被害状況は刻々と変化する。電話が不通で被害を把握できず、「霧の中を手探りで進む」ような初動対応を迫られたのは大震災時と同じだ。

A key task facing disaster-management authorities is to save as many lives as possible by obtaining accurate information about the scale of damage. Success in such an endeavor requires cooperation among the SDF, local governments, police and other relevant institutions—not only during disasters, but at any time—in creating a setup in which pertinent information will be effectively shared among them while also deploying necessary personnel and equipment for the plan.
 正確な被害情報を迅速に入手して、一人でも多くの人命を救う。そのためには、平時から自衛隊と自治体、警察など関係機関が連携し、効果的な情報共有と人員・機材運用の体制を構築すべきだ。

The latest simulation exercise clarified what kind of problems need to be resolved. It has been learned that SDF units must be flexibly managed in accordance with changes in a given situation, while abilities possessed by organizations other than the SDF should be effectively utilized. During the simulation drill, for instance, an SDF helicopter arrived at one site, only to find a chopper from another organization already at the scene. On the other hand, neither organization had sent a helicopter to a different site, where such an aircraft was needed.
 図上訓練では課題が明確になった。状況の変化に応じた柔軟な部隊運用や、自衛隊以外の機関が持つ能力の有効活用だ。例えば、自衛隊と関係機関のヘリコプターが同じ場所で重複したり、逆に、どちらも行かなかったりした。

Learning from the past

In fact, such errors were committed after the 2011 earthquake. “I still regret I was unable to fly because of a lack of information,” said a GSDF helicopter pilot who had worked to rescue people affected by that disaster.
 実際、ある陸自のヘリ操縦士は「情報がないため飛べなかった時のことが今も悔やまれる」と、大震災時の救援活動を振り返る。

It is essential to consider the lessons from the latest disaster drill and discuss what roles should be played in responding to a major disaster by the SDF and other relevant organizations. It is also necessary to debate how to effectively coordinate procedures in that respect. Decisions must be made about all such matters—a task essential for fully utilizing personnel and equipment that could be mobilized from the SDF and the other organizations in the event of a major disaster.
 自衛隊と関係機関の人員と機材の能力を最大限発揮するには、今回の訓練の教訓を踏まえ、双方の役割分担や調整手続きを議論し、定めておくことが大切である。

Undoubtedly, a prediction about possible disaster damage will not necessarily come true if an actual calamity takes place. A disaster may evolve in a manner unforeseen to the authorities.
 無論、実際の災害が事前の想定通りになるとは限らない。「想定外」の展開もあるはずだ。

However, it should be noted that grasping the basics of disaster response and making necessary preparations is essential for dealing with a situation that has unfolded beyond all expectations.
 だが、基本を押さえてこそ、応用問題にも対応できる。

The authorities must examine the adequacy of their disaster-response plans through simulation drills and field training exercises, modify the plans based on the results of such exercises, and then conduct new drills. Constant efforts to repeat such a cycle could minimize damage from a calamity that has evolved in an unforeseen manner.
図上や実動の訓練を通じて、対処計画を検証し、その結果を基に計画を修正して、また訓練に臨む。そのサイクルを繰り返す地道な努力が「想定外」を最小限に抑えよう。

The SDF, particularly the GSDF, excel in planning carefully thought-out disaster responses and mobilizing troops for necessary operations on the strength of their military expertise. Such knowledge and skills should also be imparted to local governments.
 自衛隊、特に陸自は、軍事的知見に基づく緻密な計画策定と部隊運用を得意とする。自治体も、そのノウハウを共有したい。

In the wake of the 2011 disaster, the Defense Ministry revised plans on how to respond to a near-field earthquake in Tokyo and a nuclear accident. The ministry has also put together a new plan to manage damage from a quake feared to strike with its focus in the Nankai Trough. The ministry has also considerably increased the number of agreements signed with private-sector companies, such as highway corporations and the NTT Group, regarding cooperation during disasters.
 防衛省は大震災後、首都直下地震と原子力災害の対処計画を改定し、新たに南海トラフ地震対処計画を策定した。高速道路会社やNTTなど民間企業との災害時の協力協定も大幅に増やしている。

It has been predicted that the so-called Nankai Trough quake will cause damage greater than that of the 2011 disaster. The ministry should further shore up tie-ups with organizations related to disaster management.
 南海トラフ地震などでは、3年前以上の被害が想定される。防衛省は従来以上に、関係機関との連携に力を入れねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 5, 2014)
(2014年3月5日01時27分  読売新聞)

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