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2014年4月

2014年4月30日 (水)

Dillingham's Big House

完全に思い出しました。
これは、私が1年間過ごした部屋に間違いありまん。
とても懐かしいですね。
枕元に小さなキャビネットと電話がありました。
床に小さなカーペットを敷いて、そこに寝転がっていたのですが、プロジェクトが完了して日本に戻るときに、お世話になったメイドさんにプレゼントしました。
メイドさんは窓の向こう側、200メートルくらい離れた粗末な建物で生活していました。
フィリピンからの移民だったのです。

The chests act as closets in the bedrooms.

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熱狂の日音楽祭 クラシックの裾野を広げたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:19 pm, April 29, 2014
Public, private sectors should join hands to spread fine classical music
熱狂の日音楽祭 クラシックの裾野を広げたい

It is delightful that an event has taken root where people can casually enjoy fine classical music. La Folle Journee au Japon (The Follies of a Day in Japan), an annual classical music festival, has opened in Japan.
 クラシック音楽の名作を気軽に楽しめる催しとして、定着してきたことは喜ばしい。
 「ラ・フォル・ジュルネ『熱狂の日』音楽祭」が始まった。

At Biwako Hall Center for the Performing Arts, Shiga, concerts were held under the theme “Vienna and Prague” until Tuesday, attracting many classical music fans.
 滋賀県立芸術劇場びわ湖ホールでは29日まで、「ウィーンとプラハ」をテーマに演奏会が開かれ、ファンで賑にぎわっている。

In the business quarter of central Tokyo, a number of concerts with the theme “Jours de Fetes” (Days of Festivals) will be held from Saturday during the holiday-studded Golden Week.
 東京都心のオフィス街でも、連休中の5月3日から、「祝祭の日」をテーマに数多くのコンサートが開かれる。

It will mark the 10th year for the event to be held in Tokyo. As many as 5.77 million people have attended the event so far, which is now known as “the largest classical music festival in Asia.” It can be said the event has greatly contributed to the spread of circles of classical music fans.
 東京開催は今年で10年目だ。これまでに延べ577万人が来場し、「アジア最大のクラシックの祭典」と称されるようになった。クラシックファンの裾野拡大に大きく貢献していると言えよう。

La Folle Journee is characterized by its impact on changing the way people typically appreciate classical music.
 「ラ・フォル・ジュルネ」の特色は、従来のクラシック音楽の鑑賞のあり方を変えたことだ。

During the event, 45-minute concerts are held throughout the day, and admission fees are only about ¥2,000. An admission-free concert is also to be held outdoors. People can also enjoy classical music together with their small children at a concert specifically planned for newborn babies.
 演奏時間45分、2000円前後の低料金の演奏会が、終日催される。野外での無料コンサートも開かれる。小さな子供と一緒に聴ける「0歳からのコンサート」といった企画もある。

La Folle Journee has its origins in Nantes, France. Held in the similar way as large-scale rock music concerts, the event kicked off in 1995.
 「ラ・フォル・ジュルネ」の発祥の地は、フランスの港町ナントだ。大規模なロック・コンサートをヒントに、1995年、クラシックの祭典として始まった。

Funds hard to come by

The fact that the Japanese version of this event has become popular has drawn the attention of the classical music world, although the box-office results of classical music has fallen off in Japan.
 その日本版が多くの人々に受け入れられたことは、興行面で頭打ちが続くクラシック音楽界内部でも注目を集めている。

Not only is the event hugely popular in Tokyo, it also attracts many fans at other venues.
 東京だけでなく、地方の会場の人気も上々だ。

Otsu and Kanazawa are also hosting the event this year, along with Niigata where it has already been held. We hope other cities and towns host the event in the future.
今年は、既に日程を終えた新潟のほか、大津、金沢が開催地だ。今後、さらに各地に広がることを期待したい。

However, there is shortage of operational funds at each venue. The event is being held thanks to contributions made by local governments and private companies. The total cost to hold the event in Tokyo is ¥560 million, with half of the cost shouldered by the Tokyo metropolitan government and private companies.
 ただ、各会場の運営資金は、決して潤沢とは言えない。自治体や地元企業の出資に頼っているのが現状だ。東京会場では、5億6000万円の事業費の半分は、東京都の補助金や企業の協賛金などで賄われている。

Taking advantage of the opening of the Kyushu Shinkansen Line, Tosu, Saga Prefecture, hosted the event in 2011, with plans to hold it annually. But for financial reasons, the city abandoned its plans to hold it this year. This is most regrettable.
 佐賀県鳥栖市では、九州新幹線開業を機に11年から開催したが、今年は財政上の理由で断念した。残念な事態である。

For cultural activities to firmly take root in society, funds are needed. In the case of the La Folle Journee, it is essential for the event to win wide public understanding in revitalizing local economies through music.
 文化活動を根付かせるには一定の費用がかかる。「ラ・フォル・ジュルネ」の場合も、音楽による地域の活性化という趣旨を広く理解してもらうことが大切だ。

In Sendai, a music festival similar to the La Folle Journee is held every autumn. With the catchphrase of “Let’s go forward with music, Sendai,” the event is held to stimulate post-disaster reconstruction efforts following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011.
 仙台市では、「ラ・フォル・ジュルネ」とよく似たスタイルの音楽祭を毎年秋に開催している。「音楽とともに、前へ仙台」をキャッチフレーズに、東日本大震災からの復興を後押ししている。

Let us foster a spiritually rich culture through music, with the public and private sectors joining hands.
 官民が連携し、音楽を通した心豊かな文化を育てていきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 29, 2014)

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大学改革法案 迅速な意思決定が求められる

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:21 pm, April 29, 2014
Swift decision-making process must be achieved through university reform bills
大学改革法案 迅速な意思決定が求められる

In an effort to carry out university reform speedily, the government has submitted bills to the Diet to revise the School Education Law and the National University Corporation Law. The bills are designed mainly to bolster the leadership of university presidents.
 大学改革を迅速に進めるため、政府が、学長のリーダーシップの強化を柱とする学校教育法と国立大学法人法の改正案を国会に提出した。

The government is aiming for enactment of the bills before the current Diet session ends in June.
今国会での成立を目指している。

Universities in Japan—national, public or private—have been widely criticized as taking too much time to make decisions and being incapable of flexible and expeditious management.
 日本の大学は、国公私立にかかわらず、意思決定に時間がかかり、柔軟で機動的な運営ができていないとの批判が多い。

To cope with the changing times, it is crucial for universities to improve their governance, enhance programs to produce well-qualified graduates and expand research activities.
 時代の変化に対応するため、大学はガバナンス(組織統治)の在り方を改善し、人材育成や研究活動の充実を図ることが重要だ。

The revision bills focus on reexamining the authority of faculty councils.
 改正案のポイントは、教授会の権限の見直しだ。

The current School Education Law defines a faculty council as a forum to “deliberate on important matters.”
 現行の学校教育法は、教授会について「重要な事項を審議する」と定めている。

This has been interpreted to mean the council’s authority extends to all matters related to university management, and the council has thus been regarded by many universities as a decision-making organization.
教授会の権限が大学運営全般に及ぶと解釈され、教授会が事実上の意思決定機関となっている大学も少なくない。

This has resulted in the ability of faculty councils to derail efforts by university presidents to implement drastic reforms if the councils oppose the changes.
 学長が思い切った改革を進めようとしても、教授会の反対で実現できない弊害が出ている。

The revision bill would limit the faculty council’s role to expressing opinions when a university president makes a decision on important matters. It is reasonable for the bill to clarify legally that the power to decide on university management resides with university presidents and call for reform that would place authority in the hands of the top leader.
 改正案は、教授会の役割を、学長が決定を行う際に意見を述べることに限定した。大学運営の決定権が学長にあると、法律上、明確にし、トップ主導の改革を促しているのは妥当と言える。

International competitiveness

If the presidents properly exercise their authority on personnel and budget matters and recruit proficient researchers, it will enhance the international competitiveness of universities.
 学長が人事や予算の権限を適切に行使し、優秀な研究者を積極的に採用すれば、大学の国際競争力を高めることにもつながろう。

When it comes to private universities, different people in some cases serve as executive board directors of incorporated educational institutions, which are parent bodies for universities, and university presidents. In such universities, it is essential to establish a system under which decisions can be made smoothly.
 私立大では、経営母体である学校法人の理事長と、大学の学長が別々のケースもある。そうした大学では、円滑な意思決定を可能にしていくことが大切だ。

One notable provision of the revision bill for the National University Corporation Law calls for transparency in the election of university presidents.
 国立大学法人法改正案で注目されるのは、学長の選考過程を透明化する規定を加えた点だ。

The current law stipulates that a president shall be elected by a presidential selection committee comprising members from inside and outside the university. Actually, however, in many universities a preliminary election is held to reflect the opinions of faculty members and staff in final voting to select a president.
 現行法は、学内外の委員で構成する学長選考会議を設け、学長を選ぶと定めている。ところが、実際には、学内の教職員で事前に意向投票を行い、その結果を選考に反映させている大学が多い。

If the selection of top university leaders is affected by an on-campus factional numbers game, it is questionable whether capable persons can be elected.
 学内の多数派工作がトップ人事を左右するようでは、能力を備えた人物が選出されるか疑問だ。

Presidents of national universities, which became incorporated entities in 2004, are required to have strong management abilities. The method used to select presidents must be able to evaluate such abilities.
 2004年に法人化された国立大の学長には、経営手腕も求められる。こうした能力も評価できる選考法にしなければならない。

It is understandable that the revision bill calls for working out standards on the selection of university presidents and making them public.
 改正案が、学長選考の基準を策定し、選考結果とともに公表するよう求めたのは理解できる。

However, if the package of legal revisions is achieved, authority would be concentrated in university presidents, and it would not be easy to replace them midterm, even in cases of mismanagement.
 ただ、一連の法改正が実現すれば、学長に権限が集中する。学長が適正さを欠く大学運営を行った場合、任期途中で交代させるのは容易ではなかろう。

Discussions should be deepened in the Diet about the creation of a system to prevent presidents from exceeding their authority.
 学長の暴走を防ぐ仕組みを、どのように整えるのか。国会で議論を深めてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 29, 2014)

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(社説)原発ゼロの夏 内向きの経営脱する時

April 29, 2014
EDITORIAL: Utilities should start plotting nuclear-free future for themselves
(社説)原発ゼロの夏 内向きの経営脱する時

Electric utilities are still warning that a lack of nuclear power generation will cause power shortages and rises in electricity bills. It’s time for them to stop emphasizing such concerns in their attempts to win public support for restarting idled nuclear reactors.
 原発なしでは電気が足りず、電気代も上がる――電力会社はもう、そんな不安を前面に出す姿勢を改めるべきではないか。

Prospects are bleak for bringing reactors back online by summer, so the utilities have worked out plans to avoid a summer power crunch without using nuclear energy. If these plans are carried out, this summer will be the first without nuclear power generation since the Fukushima nuclear disaster unfolded in March 2011.
 この夏の原発再稼働が見通せぬ中、電力各社は「原発ゼロの夏」を乗り切る計画を示した。実現すれば、震災後初のこととなる。

Some utilities, however, will have to walk a tightrope. Kansai Electric Power Co., which was excessively dependent on nuclear power generation, will have only a 3-percent reserve capacity during the summer peak-demand period. That means efforts to reduce power consumption should not be relaxed.
 とはいえ、もともと原発に過大な依存をしていた関西電力では、真夏のピーク時の余裕は3%しかない。

But the company’s power supply plan for the summer indicates an amazing change in society. It was only two years ago that Kansai Electric Power restarted reactors at its Oi nuclear power plant, claiming that an absence of nuclear power would force it to carry out a rolling blackout, which could seriously affect corporate activities and operations of medical institutions.
節電の手を緩めてはならないが、つい2年前「原発ゼロなら計画停電もある」「企業活動や医療現場に影響が出かねない」と大飯原発を再稼働したときのことを思えば、世の変化に目を見張る思いだ。

The great change has been powered by larger-than-expected cuts in power consumption achieved through efforts by society as a whole.
 原動力は、予想を上回る節電の定着である。

In that summer, the power saving in the region served by Kansai Electric, which then relied on the Oi plant, was three times larger than expected. As it turned out, theoretically, there would not have been a power shortage in the region even if all nuclear plants had been offline.
 あの夏、大飯原発に頼った関電管内では予想の3倍を超える節電を達成。原発ゼロでも乗り切れた計算となった。

The summer last year was among the hottest in history, but there were no signs that power-saving efforts slackened.
昨年は歴史的猛暑だったのに、節電の定着ぶりは変わらなかった。

Based on its experiences during the past two summers, Kansai Electric has estimated that the amount of electricity to be saved this summer will be equivalent to the total power output from two and a half nuclear reactors. Ardent power-saving efforts by consumers made as a serious response to the disastrous nuclear accident have effectively created a huge power surplus.
 こうした実績から、関電は今夏、原発2・5基分の節電を見込むことができた。原発事故を真摯(しんし)に受け止めたユーザーの努力が「節電発電所」の建設につながったといえる。

In contrast, utilities have failed to make serious efforts to ensure a power supply without nuclear plants.
 電力会社の努力はどうか。

They have kept arguing that nuclear power generation is indispensable for a stable power supply, and they have applied for permission to restart reactors, including even risky ones close to densely populated areas.
 安定供給には原発しかないと説き続け、リスクが明らかに高い人口密集地付近の原発でも再稼働を申請する。

Meanwhile, they have been dragging their feet on establishing a system that makes it easier for them to buy surplus power from other utilities serving different regions. To prevent a power crunch, Kansai Electric plans to buy electricity from Tokyo Electric Power Co. for the first time this summer. The amount of power traded between the nation’s eastern and western regions, which run at different frequencies, has increased by only 20 percent since the Fukushima disaster.
一方で、余った電力を地域を越えて融通しあう仕組みはなかなか整わない。関電は今夏初めて、東京電力から融通を受けて電力不足を乗り切る計画だが、周波数の違う東西での融通能力は震災時から2割増えただけだ。

Most utilities have remained dependent on old thermal power plants with low energy efficiency. They have kept saying these thermal plants could break down at any time and force them to raise electricity charges to cover growing fuel costs. It was only very recently that utilities began to move toward building state-of-the-art, energy efficient thermal power plants.
 燃費がかさむ古い火力に頼り、「いつ故障とも知れない」「電気代が上がる」という説明も続く。最新鋭の高効率の火力発電所建設の動きが出始めたのは、ごく最近のことだ。

The Diet is now considering a bill to further deregulate the power market. The nation is heading into a new era when consumers including households as well as businesses can freely choose their power suppliers. The market has already been liberalized for large consumers like local governments. A growing number of them are switching to newly created power suppliers that offer cheaper electricity.
 電力市場の自由化を進める法案が、国会で審議中だ。家庭も含めて自由に電力会社を選べる時代へと移っていく。すでに自由化された自治体などの大口利用者は、電気代の安い新電力に乗り換え始めた。

Unless they change their way of thinking, large established utilities, which have long held regional monopolies, will find it increasingly hard to secure their long-term viability.
発想を切り替えねば、大手電力会社自身が生き残れまい。

People who are making power-saving efforts want to see the establishment of a system that ensures a safe and stable supply of electricity at the lowest possible cost. It is vital to expand the use of renewable energy sources and build up a reliable program for mutual supplies of surplus power for more efficient use of limited resources.
 節電する人びとが求めるのは、安全に安定して、できるだけ安く電気を使えるシステムをつくっていくことだろう。再生可能エネルギーを拡大し、限られた電気を融通し合える仕組みを早く根付かせたい。

The accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant has revealed huge potential risks lurking in nuclear power generation. From this point of view, the efforts of utilities to restart their nuclear power plants, driven by the fact that they have poured huge amounts of money into the facilities, appear to reflect a ruefully inward-looking attitude.
 福島での事故で巨大なリスクが潜むことが明らかになった以上、巨額の投資をしたから原発を動かしたいという経営の論理はあまりに内向きに見える。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 28

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2014年4月29日 (火)

デリンガムビッグハウスの思い出

左側の建物がデリンガムのビッグハウス、右側の建物が4室より構成される客室です。
向かって一番左側の部屋が私の部屋で、洗濯と掃除のメイドさんがついていました。
ボイラーでお湯の出るシャワーは、部屋の外なんですが青空天井なので最初は抵抗がありました。
日が沈むとこの地域は気温が急激に下がるので、シャワーを出して、スチームで空気を暖めてから毎夜シャワーを浴びました。
ポロ競技場はファーリントンハイウェイをはさんで、海側にありましたが、大学の競技場くらいの大きさがありました。
ポロシーズン前にはブリーチャー(足場建設業者)がやってきて、競技場の周囲で競技を観覧できる足場を組み立てました。
ブリーチャーという単語を理解したのは、この現場が始めてだったのです。
ビッグハウスでは道路工事の入札業者10数社を招請し、入札はここで行いました。
最終的な施工業者決定(落札)は東京から幹部がやってきて、ノミネートされた3業者を面接審査してから、その中から選びました。
懐かしさで胸が詰まります。

http://www.businessinsider.com/hawaiis-dillingham-ranch-goes-on-sale-for-65-million-photos-2012-6?op=1



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鹿児島2区補選 安倍政権の政策遂行に追い風

The Yomiuri Shimbun 6:56 pm, April 28, 2014
LDP victory in Kagoshima by-election seen serving as a spur for Abe Cabinet
鹿児島2区補選 安倍政権の政策遂行に追い風

That public expectations are still considerably high for the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has been verified afresh. And yet the government, as a matter of course, should not become complacent with the current situation, continuing instead to forge ahead with resolving a pile of pending issues.
 安倍政権になお期待するということだろう。これに慢心することなく、懸案となっている課題を推進してもらいたい。

In the closely watched House of Representatives by-election on Sunday in the Kagoshima Constituency No. 2, Masuo Kaneko, who was officially endorsed by the Liberal Democratic Party and supported by its coalition partner New Komeito, defeated Akashi Uchikoshi, an independent jointly backed by four opposition parties, and four other candidates.
 衆院鹿児島2区補欠選挙は、自民党公認で公明党に推薦された金子万寿夫氏が、野党4党が推薦した無所属の打越明司氏らを破って当選した。

The by-election was to fill the vacancy left by the resignation of Takeshi Tokuda as a lower house member, who had seceded from the LDP in connection with the violation of the Public Offices Election Law by major hospital chain Tokushukai in his 2012 election campaign.
 補選は、医療グループ「徳洲会」の公職選挙法違反事件に絡み、自民党を離党した徳田毅前衆院議員が辞職したために行われた。

Given the race was the first national-level election since the consumption tax rate was hiked to 8 percent on April 1, it attracted a lot of attention on what verdict voters would hand down.
消費税率が8%に引き上げられて初の国政選挙であることからも、有権者の判断が注目された。

What can be cited as the major reason for Kaneko’s triumph in the Kagoshima race, a contest deemed a “midterm election” with public confidence in the Abe administration at stake, was the all-out battle waged by the LDP, which sent Secretary General Shigeru Ishiba and other top party leaders to the electoral district to stump for the party candidate.
 金子氏の勝因としては、自民党が、安倍政権の信任を得る「中間選挙」と位置づけて石破幹事長ら党幹部を送り込み、総力戦を展開したことが大きいのだろう。

In his campaign speech in support of Kaneko, Abe stressed positive effects of his package of economic policies dubbed Abenomics. In reference to reasons for the consumption tax hike, Abe declared it was a matter of urgency to “enhance the quality of government child-rearing support by dealing effectively with growing costs of social welfare programs.”
 安倍首相は遊説で、経済政策「アベノミクス」の成果を強調するとともに、消費増税の理由について「伸びていく社会保障費に対応し、子育て支援も充実していく必要がある」と訴えた。

Thanks to the surges in voter expectations for the Abe Cabinet’s economic policies, it seems that the problem of “money and politics,” the cause of the by-election taking place in the wake of Tokushukai’s money scandal involving the election campaign for Tokuda, had no major impact on the Kagoshima contest.
 経済政策に対する期待感で、補選の原因となった「政治とカネ」の問題が、選挙戦には大きな影響を及ぼさなかったと言える。

Opposition in disarray

Considering that the Kagoshima Constituency No. 2 is in an area where the farming industry holds sway, it was fortunate for Kaneko that the Japan-U.S. talks on the Trans-Pacific Partnership multilateral free trade framework that were held at the same time as the by-election campaign failed to come up with details about how to handle tariff rates, particularly on the highly sensitive “five important categories” of agricultural products.
 農業が盛んな選挙区であり、環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉の日米協議で、農産物の「重要5項目」の関税の扱いについて明確になっていないことも、金子氏には幸いしたと見られる。

Regarding the election outcome, the government and the ruling coalition parties appear to believe that Abenomics and the higher consumption tax have successfully obtained at least a degree of public understanding.
 政府・与党は、アベノミクスや消費増税に一定の理解が得られたと受け止めている。

Sufficient caution is a must, however, over possible adverse impacts of the tax hike on business conditions. The Abe administration in this respect should redouble efforts for early implementation of the national budget to realize its growth strategy with the aim of reinvigorating the private sector.
 ただし、増税による景気への影響にはなお注意が必要だ。安倍政権は、予算の早期執行に努め、民間活力を引き出す成長戦略の具体化に力を入れねばならない。

Meanwhile, the attempt led by the Democratic Party of Japan to form a united front against the ruling camp was unsuccessful.
 一方、民主党が主導した野党共闘は、実を結ばなかった。

In the Kagoshima race, Uchikoshi was jointly backed by the DPJ, Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party), Yui no To and People’s Life Party. What the four parties aimed at—an attempt to rally opposition forces by criticizing the LDP’s “money power politics”—is understandable.
 打越氏は、民主党、日本維新の会、結いの党、生活の党の推薦を受けた。自民党の「金権政治」を批判して、野党勢力の結集を図るという狙いは理解できる。

The cause of their failure to have their message spread among voters, however, may be that the content of the opposition parties’ argument remained ambiguous.
 だが、支持が広がらなかったのは、肝心の政策の主張があいまいだったからではないか。

Regarding the issue of reinterpreting the Constitution to allow the exercise of the country’s right to collective self-defense for which the prime minister has taken the initiative, the DPJ has opposed changing the constitutional interpretation, while Ishin no Kai is set to approve the reinterpretation.
 首相が主導する集団的自衛権の行使を巡る憲法解釈見直し問題について、民主党は反対だが、維新の会は容認する立場だ。

Pros and cons of reactivating Kyushu Electric Power Co.’s Sendai nuclear power plant did not become an electoral issue in the Kagoshima race.
 九州電力川内原子力発電所の再稼働の是非に関しても、選挙の争点にはならなかった。

Although DPJ head Banri Kaieda rallied for voter support for the party’s view characterizing the by-election as an “election for putting the brakes on the Abe administration,” his argument, too, was short of specifics.
 民主党の海江田代表は「安倍政権にブレーキをかける選挙」と訴えたが、これも具体性を欠いた。

With unified local elections scheduled for next spring, the opposition parties will have to address the challenge of how to present a united front against the ruling camp.
来春の統一地方選に向けて、野党共闘のあり方が問われよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 28, 2014)

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ダンス営業規制 実態に即した法改正が必要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 6:55 pm, April 28, 2014
Law regulating dance clubs should be revised to reflect current reality
ダンス営業規制 実態に即した法改正が必要だ

Regulating dance classes under the Law Regulating Adult Entertainment Businesses can be considered off the mark. The law should be revised to reflect reality.
 風俗営業法でダンス教室まで規制するのは、的外れと言われても仕方あるまい。実態に即した法改正が必要である。

The Osaka District Court has acquitted the former operator of a dance club accused of running the establishment without permission in violation of the law, based on its judgment that “it cannot be said the operator allowed customers to engage in the kind of hedonistic dancing regulated by the Law Regulating Adult Entertainment Businesses.”
 若者らがダンスを楽しむ「クラブ」を無許可営業したとして、風営法違反に問われた元経営者に、大阪地裁が無罪を言い渡した。「風営法が規制する享楽的なダンスをさせたとは言えない」との判断からだ。

However, the court also rejected the claim by the defense counsel that “the law infringes on the freedom of business activity and is therefore unconstitutional,” concluding that “regulation is needed for the public benefit and is thus constitutional.”
 一方、弁護側の「風営法は営業の自由を侵害しており、憲法違反だ」という主張に対して、判決は「規制は公共の利益のために必要で、合憲」と結論づけた。

We believe it is appropriate to acknowledge the rationality of controlling the excesses of sex entertainment businesses, while also clarifying the facts in individual cases involving dance clubs and other operations.
 性風俗の乱れを取り締まる合理性は認めながら、クラブなどの個別の状況に応じて事実認定したのは、適切と言えよう。

Some of the law’s stipulations are outdated because it regards all businesses related to dance as “adult entertainment” and regulates them in the same way.
 風営法の規定で時代にそぐわないのは、ダンスに関するあらゆる営業を「風俗営業」と位置づけ、一律に規制している点だ。

Regulation of dance businesses was included when the law was enacted in 1948, just after the end of World War II. At that time, dance halls were considered hotbeds of prostitution.
 風営法にダンスの営業規制が盛り込まれたのは、戦後間もない1948年の制定時に遡る。当時、ダンスホールが売春の温床となっていたことが背景にある。

Currently, the operation of dance businesses, including dance halls and classes that do not serve food or drinks, in principle requires permission from a public safety commission. Such businesses are prohibited from opening establishments close to residential areas, schools, hospitals and some other locations. Also, their business hours must end at midnight in principle, and they are off limits to people younger than 18.
 客に飲食を提供しないダンスホールやダンス教室を含め、営業には、原則として公安委員会の許可が必要だ。住宅地や学校、病院などの近くでは開業できない。営業時間は原則午前0時までで、18歳未満の立ち入りは禁止される。

Popularity of dancing rising

More people are enjoying dancing as a fitness or artistic activity, and ballroom dance is popular mainly among the elderly. Considering these circumstances, it may be advisable to scrap the regulation of dance halls and dance classes.
 ダンスをスポーツや芸術活動として楽しむ人が増えている。高齢者を中心に社交ダンスも流行している。こうした現状を考えれば、ダンスホールやダンス教室への規制は撤廃すべきではないか。

But dance clubs should remain subject to some regulation. They usually play reverberating music very loudly, triggering many complaints from neighbors because of the noise and vibrations. Furthermore, drug trade and violence are sometimes associated with dance clubs.
 その一方、クラブに対しては、一定の規制を残すべきだろう。大音響で音楽を流すため、騒音や振動の苦情が多い。薬物売買や暴力事件なども発生している。

A suprapartisan group of about 60 Diet members, called the league of lawmakers promoting dance culture, is trying to submit a bill to revise the law during the current Diet session.
 超党派の国会議員約60人で作る「ダンス文化推進議員連盟」は、風営法改正案を今国会に提出することを目指している。

Among their proposals, the one most likely to be adopted is to abolish the regulation of dance halls and classes but continue to regulate the location of dance clubs, while allowing them to extend their business hours if they get permission.
 ダンスホール、ダンス教室の規制は撤廃し、クラブについては、立地規制を維持しつつ、許可を受ければ営業時間を延長できるとする案が有力とされている。

A considerable number of dance clubs are deliberately operating without official permission because they would have a hard time attracting customers if they closed early. The bill under study by the lawmakers perhaps merits consideration, as it presents realistic controls.
 営業の終了時間が早いと客が集まらないとして、あえて無許可営業を続けているクラブは少なくない。改正案は、現実的な対策として検討に値するのではないか。

At a subcommittee meeting of the government’s Council for Regulatory Reform, some members called for using dance clubs to attract tourists in the run-up to the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.
 政府の規制改革会議の部会では、2020年の東京五輪を前に、クラブを観光資源として活用すべきだといった意見も出た。

What matters most is to create an environment for people to enjoy dancing in a wholesome manner.
 重要なのは、ダンスを健全に楽しむための環境作りである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 28, 2014)

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政治とカネ―借金ですむはずがない

April 28, 2014
EDITORIAL: Time to plug loopholes to ban ‘borrowing’ by politicians
政治とカネ―借金ですむはずがない

Your Party, a minor opposition party, announced the results of its investigation on April 24 in relation to former party leader Yoshimi Watanabe’s borrowing of 800 million yen (about $7.8 million).
 渡辺喜美前代表の8億円の借り入れ問題で、みんなの党が調査報告書を公表した。

To our surprise, the report revealed that he borrowed 615 million yen from five different people, in addition to the 800 million yen he borrowed from the chairman of a cosmetics company.
 驚いたことに、渡辺氏は化粧品会社の会長から借りた8億円とは別に、5カ所から計6億1500万円を借り入れていたことが明らかになった。

But the report concluded that Watanabe’s actions did not violate the Public Offices Election Law or Political Fund Control Law.
 報告書は、公職選挙法や政治資金規正法に違反する事実はなかったと結論づけた。

Even if the conclusion is true in a legal sense, however, such loans cannot be overlooked or escape criticism.
だが、仮に法的にはその通りだったとしても、黙って見過ごすわけにはいかない。

According to the explanations described in the report, Watanabe did not use the money for his own election campaigns. Therefore, it is not illegal even if he did not list the money in his election campaign fund reports.
 報告書の説明はこうだ。
 渡辺氏は借金を自らの選挙に使ったわけではなく、自身の選挙費用収支報告書に記載しなくても違法ではない。

Besides, the Political Fund Control Law does not require individual politicians to prepare accounting books or political fund reports, so there are no problems under the law, according to the report.
また、政治資金規正法は政治家個人には会計帳簿や収支報告書の作成は求めていないため、法的な問題は生じない。

The report acknowledges that Watanabe used the borrowings to extend loans to his party, and these loans were used as deposit money for Your Party candidates or as expenditures for election campaigns. The report says these practices do not violate the Public Offices Election Law.
But can Watanabe get away with it?
 一方、報告書は、渡辺氏が借入金をもとに党への貸し付けを行っており、それが党の候補者の供託金や選挙運動の費用に使われたと認めている。
 これも公選法に違反するものではないとしているが、それですむのだろうか。

The Political Fund Control Law is intended to make the flow of money for political activities transparent so that the people can decide if such money flows are appropriate.
 政治資金規正法の趣旨は、政治にかかわるカネの流れを透明にし、その是非を国民の判断に委ねようというものだ。

Still, huge amounts of money flow to politicians as loans using loopholes in the law, and the funds are used for election campaigns and other political activities. The people have no way of knowing about this flow of money. It is apparent that such borrowing goes against the intent of the law.
 それなのに、法のすき間を抜ける形で巨額の資金が「借金」として政治家に流れ、選挙や政治活動に使われる。国民はそのカネの動きを知ることはできない。法の本来の趣旨に反していることは明らかだ。

If such practices are tolerated, politicians can obtain huge amounts of money under the name of “borrowings” even if the money is actually more close to donations. Such borrowings should not be legal.
 これが許されるなら、寄付に近い資金提供でも、借金と称せばいくらでもできることになってしまう。これに合法のお墨付きを与えることはできない。

Complaints have been filed with the Tokyo District Public Prosecutors Office against Watanabe on suspicion of violating certain laws, including the Public Offices Election Law. Prosecutors are required to make a judgment on whether there are really no illegal points.
 渡辺氏に対しては、公選法違反などの疑いで東京地検に告発状が出されている。違法な点は本当にないのか、まずは検察の判断が求められる。

In addition, lawmakers should consider legal revisions to block the loopholes.
 そのうえで、こんな抜け道をふさぐための法改正を検討しなければならない。

Watanabe’s borrowings again showed the reality that new parties must procure huge amounts of funds to increase the number of their lawmakers.
 今回の借入金問題は、新しい政党が党勢を拡大していくためには、巨額の資金を調達しなければならない実態もまた浮き彫りにした。

Much of these funds are used for deposit money, which candidates must pay to stand in an election. The amount is 3 million yen per candidate in the case of a Lower House single-seat constituency.
 その多くが1人あたり衆院小選挙区で300万円かかる供託金で占められる。

The deposit money is required to prevent people from campaigning simply as publicity stunts or to obstruct the victory of certain candidates. However, the amount is too high compared with the figures in other countries.
売名や選挙妨害目的の候補者乱立を防ぐためだが、諸外国に比べ際立って高額だ。

Incidentally, lawmakers in both houses of the Diet are about to move toward revising the electoral systems to rectify the disparities in vote values between the most populous and the least populous constituencies.
 おりしも衆参両院で一票の格差是正のための選挙制度の見直しが動き出そうとしている。

They should also tackle the issue of money related to political activities.
 政治にまつわるカネの問題をどう扱うか。この検討もあわせて進めるべきだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 27

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2014年4月28日 (月)

認知症事故判決 介護する側の苦労も考慮した

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:13 pm, April 27, 2014
Court considers hardship of caring for senile in lawsuit over rail death
認知症事故判決 介護する側の苦労も考慮した

Last week’s ruling by the Nagoya High Court posed a weighty question: How can we establish a system that will enable people to live at home after developing senile dementia?
 認知症になっても自宅で暮らせる体制をどう築くか。重い課題を突きつける判決である。

The case, which was sent to the court on appeal, involves a suit filed by the Central Japan Railway Co. (JR Tokai) seeking compensation from the bereaved family of a man with senile dementia who died after being struck by a train—an accident the railway company claims caused damage because it delayed the train schedule. The high court ordered the man’s wife, who was caring for her husband at home, to pay compensation.
 認知症の男性が列車にはねられて死亡し、JR東海が遺族に遅延損害の賠償を求めた訴訟の控訴審で、名古屋高裁は、介護していた妻に賠償を命じる判決を言い渡した。

There have been a considerable number of cases in which elderly people with dementia have wandered away from their home and become involved in train accidents. The issue is something people providing nursing care for family members can relate to.
 認知症の高齢者が徘徊はいかいし、鉄道事故に遭うケースは少なくない。介護する家族にとって、人ごとではない問題だ。

The accident occurred when the man wandered out and entered the train tracks after his wife had briefly dozed off.
 この事故では、妻がまどろんでいるわずかの間に、男性は外出し、線路内に立ち入った。

In the first trial at the Nagoya District Court, the presiding judge said that the danger of the man being involved in an accident, if he went out, was predictable and that “the wife was at fault for neglecting her duty to constantly watch over him.”
 1審の名古屋地裁は、男性が外出すれば事故が起きる危険性を予見できたとした上で、「妻には、夫から目を離さずに見守るのを怠った過失がある」と認定した。

The high court, on the other hand, ruled that such an accident had not been predictable. The court also rejected the claim that she was at fault for neglect, which constitutes illegal behavior, by taking into account the fact that the wife was trying hard to nurse him. But it still acknowledged her responsibility of paying compensation as the person obliged to supervise her husband since he could not be legally held accountable.
 これに対し、名古屋高裁は「事故は予見できなかった」と判断した。妻らが介護に努めていた点も考慮し、不法行為による過失を否定した。ただ、責任能力のない夫を介護する妻には、監督義務者としての賠償責任を認めた。

24-hour watch impossible

It is virtually impossible for family members to watch sufferers of senile dementia they care for around the clock. If family members are made to shoulder excessive burdens, more and more people will have second thoughts about caring for such patients at home.
 介護する家族が四六時中、認知症の高齢者から目を離さずにいることはできまい。家族に過重な責任を負わせれば、自宅での介護に二の足を踏む人が増えよう。

The fact that the high court halved the amount of compensation the family has to pay in this case indicates it took into consideration the hardship of nursing care givers.
 高裁が賠償額を1審に比べ半減させたのは、介護する側の苦労にも目配りした結果と言える。

Furthermore, the high court pointed out a blunder on the part of JR Tokai, saying, “It can be presumed that the accident could have been prevented” if the railway company had locked an opening in a fence, from which the man is believed to have entered the tracks.
 高裁は、JR東海に対しても、男性が線路に立ち入ったとみられるフェンスに施錠していれば、「事故を防げたと推認できる」と落ち度を指摘した。

The court also said, “It is the social responsibility of public transportation entities to improve safety” by paying consideration to people unable to understand the danger of accidents. We hope all railway companies will take this point seriously.
 事故の危険を理解できない人がいるのを考慮し、「公共交通機関として安全の向上に努めるのは社会的責務」とも述べた。鉄道各社は重く受け止めてもらいたい。

At a time when the number of senile dementia patients has surged in recent years to 4.6 million, and there are long waiting lists to enter special nursing homes for the elderly, it is difficult to care for senile dementia sufferers at nursing facilities alone.
 認知症高齢者は急増し、460万人に上る。特別養護老人ホームの入居待機者も多く、施設だけで介護するのは困難だ。

In 2012, about 9,500 went missing because of senile dementia, of which 359 people were later found dead. It is essential to expand and improve the system for supporting nursing care at home in addition to coming up with measures to prevent accidents involving elderly people who wander away.
 認知症が原因で行方不明になった人は2012年に約9500人に上り、359人は発見時に死亡していた。在宅介護を支援する体制の拡充と、徘徊による事故を防ぐ手立てを考えねばならない。

The government, for its part, should establish around-the-clock visiting nursing care services as well as medical institutions that would dispatch a doctor to the home of a patient whose symptoms have worsened.
 政府は、24時間型の訪問介護サービスや症状の悪化時に往診する医療機関の整備を急ぐべきだ。

It is indispensable to involve community members in countermeasures. The city of Omuta, Fukuoka Prefecture, which sends e-mail alerts to citizens whenever a senile dementia sufferer goes missing, can be a good example for other local governments.
 地域ぐるみの対策も欠かせない。認知症の高齢者が行方不明になると、市民に一斉メールで知らせる福岡県大牟田市の取り組みは、他の自治体の参考になる。

It will also be necessary to study the advisability of establishing an insurance system that would compensate railway companies for accidents involving senile persons.
 事故が起きた場合、鉄道会社に損害金が支払われる保険制度の創設も検討課題になるだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 27, 2014)

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渡辺氏の8億円 内部調査でも疑念は晴れない

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:12 pm, April 27, 2014
Your Party probe far from clearing up Watanabe’s ¥800 mil. loan problem
渡辺氏の8億円 内部調査でも疑念は晴れない

An investigation into a politician’s suspected irregularities involving loans demonstrates the limitations of carrying out a probe on a voluntary basis. The truth behind the dubious flow of funds in question and what they were used for remains mystifying. Indeed, suspicions have deepened.
 任意調査の限界だ。不明朗な資金の流れや趣旨が、十分解明されたとはとても言えない。疑念は深まるばかりである。

In regard to loans totaling ¥800 million to former Your Party head Yoshimi Watanabe from the chairman of a cosmetics manufacturing and marketing company, an intraparty investigation report released Thursday concluded that nothing illegal had taken place.
 みんなの党の渡辺喜美前代表が化粧品製造販売会社会長から8億円を借りていた問題で、みんなの党は、違法性が認められなかった、とする調査報告書を公表した。

Of the ¥800 million, the party confirmed ¥710 million had either been lent to Your Party or kept in the bank account of Watanabe’s wife, according to the report.
 それによると、8億円のうち、7億1000万円は党への貸し付けや、渡辺氏の妻の口座に保管していたことなどが確認できた。

Of the remaining ¥90 million, Watanabe used ¥55 million on his own, while his wife spent the rest, it said.
残る9000万円のうち、5500万円は渡辺氏が、3500万円は妻が使っていたという。

Watanabe was quoted as saying the money he spent was used for such purposes as covering the costs of meetings that involved wining and dining, and traveling and hotel accommodation expenses. Some details were not explained fully because Watanabe refused to disclose some of his cash and credit card usage for privacy reasons. What his wife used the money for was not explained.
 渡辺氏は、飲食会合費や旅費宿泊費などに充てたと説明しているが、カードの利用明細の開示を一部拒んだため、解明し切れない部分が残った。妻の明細の確認は出来なかった。

The cosmetics company chairman has said he provided Watanabe with loans for use as campaign funds in the 2010 House of Councillors election and the 2012 House of Representatives election. Your Party, however, said its investigation confirmed that ¥500 million of the loans was transferred to the bank account of Watanabe’s wife, most of which it said was left untouched.
 会社会長は衆参両院の選挙資金として貸したと証言している。ところが、妻の口座に5億円が移され、大半が手つかずで残っていたことが確認された。

Your Party’s investigation team accepted Watanabe’s explanation that he had kept the bulk of the cash as the “sinews of war” in preparation for future realignment of political parties. The party determined that Watanabe’s receipt of the loans did not violate the Public Offices Election Law as long as none of the money was used as election campaign funds for candidates supported by the party.
 調査チームは、政界再編に備えて「軍資金として保管しておいた」という渡辺氏の説明を受け入れた。みんなの党の候補者の選挙資金として使われていない以上、公職選挙法に抵触しない、との見解を示している。

Toughen legal regulations

While admitting he should “offer an apology for causing part of the loans to be subject to suspicions and misunderstandings” because of the lack of accuracy of some of his explanations, Watanabe has argued that the investigation has proved the loans did not present a problem, either legally or morally.
 渡辺氏は自らの説明に正確さが欠け、「一部に疑問や誤解を与えたことをわびる」としながらも、法的、道義的な問題はないと判断された、とコメントしている。

Given that there are many inconsistencies in his explanations, Watanabe’s claims are unconvincing.
 だが、不自然な点が多く、説得力がないと言わざるを得ない。

During the investigation, a new, astonishing fact came to light. Apart from the loans from the head of the cosmetics company, Watanabe obtained a total of ¥615 million in loans from five lenders. The loans were said to have been for Your Party and for other purposes.
 調査の過程で、新たな驚くべき事実も判明した。渡辺氏は会社会長とは別に、5か所から計6億1500万円を借りていたことだ。この借入金は、党への貸し付けなどに回っていたという。

Watanabe declined to reveal to the party investigators the identities of the five lenders, thereby aggravating the public’s distrust concerning money and politics. Does Watanabe have any intention to really hold himself accountable in this matter?
 渡辺氏は、借入先を公表しなかった。政治とカネの問題は不透明さが増した感もある。説明責任を果たす気はあるのだろうか。

The Political Funds Control Law is mainly designed to regulate political bodies and does not oblige individual politicians to report on their personal borrowings. Some analysts have pointed out that allowing politicians to refrain from making public their incomes and expenditures as long as they are related to personal loans is nothing but a loophole in the law.
 政治資金規正法は、主に政治団体を規制対象としており、政治家個人の借入金には報告を求めていない。個人の借り入れとすれば、その収支は公表しないで済むなら、法律の「抜け穴」にほかならないとの指摘が出ている。

Both the ruling and opposition camps should study the advisability of revising the law to make it obligatory for politicians to make public how they use money for political activities even if the money is an individual loan.
 与野党は、個人の借入金であっても、政治活動に使ったものは公開を義務づけるような法改正を検討すべきではないか。

A huge amount of taxpayers’ money is used as subsidies to political parties. It is the duty of political parties and individual members of the Diet to make the flow of political funds as transparent as possible.
 税金から多額の政党交付金が支給されている。政治資金の流れの透明化に努めるのは、政党や国会議員に課せられた責務である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 27, 2014)

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2014年4月27日 (日)

クラウド型のリマインドメール、MaiList(メーリスト)のおすすめ

アフィリエイトビジネスというものを始めてから、すでに10年くらい経過してしまいました。
この間、インターネットのサービスには目を見張るものがあります。
ひとつはインターネット回線の高速化なんです。
固定電話からのダイアルアップ式からADSL回線に切り替えたときには、これでこのビジネスで生きていけると思ったほどなんです。

もうひとつが、最近台頭して来ている、ネット上のクラウドサービスというものです。
クラウドサービスには企業データの保守管理など使えるサービスが満載なんですが、クラウド型のリマインドメール、MaiList(メーリスト)というものを発見しました。

メールの予約送信は、もちろん自分のPCからだって、出来るのですが、これがかなり面倒なんです。
ついつい忙しさにかまけて、大切なお客様へのリマインドメールの送付を忘れることは日常茶飯事です。
そのためにせっかくのビジネス成約のチャンスを失した苦い経験もあります。

クラウド型のリマインドメール、MaiList(メーリスト)に登録しておけば、忘れることがありません。
自分のPCに電源が入ってなくとも、サイトのクラウド上から自動的にリマインドメールの送信をしてくれます。

このシステムには、ひとつの強みがあります。
クラウド上からメール送信をするのですけど、メールアドレスは自分が愛用しているものを使えるという点です。
なりすましメールとして迷惑メールに振り分けられる可能性がなくなるというわけなのです。

クラウド上で登録しておくだけで、定期的な繰り返し型の連絡だってセットできます。
これは超便利なんです。
送信先が5件までなら、なんと無料で登録してメールの送信予約が出来ます。
ためしにいかがでしょうか。

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:夢見るのは悪くないけど /東京

April 20, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Lofty goals are not everything
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:夢見るのは悪くないけど /東京

The controversy over the STAP cell research paper continues. The press conference by Riken's research leader Haruko Obokata, who played a central role in the STAP cell research and the writing of the papers, was broadcasted live on television and made headlines in newspapers.
 STAP論文問題をめぐる騒動が収まらない。研究や論文執筆で中心的な役割を担った理化学研究所の小保方晴子リーダーの記者会見は、テレビで生中継され、新聞でも大きく取り上げられた。

There are all kinds of analyses and opinions being offered, but what struck me was Obokata repeatedly saying that she wanted "to be helpful." She said that since encountering the STAP cell phenomenon, she had done her research with the hope of "developing the technology one day to help many people."
 いろいろな分析や感想があると思うが、私が気になったのは何度か出てきた「役に立ちたい」という言葉だった。STAP現象に出合って以来、「いつか多くの人々の役に立つ技術にまで発展させていける日を夢見て」、研究を続けてきたのだという。

I think those feelings were genuine. At university, there are many students who similarly say they "want to become someone who is needed by society" or "want to do something for many people." Compared to selfishly looking out only for oneself, it is a commendable attitude.
 小保方さんの気持ちにウソはないのだろう。大学でも「社会で必要とされる人間になりたい」「大勢の人たちのために何かしたい」と将来の夢を語る学生は少なくない。「私さえよければいい」という自己中心的な考えに比べれば、「役に立ちたい」という気持ちは立派だと言える。

However, there is a problem: do people really have to help others? Sometimes patients come to my clinic who have given up after wanting to do something to help society. When I recommend to them to first look after their own health and leisure, they sometimes reject that advice, saying then their life will be meaningless, or that if they don't help others, "no one will notice I'm alive."
 しかし、そこに一つ落とし穴がある。それは、「役に立たなければダメなのか」という問題だ。診察室では、世の中や人々のために何かしたいと考えていたのに挫折した人が、ときどきやって来る。「まずは自分の健康や楽しみのために生きてもいいんじゃないですか」と助言すると、「それでは人生の意味がない」と首を横に振ってこう言う人もいる。「誰かの役に立たなければ、私が生きていることにも気づいてもらえない」

For these people, the desire to help is tied to a desire to be recognized. Sometimes, they can become so engrossed in an effort to be recognized by others that they forget their initial goal of offering assistance.
 「役に立ちたい」は「認めてもらいたい」という欲求と裏表の関係にある。そういう人は時として、なんとか認めてもらおうと夢中になり、いつの間にか「役に立つ」という、はじめの目的を忘れてしまうこともある。

It is wonderful to help society, but that is not the only meaning to life. First we should live out our days to the fullest, even if what we do isn't known to the rest of society. Enjoy the seasons changing, laugh with friends and family. I think that alone may be enough for our lives.
 社会の役に立つのはすばらしいことだが、それだけが生きる意味ではない。自分がまずその日、その日をしっかり生きて、大勢に知られなくても手ごたえのある暮らしを送る。季節の移り変わりを楽しみ、身近な家族や友人と笑いあう。「人生はそれで十分」という気もする。

Obokata may have dreamed too big in her desire to help others, chasing an oversized goal of helping everyone from the sick to women who can't have children. Perhaps, she thought that if she didn't do that much, her life as a scientist wouldn't have meaning.
 小保方さんは「役に立ちたい」と思いすぎ、「病気で苦しむ人も子宮がなくて出産できない女性も、みんなが救われる」とあまりに大きな夢を追いかけすぎたのではないだろうか。もしかすると、それくらいのことを達成できないと科学者人生には意味がない、と思ったのかもしれない。

It is not a bad thing to have goals, but there is meaning to our lives even if we don't reach those goals. Obokata made me wonder whether there hadn't been a smaller-scale path through life more befitting her, as I recalled the faces of university students repeatedly saying how they want to help society.
 夢を見るのは悪いことじゃないけれど、夢がかなわなくたって生きる意味はある。もっと等身大の生活を送る道もあったのではと、「とにかく役に立ちたい」と繰り返す学生たちの顔を思い浮かべながら考えてしまった。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年04月15日 地方版

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参院選制度改革 「合区」案は受け入れられるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:40 pm, April 26, 2014
Parties must accelerate study on upper house poll reform plan
参院選制度改革 「合区」案は受け入れられるか

It is understandable that a reform proposal is intended to correct the vote-value disparity in the House of Councillors election and resolve a situation denounced by courts as being in “a state of unconstitutionality.” However, it is questionable whether the proposal will be able to fully reflect the voices of people in depopulated areas in national politics.
 参院選の「1票の格差」を是正し、「違憲状態」を解消する目的は理解できる。ただ、人口減に悩む地方の声が国政に十分反映されるかどうか。

Discussions must be deepened based on the proposal.
 この案をたたき台に、議論を深めてもらいたい。

The proposal has been submitted by Masashi Waki, secretary general of the Liberal Democratic Party’s upper house caucus, who chairs the upper chamber election reform council. The reform plan calls for integrating constituencies that have small numbers of voters per lawmaker with neighboring electoral districts. It is a plan with great impact.
 参院選挙制度協議会座長の脇雅史参院自民党幹事長が、参院選改革の座長案を示した。議員1人当たりの人口が少ない選挙区を隣接区と統合する「合区」を導入するインパクトのある案である。

Eleven combined constituencies, including Tottori/Shimane, Tokushima/Kochi and Osaka/Wakayama, will be created, while the number of seats contested every three years will be increased by one each in Tokyo, Kanagawa and four other constituencies. As a result, Tokyo will have a total of six seats up for grabs every three years, and the number of single-seat constituencies will be reduced to 17.
 「鳥取・島根」「徳島・高知」「大阪・和歌山」など11の合区を作る一方、東京、神奈川など6選挙区の改選定数は1ずつ増やす。東京は「6人区」となり、「1人区」は17選挙区に抑えられる。

Under this plan, it is said the maximum gap in vote values would instantly shrink from 4.77-to-1 to 1.83-to-1.
 1票の格差は、昨年の参院選の最大4・77倍から1・83倍へ一気に縮小されるという。

The proposal could be regarded as a “drastic reform” even though it maintains the current framework of a total of 242 upper house seats being chosen through elections in constituencies and the national representation bloc, with half of the seats contested in elections every three years. The term for upper house members is six years.
 選挙区選と全国比例選を組み合わせた現行制度の骨格と参院定数242は維持しているが、「抜本改革」案と言えるだろう。

As Waki put forth an ambitious plan to hold down the vote-value disparity to less than 2-to-1, reorganized constituencies transcending long-standing prefectural borders will directly affect a total of 22 prefectures.
 脇氏が、参院で1票の格差を「2倍以内」に抑えるという野心的な方針を掲げた結果、長年定着している都道府県の行政単位を超える選挙区が22府県にも上る。

Resistance likely

Resistance is anticipated against combining constituencies with different cultures and history.
 文化や歴史が異なる選挙区の合区には、抵抗も予想される。

Especially in connection with the plan to combine constituencies in which one seat is up for grabs every three years, there is a great possibility that dissatisfaction will mount on the part of prefectures with smaller populations. They are expected to complain “we can no longer send our delegates to the upper chamber.”
 特に、改選定数1の合区では、人口が少ない方の県から「参院に我々の代表を送れなくなる」との不満が出る可能性が大きい。

It will become necessary for political parties to coordinate such items as putting up candidates alternately from the neighboring two prefectures.
 各党は、隣接する両県から3年ごとに交互に候補者を擁立するなどの調整も必要となろう。

As for the proportional representation election, the reform plan calls for parties to list candidates in order of priority. This is considered to be aimed at leaving room for parties to coordinate on the selection of candidates, but there is no denying it will create a complicated system.
 比例選は、各党が候補者の名簿順位をつけられる仕組みにする。合区における候補者調整の余地を残すのが狙いだろうが、複雑な制度になるのは否めない。

The parties with seats in the upper house are scheduled to compile their views next month based on the proposal offered by Waki. He aims to obtain a consensus on the reform plan during the current Diet session, but opinions remain apart.
 参院各党は、座長案を踏まえて来月中に見解をまとめる予定だ。脇氏は、今国会中の改革案の合意を目指しているが、各党の主張には依然、隔たりがある。

The LDP has no specific reform plan for now. Its coalition partner, New Komeito, insists on adopting a large constituency system by dividing electoral districts into 11 blocs, while the Democratic Party of Japan is studying a plan to reduce the fixed number of upper house seats by about 40. The Japanese Communist Party and other parties call for introducing a full proportional representation election system.
 自民党には現在、特定の改革案はない。公明党は11ブロック程度の大選挙区制を主張し、民主党は40程度の定数削減案を検討中だ。共産党などは、完全比例選の導入を提案している。

The number of Diet members in relation to the population is far from overwhelming compared with other countries. Thus, cuts in the fixed number of seats as asserted by the DPJ should be detached from discussions on the reform plan offered this time.
 日本の国会議員が人口比では他国と比べて決して多くない以上、民主党が主張する定数削減は今回の改革と切り離すべきだ。

The parties must step up their study of the reform plan ahead of the next upper house poll, set for 2016, when the new system is targeted to be adopted.
 新制度の導入を目指す2016年の次期参院選に向けて、各党は検討を急がねばならない。

Should the rectification of vote-value disparities be a top-priority issue? How should roles and functions be divided between the House of Representatives and the upper house? Discussions on these essential issues are also indispensable.
 1票の格差是正が最優先の課題なのか。衆院と参院の役割・機能分担はどうあるべきか。こうした本質的な議論も欠かせまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 26, 2014)

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日米共同声明 TPP決着へ「大胆な」決断を

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:36 pm, April 26, 2014
Follow up Japan-U.S. summit with bold moves to conclude TPP
日米共同声明 TPP決着へ「大胆な」決断を

Discussions that unusually continued for many hours after the Japan-U.S. summit’s conclusion resulted Friday in a major step toward a bilateral accord that will pave the way for concluding rocky negotiations to seal the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement.
 難航する環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉の最終決着に向けて、日米首脳会談後に行われた異例の延長協議は、大きな前進があった。

Leveraging their bilateral talks, Japan and the United States must make further efforts to reach an agreement among all 12 nations participating in TPP talks, including Australia.
 日米協議をテコに、豪州なども含めた12か国のTPP全体交渉の合意を目指さねばならない。

The Japanese and U.S. governments issued a joint statement from the summit talks between Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and U.S. President Barack Obama one day later than scheduled.
 日米両政府は25日、安倍首相とオバマ大統領による首脳会談の共同声明を1日遅れで発表した。

It is significant that the Japan-U.S. joint statement clearly said the two countries “have identified a path forward on important bilateral TPP issues,” marking a “key milestone” in the TPP negotiations.
 共同声明が日米TPP協議について、「2国間の重要課題について前進する道筋を特定した」と明記し、交渉全体の「キー・マイルストーン(重要な一里塚)」と位置付けた意味は重い。

The summit talks held Thursday failed to reach an agreement on TPP issues. But after Akira Amari, state minister in charge of TPP issues, and U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman continued negotiations into the predawn hours of Friday at the instruction of their leaders, the two nations managed to issue the joint statement just before Obama was to depart Japan.
 前日の首脳会談では、まとまらなかった。両首脳の指示で、甘利TPP相とフロマン米通商代表の閣僚協議などが25日未明まで続いた結果、大統領の離日直前に発表にこぎつけた。

Abe, who views the TPP as a pillar of the government’s growth strategy, said the joint statement “marks a groundbreaking achievement.” His comments indicated that he was satisfied in the end with the progress made.
 TPPを成長戦略の柱と位置づける安倍首相が、「大きな成果を上げることができた」と述べたのも、ようやく手応えを感じたことをうかがわせる。

Japan and the United States plan to urge the other 10 nations to work toward an early conclusion of the TPP talks. At stake is whether ministerial talks among the 12 nations, to be held as early as next month, will be able to reach a broad agreement at long last. We urge the 12 countries to further promote free trade by instituting a new set of trade and investment rules in the Asia-Pacific region.
 日米は他の10か国に早期妥結を呼びかける方針だ。来月にも予定される12か国の閣僚会合で、今度こそ、大筋合意できるかどうか。アジア太平洋地域の新たな貿易・投資ルールにより、自由貿易を一層推進することが求められる。

Still work ahead

The joint statement stressed that “there is still much work to be done to conclude TPP” and that the two nations are committed to “taking the bold steps necessary” to complete an ambitious accord—suggesting that the two sides need further talks to bury their differences.
 一方で、共同声明は「まだなされるべき作業が残されている」と強調した。野心的な合意に向け、「必要な大胆な措置を取る」とも明記した。日米間でさらなる調整が必要と見ているのだろう。

The biggest issue at the bilateral talks was how to treat the five agricultural product categories that Japan insisted should be exempted from tariff removal.
 最大の焦点となったのは、日本が関税撤廃の例外を主張した農産物5項目の扱いである。

There are signs that Japan will be able to maintain tariffs on rice, wheat and sweetener resource products, in principle. But in addition to asking for major cuts on tariffs imposed on U.S. beef and pork, the United States is demanding that Japan relax its safety standards to allow a certain number of American cars to be exported there—issues over which the negotiators from both sides vehemently clashed.
 コメ、麦、甘味作物については関税を原則維持できる見通しになった。しかし、米国は、牛・豚肉の大幅な関税引き下げのほか、米国車を一定台数まで輸出できるよう、日本の安全基準を緩めることを要求して激しく対立した。

It is difficult for the two sides to readily make compromises in the face of opposition from their domestic industries. We commend their efforts to find common ground in the eleventh-hour negotiations.
 双方とも国内業界の反発などがあり、安易に妥協しにくい。ぎりぎりの協議で、歩み寄ろうとしたことは評価できる。

However, we are concerned that there are no prospects in sight of the U.S. Congress passing legislation to grant trade promotion authority (TPA) to Obama. Without congressional approval of the TPA legislation, it is feared that Congress will not give its nod to any final TPP deal. Obama has a difficult balancing act to perform ahead of the U.S. midterm congressional elections in November.
 ただ、気掛かりなのは、オバマ大統領に通商一括交渉権(TPA)を与える法案が米議会で成立するメドが立たないことだ。
 TPA法案が未成立のままではTPPが最終決着しても、議会の承認を得られない恐れがある。11月の議会中間選挙を控え、大統領は難しい舵取りを迫られる。

With a deep schism between the advanced nations and emerging economies such as Malaysia over certain issues, there is not much room for optimism heading into the final phase of negotiations.
 先進国とマレーシアなど新興国の対立も根深い。最終段階の交渉を楽観視してはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 26, 2014)

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(社説)防衛省の隠蔽 良心はどこへいった

April 26, 2014
EDITORIAL: Bullying cover-up casts doubts on the Defense Ministry’s moral integrity
(社説)防衛省の隠蔽 良心はどこへいった

A cover-up scandal concerning the 2004 suicide of a Maritime Self-Defense Force seaman has brought to the fore the Defense Ministry’s willingness to go to any length to keep embarrassing facts in the dark.
The ministry appears determined to sweep any inconvenient documents under the carpet through organization-wide efforts and relentlessly attack any whistle-blowers.
 都合の悪い文書は組織をあげて隠す。それを内部告発する者は徹底攻撃する。そんな防衛省の姿が浮かび上がった。

On April 23, the Tokyo High Court acknowledged the deliberate concealment of internal documents that showed the seaman of the MSDF destroyer Tachikaze was bullied by a senior officer.
 海上自衛隊の男性隊員の自殺をめぐり、先輩のいじめを示す証拠を同省が隠蔽(いんぺい)していたと、東京高裁が認定した。

The existence of the documents came to light only after a lieutenant commander exposed the cover-up by submitting a statement to the high court, saying the MSDF was hiding the documents.
 そんな証拠があることは、裁判を担った海自の3等海佐が暴露し明らかになった。

If the lieutenant commander had not acted, the organization’s failure to stop the bullying would have never become known to the public.
それがなかったら、いじめを放置した組織の責任は闇に葬られていた。

Despite being an organization whose mission is to protect the lives of people, the ministry made every effort to obscure the truth in order to protect itself, without reflecting on the seriousness of the loss of a life.
 人命を守るべき組織でありながら、命が失われた重みを顧みずにひたすら自らの防衛に腐心したのである。

The ministry clearly needs to do some soul-searching. It should carry out an immediate and exhaustive investigation into the case to find out who ordered the concealment of the documents and who knew the facts, and then publish the findings.
 猛省するほかあるまい。誰が隠蔽を指示し、その事実を誰が知っていたのか。早急に徹底調査し、公表すべきだ。

The concealed documents were the results of a survey covering all 190 crew members of the Tachikaze to see whether bullying was a factor in the seaman’s suicide. They also included records of comments made by crew members who knew what happened and were interviewed as part of the ministry’s in-house inquiry.
 隠されたのは、男性が所属した護衛艦の乗組員たちにいじめの有無を聞いたアンケートや、事情にくわしい乗組員に聞き取ったメモだ。

The victim’s family filed a freedom-of-information request for the survey results, but the MSDF denied their existence.
 遺族は情報公開法に基づいて開示を請求したが、海自は存在しないとして応じなかった。

There is no way to have specific information held by an organization disclosed if the organization claims there is no such information.
 情報をもつ側が「ない」と突っぱねれば、情報公開は成り立たない。

The controversial state secrets protection law will come into force by the end of this year amid serious concerns about the disclosure situation in this country.
そんな実態がある中で年内に特定秘密保護法が施行される。

The law will make it even more likely that information inconvenient to the government will remain undisclosed to the public. This prospect is really distressing.
当局に不都合な情報はいっそう闇にとどまるだろう。暗然たる気持ちになる。

The only ray of hope in the whole depressing episode is the conscientious act of the lieutenant commander who prevented the scandal from being hushed up.
 救いといえば、3佐の良心が、それを許さなかったことだ。

Revealing the existence of the evidence before the court of appeal was a courageous deed that jeopardized his position within the organization.
控訴審で証拠の存在を明らかにしたことは、組織人としての立場を賭した、勇気ある行いだった。

The government, however, criticized his remarks as untrustworthy during hearings of the high court.
 しかし、控訴審で国側はその発言を「信用できない」と批判した。

There must be a considerable number of people within the MSDF who were actually privy to the cover-up. But no one but the lieutenant commander came forward to tell the truth.
実際には、少なからぬ関係者が隠蔽を知っていたはずだが、その3佐以外、誰も真実を語ろうとしなかった。

The Defense Ministry even considered punishing the officer. That’s simply an outrageous response to his honorable act.
 同省は3佐の懲戒処分も検討したという。言語道断の対応というほかない。

It is not the whistle-blower, but the people who tried to conceal the information who should be punished.
処分が必要なのは告発者ではなく、情報隠しをした側である。

The ministry should promise not to treat the lieutenant commander unfairly.
告発した3佐を不当に扱うことはしないと約束すべきだ。

Ten years have already passed since the seaman committed suicide. If the survey had been disclosed earlier, the trial would not have taken so long, and the lessons from the incident might have been used for the efforts to root out bullying within the SDF.
 男性の自殺からすでに10年がたっている。アンケートが早く明らかになっていれば、裁判は長引かなかったし、その教訓は自衛隊内のいじめ防止などに生かせたかもしれない。

There is a winner and a loser for every trial. When the government is the defendant, however, it should not focus simply on winning the case.
 ふつうの裁判に勝敗はつきものだが、国が当事者の場合、勝てばいいというものではないはずだ。

The government, which exists to serve the public interest, is responsible for offering all evidence that can help clarify the truth during the trial.
真実に近づく証拠を裁判で示すことが、公益の側に立つ政府の責任ではないか。

For any public entity, the cause of social justice should be of more value than its own organization. The Defense Ministry needs to take this obvious principle to heart.
 どんな公的組織であれ、その組織自体よりも大切に守るべき社会の正義というものがある。防衛省はその当たり前の原則を肝に銘じるべきだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 26

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2014年4月26日 (土)

日米首脳会談 中国念頭に強固な同盟を築け

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:26 pm, April 25, 2014
Stronger Tokyo-Washington alliance key as a check on ambitious China
日米首脳会談 中国念頭に強固な同盟を築け

◆TPP合意へ一層歩み寄る時だ

Building synergy between the “principle of proactive contribution to peace” espoused by the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and the “rebalance” policy of the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama, which reprioritizes the Asia-Pacific region, is a matter of utmost importance. The Japanese and U.S. governments should coordinate closely on policies to effect this end.
 安倍政権の「積極的平和主義」と、米オバマ政権のアジア重視のリバランス(再均衡)政策が、相乗効果を上げることが肝要である。日米両政府は緊密に政策調整すべきだ。

Abe and Obama met Thursday in Tokyo. The two leaders used the summit as a forum to reaffirm the leading role the Japan-U.S. alliance plays in ensuring peace and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region, and to express their mutual dedication to further enhancing bilateral ties.
 安倍首相とオバマ大統領が東京で会談し、日米同盟について、アジア太平洋地域の平和と繁栄に主導的役割を果たしているとして、一層強化する方針で一致した。

This week was the first time in 18 years a U.S. president visited Japan as a state guest. What made these talks between Abe and Obama especially significant was that they sent a message to the world about the spirit of bilateral cooperation between the two countries. Observers had sensed strain in the relationship after Washington expressed “disappointment” with Abe’s December visit to Yasukuni Shrine, but the talks appear to show that the vitality of Japan-U.S. relations has been restored.
 米大統領の国賓としての来日は18年ぶりだ。安倍首相の靖国神社参拝に米国が「失望」を表明し、一時はすきま風が指摘された日米関係を立て直し、連携を国際的にアピールできた意義は大きい。

Senkaku remarks a victory
◆尖閣「安保適用」は成果

At a joint press conference following the summit talks, the prime minister stressed that the Japan-U.S. alliance is “more robust than ever before.” Obama, for his part, said the United States is eager to see Japan make “even greater contributions to peace and security around the world,” a development he said “the United States very much welcomes.”
 首相は共同記者会見で「日米同盟はかつてないほど盤石だ」と強調した。大統領は「日本がさらに多くの世界の平和に貢献してくれることを期待する」と語った。

Particularly worthy of note for Japan were President Obama’s remarks at the summit concerning the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture, to which China lays a claim. He stated an explicit and unequivocal position that Article 5 of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty “covers all territories under Japan’s administration, including the Senkaku Islands.” This is the first time that the U.S. president has publicly acknowledged that Article 5 of the pact regarding the United States’ obligation to defend Japan in case of a military attack applies to the Senkaku group of islets. This clear commitment by the United States can be called, without qualification, a milestone achievement of Japan’s diplomacy and relations with the United States.
 注目すべきは、オバマ大統領が尖閣諸島について「日米安保条約第5条の適用対象となる」と初めて明言し、対日防衛義務の対象と認めたことである。日本外交の大きな成果と言えよう。

The two leaders also reconfirmed their opposition to any attempt by China to “change the status quo” by force, while also pressing forward with a policy of cooperation aimed at engaging Beijing in the creation of a free Asia-Pacific region open to the rest of the world.
 両首脳は、自由で開かれたアジア太平洋地域に中国を関与させるために日米が連携する一方、「力による現状変更」には明確に反対する方針を確認した。

China’s recent actions in the region include the unilateral declaration of an air-defense identification zone in the East China Sea and repeated intrusions into Japanese territorial waters in the vicinity of the Senkaku Islands. In the South China Sea, too, China has been moving openly to expand its territorial and maritime interests with the leverage of its military might.
 中国は、東シナ海で防空識別圏を一方的に設定し、尖閣諸島周辺で日本の領海侵入を繰り返している。南シナ海でも、軍事力を背景に領土・海洋権益の拡張を図る動きを公然と見せている。

Regional deterrent capabilities and the effectiveness of the Japan-U.S. alliance are crucial instruments in pursuing greater self-restraint from China and an end to such actions.
 中国にこうした行動の自制を求めるには、日米同盟の抑止力と実効性を高める努力が欠かせない。自衛隊と米軍の協力を強化し、今回の首脳会談の政治的メッセージを具体化すべきだ。

The next key task for the government is to make the political message born from the latest bilateral summit meeting a reality by further bolstering cooperation between the Self-Defense Forces and the U.S. military.
Working-level negotiations to lay the groundwork for a review of Japan-U.S. defense cooperation guidelines need to be accelerated, in order to make clear what joint Japan-U.S. responses to contingencies should look like.
 年末に予定される日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)見直しの作業を加速し、日米共同対処のあり方を明確化する必要がある。

Endorse collective defense
◆集団的自衛権の容認を

To make the presence of U.S. forces in Japan more stable and sustainable, the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station within Okinawa Prefecture to the Henoko district of Nago and the transfer of marines from the prefecture to Guam must be expedited. Similarly important is the steady alleviation of the burden on Okinawa Prefecture imposed by hosting U.S. military bases.
 在日米軍の駐留をより安定的で持続可能なものにするため、米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設や在沖縄海兵隊のグアム移転を進め、沖縄の基地負担を着実に軽減することも大切である。

During the summit, Obama expressed appreciation for and backed the Abe administration’s move toward revising the constitutional interpretation of the right to collective self-defense.
 オバマ大統領は会談で、安倍政権による集団的自衛権の憲法解釈の見直しを歓迎し、支持した。

Changing the interpretation to allow enforcement of the right to collective self-defense would be a fairly effective means of buttressing the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 憲法解釈を変更し、集団的自衛権の行使を可能にすることは、日米同盟を強化するうえで、極めて有効な手段となろう。

Based on a report to be submitted by an expert panel next month, the government and ruling parties must step up efforts to build a consensus on allowing the minimum necessary exercise of the right to collective self-defense.
 政府・与党は、来月の有識者懇談会の報告書を踏まえ、必要最小限の集団的自衛権に限って行使を容認する「限定容認論」の合意形成を急がねばならない。

On the issue of North Korea’s nuclear and missile development, Abe and Obama agreed on the importance of tripartite cooperation among Japan, the United States and South Korea. Obama met representatives of the families of Japanese citizens abducted by North Korea for the first time and offered U.S. cooperation in resolving the abduction issue.
 北朝鮮の核・ミサイル問題について、両首脳は、日米韓3か国の連携の重要性で一致した。大統領は、日本人拉致被害者の家族の代表と初めて面会し、拉致問題の解決に協力する考えを表明した。

While leveraging the U.S. backing, Japan must work to realize a fresh investigation into the abduction victims through negotiations between Tokyo and Pyongyang to make concrete progress in resolving the issue.
 米国の支持をテコに、日朝協議で拉致問題の再調査を実現し、具体的な進展につなげたい。

Regarding the situation in Ukraine, Abe and Obama confirmed that they oppose any attempts to change the status quo by force, with Russia’s annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in mind. Together with Europe, Tokyo and Washington must explore ways to resolve territorial disputes peacefully, so as to avoid giving Beijing the wrong message on such issues.
 ウクライナ情勢について会談では、ロシアのクリミア半島編入を念頭に「力による現状変更は許されない」ことを確認した。領土問題で中国に誤ったシグナルを送らないよう、日米は欧州と協力し、平和的解決を模索すべきだ。

Obama will visit South Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines after leaving Japan on Friday.
 オバマ大統領は日本訪問後、韓国、マレーシア、フィリピンを歴訪する。

It is crucial for Japan and the United States to build multilayered cooperative ties with South Korea and southeast Asian nations to enhance the maritime surveillance capabilities of each country and ensure safety on sea traffic routes.
 日米両国が、韓国や東南アジア各国と重層的な協力関係を構築し、各国の海洋監視能力を高めて、海上交通路の安全を確保することが重要だ。

Concerning the Trans-Pacific Partnership multilateral free trade talks, Tokyo and Washington failed to iron out differences in their summit meeting and agreed instead to continue negotiations between Akira Amari, state minister in charge of TPP talks, and U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉に関しては、首脳会談で決着せず、甘利TPP相とフロマン米通商代表による閣僚協議を継続する異例の展開となった。

This is because the two countries could not reach a broad agreement over key five trade categories that Japan demanded to be treated as exceptions to tariff abolition.
 日本が関税撤廃の例外扱いを求める農産品の重要5項目を巡り、大筋合意できなかったためだ。

Path to mutual prosperity
◆自由貿易で共栄を図れ

A certain degree of progress has been made on rice, wheat and sweetener sources. But discord has continued in the talks on the beef and pork category. Obama has called for further concessions by Japan, stressing the need for greater access to the Japanese market.
 5項目のうち、コメ、麦、甘味作物は一定の前進があったが、牛・豚肉などは対立が続いている。大統領は「日本市場のアクセス(開放)が必要だ」と強調し、日本に一層の譲歩を求めた。

Both Japan and the United States face severe domestic challenges, including pressure from their respective agricultural industries. But now is the time for the two countries to make political decisions based on mutual concessions from the comprehensive viewpoint of promoting economic growth throughout Asia for coexistence and mutual prosperity.
 日米双方とも、農業団体の圧力など厳しい国内事情を抱えている。だが、アジア全体の経済成長を促進して、共存共栄を図るという大局的見地から、両国が政治決断し、歩み寄る時である。

A Tokyo-Washington accord is indispensable for the successful conclusion of the 12-nation TPP negotiations to establish a high-level free trade framework in the Asia-Pacific region.
 アジア太平洋地域で高いレベルの自由貿易体制を導入するTPPの12か国による交渉の妥結には、日米両国の合意が不可欠だ。

It is also essential to remember that if the two countries can demonstrate leadership in establishing new rules on trade and investment, it will have the strategic effect of serving as a check against China, which has been making waves internationally.
 日米が新たな貿易・投資のルール作りを主導することは、国際的発言力を強める中国に対するけん制効果を持つという戦略的な視点も忘れてはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 25, 2014)

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2014年4月25日 (金)

配偶者控除 女性活用につながる見直しか

The Yomiuri Shimbun 11:00 pm, April 24, 2014
Will reviewing spousal tax deduction help boost role of women in society?
配偶者控除 女性活用につながる見直しか

The government’s Tax Commission has started discussing a review of the tax deduction system for spouses, which is aimed at reducing the burden of income and resident taxes on taxpayers with spouses.
 所得税などの負担を軽減する「配偶者控除」の見直し論議が、政府税制調査会で始まった。

To help expand the role of women in society at a time when the working generation is shrinking due to the ongoing trend of a low birthrate and a rapidly aging population, a comprehensive range of reforms in many areas is required. Changes to the tax system alone will not be sufficient.
 少子高齢化で「働く世代」が減少する中、女性の社会進出を後押しするため、税制だけでなく、総合的な対策が問われている。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has made helping women to play a more important role in society a key element of his economic growth strategy. “We should review the tax system, which restricts women’s employment,” said Abe, who has instructed relevant government bodies to reexamine the deduction system. We think this is a fair response to the changing times.
 見直しは、女性活用を成長戦略に掲げる安倍首相が「女性の就労を抑制する税制を見直すべきだ」と指示したのがきっかけだ。時代の要請とも言えるだろう。

Under the current spousal tax deduction system, the main household income earner can deduct ¥380,000 from their annual taxable income if their spouse is a full-time homemaker, or works part-time and earns ¥1.03 million or less per year.
 所得税の配偶者控除とは、専業主婦やパートで働く配偶者の年収が103万円以下の場合、世帯主の課税所得を一律で38万円減らす制度である。

Many companies reduce their spousal allowance and other allowances paid to employees at the ¥1.03 million threshold. Consequently, housewives working part-time tend to arrange their working hours to ensure they do not earn more than ¥1.03 million.
 103万円を境に配偶者手当などを減らす企業も多い。パートで働く主婦は103万円を超えないよう仕事を調整しがちになる。

If a wife earns more than ¥1.03 million but less than ¥1.41 million, her husband can still claim a special spousal deduction. However, it is a fact that the “¥1.03 million wall” limits women's desire to work.
 収入が103万円を超えても141万円未満までなら、控除を受けられる特別措置も設けられているが、「103万円の壁」が女性の働く意欲を損ねている側面があるのは確かだ。

The spousal tax deduction was introduced in 1961. Its objective was to provide tax relief to typical households at the time, in which the husband went to work while the wife stayed at home to devote herself to housekeeping and raising children.
 配偶者控除は1961年に導入された。夫が外で働き、妻が家庭で育児や家事に専念するという、当時の一般的な家族を税制面から支援する狙いがあった。

Today, however, more households have broken away from the traditional model, with both spouses in employment. There have also been major social shifts regarding the handling of household chores.
 しかし、今では、共働き世帯が専業主婦の世帯数を上回る。仕事や家事の分担に対する意識も大きく変化している。

A long road ahead

It would be wrong, however, to simply assume that the revision of the spousal tax deduction system alone would be sufficient in allowing more women to find employment. There are a myriad of reasons why many women who want to work are unable to do so. Many full-time housewives are so tied up with child-rearing and caring for elderly parents that they find it very difficult to join the labor force.
 ただ、配偶者控除を見直しただけで女性がより働くようになると短絡的に考えることはできない。働きたくても働けない理由は様々だ。子育てや介護で就労しにくい専業主婦も少なくなかろう。

In addition to the spousal tax deduction, the government must also consider how to resolve the other obstacles obstructing women from working. Pressing issues include eliminating long waiting lists for day care centers, expanding the nursing care insurance system and rectifying the customary practice of working long hours.
 政府は待機児童の解消や介護保険拡充、長時間労働の慣行是正といった課題の解決策も併せて検討しなければならない。

Some estimates suggest that abolishing the exemption would result in a tax increase of about ¥70,000 for a household with an annual income of ¥5 million. The government will also need to consider relief measures to ensure the additional burden on household budgets after the system review does not increase significantly.
 控除を廃止すれば、年収500万円の家庭で7万円程度の増税になるとの試算がある。家計の負担が大幅に増えないよう、負担緩和措置の検討も必要になる。

If the consumption tax rate is raised to 10 percent in October 2015 as scheduled, the burden on family budgets will balloon even further. The government is considering cutting the corporate tax rate, but the move could fuel criticism that businesses are receiving preferential treatment while households are being slapped with higher taxes.
 消費税率が予定通り2015年10月に10%へ引き上げられると、家計負担はさらに膨らむ。政府は法人税率引き下げを検討中だが、「企業優遇」「家庭増税」という批判が高まりかねない。

In campaign booklets containing the Liberal Democratic Party’s policies for the House of Representatives election in 2012 and last summer’s House of Councillors election, the ruling party declared it would retain the spousal tax deduction system. Many LDP members are reluctant to review the system, or are outright opposed to such discussions. One of the most vocal opponents is Finance Minister Taro Aso, who said, “We mustn’t do anything thoughtless.”
 自民党は、12年の衆院選と昨夏の参院選の政策集で配偶者控除の維持を掲げていた。党内では制度見直しに異論も少なくない。麻生財務相は、「うかつなことはできない」と慎重論を唱えている。

How can more employment opportunities be created for women? We hope the government and ruling parties will deepen discussions on this issue from a wide range of viewpoints.
 女性の就労機会をどう拡大するか。政府・与党は幅広い観点から議論を深めてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 24, 2014)

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海上行動規範 中国に「国際常識」順守を迫れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:24 pm, April 24, 2014
Chinese military must strictly adhere to new code of conduct on safety at sea
海上行動規範 中国に「国際常識」順守を迫れ

An important accord has been reached urging the Chinese military to refrain from any risky, threatening acts and prevent unexpected accidents and collisions at sea.
 中国軍に危険な示威行動の自制を促し、不慮の海上事故や衝突を防ぐうえで、重要な合意だ。

At the Western Pacific Naval Symposium being held in China, senior naval officials from 21 countries, including Japan, the United States and China, adopted the Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea, a code of conduct prohibiting such dangerous acts as locking weaponry radar on other countries’ military vessels.
 日米中など21か国の海軍幹部らが参加し、中国で開かれている西太平洋海軍シンポジウムで、他国艦船への火器管制レーダー照射などの危険行為を禁じる行動規範が採択された。

The code outlines the procedures by which navy ships and aircraft must make radio communication and take safety measures when they come into contact with each other on or above the sea. It also stipulates a list of five actions to be avoided, including targeting missiles at or conducting mock attacks near foreign naval vessels.
 規範は、各国海軍の艦船や航空機が洋上で遭遇した場合の無線通信や安全確保の手順を定めた。ミサイルなどを他国艦船に向けたり、他国艦船近くで模擬攻撃をしたりするなど5項目の「回避すべき行動」も明記している。

The accord is not legally binding, and contains rules and procedures that are considered to be extremely conventional by the naval forces of countries other than China. However, it is quite significant that international rules to ensure safety in open waters have been stipulated under a multinational framework that includes China.
 法的拘束力はなく、中国以外の海軍にとっては極めて常識的な内容だが、中国を含む多国間の枠組みで、安全確保のための国際ルールを明文化した意義は大きい。

In January last year, a Chinese frigate locked its radar on a Maritime Self-Defense Force destroyer in the East China Sea. Chinese naval vessels have also repeatedly taken provocative actions against such countries as the Philippines and Vietnam in the South China Sea. Even the slightest error could lead to an accident or conflict.
 中国海軍は昨年1月、海上自衛隊の艦船に火器管制レーダーを照射した。南シナ海でも、フィリピン、ベトナムなどへの挑発行為を繰り返している。一歩間違えば、事故や衝突に発展しかねない。

The Chinese Navy has hitherto been wary about having restrictions placed on its activities with the adoption of such a code of conduct at sea. Now that it has been instrumental in the adoption of the code as the conference chair, China has a responsibility to strictly enforce the code among all its units and cooperate with other countries in ensuring navigation safety in the Pacific.
 中国海軍は従来、海上での行動規範によって、自らの活動が制約されることに慎重だった。しかし、議長国として規範をまとめた以上、その内容を各部隊に徹底させ、太平洋地域の航行の安全確保に協力する責任がある。

Rules with broad reach

With the adoption of the code, it is important to steadily expand rules to prevent unexpected accidents.
 重要なのは、各国が今回の規範を足がかりとして、事故回避のルールを着実に拡大することだ。

In June 2012, defense authorities of Japan and China reached a broad accord on building a “maritime communication mechanism,” including the establishment of a hotline for senior uniformed officials of both countries. However, the Chinese side objected to Japan’s nationalization of part of the Senkaku Islands in September 2012, and the bilateral talks were stalled, with the two sides failing to reach a formal accord.
 日中の防衛当局は2012年6月、制服組幹部間のホットライン設置などの「海上連絡メカニズム」の構築で大筋合意した。だが、中国側が同年9月の日本の尖閣諸島国有化に反発し、協議を停滞させて、正式合意に至っていない。

The establishment of a maritime liaison mechanism will also benefit China. Though China has been unwilling to comply, Japan must persist in dialogue with China so that both sides can reach an accord at the earliest possible time.
 海上連絡メカニズムの構築は、中国にとっても利益となる。中国側は依然として頑かたくなな姿勢を続けているが、日本は粘り強く交渉し、早期の合意を目指したい。

Members of the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations aim to upgrade a 2002 “declaration of conduct” for peacefully handling disputes in the South China Sea to a legally binding code of conduct. Beijing, however, remains negative on the prospect.
 南シナ海では、東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)が、紛争の平和的解決をうたった中国との行動宣言について、拘束力のある行動規範への格上げを目指している。これに対し、中国は消極的だ。

Japan must support ASEAN in this regard in cooperation with the United States and other countries.
 日本は、米国などと連携し、ASEANを後押しすべきだ。

China had planned to host an international naval review to coincide with the symposium, but did not invite the MSDF vessels to the review. The U.S. Navy was upset by this development and decided not to send any of its warships to the fleet review. As a result, the review was canceled.
 中国はシンポジウムに合わせた国際観艦式を計画し、海自だけに招待状を送らなかった。これに反発した米軍が艦船派遣の見送りを決定し、観艦式は中止された。

The relationship of trust nurtured over many years between the MSDF and the U.S. Navy has brought China’s efforts to exclude Japan to a standstill. China’s stance of unilaterally adopting a policy hostile toward Japan will give more credence to the idea in the international community that China is not like other nations.
 海自と米海軍の長年培ってきた信頼関係が中国の「日本外し」を頓挫させた。日本を一方的に敵視する中国の姿勢は、国際社会の中国異質論を加速させるだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 24, 2014)

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原発と安全―知事の疑問が示すもの

April 24, 2014
EDITORIAL: Governor’s doubts about nuclear safety should be addressed
原発と安全―知事の疑問が示すもの

There are many reasons to doubt whether the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, which is keen to restart idled nuclear reactors, is really committed to ensuring that citizens will never again become victims of a nuclear accident.
 原発事故の被害者を二度と出さない。原発の再稼働に前のめりな安倍政権に、本当にその覚悟はあるのだろうか。

Currently, nuclear regulators are examining reactors around the nation to determine if they meet the new nuclear safety standards and can be brought back online. But Hirohiko Izumida, governor of Niigata Prefecture, where Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant is located, argues that the safety of residents in areas around the plant is not guaranteed even if the reactors there pass the safety checks.
 再稼働をめざす全国の原発で新しい規制基準を満たしているかどうかの審査がすすむ中、東京電力の柏崎刈羽原発を抱える新潟県の泉田裕彦知事が、たとえ審査を通っても住民の安全は守れないと主張している。

In order to enhance the safety of a nuclear power plant, the facilities must, of course, fulfill the tougher safety requirements. However, it is also vital for the local governments to craft reliable evacuation plans as a preparation for emergencies.
 原発の安全性を高めるには、施設が厳しい規制を満たすだけでなく、万一に備えて避難計画をしっかり立てておくことが欠かせない。

Since Izumida is the chief of a local government responsible for working out such evacuation plans, the Abe administration should pay serious attention to his warnings.
この避難計画づくりを担当する自治体トップの発言だけに、政権は真摯(しんし)に耳を傾ける必要がある。

Izumida’s comments are convincing and specific because they are based on his personal experiences. As the chief of the Niigata prefectural government, he had to respond to the magnitude-6.8 Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake off the prefecture in 2007 that triggered a fire at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant. In the wake of the disaster at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant in 2011, he was asked to help provide aid to people in areas affected by the disaster.
 中越沖地震では柏崎刈羽原発の火災に直面し、福島第一原発の事故では被災者の救助支援を要請された泉田知事の指摘は、いずれも具体的である。

The 2007 quake made roads impassable at many places, making it impossible for even emergency vehicles to move around. Deep snow would have made evacuations even more difficult.
 中越沖地震では道路が寸断され、緊急車両すら動けなくなった。雪が深ければ一段と逃げにくくなる。

Plans specifying the places where local residents should evacuate to in emergencies would be useless under such circumstances.
いくら計画で避難先を決めても絵に描いたモチだ。

Izumida suggested that the only effective way to prepare local communities for serious nuclear accidents is to build a nuclear shelter for each house. Are the government and the electric utilities operating nuclear power plants aware of the enormity of the challenge and willing to do what needs to be done?
知事は、各戸に核シェルターを作るしかないかもしれないと危惧するが、国や電力会社にその認識と覚悟はあるか。

To rescue people left behind in disaster areas, workers such as bus drivers need to enter areas with high levels of radiation. Buses cannot be used in such situations unless the related law is revised to allow bus drivers, who are private-sector workers, to operate at the risk of being exposed to levels of radiation higher than the legal dose limits for ordinary civilians.
But is it possible to build a broad consensus on easing the limits for bus drivers?
 避難が遅れた住民を助けるには放射線量が高い地域にバスの運転手らが入らねばならない。現実には、民間人である運転手も被曝(ひばく)していいように法令を改めないとバスは避難に役立たないが、被曝限度を緩める合意形成をはかれるのか。

Izumida also points out that the proposed measures to deal with nuclear accidents are also grossly inadequate.
 事故対策そのものの甘さも指摘する。

Suppose, for instance, all the coolant has been lost in a severe nuclear accident and humans must carry out tasks to contain the crisis while being exposed to dangerous levels of radiation. Who should be assigned to the mission?
すべての冷却材が失われ、生身の人間が危険な高線量下で収束作業をするしかなくなったとき、誰が行くのか。

Suppose containing a nuclear crisis requires a decision that would cause serious damage to the financial health of the electric utility operating the nuclear plant. Is there any guarantee that the priority will be placed on the safety of residents rather than on the company’s economic viability?
事故の拡大を食い止めるため、電力会社の経営に重大な損害を与える決断が必要になったとき、経営が優先され住民が被害を受けない保証はあるのか。

These questions have been raised by the actual nuclear accident. But debate on these issues has been put on the back burner.
 いずれも現実の事故で浮き彫りになった課題だが、議論は後回しになっている。

The Abe administration intends to restart reactors that have met the new nuclear safety standards, which it claims are “the world’s strictest.”
 安倍政権は、今の規制基準は「世界一厳しい」と、基準をパスした原発は動かす姿勢だ。

But Izumida says the new requirements don’t even measure up to international standards, and criticizes the government for “lying.”
だが知事は「世界標準にも達していない」とし、うそをついてはいけないと批判する。

If it believes the governor has got it wrong, the Abe administration should answer all the questions raised.
指摘は当たらぬというなら、政権は一つ一つ疑問に答える責任がある。

Many cities and towns in areas around nuclear power plants have already put together evacuation plans in hopes that idled reactors will be restarted.
 再稼働に期待する地元の中には、すでに避難計画をつくったというところも少なくないが、

As local governments responsible for the safety of residents, however, they should ponder the questions raised by Izumida to determine whether their evacuation plans would really work in crises.
住民の安全を守る責務を負う自治体として、泉田知事の疑問を吟味し、自らの避難計画が本当に機能するか、つぶさに点検してほしい。

Should a serious accident happen again, the authorities would no longer be able to escape responsibility for the consequences with the excuse that the unexpected has occurred.
事故が起きてから「想定外だった」という言い訳は、もう許されない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 24

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日米首脳会談―アジアの礎へ一歩を

April 25, 2014
EDITORIAL: With U.S. ties back on track, Abe must do the same with China, S. Korea
日米首脳会談―アジアの礎へ一歩を

The summit meeting between Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and U.S. President Barack Obama in Tokyo on April 24 was rather unusual.
 極めて異例の会談だった。

The meeting was followed by a typical joint news conference, but was not accompanied by the usual joint statement from the two leaders. The absence of a joint statement was due to their failure to reach an agreement in time in the bilateral negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact. (The joint statement was released on April 25 just before Obama left Tokyo.)
 きのうの安倍首相とオバマ大統領の日米首脳会談は、環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)の協議がととのわず、共同記者会見に合わせて共同声明を発表するにはいたらなかった。

Typically, such an important agreement is worked out before a bilateral summit through talks between senior government officials of the two countries so that their top leaders can simply endorse the deal in their meeting. The fact that this basic pattern of summit diplomacy didn’t hold this time indicates the two countries have been locked in battles to promote national interests in the trade talks over key issues concerning farm products and automobiles.
 事前の閣僚らの折衝で大筋が詰められ、首脳はその成果を確認し合う。首脳会談のこうした通例とはかけ離れた今回のありようからは、焦点の農産品や自動車の貿易をめぐって、国益むき出しのやりとりがあったことがうかがえる。

As for the area of national security, however, it can probably be said that Abe received a key reassurance from Obama that was close to what he had wanted.
 一方、安全保障分野に限れば、首相は大統領から、ほぼ望み通りの「お墨付き」をもらったということなのだろう。

During the joint news conference, Obama clearly stated that the U.S. commitment to Japan’s security under Article 5 of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty applies to all territories under Japanese administration, including the disputed Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture.
 共同会見で大統領は、沖縄県の尖閣諸島が、日米安保条約5条に基づく米国の防衛義務の適用対象だと明言した。

Abe also said Obama had “welcomed and supported” the Japanese government’s security policy initiative to enable Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense.
 首相はまた、集団的自衛権の行使容認に向けての政権内の検討について、「大統領から歓迎し、支持するとの立場が示された」と明らかにした。

Although Washington’s position on these issues has been repeatedly expressed by senior members of the Obama administration, the Japanese government sought reaffirmation of the U.S. policies by the president himself in his own words. Tokyo thought Obama’s statements would be an effective warning to Beijing, whose actions have raised tensions in waters around the Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea. Japan placed much importance on this objective in preparatory talks for the Abe-Obama summit.
 閣僚レベルで何度も確認していることでも、大統領の口からはっきり宣言してもらう。これが尖閣周辺海域で緊張を高めている中国への牽制(けんせい)になるというのが日本政府の狙いだ。首脳会談に先立つ調整でも、そこに力点が置かれた。

But the focus of Obama’s remarks during the news conference as a whole was not exactly where Japan had wanted it to be.
 だが、オバマ大統領の発言の主眼は、日本側の期待とは少しずれていた。

“In our discussions, I emphasized with Prime Minister Abe the importance of resolving this issue peacefully," Obama said, "not escalating the situation, keeping the rhetoric low, not taking provocative actions, and trying to determine how both Japan and China can work cooperatively together.”
 大統領はこう語った。「私が強調したのは、この問題を平和的に解決することの重要性だ。言葉による挑発を避け、どのように日本と中国がお互いに協力していくことができるかを決めるべきだ」。

He also urged Japan and China to take “confidence-building measures.”
さらに「日本と中国は、信頼醸成措置をとるべきだ」とも。

While confirming Washington’s firm opposition to any attempt to change the status quo of the Senkaku Islands by force, Obama sent a clear message to both Japan and China calling for greater efforts by both sides to improve their bilateral relationship.
 尖閣諸島の「力による現状変更」は決して認めないにしても、関係改善に向けてもっと努力すべきだという、日中双方に対するメッセージだろう。

He didn’t forget to add, “We have strong relations with China.”
大統領は「我々は中国とも非常に緊密な連携を保っている」と付け加えるのを忘れなかった。

No matter how passionately Abe rhapsodizes about the bond of security alliance between Japan and the United States, the fact remains that there can be no stability in the Asia-Pacific region as long as there is a deep gulf of mistrust between Japan and China. Neighboring nations also want to see the three major powers of Japan, the United States and China maintain stable relations among them.
 首相がいくら米国との同盟の絆をうたいあげようと、中国との間に太い一線を引いたままではアジア太平洋地域の安定はあり得ない。日米中の三つの大国がそれぞれ安定した関係を保つことが、周辺諸国が求めるところでもあろう。

Abe’s visit to war-related Yasukuni Shrine in December delivered a decisive blow to Japan’s already strained ties with China and South Korea and awakened U.S. distrust of his administration.
 首相の昨年末の靖国神社参拝が、日本と中国や韓国との関係を決定的に悪化させ、米国からの不信も招いた。

Now that Abe has put Tokyo’s relations with Washington back on a solid footing, he should be the one to take a first step toward mending Japan’s ties with its neighbors.
 米国との関係にひとつの区切りをつけたいま、近隣諸国との関係改善への一歩は、安倍氏から踏み出さねばならない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 25

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2014年4月24日 (木)

あっと驚く現代の訓示、ネットビジネスでは額に汗して働くやつはバカ

大学を卒業してすぐに東京の大手建設会社に就職しました。
一カ月を超える新入社員教育がなされましたが早朝8時から一時間、みっちりと珠算の練習をさせられました。
その一カ月間で全国から集められた大卒社員60名は、全員珠算二級の免許を取得しました。
毎日社内のベテラン社員たちから訓示や教育を受けました。

そんな中で、一人の講師は次のような内容で社員に訓示を与えました。
「自ら汗水垂らし働く人にならないと、企業で実績を上げることは出来ないし、部下だってついてこない」
退職するまでこの言葉を信じ、無事退職金をもらえるところまでやってくることが出来たのです。
この言葉は真実だと思います。

で、たった今なんですが、衝撃的なフレーズをサイトで発見しました。
愛読のライブドアニュースでこのフレーズを発見した次第なんです。
それは次のようなものです。
”汗水垂らし働く人は「全員バカ」”
これは、私にとっては由々しき一大事!
早速関連記事を読み漁りました。
ヤフーのネタりかとアメブロが運営するアメーバニュースに同じ内容が掲載されていました。

「せきねもん」は関根義光さんの愛称なんですが、彼の尊敬するビジネス界のやり手、堀江貴文(ほりえたかふみ)さんのホリエモンから、その由来は関連しているものと推察できました。
さっそく、「せきねもん」の主張をサイトで検証してみました。
これは、ビジネスでもインターネットを駆使するアフィリエイトビジネス界で通用する格言だと理解出来ました。
私事で恐縮ですが、2012年10月からオンラインカジノのアフィリエイトを開始しました。
額に汗して長い時間をかけて努力中なんですが、すでに1年を越してしまいました。
で、現在に至るまで収入はゼロ。
額に汗して働くのはバカを、自分で立証してみせたのですね。

「せきねもん」の著書である「年収1億円完全マニュアル」は先月3月17日から全国各地5000店の書籍売り場に並べられています。
アマゾンでも購入出来ますので、額に汗してバカをみるのが嫌いな人は是非参考にしてください。
関根義光さんは23歳の若さで年収3000万円を実現したやり手なんです。







ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ  レビューブログからの情報です

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混合診療 拡充は患者の選択肢を広げる

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:40 pm, April 23, 2014
Easing mixed treatment restrictions would expand options for patients
混合診療 拡充は患者の選択肢を広げる

The government has decided to expand the scope of exceptions to the ban on so-called mixed treatment. The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has started work on concrete proposals at the instruction of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
 政府は「混合診療」の対象を拡大することを決めた。安倍首相の指示を受け、厚生労働省が具体策の検討を始めた。

We urge the government to act on this as soon as possible, so patients will have better access to advanced medical treatments that are effective in dealing with their ailments.
 患者が効果的な先端治療を受けられるよう、早期に実施する必要がある。

Mixed treatment is defined as a combination of medical practices covered by public health insurance—such as examinations and medication—with those that are not. The health ministry bans these mixed treatments, fearing they would be of dubious efficacy or safety.
 混合診療とは、公的医療保険で認められた検査や薬とともに、保険適用が認められていない治療法を併用することだ。厚労省は、有効性や安全性に疑問がある治療法が横行しかねないとして、原則禁止としてきた。

It is a safe assumption that there are many patients who suffer from intractable or rare diseases and wish to try treatments already in common use abroad but which do not yet have regulatory authorization in Japan.
 海外では広く使われていながら、国内では承認されていない薬を試したい。そう願う難病などの患者は少なくないだろう。

However, under the current legal framework for mixed treatments, if patients use unauthorized drugs, other treatments used together with the drugs will be excluded from public health insurance—including fees for medical examinations and hospital expenses. As a result, patients are forced to pay 100 percent of medical costs. It is understandable that many people criticize the current system, decrying the excessive financial burden it forces on patients.
 だが、現行の仕組みでは、未承認薬を使う場合、本来なら保険が適用される検査や入院費用まで全額自費となってしまう。混合診療の制限は、患者に過度の経済的負担を強いているとの批判が多いのは、もっともだ。

Today, there are only about 100 types of treatment and practices authorized as exceptions to the ban, including heavy ion therapy—a method of advanced radiotherapy for cancer—and genetic testing for familial Alzheimer’s disease.
 現在、混合診療が例外的に認められているのは、高度がん放射線療法の重粒子線治療や、家族性アルツハイマー病の遺伝子診断など、約100種類にとどまる。

Candidates for exceptions

The health ministry plans to add some unauthorized drugs, including certain anticancer agents, to the list of exceptions, with the proviso that only patients suffering from serious conditions would be subject to the exception. The ministry is also discussing the addition of regenerative medical treatments involving the cultivation of human cells and tissues and treatments using unauthorized medical equipment to the list.
 厚労省は、適用範囲を広げ、重い病状の患者に限って、抗がん剤などの未承認薬を新たに混合診療の対象にする方針だ。細胞・組織を培養する再生医療や、未承認の医療機器を使った治療を対象に加えることも検討している。

There are several benefits expected from an expanded scope for mixed treatment authorization. Patients, for example, will have greater options for treatment, and it is anticipated that doctors will work more proactively in trying new treatments.
 患者にとって、治療の選択肢が増える。医師も新しい治療法に積極的に取り組むようになる。混合診療の適用拡大には、こうした効果が期待できるだろう。

The government’s Regulatory Reform Council has proposed plans for a system to make mixed treatments available to more patients. Under the plan, mixed treatment would be available to patients if they reach an agreement with doctors. The plan would cover a greater range of patients than plans proposed by the health ministry.
 政府の規制改革会議は、混合診療を利用しやすくする方策として、「選択療養制度」の創設を提言した。患者と医師が合意すれば、混合診療の実施を認める内容だ。厚労省の方針よりも適用範囲を幅広くとらえている。

There is, however, one significant point of concern over the reform council plan: doctors could receive patient consent for mixed treatments without providing a thorough explanation.
 ただ、規制改革会議の案で懸念されるのは、医師が丁寧な説明をしないまま、混合診療の実施について患者の同意を得ることだ。

There are limits to the amount of medical information patients can obtain on their own. We must avoid a situation where patients are compelled to undergo medical treatments that lack sufficient scientific grounding for their efficacy.
 患者が入手できる医療情報には限りがある。科学的な根拠のない治療が患者に押しつけられる事態は避けねばならない。

Establishing a clear yardstick for deciding which medical treatments warrant deregulation is a key issue for the government. One idea is to allow the use of drugs confirmed effective and safe through clinical tests performed in other countries. Allowing medical treatments on the basis of recommendations by domestic or foreign institutions is another potential option.
 どこまでを混合診療の対象とするのか。政府にとって、その線引きは大きな課題である。具体策として、海外の臨床試験で効果と安全性が確認された医薬品や、国内外の学会が推奨している治療法を認めることが考えられよう。

We urge the government to establish a framework for easing regulation of mixed treatments, which gives patients and their interests top priority, while at the same time giving safety the scrutiny it requires.
 政府は、患者の利益を最優先し、安全性の確保にも配慮した仕組みを構築してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 23, 2014)

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韓国船沈没事故 危機対応の拙さが招いた惨事

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:30 pm, April 23, 2014
Sewol ferry disaster resulted from poor safety, inadequate response
韓国船沈没事故 危機対応の拙さが招いた惨事

The sinking of a South Korean ferry was a major disaster caused by inadequate safety awareness on the part of the company operating the vessel, its captain and his crew, in combination with their poor and unskilled response to the emergency.
 船会社と船長らの安全意識の低さと危機対応の拙さが招いた大惨事と言えるだろう。

One week has passed since the ferry Sewol sank in waters off Jindo, in southwestern South Korea. The confirmed death toll from the tragedy has exceeded 100. Rescuers are continuing a desperate search for close to 200 people who are still missing.
 韓国・珍島沖で、旅客船沈没事故が発生して、1週間が過ぎた。死者は100人を上回った。200人近い行方不明者の捜索活動が懸命に続けられている。

Many of the ferry’s passengers were students on a high school trip. Those close to the victims must, while stricken with grief, identify the bodies as they are recovered one after another from inside the ship. One can hardly imagine the depth of agony currently being experienced by families and friends of those missing, as they maintain faint hopes for a miraculous survival.
 乗客の多くは、修学旅行の高校生だ。収容される遺体との悲しみの対面が相次ぐ。奇跡の生存に望みをつなぐ家族や友人の心痛も、想像するに余りある。

The ferry capsized having listed to one side and lost the ability to right itself, following a sharp turn made shortly before the accident. Because of strong currents, the area of sea surrounding the scene of the disaster was difficult to navigate. However, piloting the ferry at the time of the incident was a rookie third mate unfamiliar with this hazard.
 旅客船は、急旋回した後、傾いて復原力を失い、転覆した。現場海域は潮の流れの速い難所だったが、操船していたのは不慣れな3等航海士だったという。

After its purchase from Japan, the ship was refurbished to increase its seating capacity. Suspicion has arisen that, at the time of the accident, the ferry may have been carrying freight in excess of the cargo weight declared prior to its departure.
 この船は日本から購入後、定員を増やすために改造された。事故当時には、申告した以上の貨物を積んでいた疑いも出ている。

There is reason to presume that the ship’s sharp turn may have caused its cargo to shift, knocking the vessel off balance and eventually causing it to capsize. The South Korean authorities need to uncover the whole truth behind this latest disaster.
 急旋回で積み荷が動き、船のバランスが崩れ、転覆につながったのではないか。韓国当局の徹底的な真相究明が必要だ。

There is no doubt that the inadequacy of the crew’s evacuation guidance for their passengers contributed to the massive casualty rate.
 乗組員による乗客の避難誘導が不十分だったことが、人的被害を拡大させたのは、間違いない。

Unprepared crew at fault

The captain and many crew members were rescued from the sinking ship before their passengers. Their only instruction to the passengers was to stay inside their cabins. Also, few lifeboats were used. These factors suggest most passengers were left behind inside the sinking ferry, a situation that denied them the chance to escape from the vessel.
 船長や乗組員の多くは、乗客に対し、室内に待機するよう指示しただけで、自分たちが先に救出された。救命ボートはほとんど使われなかった。大半の乗客は、船内にとり残されて、脱出の道を断たれたと見られる。

We believe South Koreans have good reason for their strong condemnation of irresponsible conduct by the caption and his crew.
 船長らの無責任な行動に、韓国社会から強い怒りの声があがったのは、理解できる。

The captain and several crewmen have been arrested on suspicion of neglecting to rescue their passengers. Some crew members have told investigators that they had not been trained on how to ensure the safety of passengers in the event of an emergency.
 船長らは、乗客の救助を怠った疑いなどで逮捕された。「非常時の安全教育を受けていなかった」と供述した乗組員もいる。

If the shipping company attached so little importance to its crew’s training for evacuation guidance and other emergency measures aimed at securing the safety of passengers, it must be seen as a severe problem.
 運航する船会社が、乗客の避難誘導などの訓練を軽んじていたなら、深刻な問題である。

The administration of South Korean President Park Geun-hye has also drawn fire over this latest catastrophe. In announcing the number of passengers rescued from the ferry, the authorities changed figures time and again. This, along with insensitive speech and behavior by some senior government officials, has antagonized the South Korean public. The South Korean government must be more careful in dealing with the situation.
 朴槿恵政権への批判も出ている。救助された人数の当局発表が二転三転したことや、乗客の家族に対する政府高官の無神経な言動が、国民の反感を買った。政権は、より丁寧な対応を迫られよう。

Japan is not exempt from the necessity to implement controls for safety and security. With the Golden Week tourist season just around the corner, measures currently in place for the safety of domestic transportation facilities must be reexamined.
 日本でも、ゴールデンウィークの行楽シーズンを前に、国内の交通機関の安全対策を改めて見直さなければならない。

In the wake of the ferry disaster, the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry has instructed the passenger ship industry to reconfirm the safety of sea routes and procedures for emergency escape from vessels. We hope those associated with the industry will rigorously inspect all aspects of the precautions adopted by passenger ship operators, looking for any possible deficiencies in their safety procedures.
 国土交通省は、事故を受けて、国内の旅客船業界に対し、航路の安全性や非常時の脱出手順を確認するよう通達した。関係者は、今一度、対策に不備がないか、総点検してもらいたい。

For their part, individuals should not neglect efforts to protect their own lives when they board passenger ships by taking such steps as locating their life jackets.
 利用者も、旅客船などに乗る場合には、救命胴衣の位置を確かめるなど、自分の身を守る努力を忘れてはなるまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 23, 2014)

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閣議の議事録―何のための公開なのか

April 23, 2014
EDITORIAL: Abe misses the point in disclosing minutes of Cabinet meetings
閣議の議事録―何のための公開なのか

For the first time since Japan adopted the Cabinet system in 1885, the government on April 22 disclosed to the public the minutes of a Cabinet meeting and a following ministerial meeting, both held on April 1.
“This is a historic first step,” Prime Minister Shinzo Abe gloated over the disclosure. New Komeito leader Natsuo Yamaguchi called it an “epoch-making” attempt.
 これが、安倍首相が胸を張る「歴史的な一歩」か。これが、公明党の山口那津男代表が言う「画期的」な試みなのか。
 1885(明治18)年に内閣制度が発足して以来初めて、閣議と閣僚懇談会の議事録が公開された。

We welcome the information disclosure itself. However, the manner in which this was done was hardly satisfactory, and we definitely do not share the enthusiasm of Abe and Yamaguchi.
そのこと自体は歓迎したいが、公開のあり方は到底満足できるものではない。

At the April 1 meeting, the Cabinet effectively lifted the nation’s self-imposed ban on weapons exports and replaced it with the new “three principles of defense equipment transfer.” The decision represented a major turning point in Japan’s post-World War II pacifist policy that was grounded in the spirit of the Constitution.
 公開された4月1日の閣議では、「武器輸出三原則」に変わる「防衛装備移転三原則」が決定された。憲法の理念に基づく、戦後日本の平和主義のひとつの重要な転換点である。

According to the minutes, however, the minsters in charge merely “expressed their resolve” to apply the new principles appropriately, while Abe was quoted as saying, “I think it is most important to explain the purpose of the new principles in a way the people can understand, and make efforts to gain their understanding.”
 ところが議事録によると、閣議では関係閣僚が、新原則の適切な運用に関して「決意表明」するにとどまっている。安倍首相も「新たな原則の趣旨を分かりやすく説明し、国民的理解を促進することが非常に重要であると考えております」。

This meeting ended in only 12 minutes, and the entire transcript is written on four pages of A4-size paper. Is this the reality of a Cabinet meeting, which serves as the supreme government session for making final policy decisions? The sheer absence of substance is almost incredible.
 所要時間12分。A4判で実質4枚。内閣の最高かつ最終的な意思決定の場である閣議の現実がこれなのか。にわかには信じがたい空疎さである。

Granted, it has often been said that Cabinet meetings are extremely formalized and that in-depth discussions rarely take place even at the more casual ministerial meetings that follow.
 かねて閣議は極めて形式的で、閣僚懇談会でも突っ込んだ議論はほとんどされないと言われてはきた。

But if the disclosed minutes are an indication of how little the Cabinet ministers have to say about policies, then the fundamental question that arises is, “Where are the nation’s policy decisions really made?”
しかし本当にこの程度のやりとりしか行われていないとすると、この国の意思決定はいったいどこで行われているのか。
根本的な疑問が頭をもたげてくる。

What makes the situation even more frustrating is that we have no means of verifying whether the disclosed minutes accurately reflect what was really discussed during the Cabinet meeting.
ただ問題はそれ以前に、本当にこの程度の発言しか出ていないのか、検証のしようがないことだ。

The disclosure is based on the Cabinet’s decision, and it is not a legal requirement.
 公開は法律で義務づけられたものではなく、閣議決定に基づいている。

In fact, the “minutes” are actually nothing more than notes taken by the deputy chief Cabinet secretary and other officials present at the meeting. As such, we have no idea exactly what standards are being followed in the compilation of the minutes.
公開されるのは議事録といっても陪席した官房副長官らが発言要旨を記録したメモであり、どのような基準に基づきまとめられているのかわからない。

The prime minister has said, “From the standpoint of information disclosure, it is desirable to swiftly make public the information under the current laws.” But Abe is missing the whole point.
首相は「現行法の下で速やかに公表した方が情報公開の観点で望ましい」としているが、何か勘違いしていないか。

The compilation and disclosure of minutes is not a “public service.” Article 1 of the law on management of public records and archives defines public records as “intellectual resources to be shared by the people in supporting the basis of sound democracy.” The purpose of this law is to keep records of who made the decisions and why, so that they can be examined by future generations.
 議事録の作成と公開は「サービス」ではない。公文書管理法第1条は、公文書を「健全な民主主義の根幹を支える国民共有の知的資源」と位置づける。誰が、なぜそのような意思決定をしたのか、過程を記録し後世の検証に堪えられるようにする。

So long as the government neglects its responsibility to history, there is no point whatsoever in disclosing information that cannot be verified, no matter how swiftly the government makes it public.
 その歴史に対する責任を等閑視し、検証不能なものをどんなに速やかに公開したところで、何の意味もない。

The public records management law needs to be revised so that not only Cabinet meetings and ministerial meetings but also all other meetings that affect vital policy decisions, such as meetings of the Japanese version of the U.S. National Security Council, will be required to keep their minutes. The minutes should be disclosed to the public in principle after a certain number of years.
 公文書管理法を改正し、閣議や閣僚懇のほか国家安全保障会議(日本版NSC)など重要な意思決定に関わる会議も議事録作成を義務づける。一定の年月が経てば原則公開する。

Only when such changes have been made can the prime minister rightfully say that a “historic first step” has been taken.
 そこに踏み込んで初めて、「歴史的な一歩」が刻まれる。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 23

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2014年4月23日 (水)

船舶差し押さえ 日中共同声明の精神が揺らぐ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:03 pm, April 22, 2014
Chinese seizure of Japanese vessel undermines spirit of 1972 statement
船舶差し押さえ 日中共同声明の精神が揺らぐ

The seizure of a Japanese ship is an unprecedented exercise of Chinese public authority against a private Japanese firm. The action will lead to a further deterioration in Japan-China relations, while the Xi administration has been stepping up pressure on Japan over history issues.
 日本企業に対する前例のない公権力行使だ。歴史問題で対日圧力を強める習近平政権の下、日中関係がさらに悪化しかねない事態である。

The Shanghai Maritime Court announced Saturday it had impounded a large vessel owned by Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, which was berthed at a Zhejiang Province port, in connection with a lawsuit over a ship leasing contract dating back to 1936.
 中国の裁判所、上海海事法院は19日、1936年の船舶賃貸借を巡る訴訟に絡み、商船三井所有の大型船舶を浙江省の港で差し押さえたと発表した。

The Chinese judiciary is under the control of the Communist Party, so it is possible that the seizure reflects the will of the Chinese President Xi Jinping’s administration.
 中国の司法は、共産党の指導下にあり、習政権の意思を反映したものと言えよう。

The lawsuit was filed in 1988 by two grandchildren of the founder of a Chinese shipping company, and calls for the payment of fees for two freighters leased to a predecessor of Mitsui O.S.K. Lines and additional compensation for the ships, which eventually sank.
 訴訟は、中国海運会社の関係者が80年代に起こした。商船三井の前身となる企業に貨物船2隻を貸した際の賃貸料や、沈没した船の賠償金の支払いを求めてきた。

A ruling on the case became final in December 2010, when an appellate court upheld a 2007 decision, ordering Mitsui to pay more than ¥2.9 billion.
 2010年末、商船三井に29億円余の賠償金支払いを命じる判決が確定した。

The Chinese court impounded the ship, leased by Mitsui to a Chinese steelmaking company, arguing that Mitsui failed to comply with the order to settle unpaid bills and pay compensation.
 商船三井が賠償に応じないとして、裁判所は、中国の鉄鋼会社に貸し出されていた船舶の差し押さえという措置を取った。

The Chinese Foreign Ministry said the seizure had no connection with the issue of war reparations.
 中国外務省は「戦争賠償問題とは無関係」と説明している。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga denounced the Chinese action as “extremely regrettable” and said the seizure “would undermine the spirit at the heart of the 1972 Japan-China joint statement that established the normalization of bilateral relations.”
 これに対し、菅官房長官は「極めて遺憾だ。1972年の日中共同声明に示された国交正常化の精神を根底から揺るがしかねない」と述べた。賛同できる見解だ。

We are inclined to agree.

Claims renounced

In the 1972 joint statement, China agreed to renounce demands for war reparations from Japan. The Chinese side essentially put a lid on demands by Chinese citizens for war reparations.
 共同声明で中国政府は、戦争賠償請求の放棄を表明している。中国側は、基本的には民間からの賠償請求を封じ込めてきた。

Over the years, Japan has provided more than ¥3 trillion in loans to promote and sustain Chinese economic development, and Japan continues provision of grant assistance to poorer regions of China today. Japanese companies have made substantial contributions to the country through investment in and technological cooperation with China as well.
 日本政府は、総額3兆円余の円借款を供与し、中国の経済発展を支えた。貧困地域などへの無償資金協力はなお続いている。企業も現在に至るまで投資や技術協力で多大な貢献をしている。

The Chinese government has not made sufficient efforts to spread awareness of these Japanese contributions in the country.
 こうした経緯を中国政府は、国内に十分説明していない。

The Xi administration has been ratcheting up its anti-Japan propaganda campaign over historical perceptions since Prime Minister Shinzo Abe paid a visit to Yasukuni Shrine in December.
 習政権は、安倍首相の靖国神社参拝を機に、歴史認識問題での反日宣伝を一段と強めている。

What prompted Chinese authorities to seize a Japanese ship more than three years after the court’s decision was finalized? Given its timing, it is possible to see the move as a ploy by Beijing to pressure Japan ahead of U.S. President Barack Obama’s visit to Tokyo.
 判決確定から3年以上たって、なぜ、差し押さえという手段をとったのか。オバマ米大統領の訪日直前というタイミングをとらえた対日圧力と見ることもできる。

Suga expressed concern over the Chinese action, saying that it “could intimidate Japanese firms” planning to expand business in China.
 菅長官は、中国でのビジネス展開を考える日本企業にとって「萎縮効果」を生みかねないと指摘し、憂慮の意を示した。

Amid declining Japanese investments in China, any increase in the perceived risk of Chinese investment will likely come as a blow not only to Japan, but also to China, whose economic growth has been slowing.
 日本の対中投資が落ち込む中、中国リスクの増大は日本だけでなく、経済成長が減速している中国自身にとっても痛手のはずだ。

A succession of lawsuits filed by Chinese who claimed they or members of their families were forced to work at Japanese factories during the war have called for Japanese firms to pay compensation. In light of this most recent move, many fear further seizures of the assets of Japanese firms.
 戦時中に強制連行されたとする中国人元労働者らが、日本企業に損害賠償を求める動きが相次いでいる。今後、日本企業の資産差し押さえが拡大する恐れもある。

The Xi administration must reaffirm mutual benefit as the heart of Japan-China relations.
 習政権は、互恵という日中関係の原点を再確認すべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 22, 2014)

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(社説)ハーグ条約 子どもの利益を第一に

April 22, 2014
EDITORIAL: Child's well-being top priority in international custody disputes
(社説)ハーグ条約 子どもの利益を第一に

When an international marriage breaks up and the husband and the wife decide to live in separate countries, which parent should their child live with?
 国際結婚が破綻(はたん)した。父と母はそれぞれ別の国に住むことになった。その場合、子どもはどちらと暮らすべきか。

In such cases, the child should be with the parent who lives in the country where the family lived before the breakup, and decisions on such legal issues as custody and visitation rights should in principle fall under the jurisdiction of that country.
 子はまず、元々住んでいた国の親の方に戻す。そして、その国で親権や、その後の面会について決めることを原則とする。それがハーグ条約である。

These are the basic rules set by the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction.

The Hague Abduction Convention finally took effect for Japan on April 1. More than 90 countries are party to the convention.
 90カ国以上が加盟しており、日本でも今月、発効した。

Cross-border child custody disputes that are governed by the treaty include cases in which Japanese who were married to foreigners and lived abroad have returned home with their children after divorce.
 海外で結婚生活を送っていた日本人の親が子と帰国する。

They also include cases in which foreign nationals who were married to Japanese and lived here have removed their children from Japan after divorce.
外国人の親が日本から子を連れ出す。いずれのケースもある。

Previously, there were no effective legal measures available for the parent separated from his or her child in either of the two types of cases.
 どちらであれ、これまで連れ去られた親の側にとれる有効な手立ては少なかった。

There have also been cases in which parents who have taken children away from their spouses after divorce have been treated as abductors by foreign law-enforcement authorities.
また、連れ去った親が外国当局から誘拐犯扱いされることもあった。

It is reasonable that the treaty supports legal settlements of such disputes in the country where the family lived before the breakup of the marriage. But the circumstances of every child custody case are different. Sometimes, it is not clear whether the treaty’s principles should be applied to certain cases.
 元々家族が暮らしていた国での解決を後押しするのは理にかなう。ただ、親の事情は千差万別であり、なかなか原則通りにいかないこともあろう。

The top priority in dealing with such cases should be finding the best possible solution for the well-being of the child. That must be the most fundamental guiding principle for handling child custody disputes.
 最優先すべきは、子にとって最善の解決策をとることだ。それを基本としておきたい。

The convention applies only to custody cases involving children under 16. The country to which the child has been removed is responsible for finding and returning the child.
 条約の対象は16歳未満の子。連れ去られた先の国に、その子を捜して元の国に戻す支援をする責任がある。

When the child in such a case is in Japan and the parent refuses to follow the rule, the family court in Tokyo or Osaka decides whether the child should be returned to the country where the family previously lived. The child may be forcefully separated from the parent.
 日本国内に子がいる場合、その親が応じなければ、東京または大阪の家裁が連れ戻しの是非を判断し、強制的に親から引き離すこともある。

Obviously, efforts should first be made to seek a settlement through talks between the father and the mother. Japanese bar associations are now working to establish a private-sector organization to mediate such disputes in cooperation with the government. The envisioned organization should be able to give adequate consideration to linguistic, cultural and legal differences between the countries involved and work in a way that is also satisfactory to foreign nationals seeking help.
 まずは父母の話し合いによる合意をめざすべきなのは、いうまでもない。弁護士会などは国と提携した民間の調停機関づくりを進めている。言語や文化、法の違いに配慮し、海外から援助を求める人にも納得してもらう対応をしてほしい。

When the father and the mother are locked in a serious confrontation, the family court’s involvement is inevitable. The Hague Abduction Convention allows the court to reject the parent’s request for the return of the child when such action could put the child in serious danger.
 父母の対立が深刻だと家裁の関与は避けられない。条約では子に重大な危険があれば、連れ戻しを拒むことも認めている。

In particular, assessing the risks involved in the return of the child is difficult in cases where the parent has returned home with the child after suffering from domestic violence. The court should make the decision after grasping and considering all relevant conditions and factors while respecting the convention’s basic ideas.
 とりわけ連れ去った方の親が配偶者の暴力に耐えかねて帰国したケースでは、子を戻すリスクをどのように考えるかは難しい。条約の理念は尊重しつつ、できるだけ実態を把握、勘案したうえで判断すべきだ。

The convention also requires respect for the child’s will when he or she refuses to be returned. The family court needs to create an environment where children can comfortably disclose how they really feel.
 条約は、連れ戻しを拒む子の意思も尊重している。家裁は子が本心を話しやすい雰囲気づくりをすることも必要だろう。

International marriages are likely to increase in the coming years. In Japan, custody of the child of a divorced couple is granted to just one parent. But in other industrial nations, both parents are generally involved in the rearing of their children. This approach is based on the notion that children need the affection and care of both parents during the process of growth irrespective of whether they are in marital relations or not.
 国際結婚は今後も増えそうだ。日本では離婚後は一方の親が親権をとるが、他の先進国では共同で子育てにかかわるのが一般的だ。婚姻関係にかかわらず、子は成長過程で父と母の双方とのふれあいを必要とするという考え方が根底にある。

Japan may need to have more debate on the roles of divorced parents in the rearing of their children while taking account of the situations in other countries.
 こうした海外の事情を考えるとともに、日本でも、離婚した両親と子育ての役割をめぐる論議を高めてはどうだろうか。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 22

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2014年4月22日 (火)

ソチ冬季オリンピックで活躍した浅田真央選手も愛用しているらしい エアウィーヴマットレス

ソチ冬季オリンピックから帰国したフィギュアスケートの浅田真央選手が、外国特派員協会で記者会見をしました。
まだ傷心収まらぬ浅田真央選手なんですが、ある外人記者から鋭い質問がなされました。
森喜朗元首相の「あの子は大事なところで必ず転ぶ」という発言についてどう思うかという質問だったのです。
インタビューをみていて、心が痛んだのは私だけではないと思います。
それでも彼女は笑顔で、その外人記者に向かってこう答えました。
「人間なので失敗する。したくてするわけではない」
彼女の言葉に、私は大きな感動を覚えました。

浅田真央選手が手のひらにメモしてまで忘れないように海外遠征にまで持っていったものがあります。
エアウィーヴという軽量のマットレスなんです。
このマットレス、抜群の通気性をしています。
水洗いも簡単で、マットレスの繊維の間を水や空気が自由に出入り出来るような構造となっています。
快適な睡眠をめざすのなら、このエアウィーヴマットレスを使うのが早道みたいなんです。
多くのアスリーツ、セレブたちによりその効果が実証されて来ています。

スパイダーマンというアメリカ映画をご存知でしょうか?
『アメイジング・スパイダーマン2』主演 アンドリュー・ガーフィールド も、このマットレスを愛用しているらしいのです。
さらにアスリーツでは著名なゴルファーがそれを使っています。
ポーラ・クリーマーバッバ・ワトソンの二人なんですが、なんでもコマーシャルベースではなくって、純粋なるエアウィーヴの愛好家らしいのです。
それはきっとこの奇跡のマットレスが届ける熟睡効果にあるとにらんでいます。
この暑い夏に向けて、おひとついかがでしょうか。







ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ レビューブログからの情報です

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外国人労働者 活用策を幅広く議論する時だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 6:45 pm, April 21, 2014
In-depth discussions needed over hiring of more foreign workers
外国人労働者 活用策を幅広く議論する時だ

With the shrinking of this country’s workforce as a result of the rapid graying of society and the chronically low birthrate, Japan now faces the major challenge of meeting the nation’s manpower needs to ensure its society remains vigorous.
 少子高齢化で、働く世代の人口は減り続けている。社会の活力を維持するため、労働力の確保は大きな課題である。

Under the circumstances, the government has begun studying the effective use of foreign workers in such sectors as construction and nursing care services. The first issue to be taken up is significantly increasing the number of foreign workers in the construction industry.
 政府は建設、介護などの分野で外国人労働者の活用策の検討を始めた。
第1弾は、建設業での外国人の受け入れ拡充だ。

With the sharp rise in demand for construction related to facilities for the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in Tokyo, the industry is expected to face acute manpower shortages.
 建設業界は、2020年東京五輪・パラリンピックに向けて施設の建築需要が急増し、大幅な人手不足が予想される。

Regarding the plan for accepting technical trainees from developing countries—the Industrial Trainee and Technical Internship Program—the government plans to extend the period of stay for trainees in this country to up to six years, from the current three years, if they work in the construction industry. The planned extension will be temporary, effective from fiscal 2015 until the opening of the Tokyo Olympics. The step appears to be a last-ditch, stopgap measure to cope with the extreme shortage of construction workers.
 政府は開発途上国から受け入れる外国人技能実習制度について、在留できる期間を3年から最長6年に延長する方針を決めた。15年度から五輪開催までの時限措置とする。労働力不足の急場をしのぐ苦肉の策と言えよう。

In regard to the government-backed foreign trainee program, a slew of instances involving violations of the Labor Standards Law have been reported, including nonpayment of wages. The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry must bolster surveillance procedures to crack down on wrongful labor practices.
 技能実習制度を巡っては、賃金不払いなど労働基準法違反の事例が相次いでいる問題がある。厚生労働省は、不正の監視を強化しなければならない。

Labor shortages are also serious in the nursing care service sector. Due to the graying of society, the number of nursing care workers across the country should be increased by 1 million by 2025, according to a government estimate.
 介護分野の人手不足も深刻だ。急速な高齢化に伴い、政府推計では、25年までに介護職員を100万人増やす必要があるという。

However, the foreign nursing care workers accepted by this country have been strictly limited to people from such countries as Indonesia who come to Japan with the aim of acquiring qualifications as certified welfare workers under economic partnership agreements between Japan and these countries. The number of people who passed certification examinations totaled about 240 since the start of the program in fiscal 2008, far short of making up for the labor shortage.
 経済連携協定(EPA)に基づき、外国人の介護労働は、インドネシアなどから介護福祉士の資格取得を目指して来日する場合に限られている。これまでの試験合格者は約240人に過ぎず、人手不足の解消にはほど遠い。

Boost working conditions

Without opening the door wider for foreigners with vocational skills, the future rise in demand for labor can never be met. The government should study the feasibility of adopting a new vocational certification examination system.
 一定の技能を持つ外国人に門戸を広げなければ、今後の需要はまかなえない。新たな技能検定試験なども検討してもらいたい。

It is also essential for the government to help foreigners who wish to work here as nursing care workers to improve their Japanese-language capabilities, as communication in Japanese is indispensable in the field.
 介護に不可欠なコミュニケーション能力を高めるため、政府は介護職員を志す外国人への日本語学習支援にも力を入れるべきだ。

One major factor behind the labor shortages in the construction and nursing care sectors may be because young Japanese who find employment in these businesses tend to quit their jobs very soon. This is mainly because wages in these sectors are lower than in other industries, making young workers worried about making long-term plans for the future.
 建設や介護分野の人手不足の背景には、就職した若者が定着しない問題も指摘できる。賃金が他の産業に比べて低く、将来の生活設計を描きづらい事情がある。

As long as companies remain dependent on cheap labor from overseas, wage levels of these firms are bound to remain static, and as a result they will continue to be unable to secure sufficient workers. It is vitally important for them to improve working conditions for Japanese workers, such as by introducing a regular wage raise system and a framework conducive to enhancing their vocational careers.
 安上がりな外国人労働者に頼ろうとする限り、賃金水準は向上せず、人手も確保できない。昇給制度など待遇改善やキャリア形成の仕組みを整えることが大切だ。

The government has hammered out a policy of encouraging women and the elderly to find employment. In sectors where there is still a labor shortage despite this policy, the government must come up with steps to make better use of labor from abroad.
 政府は女性や高齢者の就労促進を打ち出している。それでも不足する分野の労働力として外国人を活用する方策を考えるべきだ。

If foreign workers can be employed to do housework, the ratio of women joining the nation’s workforce will increase.
 家事支援に外国人を受け入れれば、女性の就業率をアップさせる効果も期待できよう。

There are now about 700,000 foreign workers in the country. Considering the possibility of cultural friction between foreign workers and Japanese and the impact on the nation’s public security, foreign workers should not be brought into the country in a haphazard manner.
 現在、外国人労働者は約70万人に上るが、文化的な摩擦や治安への影響を考えると、無秩序に増やすことはできまい。

How should foreign workers be brought into this country and how should they be utilized? The time is ripe for the government and private sector to discuss these matters extensively.
 外国人労働者をどう受け入れ、どう活用するか。官民で幅広く議論する時期に来ている。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 21, 2014)

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給食の事故防止 アレルギー症状を把握したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun 6:46 pm, April 21, 2014
Food allergies and school lunches present an under-recognized risk
給食の事故防止 アレルギー症状を把握したい

The number of children with food allergies has been on the rise. Now that the new school term has started, schools should take the opportunity to examine the safety of meals they provide to protect students from potential harm.
 食物アレルギーを抱える子供が増えている。新学期が始まった今、学校は給食の安全対策を点検し、児童・生徒を被害から守ってもらいたい。

According to a survey conducted last year by the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry, about 410,000 students at public primary, middle and high schools across the nation suffer from food allergies—a 20 percent increase from the last survey in 2004.
 文部科学省が昨年実施した調査によると、全国の公立小中高校で食物アレルギーのある児童・生徒が約41万人に上った。2004年の前回調査と比較すると、1・2倍に増加している。

In December 2012, a fifth-grade girl at a city-run primary school in Chofu, Tokyo, died due to an allergic reaction after eating a school meal, a heartbreaking incident that spawned greater public awareness of food allergies.
 一昨年12月、東京都調布市の市立小学校で、5年生の女子児童が給食を食べて死亡した。その痛ましい事故が、食物アレルギーへの関心を高めた。

But cases of children accidentally consuming substances they are allergic to in school lunches have been reported one after another. Preventing this sort of accident should be an urgent priority for schools.
 しかし、給食でアレルギー食材を誤って食べてしまうケースは後を絶たない。給食の事故防止は、教育現場の喫緊の課題である。

When people with egg, milk, shrimp or crab allergies eat those things, it can trigger a range of symptoms, including rashes, difficulty in breathing and, in some cases, shock and impaired consciousness. Food allergies present such hazards.
 卵や牛乳、エビ、カニなど特定の食べ物を口にすると、じんましんが出たり、呼吸が乱れたりする。ショック状態に陥り、意識が低下する場合もある。こうした危険を伴うのが食物アレルギーだ。

This is why it is essential for schools to maintain an accurate grasp of student allergies and symptoms to adopt adequate countermeasures.
 学校が適切な対応をとるためには、子供の症状を正確に把握しておく必要がある。

Yet, despite this clear need, only 20 percent of parents and guardians of children with food allergies have provided schools with medical documents describing the nature of their children’s symptoms and how to avoid them.
 ところが、アレルギーを持つ子供の保護者のうち、症状の特徴や注意点を記した担当医の診断書類を学校に提出していたのは、2割にとどまっている。

Implementing change

Late last month, the education ministry issued a notification to schools nationwide, urging them to require parents and guardians to submit relevant medical documents. We believe this was an appropriate measure.
 文科省が先月末、全国の学校向けに出した通知の中で、診断書類を必ず保護者から提出させるよう求めたのは妥当な措置だ。

Local governments, meanwhile, are working to prevent children from accidentally consuming substances that could trigger their allergies.
 各自治体は、誤食を防ぐ取り組みを進めている。

Learning from the fatal accident, the city of Chofu implemented two colors of trays and dishes to distinguish meals for students with allergies from others.
 調布市では、事故の教訓から、アレルギーの子供用の給食を盛りつけるトレーや食器の色を、他の子供のものと区別した。

The city’s schools also ensure that food allergy triggers have been removed at each stage, from cooking to serving, with nutritionists and homeroom teachers performing check and signing a card included on the meal tray. Having a series of checks performed by multiple people is an effective way to avoid accidents.
 アレルギー食材が除かれているかどうか、調理や配膳など各段階で栄養士や担任教師が確認し、給食に添えるカードにサインしている。複数の目によるチェックは有効だろう。

Schools should also be prepared for food allergy-related emergencies.
 万が一、事故が起きた場合への備えも欠かせない。

In the event a child enters a state of shock due to food allergies, how speedily a school can administer a shot to ease the reaction will be key. Schools must conduct practical training as a precaution so that every teacher learns how to administer these treatments.
 子供がアレルギーによるショックを起こした際は、症状を和らげる自己注射薬をいかに早く投与できるかがポイントになる。日頃から実践的な研修を行い、すべての教職員が取り扱えるようにならなければならない。

Schools also should develop cooperative relationships with medical institutions and fire departments to better handle emergencies.
 医療機関や消防機関との協力関係も築いておくべきだ。

It is also important for schools to provide children with an appropriate awareness of food allergies, urging the entire class to keep an eye on allergic classmates and nurturing compassion among students through school meals. Such developments, we hope, will prevent food allergy-related accidents.
 子供たちに食物アレルギーの正しい知識を教えることも大切である。アレルギーを持つ子がいたら、クラス全員で注意を払う。給食を通じて、思いやりの気持ちを育み、事故の防止につなげたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 21, 2014)

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2014年4月21日 (月)

(社説)日中関係 この機運を生かしたい

April 21, 2014
EDITORIAL: Don’t miss the window of opportunity opening for Japan-China thaw
(社説)日中関係 この機運を生かしたい

There have been some tentative signs of a thaw in the frosty relationship between Japan and China.
 凍りついていた日中関係に、やっと改善に向けた兆しが出てきた。
Japan and China are at loggerheads over a slew of thorny issues both in the past and at present. That’s exactly why it is so important for the two countries to repair their ties so that they can have a normal diplomatic dialogue.
両国間には過去と現在にまたがる多くの難問が横たわるが、だからこそ、ふつうに対話できる関係を作り直したい。

Some notable exchanges have taken place recently between the two countries.
 このところ注目すべき交流が続いている。

It has been revealed that Hu Deping, a Chinese pro-Japan advocate with close ties to President Xi Jinping, secretly met with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in Tokyo earlier this month.
 習近平(シーチンピン)国家主席と近い関係にある胡徳平氏が来日し、今月上旬、安倍首相と面会していたことが明らかになった。

Yohei Kono, the former Lower House speaker, met with Chinese Vice Premier Wang Yang on April 15 in Beijing. During the meeting, Wang criticized Abe but nevertheless said, “We hope the Japanese business community will make efforts to overcome the difficulties (in the bilateral relationship) and contribute to improving the relationship.”
 元衆院議長の河野洋平氏が北京で会談した汪洋(ワンヤン)副首相は、安倍首相を批判する一方、「日本の経済界が困難克服のため努力し、関係改善に貢献することを望んでいる」と発言した。

In addition, Tokyo Governor Yoichi Masuzoe will visit Beijing from April 24 to 26. It is the first time in as many as 18 years that the chief of the Tokyo metropolitan government has been formally invited to visit Beijing, which has a friendship city agreement with the Japanese capital. China’s Foreign Ministry has issued a statement welcoming Masuzoe’s visit.
 今月24日からは舛添要一・東京都知事が友好都市関係にある北京を訪れる。北京市からの招待は実に18年ぶりだ。中国外務省も歓迎の談話を出した。

The two countries, which are such close neighbors, should not remain estranged as they are now. If both sides are seeking to figure out a way to mend ties, that’s good news.
 隣国同士、このまま疎遠でいいはずがない。なんとか改善の道はないか。そんな意思が双方に働いているとすれば、好ましい進展だ。

Some efforts were also made to improve the situation last year.
 昨年も事態打開への努力はあった。

Even after China made a provocative move to suddenly establish an air defense identification zone in areas over the East China Sea including the disputed Senkaku Islands, diplomats from Tokyo and Beijing continued their exchanges to turn around bilateral ties.
11月に中国国防省が東シナ海域で突然、防空識別圏を敷く挑発行動に出た後も、外交当局者間の往来は続いた。

But Abe’s visit to Yasukuni Shrine the following month caused bilateral exchanges to come to a halt.
だが、安倍首相による年末の靖国神社参拝で交流は途絶えた。

The Xi administration, which has been ratcheting up criticism of Japan over history-related issues, is unwilling to make an overt move to seek reconciliation with Tokyo unless Abe makes a concession.
 歴史問題で非難を強めてきた習政権は、安倍首相が譲歩しない限り、公然と和解に動くような体裁はとりたくない。

Beijing has probably decided to limit its efforts to patch up the ties to economic and private-sector exchanges while taking a wait-and-see approach toward Abe.
まずは経済と民間の交流に力を入れ、安倍氏の出方は慎重に見極めよう、ということなのだろう。

But issues concerning views about history are not the only obstacles to improvement of the bilateral relations.
 ただ、日中の間にある障害は歴史認識だけではない。

For many years, China has been dangerously expanding its military capacity in its efforts to enhance its influence in surrounding areas. China’s aggressive military buildup and increasingly assertive behavior have created tension in neighboring areas including Japan.
むしろ中国が危うい軍拡を長年続け、周辺域での影響力拡大を図っていることが、日本を含む近隣に緊張をもたらしている。

Dialogue between the defense officials of both countries is necessary for preventing unnecessary clashes.
 無用な衝突を防ぐためにも、防衛当局間の対話が必要だ。

The establishment of a system to ensure safety in actions in the sky and the sea taken by the two countries in states of alert would help improve the security environment in the region.
空や海での警戒行動をめぐる安全確保のメカニズムをつくれば、地域の安保環境に役立つ。

On the economic front, Japan and China have a strong complementary relationship. China still needs Japanese technologies, while Japan needs China’s market and labor.
 一方、経済面では日中は相互補完関係が強い。今も中国は日本の技術を求め、日本は中国の市場と労働力を必要とする。

Tokyo and Beijing should start talks to enhance their bilateral economic relations including efforts to accelerate the negotiations for a three-way free trade agreement among Japan, China and South Korea.
 日中韓で構想されている自由貿易協定交渉の加速を含め、経済関係強化をめざした議論を政府間で進めるべきだ。

Concerns about China’s rapidly growing military power are widely shared by Pacific Rim countries.
 軍事大国化する中国への懸念は、今や環太平洋諸国が共有している。

But many countries in the region, including the United States, have been maintaining relations with China based on active bilateral talks on various issues instead of cutting off dialogue between the leaders.
それでも、米国はじめ各国は首脳同士の対話を絶やすような選択はせず、むしろ活発に主張をぶつけ合う関係を維持している。

Japan and China once agreed to promote mutually beneficial strategic relations between them. That means both sides should try to find a way to promote coexistence and co-prosperity even if there are serious disputes and disagreements.
 対立を抱えていても、共存共栄を図る。それがかつて日中で合意した「戦略的互恵関係」の意味するところではないか。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 20

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性暴力被害者 “駆け込み寺”を充実させたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun 6:59 pm, April 20, 2014
Support centers must be expanded for victims in sexual violence cases
性暴力被害者 “駆け込み寺”を充実させたい

Efforts must be redoubled to minimize the number of those victims of sexual violence such as sexual assault and forcible indecent exposure who have no other choice but to suffer in silence.
 性的暴行や強制わいせつなど、性暴力の被害を受けながら、泣き寝入りせざるを得ない人を少しでも減らす。

To achieve this end, it is imperative that support centers that can serve as shelters, or safe havens, for such victims are improved.
そのためには“駆け込み寺”となる救援施設の整備が必要だろう。

Conceived as “one-stop support centers” for victims of sexual violence, two additional facilities were established earlier this month, one at each of two privately run hospitals in Fukui and Shiga prefectures.
 性暴力被害者のための「ワンストップ支援センター」が今月、福井、滋賀両県の民間病院に新たに設置された。

Support teams with expertise and obstetrics and gynecology specialists are routinely stationed at each facility to provide victims of sex-related offenses with counseling and medical care. Depending on the individual’s wishes, the centers can also serve as a liaison to enable victims to seek assistance from lawyers, professional counselors, local municipalities’ social welfare officials and police. The role that the centers will play in facilitating communication between such victims of sex-related crimes and a range of related support organizations is undoubtedly very important.
 専門の支援員や産婦人科医が常駐して相談や診療に当たる。希望に応じて弁護士やカウンセラー、福祉窓口、警察への仲介役にもなる。様々な支援の窓口として、センターが果たす役割は大きい。

Sexual violence is characterized by the fact that victims often find it difficult to speak out about the offenses to those around them, resulting in the failure of cases to be brought to the fore. In many instances, victims have encountered difficulties in various aspects of everyday life, such as being unable to go out due to lingering anxieties and fear.
 周囲に打ち明けにくく、潜在化しやすいのが、性暴力被害の特徴だ。消えない不安や恐怖心で外出できなくなるなど、生活に支障をきたす例も多い。

Support centers must provide sexual assault victims with responses well suited to help them alleviate the mental and physical scars inflicted by offenders.
 支援センターに求められるのは、心身に傷を抱える被害者に寄り添った対応である。

The country’s first sexual assault support center was launched in 2010 at a private-sector hospital in Osaka Prefecture. The center receives as many as about 6,500 inquiries and requests for counseling a year.
 支援センターは2010年、大阪府内の民間病院に初めて設置された。現在、年6500件もの相談が寄せられる。

The government incorporated a goal of expediting the construction of new support centers into the key items in the Second Basic Plan for Crime Victims that was announced in 2011. A prescriptive guide for the establishment and administration of support centers was completed in 2012, with a policy calling for setting up “at least one center in each prefecture,” including Tokyo and Hokkaido.
 政府は、第2次犯罪被害者等基本計画の重点項目に、支援センターの設置促進を盛り込んだ。12年には開設・運営の手引を作成し、「都道府県内に少なくとも1か所は設置することが望ましい」との方針を示した。

Govt subsidies needed

But such centers have been launched in only about 10 prefectures nationwide, including Tokyo and Hokkaido. The biggest factor behind the small number of facilities is a lack of funding.
 しかし、これまでに設けられたのは、東京、北海道など10か所程度にとどまる。整備が進まない最大の要因は、資金不足だ。

Private-sector organizations are largely behind the establishment of such facilities, making their operation dependent on donations. At some centers, the staff who provide support to victims work without being paid at all. Due to shortages of obstetricians and gynecologists, some centers have faced difficulty securing hospitals to serve as the primary base for their activities.
 設置主体の多くは民間団体で、運営資金を寄付に頼っている。支援員が手弁当で対応している支援センターもある。産婦人科医が不足する中、拠点となる病院を確保できない地域も多い。

In the United States and European countries as well as South Korea, support centers have been founded through government-backed networks. The United States has as many as 1,100 rape crisis centers, which are run by subsidies from the federal government and other public entities.
 欧米や韓国では、24時間対応の公的支援網が整っている。米国では1100か所ものレイプクライシスセンターが、連邦政府などからの補助金で運営されている。

Similarly, the central and local governments in Japan should subsidize the establishment and management of support centers. Plans to establish such centers at publicly operated hospitals should also be encouraged.
 支援センターの設置や運営に、政府や自治体による一定の補助が必要ではないか。公立病院内のセンター設置も進めるべきだ。

Fostering support providers is also important, as high levels of knowledge and techniques are needed to deal effectively with sexual assault victims. In addition, measures are indispensable for the prevention of so-called secondary victimization, in which victims, after being subject to sexual violence, suffer further due to the inappropriate words and deeds of those around them.
 支援員の養成も重要である。被害者対応には、高度な知識と技術が要求される。被害者が周囲の不用意な言動で傷つく「二次被害」対策も欠かせない。

Some organizations aiding sexual assault victims have made it mandatory for prospective support providers to undergo a 40-hour training program.
 支援員希望者に40時間に及ぶ養成プログラムを課している団体もある。

It may be advisable for local governments and others to sponsor training workshops for both actively working supporters and prospective supporters to ensure that specialized expertise is disseminated.
優れたノウハウを普及させるため、自治体などが研修会を開催することも可能だろう。

There are plenty of tasks the central government and municipalities must address, including the issue of providing sexual assault victims with subsidies to partially fund their medical care and examinations.
 被害者の治療・検査の費用補助など、政府や自治体が検討すべき課題は少なくない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 20, 2014)

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日米TPP協議 首脳の決断で大筋合意目指せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:05 pm, April 20, 2014
Japan, U.S. need to compromise to reach broad TPP agreement
日米TPP協議 首脳の決断で大筋合意目指せ

The rocky negotiations between Japan and the United States over the Trans-Pacific Partnership multilateral free trade initiative have reached a crucial stage, with both sides showing willingness to compromise on agricultural issues—one of the biggest issues in their talks. It is important for them to make further efforts to find common ground.
 難航してきた環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉の日米協議は、大きなヤマ場を迎えた。
 焦点の農業分野で歩み寄ろうとする動きがうかがえ、互いに着地点を探る一層の努力が重要である。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and U.S. President Barack Obama, who are scheduled to hold talks Thursday in Tokyo, must exercise leadership toward forging an ambitious accord to promote a high level of free trade.
 高いレベルの自由貿易を推進するという野心的な合意に向け、24日に東京で会談する安倍首相とオバマ大統領が指導力を発揮することが求められよう。

Three days of talks on the bilateral pact between Akira Amari, state minister in charge of TPP affairs, and U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman ended Friday in Washington.
 ワシントンで3日間行われた甘利TPP相とフロマン米通商代表の協議が終わった。

The meeting was important in that it was intended to pave the way for an agreement ahead of the Japan-U.S. summit meeting, but the sides failed to conclude a broad agreement again, following bilateral ministerial talks early this month in Tokyo.
 首脳会談直前の重要な地ならし交渉だったが、今月上旬の東京での閣僚協議に続き、最終的な大筋合意には至らなかった。

“There was certain progress, but the two sides remained substantially far apart,” Amari said after the talks. The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative also said in a statement, “We are now faced with a reasonable number of outstanding issues. These issues are important to both sides and considerable differences remain.”
 協議後、甘利TPP相は、「一定の前進はあったが、まだ距離は相当ある」と述べた。米通商代表部も、「重要な課題でかなりの意見の隔たりが残っている」との声明を発表した。

Japan and the United States will hold working-level talks right up to the summit meeting, and how much they can bury their differences within the limited time frame will be tested.
 日米両国は首脳会談まで事務レベルの協議を続ける。限られた時間で、どこまで対立点を埋められるかが課題になる。

The round of ministerial talks in Washington failed to reach an accord mainly because of a persistent tug-of-war they engaged in over five agricultural categories, which, the Liberal Democratic Party insists, should be exempted from tariff removal.
 今回、閣僚協議が決着できなかった主因は、自民党が関税撤廃の例外扱いを主張している農産品5項目を巡って、駆け引きが続いたためである。

U.S. steadfast on beef, pork

The United States has shown a lenient attitude over rice, wheat and sweetener resource products by not demanding that tariffs on the categories be eliminated, but reportedly steadfastly insisted that Japan drastically reduce tariffs on beef and pork imports.
 米国は、コメ、麦、甘味作物については、関税撤廃を求めない柔軟姿勢を示唆する一方、牛肉・豚肉の大幅な関税引き下げを強硬に要求したとされる。

Japan, on the other hand, resisted the demand for a major reduction in the tariffs but tried to find common ground by compromising as much as it could, according to sources. But as the two sides remained far apart over stipulating conditions for invoking safeguard actions when either country sees a surge in imports, they apparently decided they needed more time to narrow differences.
 日本は大幅下げに難色を示しながらも、ギリギリの妥協案を模索したようだ。しかし、輸入が急増した場合の緊急輸入制限措置(セーフガード)の発動条件などを巡って溝は深く、なお調整が必要と判断したのだろう。

With the November midterm congressional elections approaching, trade protectionist pressures are rising in the United States, prodding the Obama administration to lean toward a hard-line stance against Japan. Japan’s livestock farmers are also alarmed by the prospect for liberalizing their markets further. The circumstances apparently make it difficult for the two nations to readily compromise.
 11月に議会中間選挙を控えた米国では、保護貿易主義圧力が高まり、オバマ政権が対日強硬姿勢に傾いている。日本の畜産農家も一層の市場開放に警戒感を示す中、日米双方とも安易に妥協できない事情がうかがえる。

But if both sides maintain unyielding stances, they will not be able to find a way out of this impasse.
 だが、互いに頑かたくなな姿勢を続けるばかりでは活路は開けまい。

In addition to placing importance on concluding a TPP agreement, Obama has been pushing a policy of expanding U.S. exports. Abe, for his part, was enthusiastic about reaching a TPP accord by making TPP a pillar of Japan’s growth strategy.
 オバマ大統領は、TPPを重視するとともに、米国の輸出拡大を掲げている。安倍首相は、TPPを成長戦略の柱に位置づけ、交渉合意に意欲を表明してきた。

The time is ripe for the Japanese and U.S. leaders to bridge their gaps from a broad perspective to stimulate the vigor of the Asia-Pacific region under the leadership of the two nations.
 日米主導でアジア太平洋地域の活力を高めるため、首脳同士が大局的な見地で決着を図る時だ。

A prolonged confrontation between the two nations could set TPP negotiations adrift. Ten other participants in TPP negotiations, including Australia, are closely watching how Japan-U.S. negotiations will turn out.
 日米の対立が続けば、このままTPP交渉が漂流しかねない。豪州など他の参加10か国は、日米交渉の行方を注視している。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 20, 2014)

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2014年4月20日 (日)

SHOPSTYLEサイトでストリートファッションを追求しましょう

ファッションのお話しなんですが、ストリートファッションというのを聞いたことがありますか。
そもそもファッションというものは、デザイナーとかアパレル関連企業が戦略的に生み出すものなんです。
ストリートファッションは違います。
例えばニューヨーク。
ニューヨークに集まる多くのニューヨーカーにより、ごく自然に作り出されるファッション(流行)がストリートファッションなんです。

ストリートファッションを少しだけ高級感ある感覚に仕上げたファッションはストリートフォーマルと呼ばれます。
ストリートフォーマルになると、そのまま外出でも良いのですが、例えばお友達の主催する誕生会などのフォーマルなパーティーにだって、堂々と着ていける品質と洗練されたデザイン性を兼ね備えています。
お値段は、やはりそこそこお高いのですが、女性としては最低一枚は揃えておきたい逸品なんです。

SHOPSTYLEサイトでは、この夏に向けて素敵なスナイデル ワンピース の販売開始をされていますが、これはもう究極のストリートフォーマルと称して差し支えありません。
清楚な花柄が素敵なSnidel ブライトフラワーワンピースが気に入りました。



Snidel(スナイデル)-snidel ブライトフラワーワンピース

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ウクライナ声明 親露派の武装解除が鍵になる

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:27 pm, April 19, 2014
Disarming of pro-Russia separatists key to easing tensions in Ukraine
ウクライナ声明 親露派の武装解除が鍵になる

It remains to be seen whether the agreement reached Thursday by Ukraine and Russia will calm tensions in Ukraine. Russia must promptly implement what was agreed upon in the deal.
 緊迫するウクライナ情勢の沈静化につながるかどうか、まだ不透明である。ロシアは速やかに合意を履行すべきだ。

The agreement was contained in a joint statement released after the United States, Russia, the Ukraine interim government and the European Union wrapped up their first foreign ministerial meeting in Geneva.
 米国、ロシア、ウクライナ暫定政府、欧州連合(EU)の4者が初の外相級協議を開き、共同声明を発表した。

The accord calls for disarming all illegally armed groups in Ukraine, returning all illegally seized buildings and vacating public places such as streets and squares to their legitimate owners. The agreement took into consideration the fact that pro-Russia armed groups had occupied local government and police station buildings, among others, in eastern Ukraine.
 共同声明は、ウクライナ国内のすべての不法な武装集団の武装解除や、不法占拠した建物や公共の場所の明け渡しを求めた。東部各地で、親ロシア派武装勢力が地方政府や警察の庁舎などを占拠している事態を踏まえたものだ。

The interim government of Ukraine had tried to forcibly remove such armed groups by mobilizing its military, but the bloody turmoil only expanded as it faced difficulties in breaking the stalemate.
 ウクライナ暫定政府が、軍を動員して武装勢力の強制排除に乗り出したが難航し、流血を伴う混乱が広がっている。

That the four parties sat at a negotiating table and agreed to call for “all sides to refrain from violence, intimidation or provocative actions” is admirable.
 4者が協議のテーブルにつき、全当事者に暴力や威圧、挑発行為の自制を促すことで合意したのは、一定の評価に値しよう。

The biggest problem is how to achieve disarmament and vacate seized buildings.
 最大の課題は、武装解除や明け渡しをどう実現するかだ。

The joint statement states that a special monitoring team from the Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) will assist Ukraine authorities with disarmament and other operations. But these operations would not be effective without the cooperation of Russia, which has backed pro-Russia groups.
 声明は、米欧露が参加する全欧安保協力機構(OSCE)の特別監視団が、ウクライナ当局による武装解除などを支援するとしている。だが、親露派を後押しするロシアの積極的な協力なしには効果は乏しいだろう。

Russia has denied its involvement in the movements of pro-Russia groups in Ukraine. But Russian President Vladimir Putin has admitted the involvement of Russian troops in events leading to the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula. Can he say for certain that it is not also the case in eastern Ukraine?
 ロシアは親露派への関与を否定してきたが、編入したクリミア半島については、プーチン大統領が露軍の関与を認めた。東部ではそうではないと言い切れるのか。

Rev up pressure on Russia

U.S. President Barack Obama expressed skepticism, saying that nothing is certain as things stand. He said the United States and its allies are ready to impose fresh sanctions unless Moscow carries out what was agreed upon in the next few days. His statement was reasonable.
 オバマ米大統領が、共同声明の合意について、「現時点では何も確実ではない」と懸念を示し、「数日内の合意履行」がなければロシアへの追加制裁に踏み切る方針を表明したのは当然である。

The international community, particularly the United States and Europe, must ratchet up pressure on Russia to make good on its commitments.
 米欧を中心とした国際社会は、ロシアに合意の確実な履行を求め、圧力を強めねばならない。

Japan should cooperate with the international community in this regard. It was unavoidable that Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida decided to postpone his visit to Russia.
 日本も国際社会と連携する姿勢が問われている。岸田外相が訪露を延期したのもやむを得まい。

The fact that the joint statement did not refer to the withdrawal of tens of thousands of Russian troops massed near the Ukraine border is still of concern. A pullback of the troops is an important step toward easing tensions, so the matter must be discussed in the coming months.
 気がかりなのは、共同声明が、ウクライナとの国境沿いに集結する数万人規模の露軍部隊の撤収について言及しなかったことだ。撤収は緊張緩和の重要なステップだけに、今後の課題である。

It is also problematic that the joint statement provided neither long-term nor medium-term steps to resolve the turmoil in Ukraine, and it made no reference to a presidential election scheduled for May in the nation.
 中長期的な混乱収拾策を示さずに、5月予定の大統領選に触れていないのも問題といえる。

This is presumably because consideration was given to Russia’s intent not to allow the election to be held at the initiative of Ukraine’s interim government.
 暫定政府主導の選挙を認めないロシアの意向に配慮したとみられる。

Only when a new president is elected in a fair election with the participation of pro-Russia residents can a “broad national dialogue”—as described in the statement—be achieved at an early date.
だが、親露派も参加した公正な選挙で新指導者を選んでこそ、声明に記された「幅広い国民対話」を早期に実現できるはずだ。

To work toward the creation of a stable Ukrainian government while preventing the country from becoming divided, diplomatic negotiations involving Russia must be continued.
 ウクライナの分裂を防ぎ、安定政権をどう作るか、ロシアを含む外交交渉の継続が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 19, 2014)

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原子力協定承認 官民連携で受注・輸出を図れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:30 pm, April 19, 2014
Govt, private sector should cooperate to promote exports of nuclear plants
原子力協定承認 官民連携で受注・輸出を図れ

In a move we hope will boost Japan’s exports of nuclear power plants, a House of Councillors plenary session has ratified nuclear accords Japan signed separately with Turkey and the United Arab Emirates, with a majority of votes coming mainly from the Liberal Democratic Party, New Komeito and the Democratic Party of Japan.
 これを機に、原子力発電所の輸出拡大に弾みを付けたい。
 日本と、トルコ、アラブ首長国連邦(UAE)それぞれとの原子力協定が参院本会議で、自民、公明、民主3党などの賛成多数で可決、承認された。

After the nuclear accords take effect in summer, Japan will be able to export materials, equipment and technology related to nuclear power to the two nations.
 今夏の発効後、日本から両国に対する原子力関連の資機材や技術の輸出が可能になる。

A consortium of corporations, including Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., has agreed with Turkey to construct four nuclear reactors in the northern part of the country. The project was agreed upon only after Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited the country twice to make a sales pitch.
 トルコとは、すでに三菱重工業などの企業連合が同国北部に4基の原発を建設することで合意している。安倍首相が2度、トルコを訪問し、「トップセールス」によって契約にこぎつけた案件だ。

An earthquake-prone nation, Turkey has high expectations for Japan’s earthquake-resistance technology for nuclear power plants. The government should utilize lessons learned from the crisis at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in providing continued support to ensure Turkey’s safe use of nuclear power.
 地震国のトルコには、日本が持つ原発の耐震技術への期待も大きい。政府は、福島第一原発事故の教訓を生かし、トルコが安全に原発を活用できるよう継続的に支援することが大切である。

The accord with Turkey allows the nation to enrich or reprocess nuclear substances only if it obtains consent from Japan. Turkey apparently wants to have room to improve the technology, including the future introduction of nuclear fuel recycling.
 協定では、日本が同意した場合に限り、トルコは核物質の濃縮や再処理ができるとした。将来の核燃料サイクル導入など技術向上の余地を残したいのだろう。

During Diet deliberations, opposition parties pointed out that such a provision could result in the development of nuclear weapons. However, Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida flatly ruled out the possibility, saying, “We have no intention at all of approving the enrichment and reprocessing [of nuclear substances].”
 国会審議では、野党が核兵器開発に結びつきかねないと指摘したが、岸田外相は「濃縮、再処理を認めるつもりはまったくない」と明確に否定した。

The government should stress that the accord will contribute to the peaceful use of nuclear substances.
政府は、核物質の平和利用に寄与することもアピールしなければならない。

350 new reactors by 2030

Emerging economies, which are growing remarkably, have embarked on constructing nuclear power plants to secure energy. According to one projection, the world will see an increase of as many as 350 reactors by the end of 2030.
 経済成長の著しい新興国は、エネルギー確保のため原発建設に乗り出している。世界全体では2030年までに最大で350基程度増えるとの予測もある。

It reportedly costs several hundred billions of yen to construct a nuclear reactor. Japan is competing ever more fiercely with such nations as Russia, South Korea and China to win contracts for constructing reactors. In light of this, the government and the private sector should press ahead with concerted efforts in line with the Abe administration’s growth strategy, which promotes the export of infrastructure as one of its pillars.
 原発1基の建設費は数千億円とされ、ロシアや韓国、中国などとの受注競争も激化している。インフラ輸出を一つの柱に据える安倍政権の成長戦略を踏まえ、官民挙げた取り組みを強化したい。

The opposition parties’ response to the nuclear accords during the ratification process was called into question.
 今回の協定承認案を巡っては、野党の対応も問題となった。

Shintaro Ishihara, coleader of Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party), once threatened to leave the party as he did not accept its policy of opposing the accords. Eventually, Ishihara did not attend the voting session, and the party has yet to resolve internal differences over nuclear power policies.
 日本維新の会の石原共同代表は、党の反対方針に納得せず、一時は離党を口にしたほどだ。結局、採決を欠席した。原発政策を巡る対立は解消されないままだ。

It is natural for the DPJ, which promoted the export of nuclear power plants while in power, to support the accords. But DPJ members championing the phasing out of nuclear power staunchly opposed the agreements, forcing the party to engage in difficult consensus building. Former Prime Minister Naoto Kan and several others walked out or did not attend the voting session, or abstained from voting in defiance of the party’s official line.
 民主党は政権担当時に原発輸出を推進しており、今回、賛成したのは自然な流れだ。だが、脱原発派は協定に反対論を唱え、意見集約は難航した。菅元首相ら数人が採決では党議に反して、退席や欠席、棄権に回った。

For this behavior, the DPJ meted out only light punishment against the rebels, such as suspending them from party posts or giving them verbal warnings, showing how lax the party is.
 党執行部が造反者に対し、党の役職停止や注意などの軽い処分にとどめたことに党の甘い体質が表れていると言える。

DPJ leader Banri Kaieda’s leadership in uniting the party will be questioned if the party cannot take unified actions over important policies.
 重要政策で一致した行動を取れないようでは、海江田代表の求心力も問われよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 19, 2014)

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(社説)放射線量調査 住民の役に立ってこそ

April 19, 2014
EDITORIAL: Fukushima and the world benefit from full disclosure of radiation information
(社説)放射線量調査 住民の役に立ってこそ

What should policymakers think about the effects of exposure to low levels of radiation in areas affected by the Fukushima nuclear disaster?
 原発事故による低線量被曝(ひばく)の影響をどう考えるか。

The fact that there is an insufficient amount of established scientific knowledge about the effects of low-dose radiation makes it all the more important for the government to offer detailed explanations and disclose all relevant information when it adopts policy measures to deal with the problem.
 確たる知見がない領域だからこそ、対策を講じるうえでは丁寧な説明や情報公開を心がけてほしい。

The government recently released the findings from a survey it conducted to assess the relation between dose estimates based on air dose rates and actual individual radiation doses at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture.
 政府が福島県内で、空間線量からの推計値と個々人が実際にうける線量との関係を調べて、公表した。

The survey was aimed at obtaining data about radiation doses under circumstances that are similar to actual living conditions, instead of mechanical estimates, in evacuated areas where it is difficult to take actual measurements due to high levels of radiation.
 線量が高く実測値を得ることが難しい避難指示区域で、機械的な推計値ではなく、できるだけ本来の生活パターンに即した数値を得ることが狙いだった。

The survey results clearly indicate a strong correlation between data obtained with measuring equipment shaped like the human body and integral individual doses estimated from air dose rates.
 結果、人体を模した計測器から得られるデータと空間線量からはじく積算線量の間には強い相関関係が認められた。

Residents in evacuated areas face the decision of whether or not to return to their homes when the evacuation order for their communities is lifted. They are keen to know the actual dose of radiation they would receive when they return to their towns and villages rather than the air dose level.
 避難指示解除を境にふるさとへ戻るか否かの判断を迫られる住民には、「空間線量ではなく実際に自分が戻ったときにうける線量が知りたい」という切実な思いがある。

As the government will consider lifting evacuation orders for specific areas, establishing a reliable formula for estimating actual individual radiation doses is vital for residents in deciding whether or not to return to their communities. The survey is a welcome first step in the effort.
 今後、避難指示の解除を検討する際、住民の判断に役立つ推計法を確立していくことは重要だ。今回の調査はその一歩として評価したい。

However, the government carried out the survey without announcing it, raising suspicions that it had been hiding the information because the results were undesirable.
 問題は、これまで調査の存在自体を公表しておらず、「数値が悪く、隠していたのではないか」との疑念を招いたことだ。

The decision to do the survey was made last summer. But the government didn’t disclose any information about it during meetings on the return of evacuees to their homes held with the Nuclear Regulation Authority, nor in meetings with residents of the city of Tamura to discuss the lifting of the evacuation order for a district in the city.
 昨年夏に調査を決めたにもかかわらず、この間、原子力規制委員会内で開かれた住民帰還に関する会合や、田村市内の避難指示解除を検討する住民説明会といった場でも、調査のことを明らかにしなかったのはなぜなのか。

Why the secrecy?

Explaining its failure to inform the public about the survey, the government says it took time to ensure that its formula for making estimates was scientifically correct. The government also says it didn’t plan to publish any interim report on the survey.
 政府側は「推計値の算出方法が科学的に正しいと検証するのに時間を要した」「途中経過まで公表するという判断はなかった」という。

But there is strong public distrust of the government’s stance toward disclosure of information concerning the devastating nuclear accident. This is partly due to the chaotic state of affairs during evacuations caused by poor information disclosure.
 だが、原発事故をめぐっては避難時の大混乱をはじめ、政府の情報公開に対する不信が根強い。

If the survey was designed to provide useful information for evacuees, the government should have made it widely known that it was conducting the survey. It also should have disclosed information on a timely basis about progress and prospects even before all the data had been accumulated.
今回の調査も、被災者への有益な情報提供が主眼なのであればなおさら、調査実施の段階から広く知らせ、データがそろわない段階でも進み具合や見通しについて適時開示していくべきだった。

There is a global trend toward greater disclosure of data held by governments, with due care to protect individual information, for the purpose of developing better policies.
 政府のもつデータを個人情報などに注意しつつ公開し、よりよい政策づくりにつなげるのが世界的な流れだ。

Data about the Fukushima meltdowns is among the most valuable information held by Japan, and it should be shared publicly with the rest of the world.
原発事故について日本がもつデータは、世界が共有して次に生かすべき最たるものだろう。

Not much is known about the effects of exposure to low-dose radiation. It is also true that there are various views and opinions about such exposure itself.
 低線量被曝の影響評価については未知の部分が多い。被曝の受け止め方も様々だ。

Under the guiding principle of putting priority on the interests of residents, the government should spare no effort to ensure that important knowledge and information about the disaster--reviewed and assessed by experts both at home and abroad--will be shared by the entire public.
 「住民の役に立ってこそ」を大原則に、国内外の専門家同士による論評や検証を重ねつつ、知見を国民全体で共有していく努力を怠らないでもらいたい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 19

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2014年4月19日 (土)

マイナス10歳肌でパートナーを得た人だっています メトラッセ ミルキーエッセンス

残念ながら私は男性なんですが、昔から実際の年齢よりも10歳くらい若く見られていました。
この実際の年齢より若く見られるというのは、多くの女性たちにとっては福音だと思います。
男性の場合はちょっと違うんです。
ビジネスの世界でハクをつけるためには実際の年齢よりも老けて見られたほうが有利なんです。

女性は圧倒的にマイナス10歳肌を目指す人たちが多いですね。
現在の妻は不器量なんですが肌の美しさは最高なんです。
そうですね。
実際の年齢よりもひとまわりくらい若く見られるんです。
それでついに結婚することになったのは、今から15年前の話しです。

メトラッセ ミルキーエッセンスというスーパー美容クリームがあります。
これが大変効果的なのを実際に目撃しています。(妻の顔なんですが^^)
お肌を守るための4種類の働きをします(化粧水、乳液、クリーム、美容液)。
手間がかからないのはもちろんなんですが、一番の特徴はその即効性と持続性なんです。
メトラッセ ミルキーエッセンスをお肌に施した瞬間から、しっとり状態となり、マイナス10歳肌を実現してくれます。
効果の時間(持続性)なんですが、個人差はありますが、おおむね24時間は大丈夫なつくりとなっています。
信頼できる美容クリームだということが出来ます。

詳細はこちらです。
http://www.metllasse.com/





以上、レビューブログからの情報です

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日韓局長級協議 関係修復へ粘り強く接点探れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:10 pm, April 18, 2014
Tokyo, Seoul must work tenaciously toward resolving gaps, mending ties
日韓局長級協議 関係修復へ粘り強く接点探れ

Restoring the now completely chilled relations between Japan and South Korea is not an easy task, but recent talks between senior officials of both governments should be used as the first step toward restructuring a future-oriented bilateral relationship.
 冷え切った日韓関係を修復することは簡単ではないが、未来志向の関係を再構築するための重要な一歩としたい。

Junichi Ihara, director general of the Foreign Ministry’s Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau, met with Lee Sang Deuk, director general of the South Korean Foreign Ministry’s Northeast Asian Affairs Bureau, in Seoul on Wednesday to discuss the so-called comfort women issue.
 外務省の伊原純一アジア大洋州局長と韓国外交省の李相徳東北アジア局長がソウルで会談し、いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題について協議した。

“We could exchange opinions sincerely, so it was a significant meeting,” Ihara said afterward, but the two countries remain far apart in their assertions on the issue.
 伊原局長は会談後、「真摯しんしな姿勢で意見交換ができ、有意義な協議だった」と語った。
 ただ、慰安婦問題をめぐる日韓双方の主張の隔たりは大きい。

South Korea has called for Japan to make “sincere” responses, such as recognition of its legal responsibilities and compensation by the Japanese government. The Japanese government’s position is that the comfort women issue is already resolved, meaning it is not obliged by any international law to comply with any request for state compensation over the matter.
 韓国政府は、日本の法的責任の認定や政府による補償など「誠意ある措置」を求めている。
 日本政府は、慰安婦問題は「解決済み」との立場だ。国家補償に応じる国際法上の義務はない。

The bilateral agreement of 1965 states that issues involving compensation claims, including those by individuals, “have been completely and finally resolved.”
1965年の日韓請求権協定は、個人も含めた賠償請求権問題について「完全かつ最終的に解決された」と明記している。

Despite that, Japan established the Asian Women’s Fund in 1995 to make compensation payments and provide medical and welfare assistance as humanitarian measures for former comfort women. A letter of apology by the Japanese prime minister was also delivered.
 それでも日本は90年代にアジア女性基金を創設し、「償い金」の支払いや医療福祉支援、首相のおわびの手紙など、元慰安婦に対する人道的な措置を講じた。

Such measures did not seem to be fully appreciated by those in South Korea, who strongly opposed the fund’s provision of “compensation money”—based on a perceived distinction from state compensation—and maintained their stance of pursuing recognition of what they regard as Japan’s legal responsibility.
 韓国側が国家賠償と区別された形の「償い金」支給に強く反発し、日本の法的責任の追及にこだわったため、この措置はあまり評価されなかったという経緯がある。

New steps difficult

South Korean President Park Geun-hye’s adamantly anti-Japan stance has aggravated national sentiments in the two countries, and in view of that fact, it is politically difficult for Tokyo to take new measures toward resolving the comfort women issue.
 朴槿恵大統領の頑かたくなな反日姿勢が日韓双方の国民感情の悪化を招いている現状も踏まえれば、日本政府が慰安婦問題で新たな措置を講じるのは政治的には困難だ。

Meanwhile, the extraordinary lack of summit meetings between Park and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe continues.
 一方で、安倍首相と朴大統領がまだ一度も首脳会談を行えないという異常事態が続いている。

The U.S. government’s earnest efforts as an intermediary to improve Tokyo-Seoul relations were presumably made because Washington considered it necessary to restructure the tripartite relationship amid the continued military provocations by North Korea and China’s military buildup.
 米政府が日韓関係の改善を本格的に仲介してきたのは、北朝鮮の軍事的挑発や中国の軍備増強が続く中、日米韓の連携を立て直す必要があると考えたからだろう。

It is likely that both Japan and South Korea’s willingness to participate in the recent meeting at the director general level was intended to portray a mutual openness to dialogue ahead of U.S. President Barack Obama’s tour of the two countries next week.
Even so, the meeting must be used as an opportunity to repair bilateral relations.
 今回の局長級協議も、来週のオバマ米大統領の日韓歴訪を前に、日韓双方が対話姿勢を演出した面があるが、この機会を関係改善に役立てるべきである。

The next round of talks is scheduled for May in Tokyo. Matters other than the comfort women are also likely to be discussed. Many issues have been left pending between Japan and South Korea, including lawsuits related to payment of compensation and unpaid wages filed by Koreans who were conscripted to work in Japanese factories during wartime. The two countries must make strenuous efforts to find a workable compromise as they continue to discuss the various issues involved.
 次回協議は、5月に東京で開かれ、慰安婦問題以外の議題も取り上げる見通しだ。日韓間には、元徴用工による賠償請求訴訟、竹島問題など懸案が多い。様々な問題を協議する中で、双方が歩み寄れる接点を粘り強く探りたい。

Next year’s 50th anniversary of the normalization of Japan-South Korea relations and 70th anniversary of the end of World War II are highly likely to bring renewed attention to historical issues.
 来年は日韓国交正常化50周年かつ戦後70年のため、歴史問題が改めて注目される可能性が高い。

Achieving a summit meeting between Japanese and South Korean leaders is necessary—by arranging the schedule to coincide with international conferences, such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation meeting scheduled for this autumn. Greater efforts must be made by both countries in this regard.
 今年秋のアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)などの国際会議に合わせて、日韓首脳会談を実現する必要がある。双方が一層努力を重ねなければなるまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 18, 2014)

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高齢人口25% 独り暮らし対策は待ったなし

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:13 pm, April 18, 2014
Measures urgently needed to cope with, reduce number of elderly living alone
高齢人口25% 独り暮らし対策は待ったなし

As the people born during the postwar baby boom have begun entering the later stages of their lives, one out of every four people in Japan is now aged 65 or older.
 団塊の世代が高齢期を迎え、日本の総人口の4人に1人が65歳以上になった。

Working out measures to address the challenges posed by the nation’s rapid aging—a situation without parallel in the rest of the world—is an unmistakably urgent matter.
世界に類を見ないスピードで進む高齢化への対策が急務である。

The Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry released population estimates as of Oct. 1, 2013, in which people aged 65 and over comprised more than 25 percent of the population for the first time. Nearly 31.9 million had celebrated their 65th birthday.
 総務省が2013年10月1日時点の人口推計を公表した。65歳以上の人口が初めて全体の25%を超え、3190万人に達した。

Japan’s population has contracted for a third straight year, and the working-age population—people aged from 15 to 64—has fallen below 80 million for the first time in 32 years.
 総人口は3年連続で減少し、15~64歳の生産年齢人口は32年ぶりに8000万人を下回った。

The aging of society brings with it ballooning social security costs, including expenditures for medical and nursing care. As a result, the burden of maintaining the social security system has grown even heavier on a working generation that is shrinking in an alarming fashion.
 高齢化に伴い、医療や介護などの社会保障費は膨張している。減少する「働く世代」には、社会保障制度を維持するための負担が重くのしかかる。

Japan’s social security system, as it exists today, is hardly sustainable and threatens to undermine Japan’s social and economic vigor. The situation is grave indeed.
 このままでは、制度を持続できず、経済・社会の活力も損なわれる。深刻な事態である。

In 2025, as the baby-boom generation passes the age of 75, the number of people needing medical and nursing care will undoubtedly rise even higher.
 団塊の世代が75歳以上となる25年には、医療や介護を必要とする人がさらに増えるだろう。

But as the number of older people continues to swell, there are limits to the number of elderly that can be cared for at facilities for the aged and hospitals. Expenditures covered by the nursing care and health insurance systems are likely to increase, leading to a further rise in benefit payments.
 増加する高齢者を施設や病院で受け入れることには限界がある。介護・医療保険から支払われる費用が高くなりがちで、給付費の一層の膨張を招く。

The situation calls for arrangements for integrated nursing care and medical services to be provided in the home, allowing the elderly to live at home for as long as reasonably practical. The government must also back construction of new housing to accommodate older people, including those with lower incomes.
 可能な限り自宅で暮らせるよう、訪問介護や在宅診療を一体的に提供する体制作りが必要だ。低所得でも入居できる高齢者向け住宅の整備も求められよう。

Build mutual aid framework

It is important that Japan also define a strategy for addressing the increasing numbers of older people living alone. According to projections by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, the number of such elderly people, which stood at 4.98 million in 2010, will rise to 7.62 million in 2035, an increase of about 50 percent.
 独り暮らしの高齢者対策も待ったなしだ。国立社会保障・人口問題研究所の推計では、10年の498万人が35年には1・5倍の762万人にまで増える。

Older people who receive no help from family are likely to face great difficulty living on their own if and when they encounter even minor physical or mental issues. Symptoms of dementia and other disorders also tend to be overlooked. Building neighborhood frameworks of mutual support to take the place of absent families is indispensable in coping with this situation.
 家族の手助けがない高齢者は、心身が少し不調でも自立生活が困難になる。認知症などの症状も見過ごされやすい。家族に代わり、地域で支え合う互助の仕組みを育てることが欠かせない。

Many noteworthy programs to keep an eye on elderly residents and provide them with places to interact with other people have been launched by nonprofit organizations and volunteers. We should encourage the further spread of such works.
 各地でNPOやボランティアによる見守り活動や、交流サロンといった高齢者の居場所作りが始まっている。こうした取り組みを広げていきたい。

The role played by local governments is crucial as well. One program by the government of Minato Ward, Tokyo, makes door-to-door visits to the homes of single elderly residents to offer appropriate administrative services, in an effort to better understand their living conditions. This program could be a useful model for other local governments.
 自治体の役割も重要だ。戸別訪問で独り暮らし高齢者の生活状況を把握し、適切なサービスにつなぐ東京都港区の取り組みなどは、他の自治体の参考となる。

We hope to see older people who are in good health and spirits take on volunteer and other activities for the benefit of their communities. Such contributions will add meaning to their lives, and at the same time reduce the likelihood that they will need nursing care services, thereby helping rein in social welfare expenditures for the nation as a whole.
 元気な高齢者にはボランティアなどとして地域で活躍してもらいたい。それが自身の生きがいや介護予防になり、社会保障費の抑制につながるだろう。

There is a close link between the number of older people living alone and the increasing number of unmarried people. Many people within the growing ranks of low-wage nonregular employees are giving up on getting married.
 独り暮らし高齢者の増加は、未婚率の上昇と密接な関係にある。低賃金の非正規労働者の増加で、結婚をあきらめる人が多い。

This is why employment patterns are an important part of preventing further growth in the number of older people living alone—working conditions for nonregular workers should be improved and companies must be urged to expedite promotion of such workers to regular-employee status.
 将来の独り暮らし高齢者を増やさないためにも、非正規労働者の処遇改善や正社員への転換を促進しなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 18, 2014)

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日韓局長協議―関係改善の足がかりに

April 18, 2014
EDITORIAL: New Tokyo-Seoul talks should lead to serious efforts to mend ties
日韓局長協議―関係改善の足がかりに

Senior diplomats of Japan and South Korea held talks in Seoul on April 16 in a fresh effort to settle the thorny issue of “comfort women.”
 従軍慰安婦問題をめぐり、日本と韓国の外務省の局長がソウルで話し合った。

Since there are wide and deep disagreements on the issue, the bureau chiefs of foreign ministries of the two countries could do little but confirm the basic positions of their respective governments. They reportedly agreed to hold another meeting in Tokyo next month.
 互いの主張には隔たりがあり、今回は基本的な立場の確認にとどまった。次回は来月に東京で開くという。

There will be many twists and turns in the process of working out an agreement. But we welcome the fact that the administrations of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and South Korean President Park Geun-hye have started direct talks to repair the soured ties.
 解決への道のりは曲折も予想されるが、安倍政権と朴槿恵(パククネ)政権のもとで直接協議が始まったことを歓迎したい。

The two governments have both recognized the need to tackle this issue. This is at least a starting point for efforts to change the situation. Tokyo and Seoul should take advantage of the window of opportunity opened by the talks to lay a solid foundation for improving the overall relations between them.
 この問題を放置できないとの認識を両政権が確認し合った。少なくとも、そこが出発点だ。両政府は、この協議をきっかけに、総合的な関係改善の足がかりを築いてほしい。

What opened the door to the new bilateral talks was a meeting between Abe, Park and U.S. President Barack Obama last month in the Netherlands. Obama brokered the summit, which brought Abe and Park together for their first face-to-face meeting since they took office more than a year earlier.
 今回の協議の伏線は、先月、オランダで開かれた日米韓首脳会談にあった。オバマ米大統領が仲介し、就任から1年以上実現していなかった日韓両首脳の直接対話ができた。

The latest talks between the director-generals of the concerned ministry bureaus of Japan and South Korea had been arranged as part of the deal for this three-way summit.
 この首脳会談と、いわばパッケージの形で進められてきたのが今回の局長級協議である。

Arranging the talks, however, was by no means easy. South Korea demanded that the talks be focused on the issue of comfort women, while Japan insisted on discussing other important issues between the two nations as well. They include the territorial dispute over the Takeshima islets in the Sea of Japan and policy responses to North Korea’s missile and nuclear arms programs.
 調整は難航した。韓国側は慰安婦問題にしぼった話し合いを求めた一方、日本側は竹島問題や対北朝鮮政策なども協議すべきだと主張した。

Still, the two sides agreed to hold the meeting because of diplomatic pressure coming from Obama’s scheduled visits to both Japan and South Korea next week. Obama has been urging both countries to patch up their relations.
 開催にこぎつけたのは、日韓の和解を強く求めるオバマ氏が来週、両国を訪れることを双方が意識したためだろう。

As it turned out, the first round of talks focused on the issue of comfort women. But a wide range of issues will be discussed from the second round onward, according to reports.
 結局、初回の協議は慰安婦問題を集中的に話し合ったが、次回以降は幅広いテーマが取り上げられる見込みだという。

The primary bone of contention between Tokyo and Seoul in their row over comfort women is how much “responsibility” Japan as a nation should take for the plight of these women, who were forced to provide sex to wartime Japanese soldiers.
 慰安婦問題で日韓がもっとも対立するのは日本の「責任」をどこまで認めるかだ。

The South Korean government demands that Japan acknowledge its “legal liability” for the suffering of these women. Its position is apparently influenced by the tough stances of citizen organizations supporting former comfort women. But Japan claims that all related legal issues were settled when the two countries restored their diplomatic relationships in 1965.
 韓国政府は、市民団体などの強い主張を背景に「法的責任」の認定を求めるが、日本側は国交正常化の際に「法的には解決済み」と主張する。

Japan and South Korea, however, came close to a political settlement of the dispute in autumn 2012, when both countries were governed by their respective previous administrations. According to an Asahi Shimbun report that quoted people who were involved in that matter in both governments, Japan at the time proposed that the Japanese ambassador to South Korea would offer an apology to former comfort women and that the Japanese government would fund humanitarian assistance programs for the victims.
 ただ、日韓ともに前政権だった一昨年秋に、政治決着の間際までこぎつけたことを、双方の当事者らが証言している。
 日本側は当時、駐韓大使によるおわびや、すべて政府資金による被害者支援を提案した。

The proposed solution failed to materialize because of the dissolution of the Lower House for a snap election in Japan. Now the Park administration wants a similar proposal from Tokyo.
 日本の衆院解散で実現しなかったが、韓国側は朴政権下でも同様の提案を求めてきた。

The Abe administration has recognized that humanitarian relief measures are needed by the victims and has been holding behind-the-scenes negotiations with South Korea.
 安倍政権も人道的な措置の必要性は認め、韓国側と水面下の折衝を続けている。

The Japanese government should take all possible measures to support the victims. The South Korean government, for its part, should do more to build a national consensus on a realistic solution to the issue by talking with citizen groups.
 日本政府は今後も誠意をもって可能な限りの措置を探るべきだ。一方の韓国政府も市民団体との対話を進め、現実的な解決策に対する国内世論のとりまとめに取り組んでほしい。

There are many other pending issues between Japan and South Korea. The leaders of Japan and South Korea should expand channels of dialogue and provide effective leadership to build a truly future-oriented relationship between the two countries.
 日韓の間にはこの問題以外にも多くの懸案が横たわる。両国のトップは、対話のチャンネルを広げ、真の未来志向の日韓関係を切り開く指導力を発揮してもらいたい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 18

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2014年4月18日 (金)

ミュージカル『女海賊ビアンカ』のサウンドトラックが前倒しで発売されます

少女マンガの草分け的な存在が少女コミックなんですが、人気少女漫画「ガラスの仮面」で脅威の5千万部売り上げを実現しています。劇中劇の『女海賊ビアンカ』 は、中でも一番人気のすごい漫画なんですが、その漫画をモチーフとしてミュージカルが公演されるほどに発展を遂げています。
ミュージカルガラスの仮面劇場「女海賊ビアンカ」のサウンドトラックが前倒しですが、サイトで販売されます。
少女マンガファンならば、この手を見逃すわけにはいきません。
わずか3000円ほどで、臨場感のあるオリジナルサウンドが自宅で楽しめるという分けなのです。
大人気が予想されますので、サイトでのお申込はお早めに済ませてください。



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クラムスクール(塾)に通うのはトレンドになっていますが

欧米でもかなり昔からcram school(クラムスクール=学習塾、予備校)が大流行していますが、その余波を食らったのでしょうか、この30年くらいの間に日本国内の学習塾や家庭教師の需要はうなぎのぼりなんです。
いまどきの子供たちでは、学習塾に通っていない子供たちを探すのが難しいくらいのものなんです。
われわれが通っていた学習塾と違って、いまどきの学習塾は、その授業料、月謝がずいぶんお高いですね。
大いに驚かされたのは、私が団塊の世代に属する年寄りだからなんでしょう。

そこで、月額300円でできる小学生の家庭学習のおすすめなんです。
こちらのサイトでは、子供たちの好きな時間に、好きなだけネットで学習できるのが特徴なんです。
その魅力はなんといっても、お金がかからないことに尽きます。
なんと月額300円から各種のコースが用意されています。
ネット学習といえども、学習塾や家庭教師から受ける教育と遜色はありません。
費用対効果を考えると、ベストの選択はネット学習ということになります。
おすすめします。



月額300円でできる、小学生の家庭学習Webサービス「通信教室」の提供開始。



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電力経営悪化 エネルギー政策全体の課題だ

福島原発事故処理が完全に終わるという目処はいまだにたっていません。
いったいこれから先どれだけのお金がかかるのでしょうか。
最終的には全部国民が負担させられるのではないでしょうか。
原発で得られる電力が安価であるというのは神話となっていますが、読売はこの神話をいまだに信じています。
新聞で世論に訴えるのは自由ですが、物事の本質を突き詰めて論議して欲しいものです。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:05 pm, April 17, 2014
Utilities’ deteriorating financial state a key issue for entire energy policy
電力経営悪化 エネルギー政策全体の課題だ

The financial circumstances of electricity utilities continue to deteriorate, chiefly due to delays in restarting their nuclear power plants.
 原子力発電所の再稼働の遅れなどで、電力会社の経営悪化に歯止めがかからない。

There are also growing concerns over the adverse impact of electricity rate hikes on general households and the industrial sector.
 電気料金の値上げによる家計や産業界への悪影響が、ますます懸念されよう。

Chubu Electric Power Co. is planning an average increase of 3.8 percent from May. The company had initially sought a 5 percent hike but lowered its request after being asked by the government to take measures such as cutting down fuel costs.
 中部電力の家庭向け電気料金が5月から、平均3・8%値上げされることになった。約5%の申請に対し、政府は燃料費の節約などを求め、値上げ幅を圧縮した。

Chubu Electric Power is the seventh utility firm to make a “drastic” hike in its electricity rates, which requires government approval. Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Kansai Electric Power Co. have done the same.
 原発事故後、国の認可を要する「本格値上げ」は、東京電力や関西電力などに続いて7社目だ。

Following the outbreak of the crisis at TEPCO’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, all nuclear power plants have been suspended, causing utility companies’ fuel costs to soar after they switched to thermal power plants. As a result, the utilities have been under strain financially.
 東電福島第一原発の事故を受けた全原発の停止によって、火力発電用の燃料費が増大したことが、各社の財務を圧迫している。

Of the nation’s 10 utilities, six companies, including Chubu Electric, are expected to post a recurring loss for the business year ending in March. Five out of the six electricity providers are projected to post a recurring loss for a third straight year, a financial situation that may prompt banks to cut off their loans.
 電力10社のうち中部電を含む6社は、今年3月期決算で経常利益が赤字になる見通しだ。このうち5社は、銀行に融資を打ち切られる可能性のある「3期連続赤字」が見込まれる。

It was necessary to a certain extent for the government to have approved the power companies’ rate hike requests while calling on them to make thorough efforts to streamline themselves.
 政府が合理化の徹底を求めた上で、各社に値上げを認めたのも、やむを得ない面はあろう。

But it is quite serious that the utility companies are about to enter a second round of rate increases.
 ただし、値上げが「2巡目」に入りつつあるのは深刻である。

Government reluctant

Hokkaido Electric Power Co., which implemented a 7 percent to 8 percent increase in the utility rate last September, announced its plan in February to implement yet another hike. The company said it has been unable to restart its nuclear power plant as it had hoped, leaving it unable to improve its business performance.
 昨年9月に7%台の値上げを実施した北海道電力は今年2月、再値上げの検討を表明した。想定通りに原発を再稼働できず、業績改善が望めないためという。

Economy, Trade and Industry Minister Toshimitsu Motegi has in effect put a hold on Hokkaido Electric’s rate hike, saying, “It’s important [for the company] to make efforts to avoid a rate hike.”
 茂木経済産業相は「値上げ回避の努力が重要だ」などと述べ、事実上待ったをかけている。

The government’s reluctance to approve the rate hikes while delaying the restart of nuclear power plants only serves to further aggravate power companies’ financial situation.
再稼働が遅れている中で値上げに難色を示すだけでは、電力会社の経営は苦しくなるばかりである。

To avoid becoming insolvent with cumulative deficit, Hokkaido Electric has reportedly been studying the possibility of receiving financial support from the Development Bank of Japan. We recognize the value of the utility’s efforts to avoid a rate hike, but they are merely last-ditch measures.
 累積赤字による債務超過を防ぐため、北海道電は日本政策投資銀行から資本支援を受ける方向で検討しているという。値上げを避ける努力は評価できるが、あくまで「窮余の一策」と言える。

The financial state of other utility companies, besides Hokkaido Electric, is also deteriorating. Shortage of funds will leave utility companies unable to make necessary repairs of their power transmission lines and transformer stations, or to inject sufficient money into the renewal of these facilities, adversely affecting power supply. Such a situation must be avoided at all costs.
 北海道電以外の電力各社も財務内容が悪化している。資金不足で送電線や変電所などの補修や更新投資が十分に行えず、電力供給に支障が出る事態は、何としても避けねばならない。

With these factors in mind, it is essential for power companies to be allowed to restart nuclear power plants that have been confirmed to be safe, so their costs for generating electricity can be reduced.
 やはり、安全性の確認できた原発を再稼働し、発電コストを低下させることが欠かせまい。

The most important points are for the Nuclear Regulation Authority to accelerate its safety inspections of nuclear power plants and for the government to extend solid support to the power plants that pass those inspections, so restarting operations can proceed smoothly.
 重要なのは、原子力規制委員会が原発の安全審査を加速させるとともに、審査をパスした原発の再稼働が円滑に進むよう、政府がしっかり後押しすることだ。

It is also necessary for the central government to make an all-out effort to explain the situation, to win the support of local governments that host nuclear power plants.
立地自治体の理解を得るため、説明に全力を挙げる必要がある。

Japan’s economic reconstruction depends on a stable supply of cheap electricity. The time has come for both the public and private sectors to seriously reflect on power companies’ deteriorating financial circumstances, and the challenges posed for the overall energy policy of this country.
 安価な電力の安定供給は、日本経済再生に不可欠だ。電力会社の経営悪化を、エネルギー政策全体の課題と捉え、官民が対応策を真剣に考える時に来ている。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 17, 2014)

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ウクライナ緊迫 露は軍事的圧力を強めるな

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:07 pm, April 17, 2014
Intl community must not allow Russia to increase military pressure on Ukraine
ウクライナ緊迫 露は軍事的圧力を強めるな

The Ukrainian situation has become extremely tense. This is a crucial phase in determining whether it will be possible to prevent the spread of turmoil through the country.
 ウクライナ情勢が極めて緊迫してきた。混乱の拡大を阻止できるかどうか、重大な局面だ。

Ukraine’s acting government has sent its military forces into the country’s eastern region—where pro-Russian armed rebels have illegally seized local government and police headquarters buildings one after another—and has started to remove the rebels by force. The Ukrainian troops began by recovering control of an airport in Donetsk Oblast.
 ウクライナ暫定政府は親ロシア派武装勢力が地方政府や警察の庁舎などを次々と違法に占拠している東部に軍を投入し、武装勢力の強制排除に乗り出した。まず、ドネツク州の空港を奪還した。

This was the first action taken to maintain security by the Ukrainian military force under control of the provisional government. When Russia annexed the Crimean Peninsula in southern Ukraine, the acting Ukrainian government exercised restraint, avoiding use of its military. However, the administration must now have decided that the disorder in the eastern region can no longer be left unchecked.
 暫定政府による軍の治安維持活動は初めてである。ロシアが南部クリミア半島を編入した際、暫定政府は軍の行動を自制したが、東部での混乱をもはや放置できないと判断したのだろう。

The pro-Russian rebels have expanded their illegal seizure of local administration buildings in various parts in eastern Ukraine and declared the establishment of an independent people’s republic, actions that could be perceived as encouraging a revolt against the provisional government.
 親露派は、東部各地で違法占拠を拡大し、「人民共和国」樹立を宣言するなど、暫定政府に反旗を翻している。

It was inevitable for the acting government to label efforts to remove the rebels as an “antiterrorist operation,” designed to prevent secession.
 暫定政府が強制排除を国家分裂を防ぐための「反テロ作戦」と位置づけたのはやむを得まい。

The United States has declared its support for the move by the provisional government, with a White House spokesman saying, “The Ukrainian government has a responsibility to provide law and order.” The U.S. government must have had concerns that eastern Ukraine would fall into a state of anarchy.
 米国政府も「暫定政府は法と秩序を守る責任がある」と表明した。東部が無政府状態になることを懸念したからだろう。

In response, Russian President Vladimir Putin told German Chancellor Angela Merkel during telephone talks that the conflict in Ukraine “has placed the country, in effect, on the verge of civil war,” and criticized the provisional government.
 これに対し、プーチン露大統領はメルケル独首相との電話会談で「ウクライナは内戦の瀬戸際だ」と述べ、暫定政府を批判した。

Proof of involvement

However, it is Russia itself that must shoulder the greatest responsibility for causing turmoil in Ukraine. Russia is perceived as being involved in a series of actions by pro-Russian armed rebels, as was the case in its annexation of Crimea.
 だが、混乱を招いた最大の要因は、ロシア自身にある。クリミア編入と同様、親露派武装勢力による一連の行動にロシアが関与しているとみられるからだ。

The pro-Russian rebels carry Russian-made weapons and act in an organized manner. The U.S. government has released some evidence supporting claims of Russian involvement in the Ukrainian situation, such as the detention of Russian intelligence agents within Ukraine.
 親露派はロシア製の武器を携行し、組織立って行動している。米国政府は、ウクライナ国内でロシア情報機関要員が拘束されるなど、ロシア関与を裏付ける「証拠」も公表した。

It has also been confirmed that Russia has been massing tens of thousands of military troops on the Russian border with eastern Ukraine.
 ロシアが東部との国境沿いに、数万人規模の軍部隊を集結させている事実も確認された。

The Russian government has constantly denied its involvement in the Ukrainian situation, but the first thing the country should do is withdraw these troops from the border area and make efforts to lessen military tension.
 ロシア政府は、一貫して関与を否定しているが、それらの部隊を撤収し、軍事的緊張緩和に努力するのが先決と言える。

To calm the unrest, it is imperative that the international community—including the United States and major European countries—step up their pressure on Russia with economic sanctions and other non-military measures.
 混乱を沈静化させるには、欧米など国際社会が経済制裁を始めとする非軍事的手段でロシアへの圧力を高めることが肝要だ。

The policy adopted by the acting Ukrainian government to suspend exports of weapons-related products to Russia, such as combat helicopter engines, is an example of the measures that can form part of such coordinated pressure.
 暫定政府が戦闘ヘリコプターのエンジンなど武器関連製品の対ロシア輸出停止の方針を決めたのも、圧力の一環となる。

On Tuesday, during a visit to China, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov confirmed cooperative relations between their two countries. This seems to have been intended to mitigate Western pressure and prevent Russia’s isolation from the international community.
 ラブロフ露外相は訪中し、15日に習近平国家主席らと協調関係を確認した。国際的孤立を回避し、米欧からの圧力に対抗する狙いがあるのだろう。

A four-way meeting between the United States, the European Union, the Ukrainian provisional government and Russia is scheduled in Geneva on Thursday. The opening of a dialogue among them should be the first step to resolving this situation.
 ジュネーブでは17日に米国、欧州連合(EU)、暫定政府にロシアを加えた4者会談が行われる予定だ。協議開始を事態打開の一歩としなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 17, 2014)

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秘密の監視―国会が、やるのだ

April 17, 2014
EDITORIAL: Diet must keep vigilant eye on state secrecy cases
秘密の監視―国会が、やるのだ

What role should the Diet perform to prevent arbitrary enforcement of the newly enacted state secrets protection law?
 特定秘密保護法の恣意(しい)的な運用を防ぐために、国会はどのような役割を果たすべきか。

Earlier this month, the ruling Liberal Democratic Party and its junior coalition partner New Komeito set up a project team to thrash out ideas for a new monitoring organization to be created within the Diet.
 自民、公明両党はプロジェクトチームをつくり、国会に設置する監視機関について与党協議を始めた。

More than 100 local assemblies across the nation have passed proposals to scrap the state secrecy law. That indicates strong and widespread concerns about the controversial legislation.
 全国100を超える地方議会が秘密法廃止を求める意見書を可決しており、同法への不安が根強いことを示している。

The ruling coalition, which rammed the bill through the Diet late last year by taking advantage of its sizable majority in both houses, has a duty to at least give the Diet’s monitoring body as much power as possible in order to ease public anxiety about the law.
 国会の監視機関にできるだけ強い権限を持たせ、少しでも不安を取り除くことが、強引に法律を成立させた与党が果たすべき、せめてもの責任だろう。

But the LDP’s proposal about the new watchdog is too timid to ensure rigorous monitoring of the way the law is enforced.
 ところが、自民党案は、監視に対してあまりにも腰が引けていると言わざるを得ない。

The LDP has proposed setting up an entity with the tentative name of “information review commission” in each of the two Diet chambers.
 衆参両院に「情報審査会(仮称)」を新設。

In situations where the government refuses to heed a demand from a standing or special Diet committee to turn over certain documents on grounds state secrets would be compromised, the committee would be able to ask the review panel to examine the case, according to the LDP’s plan.
In response, the panel would discuss it. If it concludes the government should submit the document, it would demand disclosure of the secret and examine it.
国会の常任・特別委員会が政府に対して資料の提出を要求→政府が「特定秘密が含まれる」として提出を拒否→拒否された委員会からの要請を受けた場合に審査会を開き、政府に秘密の提供を要求しチェックする――という想定だ。

The LDP’s original proposal contained a passage saying the new body would not determine the appropriateness of the government’s designation of specific information as a state secret. But the passage has been removed in response to criticism from both in and outside the party.
 当初案にあった「特定秘密の指定の適否は判断しない」との文言は、党内外からの異論に配慮し削除された。

Still, the revised proposal doesn’t clearly state that the watchdog will make a judgment on the appropriateness of the classification of certain information. As a result, it is unclear how the envisioned entity will respond to cases of questionable implementation of the law.
とはいえ、「判断する」と明示されたわけではなく、運用に問題があった場合に、審査会としてどう対応するのかもはっきりしない。

New Komeito, for its part, has proposed the creation of a body, tentatively named a joint “information committee of both houses,” for constant monitoring of the ways the government classifies and declassifies information. The body would have the power to advise the government to take remedial steps in problematic cases.
 一方、公明党案は、衆参合同の「両院情報委員会(仮称)」をつくり、政府による秘密の指定や解除のあり方を常時監視する。問題がある場合は、政府に改善を勧告できるとしている。

In their talks over the issue, the two parties should seek to work out a blueprint of the monitoring body based mainly on New Komeito’s proposal. They should also make serious efforts to figure out additional steps the Diet could take to ensure rigorous monitoring.
 与党協議では公明案を軸に、さらに国会にできることがないか、真摯(しんし)に検討すべきだろう。

The law stipulates that Cabinet members and other heads of administrative organizations can refuse to disclose state secrets to the Diet if they think that doing so could cause serious damage to national security.
 そもそも秘密法は、閣僚ら行政機関の長が「我が国の安全保障に著しい支障を及ぼすおそれ」があると判断した場合は、国会への秘密提供を拒むことができると規定している。

There are still strong and legitimate concerns that this provision might restrict the Diet’s power to investigate and monitor the government’s actions, turning the separation of powers into a mere shell.
 これによって政府に対する国会の調査・監視機能が制約され、三権分立が形骸化してしまうのではないか。懸念はなお強い。

We still find it hard to fathom why the Diet hastily passed a law, which ties its own hands, in such a forceful manner.
国会が自らの手足を縛るような法律を、なぜあれほど乱暴な手つきで成立させてしまったのか、いまも理解に苦しむ。

Under Japan’s parliamentary Cabinet system, ruling party lawmakers inevitably tend to feel a sense of unity with the government. But Diet members are representatives of all the people.
 議院内閣制の日本では、与党議員はどうしても政府と心理的に一体化しやすい。しかし国会議員は全国民の代表である。

In addition to supporting the government’s policy agenda, lawmakers are duty-bound to also do things for the sake of the people. They should not forget that.
政府が「やりたいこと」を後押しするだけでなく、国民のために「やるべきこと」がある。それを忘れてもらっては困る。

Some opposition lawmakers, mainly members of the Democratic Party of Japan, are exploring the possibility of submitting an alternative proposal to the Diet.
 民主党を中心に野党案を出そうという動きもある。

Lawmakers of both the ruling and opposition camps should jointly create a monitoring organ with sufficient authority as a way to demonstrate their pride as members of the Diet.
与野党を超えて、十分な権限を有する監視機関を設置し、国会の自負を示すべきだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 17

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2014年4月17日 (木)

今中小企業の企業秘密だって狙われています 保守管理を確実に!

しばらく前ころまでは、官公庁や大企業からの大切な秘密が漏洩して世の中を騒がせたりしていましたが、そのトレンドが中小企業にまで広がっています。
つい最近のニュースなんですが、ある空港の極秘の平面図がネットを通じて流出したりしています。これはテロリストなどに狙われると大変なことになりますね。

これからは中小企業といえども、会社のデータの保守管理をきちんとやっていないと大変なことになります。
そこでぜひお勧めしたいのがエヌシーアイ、脆弱性診断サービス「ZETA Security SiteScan」シリーズなんです。
このゼタセキュリティ・サイトスキャンなんですが、リスク分散のためでしょうか、北海道の石狩にもデータ基地を設けています。
万が一の非常時にも、冷静に対応してくれる信頼できる会社なので、大企業から中小企業に至るまで、企業データの管理責任者は、ゼタセキュリティ・サイトスキャンを採用することで大いなる安心を得ることが出来ます。
いま最新のシステムがリニューアルされているようなので是非、企業で採用をご検討ください。おすすめです。



エヌシーアイ、脆弱性診断サービス「ZETA Security SiteScan」シリーズをリニューアル~Web脆弱性診断サービスの月額版メニューの追加でより幅広いお客様のニーズに対応~



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

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グーグル流出 テロへの危機意識が足りない

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:06 pm, April 16, 2014
Recent online exposures reveal lack of awareness of terrorism risk
グーグル流出 テロへの危機意識が足りない

With so many people streaming through every day, it is needless to say that the highest level of attention should be paid to guarding airports and train stations. Thus the recent online exposure of blueprints for terminal buildings and other facilities has raised grave concern over the security of public transportation.
 多くの人が行き来する空港や駅は、警備の要衝だ。ターミナルビルなどの詳細な図面の流出は、安全対策上、ゆゆしき事態である。

It has been revealed recently that floor plans and other sensitive information regarding Chubu International Airport, New Chitose Airport, JR Tokyo Station and Shin-Osaka Station were made publicly accessible online.
 中部国際、新千歳両空港や東京、新大阪両駅の構内図などがインターネット上に流出し、誰でも閲覧できる状態になっていた。

In each case the online exposures occurred via the Google Groups online bulletin board service, provided by Google Inc. Employees of Google Japan exchanged e-mails containing the sensitive information with their clients, with the privacy setting of the mail-sharing services set to “Public” when it should have been set to “Restricted.”
 いずれも、流出元は、米グーグルのメール共有サービス「グーグルグループ」だった。日本法人の社員らがサービスの初期設定で、「非公開」とすべき箇所を「一般公開」にしたまま、メールのやりとりをしたことが原因だ。

The incident has revealed the service provider’s inability to handle its own service correctly. We urge Google to reflect seriously on this.
 サービスを提供する側が、サービスを使いこなせなかった。グーグルには猛省を求めたい。

It is likely that the series of exposures started in July 2012. The privacy settings have since been adjusted, but it’s possible that many Internet users have seen the exposed information.
 流出は2012年7月から続いていたとみられる。現在、設定方法は改善されたが、これまでに流出した情報は多数のネット利用者の目に触れた可能性がある。

With the exposed floor maps of the two airports visible, the locations of employee-only passages and the airport’s secure areas—where access is limited due to security reasons—can be determined at a glance.
 空港の構内図を見れば、職員専用通路や、立ち入りが制限されている保安区域に近付けるルートが一目でわかる。

The exposed blueprints for Tokyo Station show the location of the operations control center—the heart of the building—and the layout of high-voltage cables. An interrogation room belonging to the Railway Police Unit was easily found on the floor plans for Shin-Osaka Station, along with other sensitive facilities.
 東京駅では、ビルの心臓部と言える中央管理室や高圧線の配置、新大阪駅では鉄道警察隊の取調室などの位置が明示されていた。

Public transportation is prone to becoming a terrorist target. If the locations of core functions of airports and stations become public, terrorists may gain an unnecessary advantage.
 公共交通機関は、テロの標的になりやすい。空港や駅の急所の所在が公になれば、テロリストに付け入る隙を与えることになる。

Security culture needed

JR and the operating companies of the airports provided the floor plans so that information for the Google Maps service could be updated, but it seems the way the floor maps were passed to Google Japan lacked caution. They should have taken meticulous care when transferring such sensitive information, such as concealing the locations of important facilities.
 空港運営会社やJR側が、グーグルの地図サービス更新のため、図面を提供したのも不用意だ。重要設備の場所は隠すなど、細心の注意を払うべきだった。

For this reason it was proper for the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry to conduct an investigation of all domestic airports regarding how they provided floor plans to Google Japan, saying that the online exposure of such data poses grave concerns for airport security.
 国土交通省が「保安上、極めて問題だ」として、全空港を対象に、図面の提供状況の調査を実施したのは当然である。

It has also been discovered that the operating company of New Chitose Airport provided floor plans to Google Japan without notifying the transport ministry, contrary to the ministry’s policy requesting airport operators to consult the ministry before making such disclosures.
 新千歳空港の運営会社が、事前の相談を求めた国交省の通知に反し、無断で図面をグーグルに提供していたことも判明した。

The transport ministry has also instructed companies to alter some parts of floor diagrams, such as secure areas, before sharing them, but the New Chitose operator failed to comply with this instruction as well. The incident may be a violation of the airport’s own rules on safety management, which include measures against terrorism and hijacking.
 「保安区域周辺などを修正して提供する」という国交省の指示も守っていなかった。テロやハイジャック対策などの管理体制を定めた「空港保安管理規程」に違反する可能性がある。

It seems the company lacks awareness as an airport operator, whose most important role is to ensure the safety of airport users.
 空港利用者の安全を確保するという、運営会社としての自覚を欠いているのではないか。

Last summer, similar information exposures involving Google Groups took place at central government offices such as the Environment Ministry. There have been a series of cases in which personal information stored by medical institutions and schools was exposed online.
 「グーグルグループ」では昨夏にも、環境省など中央省庁で情報流出が発覚した。医療機関や学校から個人情報が流出するケースも相次いでいる。

There are other online bulletin board services that have functions similar to those of Google Groups. Users should check once again whether they are appropriately managing information in online services.
 グーグル以外にも、同様のサービスは存在する。利用者は、ネットを介した情報管理のあり方を再点検する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 16, 2014)

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農協自己改革案 本業の生産性を向上できるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:08 pm, April 16, 2014
Can agricultural co-operatives cultivate their own reform?
農協自己改革案 本業の生産性を向上できるか

In an apparent bid to fend off pressure from the government, the nation’s key agricultural umbrella organization has come up with its own reform plan. However, the specific measures laid out in the reform initiative, which aims to shore up competitiveness in the farming sector, remain insufficient.
 政府の圧力をかわそうと、農協が自己改革案を打ち出した。だが、農業の競争力を強化する具体策は物足りない。

The Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives, the main hub of a nationwide farming cooperative network, adopted a farming and economic renovation plan in early April. The primary objective of the plan adopted by the union, known as JA-Zenchu, is to maximize farmers’ income. The reform initiative includes a plan to establish a national fund to aid new farmers and others working in the agricultural sector, and a number of other measures.
 農協の中核組織、全国農業協同組合中央会(JA全中)が決めた「営農・経済革新プラン」の柱は、農業所得の最大化である。

The plan also incorporates greater efforts to promote a string of activities encompassing the production, processing and sale of farm products, in what would amount to the creation of a “sixth industrial sector.” Measures to further encourage agricultural exports are also included.
 自己改革案には、新規就農者などを支援する「全国基金」の創設や、生産から加工・販売までを手がける6次産業化の加速、輸出振興策などが盛り込まれた。

Two government advisory panels, the Regulatory Reform Council and the Industrial Competitiveness Council, have said that delays in reforming agricultural cooperatives are one factor behind the weakening of Japan’s agricultural sector.
 政府の規制改革会議や産業競争力会議は、農協改革の遅れが農業衰退の一因だと批判している。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has said he will strive to “transform the nation’s agriculture into a growth industry.” He is set to put together a package of measures to revitalize the farming sector in June, including a plan to reform agricultural cooperatives.
安倍首相は「農業を成長産業にする」と表明し、6月に農協改革を含む活性化策をまとめる。

JA-Zenchu’s decision to draft its own plan for reform ahead of the prime minister’s can be seen as an attempt to discourage the government from taking a controlling role in reform discussions while also demonstrating its readiness to commit to reform goals.
 JA全中がこれに先立ち、自ら改革案を作成したのは、政府主導の改革論議をけん制し、積極姿勢をアピールする狙いだろう。

Contrary to its avowed enthusiasm, however, JA-Zenchu’s reform plan appears to be a conservative adaptation of its existing policies in many respects. Its road map for the reform target is no less ambiguous. The plan to set up a national fund, which JA-Zenchu touts as a key feature of its reform drive, leaves hazy the scale of the scheme and the purposes for which the envisaged fund would be used. It is unknown what kind of result the fund will produce.
 ただ、意気込みとは裏腹に、改革案は従来方針の焼き直しが目立つ。改革実現に向けた工程表もあいまいだ。改革の“目玉”とされる全国基金は規模や活用策が明確でなく、効果は不透明である。

The income earned by Japan’s farmers has dropped by half over the past 20 years. The area of arable land left uncultivated over a certain period of time, meanwhile, has doubled in the same period. These changes come as the graying of the country’s agricultural population is accelerating.
 過去20年間で日本の農業所得は半減し、耕作放棄地は倍増した。農家の高齢化も進行している。

Multilateral talks on the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact, of which agricultural market liberalization is a key focus, are nearing their final stages. Bolstering the international competitiveness of the nation’s farming sector is a task on which no further delay may be permitted.
 農業の市場開放が焦点の環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉は大詰めを迎えており、国際競争力の強化は待ったなしだ。

Aversion to change

Many members of the regulatory reform panel’s working committee on agriculture had good reason to express stern opinions about JA-Zenchu’s reform plan, with one member describing it as “demonstrating lack of awareness of the seriousness of the problem.”
 規制改革会議の農業作業部会で、自己改革案について「危機感が薄い」などの厳しい意見が相次いだのは当然だろう。

The regulatory reform council has raised questions about efforts by agricultural cooperatives to improve their own profits through such financial operations as lending and mutual-aid programs. The panel has said their success in these programs has done much to increase the number of nonfarming members of agricultural cooperatives. These members are treated as associate members and have been seen as a contributing factor to an accelerated decline in agricultural population. JA-Zenchu’s failure to address this problem in its reform plan raises further questions.
 規制改革会議は、農協が融資や共済といった金融事業で利益を伸ばし、結果的に農家以外の組合員(准組合員)を増やす「農業離れ」を加速させていると問題視している。改革案がその点にほとんど応えていないのも疑問だ。

Criticism persists about what seems to be a passive attitude on the part of agricultural cooperatives toward proposed efforts to expand the scale of farming tracts as a means of promoting large-scale agriculture. Agricultural cooperatives have also been criticized for being halfhearted in their support for full-time farming households.
 農協が農地の大規模化や専業農家への支援に消極的だという批判は根強い。

Agricultural cooperatives should rethink and correct their emphasis on better serving part-time farmers and associate members rather than full-time farming households. They should also get serious about promoting large-scale farming. Failure to do so means their reform drive will do little to improve agricultural productivity.
 専業農家よりも兼業農家や准組合員へのサービスを重視する姿勢を改め、大規模化に本気で取り組まなければ、農業の生産性向上につながるまい。

In directing funds and personnel for their reform efforts, agricultural cooperatives should shift their operating focus to treat households working to improve their farming efficiency more favorably.
 経営の効率化に努める農家に農協の資金や人材を手厚く投入する方向にかじを切るべきである。

A fundamental reform plan has emerged within the government. It calls for lessening JA-Zenchu’s involvement in regional agricultural cooperatives through revisions to the Agricultural Cooperatives Law and other means. The idea is to encourage each cooperative to promote activities on its own, thereby providing stronger motivation.
 政府内には、農協法の改正などでJA全中の地域農協への関与を弱め、各農協に独自経営を促すことで事業意欲を高めるという抜本改革案も浮上している。

Agricultural cooperatives must appreciate the urgency of their situation more keenly, and take the initiative in transforming themselves into organizations capable of functioning effectively, while also changing their attitude and orientation toward the status quo.
 農協は今度こそ危機感を強め、実効性のある組織と意識の改革に自ら踏み出さねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 16, 2014)

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(社説)安倍政権の絆 ガラパゴス化が心配だ

April 16, 2014
EDITORIAL: Abe administration's disturbing signs of 'Galapagos' syndrome
(社説)安倍政権の絆 ガラパゴス化が心配だ

In his recent address to newly hired government employees, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe exhorted them to broaden their horizons, saying, “In this age of globalization, Galapagos officials who only know about Japan are worthless.”
 「グローバルな時代にあって、『日本のことしか知らない』ガラパゴス人間では、話になりません」。春4月。安倍首相は新人官僚にこう訓示した。

That’s well said. But coming from the mouth of this leader, the words sound somewhat hollow. A number of irresponsible remarks recently made by some administration officials and close Abe aides have triggered concerns about the government’s field of vision. We cannot help but wonder if the vision is limited to an area far narrower than Japan: to things that are only convenient to the administration.
 けだし名言、ただし説得力を欠く。最近の安倍政権とその周辺では、日本どころか自分に都合のいいことしか見ていないのではないかと驚かされる、無責任な言動が続いているからだ。

For instance, Hakubun Shimomura, the minister of education, culture, sports, science and technology, said in a Diet session on March 26 that the so-called Murayama statement was not officially endorsed by a Cabinet decision. The statement was released in 1995 by Tomiichi Murayama, the prime minister at the time, expressing remorse and apologizing for Japan's wartime actions. Shimomura later corrected his comment, saying he had committed “a mistake of fact.”
 下村文部科学相は、「村山談話は閣議決定されていない」という国会答弁を、「事実誤認だった」と訂正した。

It is startling that the education minister, a man known as a passionate advocate of teaching “correct history,” was so wrong about such a basic fact. The statement was indeed officially approved by a Cabinet decision.
「正しい歴史教育」に熱心な文科相が、これほど基本的な事実を誤認していたことにただ、驚く。

When he was asked about the government’s definition of the right to collective self-defense during a Diet session on March 20, Ichiro Komatsu, director-general of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau, adamantly refused to respond, saying he didn’t want to give a wrong answer. “It would be very bad if I answer the question carelessly and am then criticized for correcting my statement later,” he said.
 内閣法制局長官は、国会で集団的自衛権の定義について質問され、「うかつに答弁し、『後で訂正するのはけしからん』となるのは非常に良くない」と、頑として答弁を拒んだ。

Seiichi Eto, a special adviser to Abe, indignantly reacted to a U.S. statement expressing disappointment at Abe’s visit to Yasukuni Shrine last December with a post on a video-sharing site in which he said, “We are disappointed at the United States for saying it was disappointed.”
 首相の靖国神社参拝に対し「米国が『失望』と言ったことに我々の方が失望だ」とした首相補佐官。

Yoshitaka Sakurada, a senior vice minister at the education ministry, attended a rally where people were calling for a revision of the 1993 statement issued by then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono apologizing to the women who were forced to provide sex to wartime Japanese troops. At the meeting, Sakurada supported the call for revising the statement, saying: “I am a person who abhors the fabrication of facts. My feelings and thoughts are the same as yours.”
「河野官房長官談話の見直しを求める国民大集会」に出席し「私は事実を捏造(ねつぞう)することが大嫌いな人間だ。皆さんと心は同じ、考え方も同じ」と賛意を示した文科副大臣。

Similar remarks were also made by a top executive of Japan Broadcasting Corp. (NHK).
 似た趣旨の発言は、NHK首脳からも漏れこぼれている。

Abe and Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga have downplayed the implications of the various utterances by saying they were only “personal opinions.” But that doesn’t dilute the fallout from these controversial remarks.
 首相や菅官房長官はしばしば「個人的見解」などと片づけているが、当然、それで済むはずがない。

The various comments by people close to Abe have alarmed the international community and fueled suspicions that these “personal opinions” actually reflect the prime minister’s true views and feelings. The situation is clearly damaging Japan’s national interests, the importance of which Abe likes to stress.
「個人的見解」の方がむしろ首相の本音ではないかという疑念や警戒感が世界に広まり、首相が大事にしている「国益」が確実に損なわれている。

Abe himself is responsible for the situation since his visit to war-related Yasukuni Shrine triggered the controversial comments expressing “personal opinions.” Abe went “in a private capacity,” even though many people around him urged him not to go.
 そもそも「個人的見解」がだだ漏れるようになったきっかけは昨年12月、首相が周囲の反対を押し切り、それこそ「私人の立場」で靖国神社を参拝したことだ。

Abe’s renewed passion for pursuing a political agenda for the nation’s “departure from the postwar regime” has inspired his aides to join his crusade. As a result, it seems that they have lost their ability to make sensible judgments, causing the entire administration to lose its balance.
再び火が付いた「戦後レジームからの脱却」への首相の情熱に周囲が引き込まれ、責任感や判断力が低下し、政権全体のバランスが崩れ始めているのではないだろうか。

What is especially disturbing is that the individuals who have made these questionable remarks don’t seem to have an inkling of what made their remarks so controversial.
 深刻なのは、当人たちが、発言の何が問題視されているのかを根本的に理解していないことだ。

This is clear from a comment written by a secretary to Eto, a special adviser to Abe, in Eto’s blog. “Although Eto made the statement with pride for himself and his country, he has retracted it to avoid causing trouble to the Abe administration, which is pursuing such important causes as making an amendment to the Constitution.”
「自身と自国のプライドを持って発言したことだが、これから憲法改正等大義を目指す安倍政権のご迷惑になってはならぬと撤回した」。補佐官のブログに秘書が書いている。

These officials have not offered any explanation about why and how their remarks were problematic. Nor have they taken responsibility for the controversies they provoked. Nor has the administration tried to hold them responsible for their questionable comments. This indulgent atmosphere appears to be breeding self-righteousness among administration officials and enhancing purely collusive relations among people around Abe.
 何がどう問題だったのか。説明せず。責任を取らず。取らせず。そのような生ぬるい空気の中で「自分は悪くない」がすくすくと育ちゆき、首相を取り巻く面々の絆だけがいびつな形で強まっているのではないか。

We are deeply concerned about growing signs of the Galapagos syndrome coming from the Abe administration.
 安倍政権のガラパゴス化。
 心配だ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 10

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2014年4月16日 (水)

竹富町の教科書 法改正の趣旨踏まえた対応に

The Yomiuri Shimbun 8:47 pm, April 15, 2014
Local boards of education must act in conformity with revision of law
竹富町の教科書 法改正の趣旨踏まえた対応に

The town board of education in Taketomi, Okinawa Prefecture, which has deviated from rules regarding the selection of textbooks for use in public schools and continues to use a textbook of its own choice, recently announced that it will not comply with a demand for corrective action from the education ministry.
 ルールを逸脱し、独自採択した教科書を使用し続けている沖縄県の竹富町教育委員会が、文部科学省の是正要求に応じない方針を表明した。

The law on the free provision of school textbooks stipulates that a joint textbook adoption district—comprising more than one municipality—must adopt the same textbook throughout.
 教科書無償措置法は、複数の自治体で構成する共同採択地区では、同一の教科書を採択するよう定めている。

The Taketomi Board of Education’s adoption of a textbook of its own choice clearly violates the law. It was only to be expected that the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology ministry would issue a demand for corrective action, based on the Local Government Law.
 竹富町教委だけが独自に異なる教科書を採択したのは、明らかに違法行為である。文科省が地方自治法に基づき、是正要求を発動したのは当然のことだった。

The town board of education’s refusal to obey the corrective order shows a lack of willingness to comply with the law that is notable for an institution responsible for the administration of education. Such a position can hardly be tolerated.
 是正要求に従おうとしない竹富町教委の姿勢は、教育行政を担う機関として、順法精神に欠け、許されるものではない。

If a board of education has a problem with a demand from the ministry for corrective action, it can file a formal objection and seek a review by a committee dedicated to settling national-local disputes, a third-party organization affiliated with the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry. It is hard to understand why the Taketomi board has not sought recourse via this process.
 是正要求に不服がある場合、第三者機関である国地方係争処理委員会に審査を申し立てることができる。竹富町教委がこの手続きをとらないことも理解に苦しむ。

In 2011, the textbook selection council of the Yaeyama district, comprising the city of Ishigaki and the towns of Taketomi and Yonaguni, selected a civic studies textbook published by Ikuhosha Publishing Inc. for use in middle schools. The problem started when the Taketomi Board of Education decided alone to adopt a textbook published by Tokyo Shoseki Co.
 石垣市、竹富町、与那国町による八重山地区の採択地区協議会は2011年、中学校の公民教科書に育鵬社の教科書を選んだ。これに対し、竹富町教委が東京書籍版を採択したのが問題の発端だ。

Little coverage of territories

The textbook published by Ikuhosha contains a full description of territorial issues, including the government’s perspective on Takeshima island and the Senkaku Islands.
 育鵬社版は、竹島や尖閣諸島についての政府見解を書き込むなど、領土に関する説明が充実している。

The text published by Tokyo Shoseki, on the other hand, contains little description regarding territorial issues, while covering issues concerning U.S. military bases in Okinawa Prefecture in detail.
東京書籍版は、領土の記述が少ない一方で、沖縄の在日米軍基地問題に詳しく触れている。

Objections within the prefecture to the Ikuhosha textbook, the authors of which include former members of the Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform, may also have influenced the Taketomi Board of Education’s textbook choice.
 「新しい歴史教科書をつくる会」の元メンバーらが執筆する育鵬社版に対し、沖縄県内で反発があることも、竹富町教委の独自採択に影響しているのだろう。

The board is seeking independence from Yaeyama district’s textbook selection council, and is working toward securing autonomy to select textbooks for use in the town from the next fiscal year onward. This course of action is also questionable.
 竹富町教委は八重山地区の協議会からの離脱を要望し、来年度から使う教科書の単独採択を目指すという。これも疑問である。

A revised law on the free provision of school textbooks was enacted on April 9. The wording of the revised law to describe administrative units of joint textbook adoption districts was changed from “cities and counties” to “cities, towns and villages.” Based on this change, the Taketomi Board of Education asserts that it is now possible for it to adopt a textbook of its own choice.
 今月9日に改正教科書無償措置法が成立し、採択地区の設定単位が「市郡」から「市町村」に改められた。それを根拠に、竹富町教委は単独採択が可能になったと主張している。

Yet the purpose of the revision is to allow textbooks to be selected by educational districts that combine towns and villages more flexibly, rather than being bound to county divisions that no longer correspond to the distribution of local communities and their livelihoods due to merger of cities, town and villages in recent years.
 だが、改正の目的は、市町村合併で郡が実際の生活圏と重ならなくなったため、郡にとらわれず、町村の柔軟な組み合わせを可能にする点にある。
 
The joint textbook selection system is absolutely intended to remain in place, and the legal revision is by no means intended to fragment educational districts.
あくまで共同採択制度は維持しており、採択地区の細分化を図ったわけではない。

It is inevitable that the Taketomi Board of Education’s policy of breaking away from the educational district will be criticized as an attempt at distorting the legal revision to its own advantage.
竹富町教委の離脱方針は、法改正を逆手にとったものと批判されても仕方あるまい。

The joint textbook selection system has merits, such as the ability for smaller municipalities to cooperate with one another in the careful adoption of textbooks.
 共同採択制度には、小規模自治体が協力し合うことで、丁寧に教科書を選べる利点がある。

It is the Okinawa Prefectural Board of Education that will decide how municipalities will combine to form textbook selection districts. We hope the prefectural board will make its decision according to the spirit in which the legal revision was intended.
 採択地区の構成を決めるのは沖縄県教委だ。法改正の趣旨をしっかり踏まえ、適切な判断をしてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 15, 2014)

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核軍縮広島宣言 中国含む多国間交渉が必要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 8:48 pm, April 15, 2014
Multinational talks on N-disarmament needed with China’s participation
核軍縮広島宣言 中国含む多国間交渉が必要だ

China’s nuclear arms buildup could pose a threat to world security. Working toward the realization of multinational negotiations on nuclear weapons reduction could serve as a check on China.
 中国の核軍拡は、世界の安全保障にとって脅威になりかねない。核軍縮の多国間交渉の実現を目指すことが、中国への牽けん制せいとなろう。

The Nonproliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI) meeting was held recently in Hiroshima at the initiative of Japan—the world’s only victim of atomic bombing—with foreign ministers from Germany, Australia and 10 other nonnuclear states in attendance. It is significant that the Hiroshima Declaration was adopted to call for promoting nuclear disarmament.
 ドイツ、豪州など非核保有国12か国による「軍縮・不拡散イニシアチブ(NPDI)外相会合」が、唯一の被爆国・日本の主導によって、広島で開かれた。核軍縮推進を訴える「広島宣言」を採択したのは意義深い。

Prior to the meeting, the participating ministers heard testimony from atomic bomb survivors (hibakusha) and offered flowers at the memorial cenotaph for atomic bomb victims. The ministers probably recognized anew the importance for nuclear arms reduction after witnessing the effects of nuclear terror.
 出席した外相らは会合に先立ち被爆者の体験を聴いたり、慰霊碑に献花したりした。核の恐怖を肌で感じ、核廃絶の重要性を再認識したのではないか。

It is commendable that the declaration called on the world’s political leaders to visit Hiroshima and Nagasaki “to also witness the catastrophic humanitarian consequences” of atomic bombings “with their own eyes.”
 宣言が、原爆の「非人道的な結末を自身の目で確かめる」ため、世界各国の指導者に広島と長崎を訪問するよう呼びかけたのも評価できよう。

The crucial point of the declaration is that it calls for the establishment of a framework for multinational talks to achieve nuclear abolition, urging all states not yet committed to global nuclear disarmament efforts to reduce their nuclear weapons stockpiles. The declaration apparently made this statement with China in mind, although it avoided naming that country.
 宣言で特に重要なのは、核廃絶に向けた「多国間交渉」の創設を提起するとともに、「核軍縮努力にいまだ関与していない国」の核兵器削減も求めたことだ。名指しは避けたものの、中国を念頭に置いているのは明らかだろう。

China is reportedly the only country to have increased its nuclear arsenal among the five nations that are permitted to possess nuclear weapons under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty—the United States, Russia, Britain, France and China. The NPDI members should join hands in working on the nuclear powers to realize nuclear arms reduction talks, and these talks should include China.
 中国は、核拡散防止条約(NPT)が核保有を認める米英中仏露のうち、唯一核兵器の保有量を増やしているとされる。NPDI各国は団結して、中国を含む核軍縮交渉の実現を目指し、保有国に働きかけていくべきだ。

U.S., Russia must lead way

Needless to say, the declaration also calls for the United States and Russia to continue their nuclear disarmament efforts by promoting such bilateral negotiations as the new Strategic Arms Reduction Talks. It is natural for the two nuclear superpowers, which together have a vast majority of the world’s nuclear weapons, to go ahead with nuclear arms cuts.
 無論、宣言は米国とロシアに対し、新戦略兵器削減条約(新START)などのような核軍縮努力の継続も求めている。米露両国は世界の核兵器の大半を保有しており削減に取り組むのは当然だ。

The declaration expresses grave concern about the tense situation in Ukraine, along with nuclear issues involving North Korea and Iran.
 宣言は、北朝鮮やイランの核問題と並んで、緊迫するウクライナ情勢を取り上げて、「深刻な懸念」を表明した。

In the 1994 Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances that was exchanged by Russia, the United States and Britain, with Ukraine after the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, Russia guaranteed Ukraine’s territorial integrity in return for Ukraine’s abolition of former Soviet-made nuclear weapons.
 ロシアはソ連解体後、米英と共にウクライナとの間で交わした覚書で、ウクライナが旧ソ連製核兵器を廃棄する見返りに、その領土保全を約束している。

Russia’s intervention in Ukraine this time can apparently be taken to mean that the nuclear nation has reneged the memorandum. This could lead to a global loss in trust of the nuclear abolition agreement, thereby reversing the tide of nuclear disarmament. It was therefore natural for the declaration to call for observing the memorandum.
 ロシアのウクライナへの介入は、保有国の側が覚書に背いたといえる。核廃棄合意への信頼を失わせ、核軍縮の流れを逆行させかねない。宣言が、覚書の順守を改めて求めたのは、もっともだ。

By hosting the Hiroshima meeting, Japan’s position in favor of nuclear abolition could be engraved strongly onto the international community.
 広島会合の開催により、核廃絶を求める日本の立場は、国際社会に強く印象づけられただろう。

Japan, which has no nuclear weaponry, still needs the nuclear umbrella offered by the United States. China has been expanding its nuclear capabilities while North Korea has not halted its nuclear development programs, thereby posing serious nuclear threats to Japan.
 ただ、核を持たない日本は依然、米国の「核の傘」を必要としている。核軍拡を続ける中国や、核開発をやめない北朝鮮に囲まれており、日本への核の脅威は深刻だ。

With this in mind, it is necessary to take a practical approach toward nuclear arms reduction.
それを踏まえ、核を減らしていく現実的なアプローチが必要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 15, 2014)

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地球温暖化―対策は待ったなしだ

April 15, 2014
EDITORIAL: Measures to prevent climate catastrophe must be taken now
地球温暖化―対策は待ったなしだ

Many experts from around the world posed this bottom-line question about the challenge of global warming: Are we

going to continue marching toward a global environmental catastrophe?
 私たちはこのまま破局への道を歩み続けるのか。
 煎じつめれば、それが地球温暖化をめぐる世界の多くの専門家からの問いかけである。

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the United Nations panel on the global warming issue, has

decided on the outlines of its new report.
 国連の気候変動に関する政府間パネル(IPCC)がまとめる報告書の概要が固まった。

The content is not much different from the previous report, released in 2007. But a huge body of studies carried out

in many countries over the past seven years has made global warming and its effects more clearly visible.
 07年の前回から中身はそう変わらないが、この7年間に各国で重ねられた研究により、温暖化とその甚大な影響がより確実に見えて

きた。

It can now be safely said that doubts about the existence and cause of harmful climate change have mostly been

removed.
「懐疑論」はほぼ否定されたといってよい。

If the current situation continues, the average global surface temperature at the end of this century will be 3.7-4.8

degrees higher than levels before the Industrial Revolution, according to the report. That would be a much greater

temperature increase than the international target of less than 2 degrees.
 報告書によると、このままでは今世紀末に世界の平均気温は産業革命前より3・7~4・8度上昇する。国際目標の2度未満を大き

く上回る。

The harmful effects of rising temperatures on water resources and agricultural products are already being seen.

Concerns are growing over extreme weather conditions, such as heat waves, floods and typhoons, as well as rising

sea levels. These effects could cause the extinction of a wide range of species. Serious shortages of water and food

could spark wars.
 水資源や農作物などへの悪影響はすでに表れている。熱波や洪水、台風など極端な気象現象や海面上昇の恐れが高まり、生き

物の大絶滅が起きかねない。水や食料の欠乏は、人間を戦争に駆り立てる要因にもなる。

Clearly, the world is running out of time. We need to take measures to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other

greenhouse gases to curb temperature rises. We also need to prepare for the consequences of rising temperatures,

like natural disasters and crop failures.
 対策は待ったなしだ。二酸化炭素など温室効果ガスの排出を減らして気温上昇を抑える「緩和策」と、温暖化に伴う災害や凶作な

どに備える「適応策」の両輪を回すべきときだ。

What must be done to limit temperature rises to below 2 degrees at the end of this century? Global emissions of

greenhouse gasses need to be reduced by between 40 percent and 70 percent from 2010 levels by the middle of this

century, and then brought down to zero by the end of the century. The target can likely be achieved only through

such dramatic emissions cuts, according to the report.
 今世紀末の気温上昇を2度未満に抑えるにはどうしたらよいのか。世紀半ばのガス排出量を10年比で4割から7割減らし、そして世

紀末にはゼロにする。それでやっと目標達成の可能性が高まるという。

To overcome the tough challenge, it is important to step up efforts for energy conservation and the wider use of

renewable energy sources while promoting clean energy technologies, such as new thermal power generation

systems that do not spew greenhouse gases into the air.
 そのためには、もっと省エネと再生可能エネルギーの利用を進めるとともに、ガスを空中に出さない新火力発電などを普及させることが

重要だ。

Expanding nuclear power generation would increase other risks, such as nuclear proliferation and growing amounts

of radioactive waste. This is not an option that Japan should take when it is still struggling to deal with the

consequences of the Fukushima nuclear disaster and come to terms with the lessons the accident has offered.
 原子力の拡大は、核の拡散や廃棄物処理など別のリスクの深化が避けられない。原発事故の処理も総括もできていない日本のとる

べき選択肢ではない。

The U.N. Climate Summit 2014 in September will be a starting point for a year of accelerated efforts to conclude by

the end of 2015 a new international framework for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in and after 2020.
 ことし9月の国連気候変動サミットを起点に、来年末には20年以降のガス排出削減に向けた新しい枠組みがつくられる。

Independent efforts by individual countries would not do much to help improve the situation unless they are

coordinated and integrated into a global campaign. Concerted actions by the international community are crucial,

such as providing environmental technologies to developing countries and introducing unified carbon pricing for

slashing greenhouse gas emissions.
 各国がバラバラに動いても状況は改善しない。環境技術を途上国に広め、統一的な炭素価格の導入でガス排出を減らすなど世界

の協調行動が必要だ。

Countries like Britain, the United States, Germany, China and South Korea make regular investigations to identify and

assess problems caused by global warming and develop plans to respond to the problems under the leadership of the

central and local governments. The Japanese government is lagging behind this international trend.
 英米独や中韓では、温暖化で起きる問題を定期的に調べ、国や自治体レベルの適応計画づくりも進めている。そうした流れに日本

政府は遅れている。

Japan’s own targets for cutting its emissions, unveiled last year, have been internationally criticized as insufficient.

The Japanese government is still working on a response plan expected to be announced next year.
 日本が昨年示したガス排出削減の目標は、努力不足として国際的に批判された。国の適応計画づくりも来年の予定だ。

The government should act swiftly to set new emissions reduction targets that can win international support. It should

also establish a powerful system to work out effective policy responses to global warming, such as new programs to

mitigate damage from natural disasters and plans for energy-efficient urban development.
 世界に通じる削減目標を早急に詰めるとともに、温暖化に備えた防災構想や省エネ型の都市づくりなどを強力に進める態勢を整える

べきだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 15

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Letter from Amnesty International USA

エジプトで大変なことになっています。
裁判で十分な審議をすることなしにただ一度の裁判で死刑が500人以上。
見過ごすわけにはいけません。

recieved on April 16, 2014

Dear kiyoshi,

An Egyptian court has shocked the world by issuing a mass death sentence to 528 supporters of ousted President Mohamed Morsi for their alleged role in a riot last July that turned violent.

This is the largest number of death sentences handed down in one case Amnesty International has seen in recent years.

This is not justice. It's the ultimate cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment, and it could be an attempt to wipe out political opposition.

Raise your voice to help Amnesty stop this gross violation of human rights! Urge Egyptian authorities to overturn the mass sentence and order fair retrials.

In a trial that "defied plausibility," 528 men were convicted in just two sessions.

More than 400 of those convicted were tried in absentia. No witnesses. No review of evidence. No time for the defense to read 3,000 pages of case documents. On the second day of trial, defense lawyers were blocked from the court!

Does this sound like a fair trial to you?

Ratchet up the pressure on Egyptian authorities before it's too late.

Egypt's authorities are quick to punish Morsi supporters, but have ignored gross human rights violations by the security forces.

If this astounding sentence is carried out, there will be serious concerns about whether Egypt's criminal justice system has anything to do with justice.

The cases have been referred to Egypt's highest religious figure, the Grand Mufti, for his advisory opinion. The last resort for averting this human rights catastrophe is to take this to Egypt's supreme court.

You can help stop this mass, grotesque violation of human rights: sign Amnesty's petition calling on Egyptian authorities to overturn the 528 death sentences.

Thanks for all you do to defend human rights for all.

In solidarity,

Sunjeev Bery
Director, Middle East and North Africa
Amnesty International USA

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2014年4月15日 (火)

4月26日はよい風呂の日なんですがテルマエ・ロマエの劇場版が封切り公開されます

世界の映画史上でもびっくり仰天の予想外爆発ヒットといえばあのテルマエ・ロマエで決まりなんです。
ローマ時代に皇帝から奇想天外なる大浴場の建設を命令された兵士が、タイムスリップして現代の角界の大浴場に出現するという奇想天外なる発想なんですが、誰があれほどのヒット商品となると予想できたでしょうか。
ユーチューブでその映画の抜粋をみましたが、これはもう、あきれた面白さなんです。
混浴のシーンでは思わず目を伏せてしまいましたが。

さて、ここで「4月26日(土)<よい風呂の日>全国ロードショー!!」のご紹介です。
この4月26日は「よい風呂の日」なんですが、この日にちなんでテルマエ・ロマエの劇場版が封切り公開されます。
封切り公開初日には主演者から舞台挨拶もあるので大いに楽しみなんです。
あの松島トモ子さんや白木実さんも出演者となっているのでわれわれ老人世代も見逃せません。

もうひとつ見逃せないキャンペーンがありますので、それもご紹介いたします。
テルマエ・ロマエⅡ × 加賀ハイテック TAXANキャンペーン」なんです。
お風呂場でも気にせずに使用できる防水型のスピーカーなんですが、ミーオサウンドシャワーといいます。
今購入すると豪華温泉旅行が当たるチャンスがあります。
箱根の温泉でゆったりと湯船につかってみたいものですね。
二等賞であるB賞の商品も素敵なんです。
wi-fiメディアリーダーやワンセグチューナーがもらえるかも知れないのです。
これは見逃せませんね。

あなたのお風呂ライフ、ミーオサウンドシャワーで豊かにしてみませんか?
おすすめです。







ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ  レビューブログからの情報です

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公務員改革法 官邸主導の人事が試される

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:17 pm, April 14, 2014
Prime Minister’s Office to be tested in carrying out civil service reform
公務員改革法 官邸主導の人事が試される

The Prime Minister’s Office will take the lead in making strategic personnel appointments of bureaucrats. We hope a recent law revision can achieve the results it was designed for.
 首相官邸が主導し、戦略的な官僚人事を行う。その狙い通りに成果を上げてもらいたい。

The House of Councillors has passed a bill into law to reform the national civil servant system. The centerpiece of this law is the establishment of a cabinet personnel affairs bureau that would oversee the appointment of senior government officials in a unified manner. The bill was approved at an upper house plenary session by a majority vote with support from the Liberal Democratic Party, its ruling coalition partner New Komeito, the Democratic Party of Japan and other parties.
 中央省庁の幹部人事を一元的に管理する内閣人事局の創設を柱とした国家公務員制度改革関連法が、参院本会議で自民、公明、民主3党などの賛成多数により可決、成立した。

A basic law that indicated the fundamental principles and direction of civil service reform was enacted in 2008. Since then, related bills have been submitted to the Diet once by the LDP-Komeito administration and twice by the DPJ-led administration, but all were scrapped. Last week’s passage of the latest bill should finally bring an end to some of the arguments over civil service reform.
 改革の理念や方針を示した国家公務員制度改革基本法が2008年に成立して以来、自公政権で1回、民主党政権で2回、関連法案が提出されたが、いずれも廃案になった。公務員制度の議論は、これでようやく一段落しよう。

The new bureau likely will be launched at the end of May and oversee the appointment of about 600 senior government officials at ministries and agencies, including administrative vice ministers, bureau director generals and deputy ministers. The bureau will examine the suitability of candidates for these positions based on a performance assessment compiled by each ministry, before the prime minister and chief cabinet secretary and cabinet ministers ultimately discuss whether to appoint or dismiss them.
 内閣人事局は、5月末に発足し、各府省の次官、局長、審議官など幹部職員計約600人もの人事を管理する。各府省の人事評価を踏まえて適格性を審査し、最終的には首相、官房長官が各閣僚とともに任免を協議する仕組みだ。

Japan needs bureaucrats qualified to respond to the needs of the times and committed to working for the benefit of the nation, rather than the benefit of certain ministries. The administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has made promoting his Abenomics economic policies and elevating the role of women in society front and center in its approach to boosting the economy. Who will be placed in key posts in the government? Senior personnel changes planned for this summer will be a litmus test in this regard.
 省益よりも国益を優先し、時代の要請に応える資質を持つ官僚が求められている。経済政策「アベノミクス」の推進や女性活用などを前面に掲げる安倍内閣が、どんな人材を配置するか。今夏の幹部人事は最初の試金石となる。

To ensure that favoritism is set aside and the right person gets the right job through a fair appointment process, evaluation criteria will need to be explicitly spelled out.
The cabinet personnel affairs bureau must stand firm in making appointments based on merit and performance.
 情実を排して公正かつ適材適所の人事を実現するには、評価の基準を明確にし、能力・実績主義を貫かねばならない。

Eliminate overlap with NPA

The bureau will also take over some of the functions of the National Personnel Authority, such as determining which personnel are placed in each salary rank.
 内閣人事局は給与ランク別に定員を定める「級別定数」策定といった人事院の一部機能も担う。

In these instances, this will be conditional on the bureau “giving sufficient consideration” to the views of the NPA and other factors.
その際、人事院の意見を「十分尊重する」ことなどを条件とした。

Having the duties of the new bureau and the NPA overlap would result in higher administration costs, which would defeat the purpose of the reform. We urge all parties involved to dedicate themselves to streamlining their operations.
 内閣人事局と人事院の事務が重複し、結果的に行政コストを増大させては本末転倒だ。効率的な運用を心掛けるべきである。

The new law will make it possible for every ministry to have “aides or advisers to the minister.” These will apparently be members of staff who work behind the scenes like a stagehand to complete “special assignments” from the minister. If talented staff can be involved in these projects, it could strengthen the nation’s political leadership.
 各府省は、「大臣補佐官」を置くことも可能になった。閣僚の特命を受けて動く「黒子的な存在」とするという。有能なスタッフを課題に即して起用できれば、政治主導の強化につながろう。

The new law did not incorporate giving civil servants the right to conclude a collective agreement, a basic labor right. This omission was justified on the grounds that the government “is unable to get public support for such a move at this stage.”
 今回の関連法は、労働基本権の一部である協約締結権の付与を「国民の理解を得られる段階にない」として盛り込まなかった。

The DPJ strongly called for giving general civil servants the right to reach collective agreements, and having their salaries and other working conditions decided through labor-management negotiations, just as is done in the private sector. In an additional resolution accompanying the vote on the bill, the government stipulated that, in line with the DPJ’s proposal, it would continue to “work to reach a consensus” on this issue.
 民主党は、協約締結権を一般の国家公務員に与え、民間と同様に労使交渉で給与などを決定することを強く主張した。採決時の付帯決議には、民主党の意向で、政府がこの問題で引き続き「合意形成に努める」よう明記された。

However, we are concerned that providing the right to form collective agreements could change the civil servant system for the worse. Labor unions in the private sector resist making outrageous demands in negotiations because if a company collapses, they will lose everything. But there are fears that it could be impossible to rein in civil servants if they were involved in such negotiations. Expanding the basic labor rights of our state workers should not be done lightly.
 だが、協約締結権付与は、制度改悪にならないか。民間の労組は会社が倒産しては元も子もないから無理な要求は控えるが、公務員の場合、歯止めがきかない恐れがある。公務員の労働基本権拡大に安易に道を開いてはなるまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 13, 2014)

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G20共同声明 ウクライナ支援で協調したが

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:15 pm, April 14, 2014
World must stay vigilant against fallout over turmoil in Ukraine
G20共同声明 ウクライナ支援で協調したが

The world’s major economies have managed to take concerted steps in beefing up support to Ukraine, which is on the verge of a financial crisis—at least for the time being.
 財政危機に瀕ひんしたウクライナの支援強化へ、ひとまず足並みをそろえたと言えよう。

But tensions over the situation in Ukraine have increased with no clear path in sight for resolving confrontations between Russia and the United States and European nations. The world must stay vigilant against any fallout on the world economy that the turmoil in Ukraine could incite.
 だが、ウクライナ情勢は一段と緊迫化し、米欧とロシアの対立が解消する道筋は不透明である。ウクライナの混乱が世界経済に及ぼす悪影響を警戒しなければならない。

The meeting in Washington of finance ministers and central bank governors of the Group of 20 advanced nations and emerging economies closed on Saturday after issuing a joint statement.
 先進国と新興国が参加し、ワシントンで開かれた主要20か国・地域(G20)財務相・中央銀行総裁会議は共同声明を採択した。

It was the first international conference that Japan, the United States and European nations officially participated in together with Russia since Western nations strengthened sanctions against Moscow in an angry response to its annexation of the southern Ukrainian peninsula of Crimea.
 ロシアによるウクライナ南部クリミア編入に反発する米欧は、制裁を強化した。その後、日米欧とロシアなどがそろって公式に国際会議に臨んだのは初めてだ。

In a sign of continued tension, U.S. Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew warned of additional U.S. sanctions against Russia, which was repudiated by Russian Finance Minister Anton Siluanov, during their bilateral meeting held on the sidelines of the G-20 meeting.
 G20に合わせた2国間会談で、追加制裁を警告したルー米財務長官に、シルアノフ露財務相が反論するなど緊張が続いている。

Despite the rift, the joint statement stated, “We are monitoring the economic situation in Ukraine, mindful of any risks to economic and financial stability.”
 それでも共同声明は「ウクライナ経済や金融安定へのいかなるリスクにも留意する」と記した。

With financial support from Russia frozen, Ukraine is weighed down by a huge sovereign debt and teeters on the verge of default.
 ロシアからの金融支援が凍結されたウクライナは巨額の政府債務を抱え、債務不履行(デフォルト)の瀬戸際にある。

If Ukraine’s bankruptcy becomes a reality, financial markets around the world will suffer a serious blow, possibly adversely affecting the global economy. Apparently, this alarm loudly resonated among all G-20 members.
 財政破綻が現実になれば、世界の金融市場が動揺し、世界経済に打撃を与えかねない。G20は強い危機感を共有したのだろう。

IMF response

The International Monetary Fund, Japan, the United States and European nations have announced financial support totaling $27 billion (¥2.7 trillion) over the next two years, which naturally prompted the G-20 to hail the IMF’s response in its joint statement. It is necessary for the IMF to provide loans as soon as possible.
 国際通貨基金(IMF)と日米欧などが2年間で270億ドル(約2・7兆円)の支援を打ち出している。共同声明がIMFの対応を歓迎したのはもっともだ。早期の融資実現を目指す必要がある。

Indications were that Russia’s predicament was behind the G-20 members taking joint steps in providing support to Ukraine. Russia would incur a massive loss should credit it provided to Ukraine become unrecoverable.
 今回、ウクライナ支援で連携が成立した背景には、ロシアの苦境がうかがえる。保有するウクライナ向け債権が焦げ付くと、ロシアは巨額の損失を被るからだ。

With its economy continuing to slow down, Russia apparently had no choice but to cooperate with the support program led by the United States and European nations if it wants to put priority on ensuring its economic stability. Russia should take its responsibility for causing the turmoil to heart.
 ロシアの景気減速も続く中で、経済安定を優先し、米欧主導の支援策に協調せざるを得なかったようだ。ロシアは混乱を招いた責任を痛感すべきだろう。

Meanwhile, the joint statement said, “We welcome the prospects for global economic growth to strengthen in 2014 but remain vigilant in the face of important global risks and vulnerabilities.”
 一方、世界経済に関して、共同声明は、「今年の成長は強まる見通しだが、リスクや脆弱ぜいじゃく性がある」と言及した。

In their last meeting in February, the G-20 meeting of finance ministers and central bank governors agreed on a numerical target of lifting “our collective GDP [gross domestic product] by more than 2 percent above the trajectory implied by current policies over the coming five years.” At stake however is how they can meet the target. The joint statement appropriately stated the G-20 members will review their growth strategies by September.
 前回2月のG20は、「世界成長率を5年間で2%以上の底上げ」という数値目標で合意したが、課題はどう実現するかである。共同声明が9月までに成長戦略を点検する方針を示したのは妥当だ。

In contrast to the U.S. economy, which is chugging along, Europe faces the rising threat of deflation. The Chinese economy is not free from worries, either.
 景気回復が続く米国経済と対照的に、欧州ではデフレ懸念が台頭し、中国経済も不安を抱える。

The Japanese economy, meanwhile, has an uncertain path ahead now that the consumption tax rate was raised this month. The nation should incorporate regulatory reforms and corporate tax reduction in a new growth strategy to contribute to the growth of the global economy.
 消費増税後の日本経済の先行きに不透明感がある。日本は新たな成長戦略に規制改革や法人税減税などを盛り込み、世界の成長に貢献することが求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 13, 2014)

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広島非核会合―これで廃絶近づくか

April 14, 2014
EDITORIAL: NPDI's declaration disappoints A-bomb survivors, anti-nuclear groups
広島非核会合―これで廃絶近づくか

This falls short of what we would expect in a message meant for the world that was issued from Hiroshima, a city that has suffered the ravages of an atomic bomb.
 被爆地から世界に発するメッセージとしては物足りない。

The Nonproliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI), consisting of 12 countries, held its ministerial meeting in Hiroshima. The two-day conference closed with a joint declaration on April 12.
 12カ国でつくる核軍縮・不拡散イニシアチブ(NPDI)が広島で開いた外相会合は、共同宣言を出して閉幕した。

Building upon their meetings and conversations with atomic bomb survivors, the representatives made an appeal calling on the international community to come together, citing the inhumanity of nuclear weapons as the catalyst. They also urged leaders from each country to visit the only two cities to ever suffer attacks using atomic bombs: Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
 被爆者らとの対話を踏まえ、「核の非人道性を国際社会結束の触媒に」と訴え、各国首脳に被爆地訪問を呼びかけた。

That was commendable, but the declaration failed to make any reference to the need of an international treaty that bans the very same nuclear weapons they contend are inhumane. There was widespread disappointment among the survivors and nongovernmental organizations after the joint declaration.
そこは評価するが、非人道的な核兵器を禁じる国際条約の必要性には言及しなかった。被爆者やNGOには失望感が広がった。

The NPDI has been led by Japan and Australia, both of whom rely upon the U.S. “nuclear umbrella” for protection. The same also goes for the five NPDI members who are also members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, including Germany and Canada. This makes it difficult for those countries to support such a treaty banning nuclear arms straight away.
 NPDIを主導してきた日豪のほか、ドイツやカナダなど北大西洋条約機構(NATO)加盟の5カ国は米国の「核の傘」の下にあり、にわかに禁止条約に賛成できない事情がある。

Meanwhile, within the international community, there is a group of countries who are gaining momentum in their push for the treaty, which they see as the path that will lead to the eventual elimination of nuclear weapons. At next year’s Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty review conference, the proposed treaty most likely will become a central issue.
 一方、国際社会では「条約こそ核廃絶への近道」と主張する急進派諸国が勢いを増している。来年の核不拡散条約(NPT)再検討会議でも、国際条約の扱いが焦点となりそうだ。

To see any progress toward making this treaty a reality, it is necessary to persuade the nuclear powers that be. To this end, unity among the non-nuclear countries is essential. The NPDI needs to fine-tune its negotiating strategy and execute it so that it can better work together with the group of countries who are calling for the more aggressive approach.
 条約づくりへ少しでも前進するには核保有国を動かす必要があり、そのためにはまず、非核国側の団結が欠かせない。NPDIはどうすれば急進派との協調を強めていけるのか。外交戦略を練り、行動に移すべきだ。

The NPDI joint declaration also demanded that the nuclear powers need to reduce the importance of nuclear weaponry in formulating their national security strategies. This is a central point that should be pushed further.
 共同宣言は、核保有国が安全保障戦略において、核の役割を低める必要性も訴えた。重要なポイントだが、もっと踏み込めないものか。

Prior to the creation of the NPDI, both Japan and Australia led an international commission that proposed in 2009 steps to do away with nuclear weapons. One of the steps called for a no-first-use of nuclear weapons policy by the nuclear powers, and that they should promise to avoid their use as long as they do not come under a nuclear attack.
 NPDI設立に先立ち、09年に核廃絶への提言をまとめた日豪主導の賢人会議は、核保有国に先制不使用宣言を求めていく方向性を盛り込んでいた。核攻撃を受けない限り、核を使わないと約束するものだ。

Mindful of the North Korean threat, the Japanese government is reluctant to agree to the no-first-use principle because it believes that the approach would lessen the deterrence of the nuclear umbrella. However, former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell says conventional weapons alone can provide sufficient deterrence. Perhaps the United States should take the initiative and announce to North Korea that Washington will not be the first to use its nuclear arms in a conflict and urge Pyongyang to join the nuclear abolition talks.
 日本政府は北朝鮮の脅威を念頭に「核の傘の抑止力が損なわれる」と先制不使用に否定的だ。しかし、パウエル元米国務長官は、米国の通常兵器だけで抑止力は十分と語る。米国は、まずは北朝鮮向けに先制不使用を宣言し、非核化への交渉参加を強く促してはどうか。

Nagasaki Mayor Tomihisa Taue, who was invited to the NPDI ministerial meeting, stressed that “even countries dependent on the nuclear umbrella should reduce the importance of nuclear weapons” in their defense strategies. Countries should seriously consider a tangible plan that lays the groundwork for a security environment that enables nuclear powers such as the United States and Russia to move toward a no-first-use policy. The NPDI convened in Hiroshima and reaffirmed the inhumanity of nuclear weapons. We hope they will act on that to change the world.
 外相会合に招かれた田上富久長崎市長は「核の傘に依存する国も、核の役割を下げる努力を」と訴えた。米ロなどが先制不使用に踏み切れる安全保障環境を整える具体案を、もっと真剣に検討すべきだろう。広島で非人道の原点を確かめたNPDIに、世界を変えていく行動を望みたい。

The Abe administration is pushing to lift Japan's self-imposed ban on the right to exercise collective self-defense, a historical turning point in the nation’s defense policy. The move risks further heightening tensions between Japan and China, as well as Japan and North Korea. It could also make Japan more reliant on nuclear arms. That scenario will go against the Obama administration’s policy of seeking to reduce the world’s nuclear arsenals. The Abe administration should examine closely the pros and cons of exercising the right to collective self-defense from a nuclear disarmament standpoint as well.
 集団的自衛権の行使容認を目指す安倍政権の姿勢は、中国や北朝鮮との緊張を高め、核への依存を強めるリスクがある。それでは、役割低下を進めるオバマ政権の方針と逆行しかねない。行使の是非論は、核軍縮という視点からも精査すべきだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 13

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2014年4月14日 (月)

さようならwindows xp

windows 7 に昔のロータス123をインストールしてみました。
ついでにoffice2000(日本語版)もインストールしてその挙動を探りました。

ロータス123は2003年だか、すでに廃業となっていました。
ロータス愛好派はさびしい思いをしているのではないでしょうか。
私もその一人なんです。

長年使い慣れたwindows xpのセキュリティーサービスが停止したので、今回windows 7に乗り換えました。
インストールはインストール屋にまかせず、全部HPの分割フォーマットから自分でやりました。
何度か失敗して、その技術が習得出来たので、今後クラッシュしても問題なく自分で解決出来ます。
日本と違ってプレインストール版はありませんし、ソフトウェアは英語版を使うしかないのです。
案外簡単でした。

ロータス123はwindows 7上で問題なく動作します。
ms-dos時代なんですが、ファイル上にマクロを組み込んでいます。
ctrl+Cでマクロ計算プログラムの起動を設定していたので、windows 7上で干渉(コピー機能)があり大変でしたが、すぐに修正出来ました。
計算プログラムをctrl+Kに変更しただけですが^^。

office2000(日本語版)もほとんど問題なく動作します。
エクセルはまったく問題ありません。
ワードで重大なる欠陥を発見!
タイ語入力時なんですが、タイ母音文字が正しい位置に表示されないのですね。
フォントを取り替えてためしたら、arial unicodeという大きなサイズのフォントでは問題なくタイ語の書き込みだって出来ました(汗)。
office2007ではタイ語も問題なく打ち込むことが出来ます。
office2007は英語版を使っていますが、慣れるまで大変です。(視覚的に^^)
今はエクセルだけ使っていますが、エクセルのマクロ作成はロータスのマクロ作成に比べると、大変難しいです。
それから昨日は関数の勉強をしました。奥が深いですね。

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これからますます期待されるのが臨床検査技師です

一口に臨床検査技師といっても、その検査する範囲は広大なんです。
ここは話しを分かりやすくするために二種類に大別してみましょう。
臨床検査技師は現代の医学会に欠くべからざる要員なのですが、そのお仕事は医療検査が主体なんです。

一番われわれに身近な臨床検査といえば、心電図、脳波測定、それと出産前の超音波検診(エコー)ではないでしょうか。
あっ、それからもうひとつ。
血液検査は、その検査抜きには適切な診断を下せないというほど大切な検査となっています。
大別して二種類というお話しは、血液検査などの化学系の医療検査と、心電図などの医療機器を駆使した医療検査との二種類という意味合いなんです。

いずれにしてもこれからは医療検査の時代です。
臨床検査技師の需要は、これからますます高まるのではないでしょうか。

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:人生のサイズダウン /東京

スローライフの思想に相通じる良い論説ですね。
女性でもより大きな家、より高い収入思考の人たちは意外に多いと思いますが^^。
(スラチャイ)

April 13, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Downsizing one's life
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:人生のサイズダウン /東京

A number female friends around my age moved house this spring. In each case, they moved to either a smaller home or a smaller workplace.
 同世代の女性の友人の中で、この春、引っ越しをした人が何人かいる。それが全員、それまでより小さな部屋や仕事場に移ったのだ。

Common opinion is that selling a big house and moving to a one-room apartment is not something to celebrate. However, the friends who were invited to visit these smaller homes all dished out compliments. They, and I, got excited and said things like, "I want to live somewhere uncrowded like this," or "You don't need a big room; this is enough," as we admired the smaller, cute furniture.
 常識で考えれば、大きな一戸建てを売ってワンルームマンションに移るのは、喜ばしいこととは言えない。しかし、「これまでよりサイズダウンした新居」に招かれた友だちは、声をそろえて「いいわねえ」と言う。私も含め、「私もこれくらいモノのない中で暮らしたい」「大きな部屋なんて必要ないよね、これで十分」「わあ、小さなテーブル、かわいい!」と興奮状態に陥ってしまう。

I wonder how this would go for men, however. Even though more men think flexibly nowadays, some are still unhappy with moving to the suburbs or a smaller place. Talking like characters in a historical drama, they say, "We're finally letting go of the castle," or, "It's a retreat to the countryside." I feel that if only they could enjoy the freshness of their new life, things would be much simpler.
 これが男性だったらどうだろう、と考える。だいぶ考え方が柔軟な男性も増えたとはいえ、小さな部屋や郊外に移ると、いまだに「ついに城を手放して」「都落ちですよ」などと時代劇のような言葉で、環境の変化を恥じて見せる人もいる。彼らが「こんな生活も新鮮だな」と楽しめれば、ずっと生きやすくなるはずなのに、と思う。

In my consultation room as well, it is overwhelmingly men who cannot let go of values like, "Higher income is better," and, "The bigger the house, the better." These men become depressed when they can't get ahold of those things.
 診察室で見ていても「収入は多いほどよい」「家は広いほどよい」という価値観を捨てきれず、それがうまくいかないと「人生、終わりだ」とうつ病にまでなるのは、圧倒的に男性だ。

Women, on the other hand, accept the situation they are in, and sometimes even purposefully choose a job that pays less if it is fulfilling, or a home that has fewer rooms if it allows a more compact, comfortable life. It is almost always women who actively enjoy cutting down on their life, and they do not hesitate to congratulate other female friends on such choices.
 一方、女性たちは、そのときどきの状況を受け入れたり、中にはあえて「収入は少ないが、人の役に立つ仕事」や「部屋数は少ないがコンパクトに暮らせそうな家」を選んだりする人さえいる。いわゆる人生のサイズダウンを積極的に楽しめるのは、ほとんどが女性なのだ。また女性の友人どうしでも、それを選択した人に「おめでとう!」「うらやましい」と称賛の声を惜しまない。

Of course, it might be important to always maintain a spirit of self-improvement. However, effort does not always lead to success, and more importantly, if you wear yourself out through over-exertion, there is no point. I think it is acceptable to sometimes choose the easier or less-demanding way and downsize our lifestyles.
 もちろん、あくまで上昇志向を失わず、常に「今より上へ」とがんばることも大切かもしれない。とはいえ、努力が必ずしも成果に結びつくわけではないし、何よりがんばりすぎることで心身ともに疲れきってしまっては意味がない。ときには、よりラクなほうへ、より手軽なほうへ、と人生のサイズダウンをはかることだってあってよいのではないだろうか。

When I visited one of my friends who moved to a smaller home, even her fashion sense seemed "lighter," and she seemed to have become younger. Looking at her smile, I thought that maybe I, too, would put an end to the plans, goals and pressures that fill my life and live lighter.
 より小さな住まいに移った友人の家を訪れると、出迎えてくれた彼女はファッションまで軽やかになり、なんだか若返ったように見えた。いつまでもあふれるほどのモノ、計画や目標、プレッシャーなどを抱え込んで暮らす生活にはどこかで見切りをつけて、私ももっと身軽に生きていこうかな、とその笑顔を見ながら考えた春の日であった。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年04月08日 地方版

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2014年4月13日 (日)

エネルギー計画 「原発活用」は現実的な戦略だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:28 pm, April 12, 2014
Government takes realistic stance on N-power in basic energy plan
エネルギー計画 「原発活用」は現実的な戦略だ

 ◆最適な電源構成の設定を急げ◆

The basic energy plan, which serves as a guideline for the government’s energy policy and was endorsed at a Cabinet meeting on Friday, represents a leap forward in efforts to normalize that policy, which has been marred by a series of turnabouts. The government now must reestablish a regime for a stable supply of energy.
 迷走した日本のエネルギー政策を、正常化する大きな一歩である。電力の安定供給体制の立て直しが求められよう。

The plan defined nuclear energy, the key focus in drafting the program, as “an important base load electricity source” that generates electricity day and night. It also clearly stated that nuclear power plants will resume operations after their safety is confirmed.
 政府がエネルギー政策の指針となるエネルギー基本計画を閣議決定した。
 最大の焦点だった原子力発電所については、昼夜を問わずに発電する「重要なベースロード電源」と位置付けた。
安全性を確認した原発の再稼働も明記した。

The plan is appropriate for officially ending the policy line of phasing out nuclear energy that was upheld by the administrations of the Democratic Party of Japan.
 民主党政権が掲げた「脱原発路線」に、正式に決別する妥当な内容と言える。

Komeito consent was key
 ◆公明党の同意がカギに◆

Following the outbreak of the crisis at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, operations of all 48 of the nation’s nuclear reactors have been suspended—a situation that is simply abnormal.
 東京電力福島第一原発の事故を受け、全原発48基の停止という異常事態が続いている。

The government initially planned to have the basic energy plan endorsed at a Cabinet meeting early this year, but it had to wait until now because of prolonged efforts to reach a consensus between the Liberal Democratic Party and its junior coalition partner New Komeito.
 政府は当初、今年初めにもエネルギー基本計画を閣議決定する方向だったが、自民、公明両党との調整が長引いた。

Komeito, which had vowed to swiftly stop nuclear power generation during election campaigns, eventually agreed to the basic policy of utilizing nuclear power—a realistic judgment in light of the stringent power supply situation facing Japan.
 速やかな「原発ゼロ」を選挙公約に掲げた公明党も、最終的に、原発を活用する基本方針に同意した。厳しい電力事情を考えたうえでの現実的な判断だった。

Nuclear power accounted for 30 percent of the nation’s electricity generation before the nuclear crisis. Nearly 90 percent of the power once generated by nuclear plants is now being compensated for by thermal power.
 事故前に全発電量の3割だった原発を火力発電が代替し、比率は9割近くに達している。

Depending excessively on thermal power, for which fuel must be imported from abroad, is extremely risky from a security viewpoint.
 輸入燃料に頼る火力発電への過度な依存は、エネルギー安全保障の観点から極めて危うい。

The additional fuel costs incurred by the substitution of thermal power top ¥3.6 trillion a year, draining an enormous amount of national wealth from Japan into resource-rich countries.
 火力発電の追加燃料費は年3・6兆円に上り、資源国への巨額な国富流出が続く。

The electricity rates TEPCO charges households have risen by 40 percent from before the crisis, and the corresponding rates by Kansai Electricity Power Co. have increased by nearly 30 percent. As things stand now, additional rate hikes are inevitable.
家庭の電気料金は事故前より東電で4割、関西電力も3割近く上がり、このままでは追加値上げも不可避だろう。

It is worrying that there are no prospects yet of resuming the operations of nuclear power plants. The government should gear up efforts to restart nuclear power plants through such measures as persuading the local governments that host power plants to accept their resumption.
 問題は、いまだに原発再稼働への道筋が見えないことである。政府は立地自治体の説得を含め、再稼働の実現に向けた取り組みを加速させるべきだ。

Energy target doubtful
 ◆再生エネ2割は疑問◆

Another focal point of the basic plan was how to estimate the spread of solar power and other renewable energy. The government stated in the plan that it would aim to raise the percentage of renewable energy in the electricity supply to more than 20 percent by the end of fiscal 2030, from about 10 percent in fiscal 2012.
 基本計画のもう一つの焦点は、太陽光など再生可能エネルギーの普及をどう見込むかだった。政府は、2012年度に約1割だった再生エネの比率を、30年度に2割以上にすることを盛り込んだ。

The target was set in deference to Komeito and others, who place importance on renewable energy. Although it is necessary to expand the use of renewable energy, it is doubtful whether it was appropriate to set a numerical target only for renewable energy when the government has yet to compile an overall plan with appropriate percentage targets for all energy sources.
 再生エネを重視する公明党などの主張を受け入れたものだ。再生エネの拡充は必要だが、目指すべき最適な電源構成の全体像をまとめる前に、再生エネだけに数値目標を掲げたのは疑問である。

Raising the percentage of renewable energy to 20 percent means that renewable energy sources must be used to produce electricity equivalent to that generated by the full operation of 10 nuclear reactors, in addition to what is currently being generated by renewable energy sources.
 2割に引き上げるには、原発10基をフル稼働して作る電力を、再生エネで新たに確保する計算になる。

To produce that amount of electricity with solar power would require a tract of land 10 times the area inside the JR Yamanote Line, which loops around central Tokyo. In the case of wind power generation, it would require about 20,000 windmills. As things stand, these options have only a faint possibility of realization.
太陽光だけなら東京の山手線内の10倍の用地が、風力では約2万基の風車が要る。現時点では実現性に乏しい目標ではないか。

There are many hurdles to overcome, such as abrupt changes in power generation volume depending on sunshine and wind conditions. It will be impossible to find a way unless technology development is accelerated through the joint efforts of the private and public sectors.
 日照や風の状況による発電量の急変動など、克服すべき課題も多い。官民が連携して技術開発を加速しないと、活路は開けまい。

The crucial point is to promptly set a target figure for the composition of all power resources, including nuclear power generation, and present a road map for achievement of that goal.
 大切なのは、原発を含む電源構成の目標設定と、その達成への工程表を速やかに示すことだ。

If the direction of the nation’s energy policy remains uncertain, it will be difficult for companies to work out business strategies for the medium and long term. There are also fears it will hinder the Abe administration’s Abenomics economic policy.
 エネルギー政策の方向が不透明なままでは、企業が中長期の経営戦略を立てにくい。安倍政権の経済政策「アベノミクス」の足かせとなる恐れもある。

It is essential to diversify energy sources in a balanced manner among thermal generation, nuclear power and renewable energy, which all have merits and demerits in terms of economic efficiency, stability of supply and environmental impact. It is also necessary to take a multilateral approach, including the development and construction of thermal power plants with lower greenhouse gas emissions.
 経済性や供給安定性、環境負荷など、それぞれ長所と短所のある火力、原子力、再生エネにバランスよく分散させることが肝心だ。温室効果ガスの排出量を抑えた火力発電所の開発・新設など、多角的な対応も求められよう。

The basic energy plan states that dependence on nuclear power generation “will be reduced as much as possible.” But at the same time, it says “the nuclear power volume to be secured will be assessed.” This leaves room for the possibility of building a new nuclear power plant or reactor. But there is no denying that the plan stopped short of clarifying its stance.
 基本計画は原発依存度を「可能な限り低減させる」とする一方、「確保していく規模を見極める」としている。原発の新増設に含みを残しているが、踏み込み不足は否めない。

A policy to promote construction of new nuclear power plants or reactors should be clarified in the future for the purpose of maintaining nuclear technology and nurturing related human resources.
 原子力技術の維持と人材育成のためにも、原発を新増設する方針を明示すべきだろう。

The public has deep-seated concerns about the safety of nuclear power plants, partly due to the delay in ending the crisis at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant. The government and TEPCO must work together closely to end the crisis as soon as possible.
 原発の安全性に対する国民の不安が根強いのは、福島第一原発の事故収束の遅れも一因だ。政府と東電が緊密に連携し、早急に収束を図ることが重要である。

Pave way for final disposal

To utilize nuclear power generation, it is essential to pave the way for resolving the issue of a final disposal site for radioactive waste. It was natural for the basic energy plan to say “the government will take the initiative in tackling the matter.” It is urgent to carry out concrete measures, such as selection of a final disposal site.
 原発を活用するうえで、放射性廃棄物の最終処分に道筋をつけることも欠かせない。「国が前面に立って取り組む」としたのは当然だ。処分地選定などで具体的な進展を図ることが急務となる。

 ◆最終処分に道筋つけよ◆

Regarding the nuclear fuel cycle, the plan retains an expression that the matter “will be dealt with flexibly.” However, concern remains.
 核燃料サイクルについて「対応の柔軟性を持たせる」との表現が維持されたのは、懸念が残る。

It is laudable, on the other hand, that the Monju fast-breeder reactor has been positioned anew as a focus of international research to reduce the amount and toxicity of nuclear waste. This must be used as a tailwind for the steady promotion of the nuclear fuel cycle.
 一方、高速増殖炉「もんじゅ」が新たに、核廃棄物の減量や有害度低減などの国際的な研究拠点と位置付けられたのは評価できる。核燃サイクルの着実な推進への追い風としたい。

China has 15 nuclear reactors and plans to construct an additional 55 units. If a serious nuclear accident occurs in China, radioactive substances will fall on Japan.
 中国には15基の原発があり、55基の建設が計画されている。重大な原発事故が起きれば、放射性物質は日本にも飛来する。

Exporting Japanese nuclear reactors with high safety performance to emerging countries will contribute to the international community and simultaneously lead to securing Japan’s own safety.
 安全性能の高い日本の原発を新興国などに輸出することは、国際貢献になると同時に、日本の安全確保にもつながる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 12, 2014)

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エネルギー計画―これがメッセージか

April 12, 2014
EDITORIAL: New basic energy plan offers no convincing vision for Japan’s future
エネルギー計画―これがメッセージか

The government formally decided its new basic energy plan on April 11 with Cabinet approval of the primary energy policy document.
 政府が新たなエネルギー基本計画を閣議決定した。

This is the first revision to the government’s basic energy plan since the catastrophic accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in 2011.
 福島第一原発の事故後、初めての改定だ。

The revision was a great opportunity to demonstrate the government’s commitment to tackle the challenges created by the disaster. It was a chance to clarify where the problems lay and how it intends to translate changes in the public’s attitude toward nuclear power generation into its energy policy.
どこに問題があったのか。原発に対する国民意識の変化を政策にどう結びつけるのか。政治の意思を示す絶好の機会だった。

But even though it includes a large variety of ideas, the new plan can by no means be considered a convincing message about the energy future of Japanese society.
 しかし、計画はメニューこそ豊富だが、とても新しいエネルギー社会へのメッセージとは言えない。

Although the plan calls for lowering Japan’s dependence on atomic energy, it simultaneously expresses concerns about the growing imports of fossil fuels due to a nationwide shutdown of nuclear reactors, indicating the government’s intention to maintain nuclear power generation into the future.
 原発停止による化石燃料の輸入増を憂え、将来にわたって原発を維持する意向をにじませる一方、原発依存度の低減をうたう。

While quietly changing the purpose of the Monju prototype fast-breeder reactor and promising to promote the program to establish a nuclear fuel recycling system, the document stresses “flexibility in medium- to long-term policy efforts” in an apparent attempt to dodge criticism.
高速増殖炉「もんじゅ」の目的をすり替え、核燃料サイクル事業の推進を明記しながら、「中長期的な対応の柔軟性」を強調して、批判をかわす。

All this waffling is part of the devious game the Abe administration has been playing in regard to its energy policy. Its strategy is designed to avoid touching off a public backlash by hiding or soft-pedaling its real intentions.
 露骨に本音を出して国民の余計な反発は買うまい――。エネルギー政策で安倍政権が続ける焦点外し戦略である。

Three years have passed since the worst nuclear accident in Japanese history. By now, electric utilities must have realized that they can no longer continue relying on nuclear power.
 事故から3年がたつ。もう原発に依存できないことは電力会社もわかっているはずだ。

Obviously, the government’s job now is to act swiftly to work out a well-focused and practical strategy for phasing out nuclear power generation in this nation.
政府が脱原発に向けて、メリハリのきいた「実践」編の作業を急がずしてどうする。

The basic energy plan describes nuclear power as “low-carbon and quasi-domestic energy” and a “base-load” power source that should be used for continuous, around-the-clock power generation.
 基本計画で原発は「低炭素の準国産エネルギー」で、昼夜継続的に動かす「ベースロード」電源と位置づけられた。

If it really intends to make Japanese society less dependent on atomic energy, the government should promote the development of power sources that can substitute for nuclear power, such as geothermal and hydraulic power generation and high-efficiency coal-burning thermal power stations, instead of seeking to build or expand nuclear power plants.
原発依存度を減らす以上、その新増設より、同じ機能をもつ地熱や水力、高効率の石炭火力などの開発を優先させるのが筋だ。

Nuclear power generation can never be free from the risk of severe, large-scale accidents that entail devastating consequences. It is unacceptable for the government to press for early restarts of idled reactors when sufficient safety measures to prevent serious accidents have yet to be put in place.
 原発は巨大事故のリスクから免れられない。対策が整わないのに再稼働を急がせることなど許されない。

To be sure, the problem of rising costs due to increasing imports of fossil fuels should not be taken lightly.
 たしかに化石燃料の輸入増に伴うコストの上昇は軽視できない。

But the government's claim that growing fuel imports are causing Japan to lose 3.6 trillion yen ($35 billion) worth of national wealth every year has raised doubts about the calculation formula among various experts.
ただ、「国富が毎年3・6兆円流出する」との言いぶりには、計算方法に各方面から疑問の声があがっている。

Electric power companies have accumulated relevant data for three years. Instead of using a simple macroeconomic estimate, it is vital for the government to obtain accurate data concerning amounts and prices of imported fuels from utilities. Then, it should take steps to deal with the problem based on objective data assessments and factor analyses.
 すでに電力各社には3年の実績値がある。マクロでの推計ではなく、各社から輸入量や金額などの正確な数字を出させ、客観的なデータ検証と要因分析のもとに対策を論じることが不可欠だ。

Restarting offline reactors could serve as a strong disincentive for new entries into the power market and investment to develop new power sources.
 原発の再稼働は、電力への新規参入や新電源への投資意欲をそぐ面もある。

Unless the government quickly offers a medium- and long-term road map to a future less dependent on nuclear power, there will be no substantial progress in the efforts to re-energize the power market.
政府が脱原発への中長期の見取り図をはやく示さないと、電力市場の活性化も進まない。

The new basic energy plan points out the need to create a system that allows the public to become involved in the entire process of developing and executing the energy policy.
 基本計画は、エネルギー政策の立案から実施に至るプロセスに国民が関与する仕組みの必要性を指摘している。

The March 11 disaster has made us painfully aware of how the closed nature of the process in which the nuclear energy policy was developed and implemented contributed to the enormity of the damage.
 原発政策の閉鎖性がもたらした被害の大きさを、私たちは3・11で痛いほど学んだ。

We clearly need a system for public participation in the policy process to ensure that more than halfhearted efforts are made to provide information to the public and listen to the voices of the people.
おざなりの広報・広聴ではない、「参加」の仕組みへ。

The government needs to match its words with action.
 ここは有言実行を求める。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 12

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2014年4月12日 (土)

教育委員会改革 首長との連携生かす仕組みに

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:20 pm, April 11, 2014
Local education board reform must aim to clarify where responsibilities lie
教育委員会改革 首長との連携生かす仕組みに

It is essential for the heads of municipal governments and boards of education to work together toward systemic improvements to enhance the functions of local education administration.
 自治体の首長と教育委員会が連携し、地方教育行政の機能を高める仕組みを整備していくことが大切である。

A bill to revise the law on local education administration, which has been submitted to the current Diet session, calls for reforming the board of education system.
 政府が国会に提出した地方教育行政法の改正案には、教育委員会制度の見直しが盛り込まれた。

The government originally aimed at reforming the system into one that would greatly strengthen the authority of the heads of municipal governments. But as a result of discussions between the Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner New Komeito, it was decided to strike a balance between the authority of the heads of local governments and education boards. Thus, the bill is aimed at moderate reform.
 政府は当初、首長の権限を大幅に強める制度改正を目指したが、自民、公明両党の与党協議を経て、教委の権限とのバランスを取ることも考慮した。穏当な内容だ。

In a bid to bolster the authority of the heads of local governments, the bill would create the post of school superintendent, combining the duties of conventional superintendents and education board heads. Local government heads would be given the authority to directly name and dismiss school superintendents.
 首長の権限強化の面では、教育委員長と教育長を一本化した「新教育長」を教委の代表者に位置付け、首長に任免権を持たせた。

There has been criticism that it is difficult to determine where responsibilities lie regarding education boards, due to the coexistence of the part-time post of education board head and the full-time post of superintendent who supervises the secretariat in charge of practical business. It is laudable that the reform is aimed at clarifying with whom responsibility rests.
 教委については、非常勤の教育委員長と、実務担当の事務局を統括する常勤の教育長が併存し、責任の所在がわかりにくいとの批判がかねてあった。責任の明確化を図ったことは評価できる。

The bill would make it mandatory for municipal governments to establish an “overall education conference” chaired by a local government head, an attempt at reflecting the head’s intentions in education administration. The conference, consisting of the head and education board members, will work out basic policies of education administration.
 首長主宰の「総合教育会議」の設置を自治体に義務づけたのも、首長の意向を反映しやすくする一環だ。会議は、首長と教育委員ら教委メンバーで構成し、教育行政の基本方針を策定する。

Institutionally, heads of local governments have authority over budget implementation but the ultimate authority over education administration rests with boards of education, which are independent from local government heads. Many local government heads have been frustrated by their inability to realize policies as they desired. This was behind the planned creation of an overall education conference.
 制度上、首長は教育予算の執行権を握っているものの、教育行政の最終権限は、首長から独立した教委にある。思うように自らの施策を実現できないという不満を持つ首長が少なくないことが、会議新設の背景にあった。

A forum to coordinate views

The conference will serve as a forum where local government heads and education boards coordinate views on such important issues as how to promote the abolition and consolidation of schools. It will discuss responses when bullying and other serious problems arise.
 総合教育会議は、学校の統廃合をどのように進めるかといった重要テーマについて、首長と教委が意見を調整する場になる。深刻ないじめ問題などが起きた際には、対応を協議する。

If the conference operates properly so that local government heads and education boards can communicate with each other well, education policies can be promoted smoothly.
 会議が適切に運用され、首長と教委が意思疎通を十分図ることができれば、教育施策の円滑な推進につながるだろう。

It is noteworthy that conferences would be open to the public in principle. Making the policy decision process transparent is significant in deepening the understanding of parents and other community members about education administration.
 会議を原則公開とした点も注目される。施策の決定過程を透明化することは、教育行政に対する地域住民や保護者の理解を深める上で意味がある。

The revision bill also pays heed to prevent local government heads from getting out of control.
 一方で、改正案は、首長の暴走を防ぐことにも留意している。

For this purpose, the bill calls for leaving the final authority over local education administration in the hands of education boards, thereby leaving textbook adoption and personnel affairs of teachers and school staff to be dealt with by education boards exclusively. This resulted from consideration of Komeito’s position, which puts heavy emphasis on political neutrality in education administration.
 地方教育行政の最終権限をあくまで教委に残し、教科書採択や教職員人事は教委の専権事項とした点だ。教育行政の政治的中立性を重視する公明党の主張に配慮した結果である。

As a counterproposal to the government bill, the Democratic Party of Japan and Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) plan to jointly submit to the Diet a bill that would highlight the abolition of education boards to dramatically bolster the authority of local government heads.
 これに対し、民主党と日本維新の会は、首長の権限強化を徹底するため、教委の廃止を柱とする対案を国会に提出する方向だ。

But if the brakes applied by education boards are eliminated, education administration could become distorted depending on the political stance of a local government head. There must be deeper Diet discussions on the matter.
 だが、教委という歯止めがなくなれば、首長の政治姿勢によっては、教育行政が歪ゆがむ恐れがある。国会で議論を深めてほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 11, 2014)

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福島の放射線 帰還住民の不安に応えたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:25 pm, April 11, 2014
Ending radiation fears 1st step to Fukushima evacuees’ return home
福島の放射線 帰還住民の不安に応えたい

It is of fundamental importance to expedite the return home of victims of the disaster at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, who have been forced to evacuate for quite a long time. To achieve this goal, support must be provided that can alleviate their anxieties regarding health risks due to the effects of radiation.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故で、長期避難を余儀なくされた被災者の帰還を促進する。
 そのためには、放射線による健康不安を軽減させることが不可欠である。

An evacuation instruction that was issued for the Miyakojimachi district in the city of Tamura, Fukushima Prefecture, has been lifted. This is the first lifting of an evacuation advisory since the March 2011 TEPCO plant disaster. The official exclusion of the Miyakojimachi community from the evacuation zone designation means that residents are now free to return home. Entrance ceremonies were held earlier this week at the district’s primary and middle schools.
 福島県田村市の都路町地区に出されていた避難指示が解除された。原発事故による避難指示の解除は初めてだ。住民は今後、自由に帰宅できる。地区の小中学校では今週、入学式が開かれた。

This can safely be called the first step toward the resuscitation of the nuclear crisis-affected area.
 地域再生の一歩と言える。

Radioactive decontamination work by the central government has already been completed in the Miyakojimachi district.
 都路町地区では、政府による除染がすでに完了している。

The lifting of an evacuation instruction is contingent on clearing the condition set by the Nuclear Regulation Authority of background radiation levels falling below 20 millisieverts per year. The levels in the Miyakojimachi district have been confirmed to be one-seventh to one-eighth the NRA limit. The readings in the district are much the same as those in areas such as the city of Fukushima, where no evacuation instructions have ever been issued.
 解除の前提は、空間放射線量が年20ミリ・シーベルト以下という原子力規制委員会の基準を下回ることだが、都路町地区は、その7分の1から8分の1に低下している。福島市など避難指示が出ていない地域の数値とほとんど変わらない。

However, there are reportedly many people who are hesitant to return because of fears regarding radiation hazards.
 だが、放射線への不安から、帰還をためらう人もいるという。

The government plans to lend dosimeters to returnees for personal use so that they can gauge changes in radiation levels. Based on measurement readings, the government will provide them with health counseling.
 政府は、帰還者に個人線量計を貸し出し、線量を把握してもらう方針だ。測定値に基づき、健康相談も実施する。

By measuring radiation exposure levels, which will enable them to confirm that the current readings are far below the 20-millisieverts-a-year threshold, the returned residents will be able to more easily address the task of rebuilding their lives.
 自らの被曝ひばく線量を測り、年20ミリ・シーベルトを大きく下回る現状を確認することで、帰還者は安心して生活再建に取り組めるだろう。

Deemed safe by U.N. body

Expert views on the impact of radiation on human health have been virtually unanimous: It has widely been accepted among experts that health risks due to exposure to 100 millisieverts or less per year, even in the event of radiation of that level on a single occasion, are indistinguishable from the risks stemming from such lifestyle habits as smoking and unbalanced eating habits.
 放射線のリスクについて、専門家の見解はほぼ一致している。100ミリ・シーベルト以下では、まとめて浴びても、喫煙や偏食などの健康影響と区別がつかないとされる。

The U.N. Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, an investigative body that studies radiation, published a report earlier this month based on findings from its on-site surveys and related probes in areas affected by the Fukushima crisis.
 放射線に関する調査組織である国連科学委員会は今月、現地調査などを踏まえた報告書を公表した。

The report explicitly stated that the committee “finds no discernible changes in future cancer rates [of adults] and hereditary diseases are expected due to exposure to radiation as a result of the Fukushima nuclear accident; and, that no increases in the rates of birth defects are expected” in Fukushima Prefecture.
福島第一原発事故により、「(福島県内で)大人のがんが増えるとは予想できず、出生児の異常も増加しない」と明言している。

The government must see that such information is disseminated to the public. Inaccurate information, which has served only to fan public anxiety unnecessarily, must be rectified promptly.
 政府は、こうした情報を周知する必要がある。いたずらに不安を煽あおる誤った情報は、速やかに正していかねばならない。

It is worth noting that the activities conducted through “risk communication” programs under the sponsorship of city, town and village governments in Fukushima Prefecture have played a very important role. Under the program, medical doctors and other experts have responded to concerns and questions regarding radiation exposure. The government should boost its support for such activities, including assistance for nurturing radiation risk experts.
 県内の市町村が主導する「リスクコミュニケーション」活動の役割も大きい。専門知識を持つ医師たちが、放射線に対する不安や疑問に答えている。専門家の育成など、政府の支援を強化したい。

The government currently plans to lift evacuation instructions through a step-by-step process for other cities, towns and villages following Tamura’s Miyakojimachi district. There are still strong calls, however, among nuclear crisis-affected residents for thorough decontamination to lower radiation exposure to one millisievert or less a year, which the government has deemed a long-term goal.
 政府は今後、他の市町村でも避難指示を順次、解除する方針だ。ただ、長期的な目標である年1ミリ・シーベルト以下への徹底除染を求める声は、いまだに多い。

The steady rebuilding of the Miyakojimachi community would help deepen their understanding of the significance of practical decontamination methods.
 都路町地区が着実に再生することで、現実的な除染の重要性にも理解が深まるのではないか。

The more protracted the evacuation period becomes, the harder it will be to resuscitate the crisis-stricken areas, which even before the catastrophe had been afflicted by depopulation.
 避難が長引けば、元々、過疎問題を抱える被災地の再生は一層遠のく。

In addition to decontamination, efforts should also be redoubled for job creation and increasing the number of such establishments as retail shops and medical institutions in the areas involved, as ways to encourage the return of disaster-affected residents.
雇用の創出、商店や医療機関の整備など、帰還を促す他の課題への取り組みも求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 11, 2014)

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(社説)金正恩体制 経済再建に専念せよ

April 11, 2014
EDITORIAL: North Korea's Kim should focus on economic reconstruction
(社説)金正恩体制 経済再建に専念せよ

North Korea can never hope to rebuild the dilapidated nation without abandoning its nuclear and missile programs. Can’t it face up to this reality?
 核とミサイルを放棄することしか国家再建の道はない。その現実を直視できないのか。

Kim Jong Un, North Korea’s supreme leader, doesn’t appear to have any serious intention to improve the disastrous state of the country.
 北朝鮮の最高指導者、金正恩(キムジョンウン)氏には、破滅的な国の現状を本気で改める覚悟はないようだ。

The Supreme People’s Assembly, the country’s parliament, was convened on April 9 in Pyongyang. As the assembly’s members were newly chosen in March in the first parliamentary election since Kim became leader, observers paid close attention to the session, expecting it to offer signals about the direction in which the new regime intends to lead the nation.
 国会にあたる最高人民会議が平壌で開かれた。金正恩体制で先月初めて選ばれたメンバーによる会議で、新体制の方向性をうらなうと注目された。

As it turned out, however, the assembly session left little doubt that the country’s leadership has decided to maintain mostly the status quo. Especially notable about the reported results of the session is the regime’s strong will to pursue both the development of nuclear weapons and economic reconstruction at the same time.
 結論は、ほぼ現状の維持にすぎなかった。伝えられる会議の結果で目立つのは、核開発と経済の立て直しを両方とも進めるという、強い意志の表れだ。

Jang Song Thaek, Kim’s uncle, who was widely viewed as the leading champion of economic reform, was purged and executed last December. There were speculations that the removal of Jang could affect the regime’s stance toward reform.
 経済改革の主導役とみられていた正恩氏の義理の叔父張成沢(チャンソンテク)氏が昨年粛清された。それが改革の流れに影響を与えるのでは、との観測もあった。

Given that Premier Pak Pong Ju, another presumably pro-reform figure within the leadership, was reappointed, however, North Korea’s secluded regime apparently intends to maintain its policy of putting a high priority on the improvement of people’s living standards.
 だが、やはり経済改革派と目される朴奉珠(パクポンジュ)首相が再任されたことをみると、「人民生活の向上」を訴えてきた政権の姿勢に変化はないとみていいだろう。

Observers also pointed out the possibility that 86-year-old Kim Yong Nam, president of the Presidium of the Supreme People’s Assembly, the second most powerful man in the country, could retire due to his advanced age. But he has also retained his post.
 高齢のため引退の可能性がささやかれたナンバー2の金永南(キムヨンナム)・最高人民会議常任委員長は留任した。

Some close aides to Kim Jong Un, including Choe Ryong Hae, director of the General Political Bureau of the military, were promoted to senior posts in the National Defense Commission.
崔竜海(チェリョンヘ)・軍総政治局長ら側近グループは国防委員会の要職に引き上げられた。

All these personnel decisions indicate that the North Korean leadership has no intention to change the nation’s power structure in any drastic way. These moves as a whole probably represent the regime’s attempt to prevent the purge of Jang from provoking unrest in the nation.
 こうした人事は、権力システムを急変させるつもりはない姿勢を示している。張氏の粛清を受けた国内の動揺を抑えるための判断だったとみられる。

What is troubling is the creation of the Ministry of Atomic Energy Industry. The new ministry is reportedly an upgrade of North Korea’s General Department of Atomic Energy. The move has made clear Pyongyang’s will to keep developing nuclear arms.
 問題なのは原子力工業省を新設したことだ。これまであった原子力総局を省に格上げしたとされ、今後も核開発を推し進める意思を鮮明にした。

On March 26, North Korea fired two ballistic missiles that are believed to have been mid-range Rodong projectiles into the Sea of Japan.
 北朝鮮は先月、中距離の「ノドン」とみられる弾道ミサイルを日本海に向けて発射した。

After the U.N. Security Council issued a statement to the media condemning the missile launch, Pyongyang reacted with a threat to conduct what it called a new form of nuclear test.
 国連安全保障理事会が発射を非難する「報道機関向け談話」を出したことを受け、北朝鮮側は反発し、「新たな形態の核実験」の実施を示唆した。

Speculation is rife that this new type of nuclear test may involve the use of highly enriched uranium.
 「新たな形態」については、高濃縮ウランを使うのではないかとの臆測が飛び交っている。

North Korea may be threatening to demonstrate anew its nuclear capabilities by showing off what it has achieved in the uranium enrichment program it has been secretly pursuing instead of using plutonium extracted from an experimental nuclear reactor.
 実験用原子炉から取り出したプルトニウムではなく、長らく秘密裏に続けていたウラン濃縮で改めて核の能力を示そうという脅しなのかもしれない。

There are not yet any concrete signs that North Korea is about to conduct a nuclear test, but the North Korean regime should be aware that it would cause its own collapse should it proceed with such a test.
 具体的な兆候はまだないが、もし強行すれば、自壊への道筋をたどることを自覚すべきだ。

The international community is already severely critical of the regime of Kim Jong Un. China, the largest supplier of aid to North Korea, is no exception. Pyongyang would be well-advised to avoid committing any more acts that would only deepen its international isolation.
 正恩体制への国際社会の視線はすでに冷たい。最大の支援国である中国も例外ではない。これ以上、孤立を深める愚行を犯すべきではない。

What the young leader should do is to wean the nation from the diplomatic brinkmanship to which his father, the late Kim Jong Il, resorted all too often. The impoverished nation cannot afford to pursue a dual-track policy of military buildup and economic rehabilitation.
 正恩氏に必要なのは、父の故金正日(キムジョンイル)氏が繰り返した瀬戸際政策からの決別である。軍事と経済の二兎(にと)を追う余裕などない。

The young Kim should focus his efforts on leading the nation out of its international isolation and putting its economy on a path toward regeneration.
孤立から脱し、経済を再生する努力にこそ集中すべきだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 11

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2014年4月11日 (金)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:医療特区の理想と現実 /東京



美しい香山リカ先生


April 06, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Ideals and reality of Japan's medical services
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:医療特区の理想と現実 /東京

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology is reportedly considering establishing "international medical schools" where students will be trained to become leaders in the global medical field. The move is part of the human resource development for National Strategic Special Zones -- model cities with few regulations to invite new businesses that the government plans to set up -- where people will have access to the world's top medical services.
 文部科学省は、世界の医療分野をリードする人材を専門に育てる「国際医学部」が必要と判断して、医学部新設の検討を始めたそうだ。政府は世界最高水準の医療を提供できる国家戦略特区の設置を計画しており、そのための人材育成を目的としているとのことだ。

The level of medical care in Japan is one of the best in the world. I wonder how advanced medical services will be at international medical schools where the world's best professors and students gather to learn. The official language at the institutions, of course, will be English and the staff will fly around the globe, having a lecture in Paris one day and surgery in London in the same week. Under the plan, celebrities from across the world will come to Japan to receive the world's best medical checkups and treatment, supporting the Japanese economy.
 日本の医療水準は現在でも世界有数を誇っているが、世界で活躍する教授らと優秀な学生が集まる国際医学部は、どれほどの高レベルになるのだろうか。もちろん公用語は英語で、スタッフは「明日はパリで講演、週末はロンドンで手術」と、世界を飛び回るのだろう。世界からセレブが超一流の健康診断や治療を求めてやって来て日本経済の後押しもしてくれるに違いない。

This all sounds very glamorous, but I can't be so happy about the plan when I look at the reality. Many hospitals and clinics in Japan, especially in rural areas, are suffering from doctor shortages. Local public hospitals that are supposed to serve as the center of medical services in the area don't have enough full-time doctors and are having to close down departments for outpatients. Medical institutions in urban cities also lack doctors in fields such as child psychiatry.
 夢のような華やかさだが、ふと現実に引き戻されると手放しで喜ぶわけにもいかない、という気分になる。日本では今、あちこちの医療現場、特に地方では深刻な医師不足にあえいでいる。地域医療の中核を担うはずの公立病院からも常勤医がいない、外来を閉鎖せざるをえない、という声が聞こえてくる。また、都市の病院であっても、小児精神科などまだまだ人材不足に悩む科も少なくない。

I am currently working at a private clinic in Tokyo as a part-time doctor. Every time I check my email at work, I see a number of job offers sent from career information service providers for doctors. I have no intention of leaving the clinic, but emails consisting of phrases like, "Job offer with plenty of days off and high salary," or "You can work in central Tokyo," sound attractive even to me. If I was working at a busy hospital in a rural area, I would have chosen the high paying job in Tokyo over the demanding work in a short-staffed hospital. I don't have the heart to blame doctors who leave hospitals in the countryside to work at clinics in cities.
 私は現在、東京で民間の診療所に非常勤で勤務しているが、パソコンのメールボックスを開くと、毎日のように医師の転職情報サービスからメールが届いている。私自身、転職などまったく考えていないのだが、「年収も休日もたっぷり」「都心で働きませんか」といった魅力的な誘い文句を日々見せられるとなんとなく気になってくる。もし今、地方で多忙な病院に勤めていたら、きっと誘いに乗ってしまったのではないかと思う。そう考えると、激務を離れて都市のクリニックに移る医者を責める気にはとてもなれないのだ。

I imagine ambitious doctors and medical students who aspire to challenge themselves through the world's top level medicine would want to work or study at the proposed international medical schools. Their ambition should not be restricted, but it would create vacant positions in regular regional medical institutions.
 文科省が考えている「国際医学部」はどうなのだろう。世界水準で腕を試したい、という野心を持つ医者や学生は、そこでの勤務や勉強を希望するのではないだろうか。向上心は否定されるべきではないが、その分、一般の地域医療に“空席”が生じることになる。

It would be ideal if both the world's top medicine and community hospitals could advance in their own ways, but we all know that is unrealistic. So, what we need to do here is to prioritize between the development of the "best medical services that only a selected few can benefit from" and "general medical services that offer care for everyone."
 もちろん、理想は最高水準の医療も地域医療も、ともに充実することだ。とはいえ、それが現実的でないことは誰の目にも明らか。となると、少数のセレブが恩恵を受ける「世界最高」と無数の人のための「地域一般」、どちらのレべルを優先すべきか、ということになるのではないか。

I won't comment on my opinions here, but rather want to ask readers, "What do you think?"
 その答えはあえてここには書かず、みなさんはどう思いますか、と尋ねたい。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年04月01日 地方版

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ウクライナ混乱 これ以上許せない露の介入

The Yomiuri Shimbun 6:57 pm, April 10, 2014
Further Russian intervention in Ukrainian crisis will not be tolerated
ウクライナ混乱 これ以上許せない露の介入

Further interventions in which Russia uses force in Ukraine’s domestic situation cannot be tolerated.
 ウクライナ国内へのロシアの力による介入を再び許してはなるまい。

In three eastern Ukraine provinces where many Russian-speaking people live, the beleaguered nation

has deteriorated into a state of chaos, as evidenced by the seizure of provincial government buildings by

pro-Russian demonstrators.
 ロシア系住民の多いウクライナ東部の3州で、親ロシア派のデモ隊が地方政府庁舎を占拠するなど、混乱が広がっている

In two of the three provinces, Donetsk and Kharkiv, pro-Moscow activists have declared the creation of “

people’s republics,” both of which are devoid of any legal basis. Protesters in Donetsk against the

Ukrainian authorities are reportedly poised to carry out a referendum to consider the possibility of

secession from Ukraine.
 ドネツク、ハリコフ両州では、親露派が、法的根拠を欠いた「人民共和国」樹立を宣言した。ドネツクは、独立の是非を

問う住民投票も行うという。

These moves are reminiscent of Russia’s annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in the southern region of

Ukraine last month by way of a disputed referendum that ran counter to the Ukrainian Constitution.

There is no doubt that Russia is behind them.
 憲法に反する住民投票を経て、ロシアへ編入されたウクライナ南部のクリミア半島を想起させる動きだ。背後に、ロシアが

いるのは間違いない。

Moscow has built up tens of thousands of troops on the Ukrainian border. According to information from

the U.S. government, Russian special forces and intelligence service agents have crossed the border into

Ukraine, maneuvering to instigate pro-Russian separatists.
 ロシア軍は、ウクライナとの国境付近に数万人規模の部隊を展開している。特殊部隊や情報機関要員が越境し、親露

派を扇動しているとの米政府の情報もある。

Could it be that Russia is trying to set the stage for a military intervention on the pretext of protecting

ethnic Russians in the east? Since even the ethnic Russians, as a matter of course, belong to the nation

of Ukraine, Moscow’s self-serving logic is completely unacceptable.
 ロシア系住民の保護を口実として、軍事介入する態勢を整えようとしているのではないか。ロシア系といえども、ウクライナ

国民である。そのような身勝手な理屈は認められない。

If the chaos in Ukraine escalates, it will give rise to fears of major clashes between antigovernment

protesters and the country’s security forces. Does Moscow truly have no option of acting with restraint

instead of exerting continuous pressure on Ukraine?
 混乱が拡大すれば、デモ隊と治安当局との間で大規模な衝突が発生する恐れもある。ウクライナに圧力をかけ続けるロ

シアに自制という選択肢はないのだろうか。

Still Ukraine’s Constitution

Russia has come up with a proposal that Ukraine revise its Constitution to shift to a federal system and

stipulate military neutrality. The proposal is most likely designed to place the east under Moscow’s

influence by making it independent of the central government through the adoption of a federal system,

with the aim of preventing Ukraine from joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
 ロシアは、ウクライナが憲法改正を行い、連邦制移行と軍事的中立を定めることを提案している。連邦制で中央政府か

ら自立した東部を影響下に置き、ウクライナの北大西洋条約機構(NATO)加盟を阻むのが狙いだろう。

Constitutional decisions, however, are in the hands of the Ukrainian people, not Russia.
 だが、憲法を決めるのは、ロシアでなく、その国の国民だ。

In Ukraine, a presidential election will be held in May to launch a full-fledged administration to replace

the current interim government. The international community should join forces to ensure that the

election is conducted fairly.
 ウクライナでは来月に大統領選挙が行われ、現在の暫定政府に代わる本格政権が発足する。国際社会は選挙が公正

に行われるよう協力する必要がある。

During the period leading up to the presidential election, the interim government must do its best to

bring calm to the chaotic state of affairs by reducing unrest on the part of ethnic Russians through such

means as having radical nationalists, who are strongly inclined to be against Moscow, lay down their

arms.
 暫定政府は、それまでの間、反露傾向の強い過激な民族主義組織の武装解除などを通じて、ロシア系住民の不安解

消に努め、混乱の沈静化を図らねばならない。

Strapped with huge amounts of government debt, Ukraine has seen its fiscal condition become

increasingly stringent. The Ukrainian government is urged to address the task of drastic economic reform

to garner confidence from nations set to extend assistance to Ukraine.
 巨額の政府債務を抱え、財政状況も厳しさを増している。大胆な経済改革に取り組み、支援国の信頼を得ることも求

められよう。

It is only natural that the United States and the European Union have taken a stiffer line than ever

toward Russia.
 米国や欧州連合(EU)がロシアに対し、態度をこれまで以上に硬化させているのは、当然だ。

Washington has expressed its intention to mete out additional sanctions against Moscow in such key

sectors as energy, financial services and mining as long as Russia fails to change its current stance.
 米国は、ロシアが態度を変えなければ、エネルギーや金融、鉱業などの重要分野で、追加制裁を行うと表明している。

The four parties concerned—the United States, Russia, the EU and the Ukrainian interim government—

are scheduled to hold foreign ministerial talks next week. We hope to see the talks reach an agreement

on the need to find a way to ease tensions through negotiations.
 米露EUとウクライナ暫定政府の4者は来週、外相会談を開く。交渉で緊張緩和への糸口を探ることを期待したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 10, 2014)

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STAP問題 「反論」は説得力に欠けている

The Yomiuri Shimbun 6:55 pm, April 10, 2014
Obokata’s rejection of accusations over STAP cell articles lacks credibility
STAP問題 「反論」は説得力に欠けている

Considering the grave responsibility she bears for shaking the public’s trust in Japan’s scientific research,

apologies for her “immaturity” and “ignorance” are unacceptable.
 日本の科学研究の信頼を揺るがした責任の重大さを考えれば、「未熟」「不勉強」との釈明は通らない。

At a press conference Wednesday, RIKEN unit leader Haruko Obokata rebutted suspicions regarding

articles about stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) cells, of which she was the main

author. It was Obokata’s first public appearance since she announced the STAP research results carried

in the articles at the end of January.
 STAP細胞の論文疑惑で、主著者の小保方晴子・理化学研究所ユニットリーダーが記者会見を開いて反論した。1月

末の論文発表以来、小保方氏が公の場に姿を現したのは初めてだ。

Regarding RIKEN’s conclusion that there were alterations and fabrications in the articles, Obokata said “

there was no deceptive motive in completing the articles.”
 理研の調査委員会が、論文には改ざん、捏造ねつぞうがあったと認定したことに対し、小保方氏は「悪意はなかった」と主

張した。

She also said cutting and pasting images to show relevant data more clearly, as well as mixing one with

others, did not constitute alterations and fabrications as described in the internal rules set by the state-

affiliated scientific institution.
 データを見やすくするための画像の切り貼りや取り違えは、理研の規定における改ざんや捏造には当たらないとも述べた。

However, the very act of manipulating such data constitutes an intentional alteration. She may be

confusing the legal concept of malice, which implies the intent to commit an wrongful act, with the

moral concept of a deceptive motive.
 だが、データを加工すること自体が、意図的な改ざんに当たる。「悪意はない」との言い分も、「故意」を意味する法律上

の「悪意」を、道徳的な概念と混同しているのではないか。

This incident has brought to light an insufficient awareness of dishonest acts in scientific research.

Scientific research involves steadily investigating a hypothesis based on data. Unless such data is

managed properly, there is no way to trust research results.
 今回の問題で浮かんだのは、研究の不正行為に対する意識の甘さだ。科学はデータに基づき、地道に仮説を検証する

作業である。データをきちんと管理しなければ、研究の成果も信頼されない。

Obokata admitted that the descriptions in the laboratory notebooks in which she recorded her research

experiments were insufficient. Although she said with apparent repentance that she had conducted

research in her own way, her qualifications as a scientist are being questioned.
 研究の経過を記録した実験ノートの記述について、小保方氏は不十分だったと認めた。「自己流の研究を行ってきた」と

反省の弁を語ったが、科学者としての資質に疑問符が付く。

The biggest question

Do STAP cells really exist? On this point, which is considered the most important issue scientifically,

Obokata stressed that “STAP cells do exist.” She said she “has produced STAP cells more than 200 times”

and ruled out the possibility of withdrawing the article that RIKEN has recommended the authors retract.
 STAP細胞は本当に存在するのか。科学的に最も重要なこの点について、小保方氏は「STAP細胞は必ずある。200

回以上、作製に成功した」と強調し、論文の撤回を否定した。

Concerning the images that RIKEN judged to have been fabricated, Obokata also said that genuine

images exist of data gathered from legitimate experiments. Yet she failed to show any evidence that

would substantiate her claims.
 捏造とされた画像も、きちんとした実験に基づくものがあると主張した。しかし、その裏付けとなる証拠は示さなかった。

Regarding the assertions that no other researchers have been able to create STAP cells using the

method outlined in the articles, Obokata said one person had succeeded in reproducing them but she

declined to say who. Her explanations are far from convincing.
 誰も再現実験に成功していない点については、「追試に成功した人はいる」と語ったが、それが誰かについては、言葉を濁

した。
 一連の説明は説得力を欠く。

Obokata has filed a complaint against the report compiled by RIKEN’s investigation committee, which

concluded that she engaged in misconduct in her research papers.
 理研調査委の報告書に対し、小保方氏は、不服申し立てを行っている。

The committee will discuss whether to investigate the case again. If it does, Obokata will be asked to

present data with a solid basis.
調査委は再調査を行うかどうかを検討するが、小保方氏には、確かな根拠に基づいたデータを示すことが求められよう。

More than a few wrongful acts have been conducted in the highly competitive field of life science

research.
 競争が激しい生命科学の研究分野では、不正行為も少なくない。

In Japan alone, it has recently been pointed out that the manipulation of images and other data took

place in 51 research papers at the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences at the University of

Tokyo. A similar incident has also been discovered at the University of Tsukuba.
国内だけでも最近、東大分子細胞生物学研究所の論文51本で画像の加工などが指摘された。筑波大でも同様の事

例が発覚した。

The Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry will soon amend the guidelines on

measures against fraudulent research and reinforce the ethical education of researchers. It is important

to make researchers take a completely sincere stance toward science.
 文部科学省は近く研究不正対策指針を改定し、研究者の倫理教育を強化する。科学への真摯しんしな姿勢を徹底

させることが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 10, 2014)

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2014年4月10日 (木)

(社説)廃炉新会社 ここが東電の「本丸」だ

April 10, 2014
EDITORIAL: New decommissioning unit should become the core of TEPCO
(社説)廃炉新会社 ここが東電の「本丸」だ

A fresh management team has taken over at Tokyo Electric Power Co.
 東京電力の新体制がスタートした。

Fumio Sudo, the new chairman of the utility struggling with the legacy of the Fukushima meltdowns, needs to provide effective leadership so that TEPCO can reinvent itself as a meaningful entity.
会長に就いた数土文夫氏は、「古い東電との決別」を確かなものにしていく指導力が問われる。

The top priority for the new management team is to stabilize the situation at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant while forging ahead with decommissioning the reactors there.
 最優先課題は、言うまでもなく福島第一原発の安定化と廃炉に向けた着実な前進である。

TEPCO has created a new in-house entity responsible for decommissioning work. Spun off from TEPCO’s Nuclear Power and Plant Siting Division, the 1,200-strong unit will be devoted to cleaning up at the crippled plant.
 東電は社内分社化で「福島第一廃炉推進カンパニー」を発足させた。原子力・立地本部から切り離し、1200人規模で福島第一に特化する。

The amount of information available about conditions within the reactors has been growing gradually. But there is still a long way to go before work to remove melted nuclear fuel can begin.
 原子炉内の様子は徐々にわかってきたが、溶けた核燃料の取り出しは遠い先だ。

The pace of progress in the Fukushima cleanup will depend, to a large extent, on the future development of technology. First of all, the problem of accumulating radioactive water at the plant needs to be sorted out.
今後の技術開発に依存する部分も多い。まずは汚染水問題の解決にめどをつけなければならない。

TEPCO should put the new in-house entity for decommissioning at the center of its organization and concentrate its best human and technological resources there.
 東電は廃炉会社を「本丸」と位置づけ、優れた人材や技術を集中させる必要がある。

The utility cannot afford to spare resources for preparations to restart idled reactors at its Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant in Niigata Prefecture.
柏崎刈羽原発(新潟県)の再稼働準備を両にらみで進めている場合ではない。

TEPCO should make sure that fresh efforts lead to a wholesale change in its own corporate culture and ultimately meaningful reform of the culture of the entire electric power industry.
 新会社での新たな取り組みを、東電ひいては電力業界全体の体質を変えていくきっかけにしてもらいたい。

Three of the six vice presidents of the new in-house entity for decommissioning have been recruited from manufacturers of nuclear reactors.
 廃炉会社には、原子炉メーカー3社から副社長が就任した。

The utility’s administrative structure will be reformed to shift the focus from management of specific equipment and facilities, such as nuclear reactors and electric power facilities, to management of specific projects for solving problems. The entity will also step up its efforts to recruit outsiders for management positions.
原子炉や電機関連など設備別になりがちだった従来の管理態勢は、課題解決のためのプロジェクトごとに管理する仕組みに改める。マネジャーの外部登用にも力を入れるという。

We embrace the notion that TEPCO should introduce more expertise from the outside by seeking a wider range of cooperation and partnerships beyond the scope of its relations with business partners and contractors.
 受発注の関係を超えた連携で社外の知見を積極的に取り入れることには賛成だ。

The utility should open itself to different corporate cultures as a means to rein in its arrogance as a monopolistic enterprise and remedy its deep-rooted sectionalism.
異なる企業文化の流入を、独占企業としてのおごりや縦割り主義を排することにつなげるべきだ。

TEPCO also needs to review its relations with its multiple layers of subcontractors.
 何層にもわたる下請け・孫請け企業との関係も、見直しが迫られる。

In order to secure workers who are familiar with the complex situation at the Fukushima plant and who can respond flexibly to new challenges, it is vital for the utility to make jobs at the plant sufficiently rewarding.
複雑な現場に精通し、応用力の高い作業員を確保するには、福島第一を「働きたい職場」にしていく必要がある。

Besides making exhaustive efforts to secure the protection of workers from radiation, which is obviously crucial, TEPCO also needs to establish an effective system to allow individual workers to share experiences and ideas they have obtained through their work with the rest of the work force. This is important for boosting the morale of workers.
 被曝(ひばく)管理の徹底はもちろんのこと、一人ひとりが作業上で得た経験や意見を組織全体で共有できるような仕組みを設け、作業員の士気を高めていくことが求められる。

The government has submitted to the Diet a bill to set up a special task force within the Nuclear Damage Liability Facilitation Fund to lead the efforts for reactor decommissioning.
 政府は原子力損害賠償機構の中に、新たに廃炉を主導する専門組織をつくる法案を今国会に提出している。

If the bill passes the Diet, a new section with the authority to give guidance and advice to TEPCO will be created within the fund, established jointly by the government and nuclear power plant operators for swift payments of compensation in cases of severe nuclear accidents.
成立すれば、東電に対し指導・勧告権限をもつ部門が設置される。

The government’s involvement in the Fukushima cleanup is important. But it should not be allowed to create a situation in which too many leaders are causing confusion among front-line workers and shuffling off the responsibility onto each other.
 国の関与は重要だが、船頭が多いばかりで現場が混乱したり責任を押しつけ合ったりでは本末転倒だ。

Transparency and flexibility are essential for the cooperation between the government and the utility.
ここでも、透明で機動的な連携が試される。

Around the world, a growing number of nuclear reactors are being decommissioned because of age or economic reasons. Nuclear power generation is at a turning point.
 世界を見ても、原発は老朽化や採算割れによる廃炉が増え、新たな局面を迎えている。

If TEPCO’s new in-house entity acquires the capabilities needed to accomplish its mission as the core unit for the Fukushima cleanup work, it will help carve out a new future for the utility.
「本丸」がしっかりと力をつけていけば、次の事業展開も見えてくるはずだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 9

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日米防衛相会談 「北」への共同対処を強化せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 9:52 pm, April 09, 2014
Japan, U.S. defense chiefs focus on China, North Korea
日米防衛相会談 「北」への共同対処を強化せよ

The Japanese and U.S. defense ministers held a meeting recently in Tokyo, the fourth such talks in the

past year. We commend these top officials for their efforts not only to discuss in detail cooperation

between the Self-Defense Forces and the U.S. armed forces, but to translate the results of these

meetings into action.
 この1年で4回目の日米防衛相会談が東京で行われた。自衛隊と米軍の協力を閣僚が緊密に協議し、具体化してい

ることは高く評価できる。

In his talks with Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera on Sunday, U.S. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel said

his country would deploy two additional U.S. Navy destroyers equipped with Aegis ballistic missile

defense capabilities in Japan by the end of 2017. The move will increase the number of such U.S.

warships deployed in Japan to seven.
 ヘーゲル米国防長官は小野寺防衛相との会談で、北朝鮮の核やミサイルの脅威に対応するため、2017年までに米海

軍の弾道ミサイル防衛対応型のイージス艦2隻を日本に追加配備し、計7隻態勢にすると表明した。

We welcome efforts to bolster the U.S. Navy presence in this country, a move that will improve the

deterrent potential of the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 日米同盟の抑止力を高める米海軍の増強を歓迎したい。

In December 2012, North Korea launched a long-range ballistic missile that could reach the U.S.

mainland. In late March of this year, the reclusive state launched two intermediate-range ballistic

missiles. In preparation for further North Korean missile launches, Onodera has issued an order for the

SDF to take precautions aimed at intercepting and destroying such missiles.
 北朝鮮は一昨年12月、米本土に到達する可能性がある長距離弾道ミサイルを発射した。先月下旬にも中距離弾道

ミサイル2発を発射しており、小野寺防衛相は、さらなる発射に備え、ミサイル破壊命令を自衛隊に発令している。

The maintenance of a missile defense shield requires a sequence of quick responses, enacted over a

short span of time, and this series of events is only possible given efforts to identify early signs of a

missile launch. Measures to detect a missile launch must come first, followed by the pursuit an incoming

missile second, and then its interception.
 ミサイル防衛では、ミサイル発射の兆候の把握に加え、発射の探知、追尾、迎撃という一連の対応を短時間に行う必要

がある。

Close cooperation between Japan and the United States in such an event demands the sharing of

pertinent information between the two countries, as well as an appropriate division of roles for dealing

with the situation. This cooperation is crucial in ensuring that the missile defense system serves its

intended purposes.
その実効性の向上には、日米双方が情報を共有し、適切に役割分担して連携することが欠かせない。

For years, the Maritime Self-Defense Force and the U.S. Navy have maintained close cooperative

relations. Further strengthening their ties promises to improve the nations’ missile defense capabilities.
 海自と米海軍は長年、密接な協力関係にあるが、その関係を一層深めることで、ミサイルへの対処能力が高まるはずだ

Stronger Japan welcomed

Speaking of recent actions by the Japanese government to reinterpret provisions of the Constitution in

relation to the right to collective self-defense, Hagel said the United States “encourages” and “supports”

such initiatives.
 集団的自衛権に関する日本の憲法解釈見直しの動きについて、ヘーゲル長官は「その努力を奨励し、支持する」と明言

した。

The Northeast Asian security environment has grown even more demanding as a result of arms

buildups by North Korea and China, eager to flex their military muscles. We believe that strengthening

the Japan-U.S. alliance through adaptations in the Japanese government’s interpretation of the

Constitution offers great promise for peace and security, not only in our nation but also across the whole

of Asia.
 北朝鮮や中国の軍備増強や示威活動によって、北東アジアの安全保障環境は一段と厳しくなっている。解釈変更によ

って日米同盟を強化することは、日本だけでなく、アジア全体の平和と安定を確保するうえで大きな意味を持つ。

We hope the government and the ruling parties will work quickly to build a consensus around the issue,

thereby ensuring that the nation's highest law is interpreted in a manner that would allow Japan to

exercise its right to collective self-defense.
 政府・与党は、集団的自衛権の行使を容認する方向で合意形成を急いでもらいたい。

Another significant outcome of the talks was the opposition of both Onodera and Hagel to China’s

attempts to subvert the status quo by force, and the reiteration of the fact that the Senkaku Islands are

included in the sphere covered by the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty.
 防衛相会談で、中国の「力による現状変更」に反対し、尖閣諸島が日米安保条約の対象であることを再確認したこと

は重要だ。

As the U.S. defense secretary said in connection with the Ukraine situation, no country must be allowed

to change its national borders by threat of force in the 21st century. The international community,

including Japan and the United States, must unite in addressing the Ukraine crisis.
 ヘーゲル長官がウクライナ情勢に関連して指摘した通り、21世紀において、力による威嚇を背景にした国境線の変更は

許されない。日米を含む国際社会全体が結束して対応しなければならない。

After his Tokyo trip, Hagel visited Beijing for talks with his Chinese counterpart, Chang Wanquan.

During that meeting, the U.S. defense secretary reportedly blasted China for its unilateral establishment

of an air defense identification zone in the East China Sea last year.
 日本に続き中国を訪問したヘーゲル長官は、常万全国防相と会談した。中国が昨年、東シナ海で防空識別圏を一方

的に設定したことを厳しく批判したという。

The United States has called on China to work to improve the transparency of its military capacities,

which are known to include cyberattack capabilities.
 米国は、中国に対し、サイバー能力を含む軍事力の透明性の向上に努めるよう呼びかけている。

It is also important for Japan to remain in step with the United States and to use available channels to

encourage such transparency from China.
 日本も米国と共同歩調を取り、様々なルートで中国への働きかけを強めることが大切である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 9, 2014)

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国民投票法改正 7党合意の提案は確かな一歩

The Yomiuri Shimbun 9:52 pm, April 09, 2014
7-party bill on constitutional revision procedure a step forward
国民投票法改正 7党合意の提案は確かな一歩

Seven ruling and opposition parties have jointly submitted a bill to revise the National Referendum Law,

which stipulates procedures to amend the Constitution, to the House of Representatives.
 自民、公明、民主など与野党7党が、憲法改正の手続きを定めた国民投票法改正案を衆院に共同提出した。

Members of the seven parties, including the ruling Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito as well as

the opposition Democratic Party of Japan, account for more than 90 percent of the lawmakers in both

houses of the Diet. The bill is expected to be enacted during the current Diet session.
 所属議員は、衆参両院の9割超を占めている。今国会で成立する見通しだ。

The seven parties spent many days in intensive and careful discussions before reaching an agreement

on the bill for joint submission. We wish to express great praise for their efforts.
 与野党が協議を重ね、共同提案に至るまで丁寧に合意を形成したことを前向きに評価したい。

“This is a step forward in preparing an environment for amending the Constitution,” said Hajime

Funada, chairman of the LDP’s Headquarters for the Promotion of Revision to the Constitution. A revision

of the Constitution by the Diet’s initiation requires the approval of at least two-thirds of the members of

each house prior to a special referendum. We ask the parties not to squander this cooperative

momentum.
 自民党の船田元憲法改正推進本部長は「憲法改正に向けて環境作りが一歩前進した」と指摘した。国会による憲法

改正の発議は、衆参各院の3分の2以上の賛成が必要となる。今回の連携の機運を大事にしていかねばならない。

The bill stipulates that the voting age for national referendums will be set at 20 or older, but the age

will be lowered to 18 or older four years after the enforcement of the bill.
 改正案は、国民投票の投票年齢について、当面は「20歳以上」とし、改正法施行の4年後、自動的に「18歳以上」に

なるとした。

In line with the move, the seven parties and another opposition party also plan to lower the voting age

stipulated under the Public Offices Election Law to 18 within two years. The eight parties have agreed to

establish a project team on the issue. We would like to encourage them to maintain their schedule in

achieving that goal.
 公職選挙法の選挙権年齢に関しても、2年以内に国民投票に合わせて「18歳以上」へ引き下げることを目指す。与野

党は、そのためのプロジェクトチームを設置することで合意した。期限内に実現してもらいたい。

There is also some question as to whether the legal age of adulthood should be lowered to 18 from 20,

as currently stipulated in the Civil Code. The eight parties said they would discuss this issue as well in

the project team, but they avoided setting a specific date for such a change. They should not be faulted

for this decision because discussions on the issue have not progressed in the Diet, and also because the

impact of lowering the adulthood age on society would likely be enormous.
 もう一つの懸案である民法の成人年齢を18歳に引き下げる問題もこのチームで検討するというが、期限は明示していな

い。国会で議論が進まず、社会への影響も大きい以上、やむを得まい。

Clarify public workers’ role

When the ruling camp compiled a draft for the bill on revising the referendum law, it initially included a

clause banning government employees from participating in organized campaigning soliciting people to

vote, conducting signature-collecting campaigns and holding demonstrations.
 公務員の国民投票運動について、与党案には当初、組織的な勧誘や署名、示威運動を禁止する規定が盛り込まれ

ていた。

However, to the disappointment of many, this clause was omitted due to opposition from the DPJ, a

party backed by labor unions such as the All-Japan Prefectural and Municipal Workers’ Union and by the

Japan Teachers’ Union. Instead, a supplementary provision was added to the bill, which said the ban on

group activities would be an issue subject to further discussions.
 自治労や日教組の支持を受ける民主党が強く反対したために、これが削除され、法案の付則で検討課題とされたのは

残念だ。

The political activity of public employees is limited under the National Civil Service Law and the Local

Civil Service Law, in order to preserve political neutrality and secure equity in the execution of public

services.
 公務員は、政治的中立性や公務の公平性確保の観点から、国家公務員法と地方公務員法などで政治活動が規制

されている。

If their political activities are permitted unconditionally just because such referendums make crucial

decisions concerning amendments to the Constitution, it will inevitably create a variety of problems. The

ruling and opposition parties must come up with a plan to impose some manner of limitations on the

political activities of government employees before a referendum is carried out.
 憲法改正に関する重要な国民投票だからといって、公務員の政治活動を無制限に認めれば様々な問題が生じよう。与

野党は国民投票の実施前までに一定の歯止めをかける方策を考える必要がある。

Another issue left undecided is whether to introduce a preliminary national referendum system for

matters presumably subject to constitutional amendments. The ruling and opposition parties decided to

shelve the issue, saying it will be discussed periodically in the commissions on the Constitution in both

houses of the Diet.
 憲法改正の「対象となり得る問題」について、予備的な国民投票制度を設けるかどうかも、宿題の一つとされていた。与

野党は、衆参の憲法審査会で定期的に議論するとして、先送りした。

We are afraid that once the scope of the national referendum expands to issues other than the direct

constitutional amendments, it could muddle national politics. We urge the parties to discuss the issue

carefully.
 国民投票を憲法改正以外にも拡大すると、国政に混乱をもたらさないか。慎重に検討すべきだ。

Despite the fact that problems have been left unsolved, the process for revising the Constitution will

become tangible with the passage of the bill on revising the National Referendum Law.
 課題はなお残るとはいえ、憲法改正の手続きは、今回の改正案が成立すれば道筋がつく。

We now need to shift to the content of the constitutional amendments. Discussions on the issue have

long been stalled. The next issue to consider is how to propel the stalled discussions forward.
 停滞している憲法改正の中身の議論をどう動かすか、考えねばならない次のテーマである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 9, 2014)

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2014年4月 9日 (水)

(社説)技能実習拡充 これでは出稼ぎ労働だ

April 09, 2014
EDITORIAL: Labor policy message to foreigners; Thanks. Now go home
(社説)技能実習拡充 これでは出稼ぎ労働だ

In a nutshell, the thinking behind the government’s emergency policy for the construction industry is: Despite the nation’s serious labor shortage, young people don’t want jobs, which forces us to rely on foreigners. But we don’t want them to settle in Japan permanently. So we will extend the period they can work in Japan up to double the current limit. But we will ensure they go home after the period expires.
 人手不足は深刻なのに、若者らは就職してくれない。ならば外国人に頼るしかない。ただ、定住してもらっては困る。日本で働ける期間を最長2倍に延ばすが、必ず帰国させる。
 政府が建設分野で決めた緊急対策は、突き詰めればそういうことになる。

Will such an impromptu measure work?
 こんな場当たり的な対応でうまくいくだろうか。

Central to this policy is the Technical Intern Training Program for foreigners. The purpose of this program is to aid newly emerging nations and developing countries by developing their personnel resources through work experience in Japan for a maximum of three years.
 対策の中心は、外国人技能実習制度である。人づくりを通じて新興国や途上国の発展を支援することが目的で、3年を上限に働いてもらう仕組みだ。

The government also combines this program with the visa residential status named “Designated Activities,” which is issued to foreign nationals, such as amateur athletes, domestic servants employed privately by diplomats, and those in the Technical Intern Training Program.
Under this visa status, foreigners who have completed the program will be able to stay in Japan for an additional two to three years. The government says this is a temporary arrangement that will remain in effect until fiscal 2020, the year of the Tokyo Summer Olympics.
 そこに「特定活動」という在留資格をからませる。在日外交官の家事使用人やアマチュアスポーツ選手らに出してきたビザで、技能実習を終えた人にも2~3年の滞在を認める。東京五輪が開かれる2020年度までの限定措置という。

About 150,000 foreign nationals are currently working under the Technical Intern Training Program in all fields. But the original purpose of “aiding developing nations” has become blurred, and the program now serves in reality as a means to cover the domestic labor shortage with foreigners.
 技能実習制度で働く外国人は全分野で約15万人。「途上国支援」という目的はかすみ、国内の人手不足を埋める手段になってきたのが実態だ。

Under this program, many problems have come to light, such as illegally long working hours, nonpayment of wages and human rights violations, including physical abuse.
 法律を無視した長時間労働や賃金の不払い、暴力などの人権侵害もたびたび明らかになっている。

The Diet has discussed these matters, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications has issued directives to the parties concerned, and the International Labor Organization and the U.S. Department of State have issued reports, all repeatedly urging the Japanese government to fix the situation.
国会での議論や総務省の勧告、国際労働機関(ILO)や米国務省の報告書など、内外から対策をとるよう繰り返し促されてきた。

The government has finally decided that only reputable organizations and companies should be allowed to join the program, and that the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism and the construction industry should exercise greater oversight.
 政府は今回、受け入れ窓口となる団体や実習先の企業を優良なところに限ったり、国土交通省や建設業界による監視を強めたりすることを決めた。

But we believe the government’s foremost priority now should be to eradicate the problems. The move to accept more foreigners is not limited to the construction sector.
だが、まずは問題の根絶に全力をあげるべきではないか。
 外国人の受け入れを拡充しようという動きは、建設分野にとどまらない。

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party has come up with a set of proposals, including extending the duration of the Technical Intern Training Program from the current three years to five years, raising the foreign trainee quota, which is currently determined by the number of employees on each company’s payroll, and expanding the sectors subject to the program to other fields, including nursing care.
 技能実習の期間を3年から5年に延ばす。企業の従業員数に応じて決まる実習人数の枠を広げる。対象業種を増やし、介護分野などを加える――。

The government’s Council on Economic and Fiscal Policy and the Industrial Competitiveness Council are now studying these proposals.
自民党はこんな提言をまとめ、政府も経済財政諮問会議や産業競争力会議で検討を始めた。

However, the government is reluctant to accept foreigners as workers on a full-scale basis and allow them to settle permanently in Japan as immigrants, insisting that the matter has nothing to do with immigration and that the issue needs to be further debated by the public.
 一方で、労働者の本格的な受け入れと定住、いわゆる移民問題には及び腰だ。「移民は考えていない」「国民的な議論が必要」などというだけだ。

By overseas standards, the argument can be made that anyone who works in a foreign country for five or six years is none other than an immigrant. Given the reality of the work performed by foreign nationals under the Technical Intern Training Program, the Japanese government’s claim that they are basically “trainees” will not be accepted by the international community.
 海外の基準に照らすと、5年も6年も働く外国人は移民にほかならないという見方がある。働き方の実態をみれば、「実習が基本だから」という理屈は国際的に通用しないだろう。

As for the government’s haste to expand the Technical Intern Training Program in disregard of the many problems this entails, a concerned source offered this criticism: “It looks as if the government is simply trying to increase the number of migrant workers.”
 多くの問題を放置したまま技能実習の拡充を急ぐ政府に対し、ある関係者は「まるで出稼ぎ労働の拡大だ」と批判する。

We wonder how the Abe administration will respond to that criticism.
 安倍政権は、この指摘にどう答えるのか。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 6

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渡辺代表辞任 8億円の使い道がまだ不明だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 6:50 pm, April 08, 2014
Watanabe must give public full explanation of ¥800 million loan
渡辺代表辞任 8億円の使い道がまだ不明だ

Yoshimi Watanabe, leader of Your Party, said Monday he would step down as head of the opposition party to take responsibility for the scandal that has arisen over ¥800 million in loans that he received.
 みんなの党の渡辺代表が、8億円の借入金問題の責任を取って辞任を表明した。

But Watanabe has yet to clear up all doubts. It is by no means reasonable to sweep all suspicions under the carpet simply because of his resignation as party head.
 だが、疑惑は払拭されていない。これで幕を引くことは、許されまい。

At a press conference Monday, Watanabe said, “I accept full responsibility for all the anxiety and the trouble I have caused through media reports on the matter.”
 渡辺氏は記者会見で、「一連の報道で心配、迷惑をかけた。責任はすべて私にある」と語った。

He was probably unable to hold out any longer against calls for his resignation and the criticism he faced both within and outside the party.
 党内外からの辞任圧力や批判に抗しきれなかったということだろう。

As he has skirted his responsibility to explain, citing his “poor physical condition,” and brought disarray to the party, his decision to step down is reasonable.
「体調不良」などを理由に、説明責任を果たさず、党の混乱を自ら招いた以上、代表辞任は当然の判断である。

Watanabe stressed he had already repaid in full the outstanding balance of the loans—roughly ¥550 million—he received from the chairman of a cosmetics company. But the matter cannot be settled by merely repaying the loans.
 渡辺氏は、未返済分の約5億5000万円を化粧品製造販売会社の会長に返したと強調したが、それで済む問題ではない。

The crux of the matter is his intent in having borrowed the money and what it was used for.
 肝心なのは、資金提供を受けた趣旨と、その使途の解明だ。

The company chairman said recently he had “lent the money [to Watanabe] as use as campaign funds” shortly before the 2010 House of Councillors election and again for the 2012 House of Representatives election.
 会社会長は、参院選と衆院選の直前に「選挙資金として貸した」と証言した。

The chairman also said that shortly before the 2012 lower house election he received an e-mail from Watanabe, asking him to extend a loan in connection with the election.
渡辺氏から衆院選直前にメールが届き、選挙情勢に絡めて融資を依頼されたとも明らかにしている。

Yet Watanabe’s income and expenditure reports on political funds and campaign expenses make no mention of the ¥800 million. If what the company chairman says is true, Watanabe may have violated the Public Offices Election Law.
 ところが、渡辺氏の選挙運動費用と政治資金の収支報告書に8億円の記載はなかった。会長の説明通りだとすれば、公職選挙法などに違反する可能性がある。

Did party head break law?

During his press conference, Watanabe said he had borrowed the money as an individual and that there was no legal issue. He also explained, “There is no system under which we are required to make an income and expenditure report concerning political activity when we engage in such activity using funds out of our own pockets.”
 これに対し、渡辺氏は辞任会見でも「個人の借り入れだ」「法的な問題はない」と主張した。「ポケットマネーを使って政治活動をしている場合、その収支については、(報告すべき)収支報告書の制度がない」とも説明した。

If this is his explanation, Watanabe should provide a clear account of how he spent the money.
 そう言うのなら、その使い道をきちんと示すべきだ。

He claimed it was spent as expenses for drawing up policies, for collecting information and for traveling to various places. This explanation is clearly short on specifics.
「政策策定や情報収集、いろいろな所に出かけるための費用」とするだけでは具体性に欠ける。

It is also extremely unreasonable that his explanations have changed so markedly from his earlier claims.
 言い分が大きく変化したのも、不可解である。

Previously, he said he used all the borrowed money, but later he said about ¥500 million was kept in his wife’s bank account. If he cannot give a reasonable account of what he spent the money on, he can only be perceived as trying to evade the issue.
これまで、借入金は使い切ったとしていたが、約5億円は「妻の口座に保管していた」と説明を変えた。使途を説明できないための言い逃れと見られても仕方ないのではないか。

When reporters asked him to explain the e-mail that the chairman cited as evidence, Watanabe said he was unable to confirm the contents of the message, as he had no record of the message. This is hardly a convincing explanation.
 会長が証拠として挙げたメールについて、渡辺氏が「記録が残っていないので確認ができない」と釈明したのも納得できない。

Enhancing the transparency surrounding money in politics is an important factor in winning people’s trust in the political process. Watanabe, however, has failed to make any such effort.
 政治とカネの問題について透明性を高めることが、国民の政治への信頼につながる。その努力を渡辺氏は怠っている。

An investigation is under way at Your Party over whether there are legal issues in Watanabe’s case, based on the bank books he has submitted. The party, for its part, must assume full accountability.
 みんなの党は、渡辺氏から銀行通帳の提供を受けて、法律上の問題がないかどうか調べている。党としても十分説明責任を果たさなければならない。

Your Party, which has been ridiculed as being a “private shop” run by Watanabe, is now facing an existential crisis.
 渡辺氏の「個人商店」と揶揄やゆされてきたみんなの党は、存亡の危機に直面している。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 8, 2014)

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日豪EPA合意 TPP交渉も市場開放決断を

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:07 pm, April 08, 2014
Japan-Australia EPA accord must lead to accelerating TPP talks
日豪EPA合意 TPP交渉も市場開放決断を

Realizing liberalization of high-level trade and investment with Australia—a major power in the agricultural and energy sectors—is of great significance.
 農業とエネルギー分野の大国である豪州との間で、高いレベルの貿易や投資の自由化を実現する意義は大きい。

During their summit meeting Monday, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and visiting Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott reached a broad accord on the conclusion of a bilateral economic partnership agreement.
 安倍首相とアボット豪首相の首脳会談で、7年に及ぶ日豪経済連携協定(EPA)交渉がようやく大筋合意した。

The accord, which came after seven years of negotiations, calls for Japan to lower tariffs on Australian beef imports from the current 38.5 percent to around 20 percent. Australia, on the other hand, will abolish 5 percent tariffs on Japanese car imports.
 日本が豪州産牛肉に課している輸入関税を現行38・5%から20%程度に引き下げる。豪州は日本車に対する関税5%を撤廃する。これが最大の柱である。

Specifically, tariffs on frozen Australian beef for processing will be reduced to the 19 percent range over a period of 18 years, and chilled beef, which competes with domestic products, will be brought down to the 23 percent level over 15 years.
 加工用に使う冷凍牛肉を18年かけて19%台に下げる一方、国産と競合しやすい冷蔵牛肉は15年で23%台にするという。

The agreement came as U.S. beef has been catching up with Australian beef, increasing its share of Japan’s beef imports to about 30 percent compared to Australia’s 50 percent.
 合意に至った背景には、日本の輸入牛肉のうち、約5割のシェアを持つ豪州産を約3割の米国産が追い上げている事情がある。

In a bid to gain an advantage in the competition with the United States, Australia has made the concession of agreeing to tariff cuts that take effect over a long period without calling for Japan to abolish tariffs. Canberra apparently put priority on working out an agreement.
 豪州は米国との競争を有利にしようと、関税撤廃は日本に求めず、長期間での引き下げも容認した。合意を優先したのだろう。

The accord will make it possible for Japanese consumers to purchase Australian beef at lower prices. Australia is the second-biggest importer of Japanese automobiles, following the United States, and its elimination of tariffs on Japanese car imports will serve as a tailwind for Japanese carmakers.
 日本の消費者はより安価な豪州産牛肉を購入できるようになる。豪州は米国に次ぐ日本車の輸出先であり、車の関税撤廃は日本メーカーに追い風と言える。

A chance to break impasse

Attention is now focused on how the bilateral accord will affect multilateral negotiations on a Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement, which have had rough goings. The Japan-Australia accord should be used to accelerate talks with the United States, which has taken a hard-line stance, thereby breaking the stalemate in TPP talks.
 焦点は、今回の合意が、難航している環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉にどんな影響を与えるかである。強硬姿勢を続ける米国との交渉を加速し、膠着こうちゃく状態を打破するきっかけにすべきだ。

Ahead of U.S. President Barack Obama’s visit to Japan late this month, Tokyo and Washington have resumed TPP talks. Akira Amari, state minister in charge of the TPP talks, will enter negotiations with U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman in Tokyo on Wednesday.
 今月下旬のオバマ大統領来日に向けて、日米協議が再開した。甘利TPP相とフロマン米通商代表が9日から東京で協議する。

The Liberal Democratic Party has been insisting on treating five trade categories—including rice and beef/pork—as exceptions to tariff elimination. But the United States has not made any concessions, instead emphasizing tariff abolition.
 自民党がコメ、牛肉・豚肉など重要5項目を関税撤廃の例外扱いとするよう求めている問題では、米国は撤廃を主張して強硬だ。

The TPP is aimed at promoting free trade, thereby giving an impetus to growth in Asia. Without relaxing after the agreement with Australia, Tokyo must seek to find a realistic compromise with Washington for further market opening.
 TPPは自由貿易推進でアジアの成長に弾みを付ける狙いがある。日本は日豪合意に安堵あんどせず、一層の市場開放へ、米国と現実的な妥協点を探らねばならない。

Abe and Abbott also agreed to launch bilateral negotiations on joint development of defense equipment. To begin with, the two countries will undertake joint research on the fluid dynamics of vessels.
 日豪両首脳は、防衛装備品の共同開発について交渉を開始することで合意した。まずは、船舶の流体力学分野に関して共同研究を進めることになった。

Deepening cooperation in the security field by the two countries, both allies of the United States, can be lauded as contributing to stability in the Asia-Pacific region as a whole.
 ともに米国を同盟国とする両国が安全保障分野で協力を深めることは、アジア太平洋地域全体の安定にも寄与すると評価できる。

Taking into consideration the new three principles on transfer of defense equipment, the Japan-Australia accord on joint research must lead to improving defense technology and curbing development costs.
 新しい「防衛装備移転3原則」を踏まえ、防衛技術の向上や開発費の抑制にもつなげたい。

Abe aslo invited Abbott to a special meeting of a Japanese version of the National Security Council. Nurturing the relationship of trust between top leaders will lead to reinforcing Japan-Australia security cooperation and the tripartite security ties involving the United States.
 安倍首相は今回、国家安全保障会議(日本版NSC)の特別会合にアボット首相を招いた。首脳同士の信頼関係を醸成することは、日豪や日米豪の安保協力をより強固なものにするだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 8, 2014)

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2014年4月 8日 (火)

日豪EPA―TPP交渉の突破口に

April 08, 2014
EDITORIAL: Japan-Australia trade deal could lead to TPP breakthrough
日豪EPA―TPP交渉の突破口に

Japan and Australia reached a basic agreement on a trade accord on April 7 after seven years of negotiations that began during Shinzo Abe’s first tenure as prime minister.
 日本とオーストラリアの経済連携協定(EPA)交渉が、大筋でまとまった。第1次安倍政権が着手してから、7年での合意である。

Under the economic partnership agreement (EPA), the Japanese import tariff on Australian beef, the focus of the negotiations, will be lowered to around 20 percent from the current 38.5 percent. The tariff reduction will be implemented in stages to cushion the impact on domestic livestock farmers.
 焦点だった豪州産牛肉の輸入関税は、今の38・5%を20%前後に引き下げる。段階的に実施するなど、国内の畜産農家に配慮する。

Australia is a major exporter of a broad array of farm products, including beef, and a key participant in negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade liberalization accord.
 豪州は牛肉をはじめ農業の生産・輸出大国であり、環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉の主要メンバーでもある。

The TPP talks, which involve a dozen Pacific Rim countries, have bogged down with Japan and the United States in deep disagreement over whether some exceptions to the principle of tariff elimination should be allowed. Although Tokyo wants to make five items, including beef, a “sanctuary” exempted from the principle, Washington is adamantly insisting on the elimination of all tariffs without exceptions.
 そのTPP交渉では、牛肉を含む重要5項目を「聖域」とする日本に対し、米国が関税の撤廃を強く求め、手詰まり状態にある。

Australia and the United States are rivals in beef exports to Japan. The Americans probably want to avoid allowing the EPA between Tokyo and Canberra to put American beef exporters at a disadvantage in the Japanese market. The bilateral deal is likely to affect the U.S. strategy for the TPP talks.
 豪州と米国は、牛肉の対日輸出でライバル同士だ。日豪間の合意を受けて、米国からの輸出が不利になる事態は、米国も避けたいはずだ。TPPでの交渉態度にも影響を及ぼそう。

The Japanese government should use the agreement with Australia to make a breakthrough for rapid progress in its TPP negotiations with the U.S. government. Since the TPP initiative calls for a high level of trade liberalization, its negotiations are inevitably more grueling than those for the Japan-Australia EPA. But negotiators should pay attention to the global trend in trade talks toward allowing the governments involved to take necessary policy measures while cutting tariffs.
 日本は、今回の合意を突破口に、米国との交渉を急いでほしい。高い水準の自由化を掲げるTPPでは日豪EPA交渉より厳しいやりとりが避けられないが、「関税を下げつつ、必要な対策をとる」というのが国際的な潮流でもある。

In fact, the history of Japan’s farm trade policy since it lifted quota restrictions on beef imports in 1991 shows that policy challenges facing the Japanese government have not been simple either-or issues like whether to maintain or lower tariffs and whether to protect domestic farmers or allow them to be forced out of business.
 実際、91年に日本が牛肉輸入を自由化してからの推移を見ると、「関税の維持か、引き下げか」「国内農家の保護か、壊滅か」という単純な二者択一の図式ではないことがわかる。

Production of domestic beef, which accounts for 40 percent of Japan's beef consumption, has been stable, unaffected by events like the discovery of cases of mad cow disease in the United States. Japanese beef, typically “kuroge wagyu” beef from breeds of cattle with black hair, which constitutes nearly half of domestically produced beef, has successfully differentiated itself from imported beef in market positioning.
 日本の牛肉消費の4割を担う国産牛の生産は、米国産牛の牛海綿状脳症(BSE)発生などにも影響されず、安定している。国産牛の半分近くを占める黒毛和牛を中心に、輸入牛肉との差別化が進んでいる。

Meanwhile, the number of farmers raising beef cattle in Japan has declined to slightly less than 30 percent of the figure before the liberalization of the market. On the other hand, the number of beef cows per farmer has more than tripled during the same period. As the Japanese tariff on beef imports has fallen gradually to 38.5 percent from 70 percent at the time of liberalization, the scale of beef cattle farming in Japan has grown steadily.
 一方、肉用牛を飼う農家は自由化時の3割弱まで減り、一戸あたりの飼育頭数は3倍強に増えた。輸入牛肉への関税が自由化時の70%から38・5%へと下がる一方で、農家の大規模化は着実に進んだ。

This is a good example of how farmers can survive sharp cuts in tariffs, which lower import prices, by enhancing the competitiveness of their products, although it should be noted that generous government subsidies have also played an important role.
 手厚い補助金が奏功した面があるとはいえ、関税の引き下げと農家の生き残り・体質強化が両立しうる具体例と言えるのではないか。

Japanese exports of wagyu, although still small in amount, are slowly increasing.
 日本からの和牛の輸出は、まだまだ少ないものの、増加傾向にある。

One serious problem for the future of Japanese cattle farming, however, is the high and rising average age of farmers, combined with a lack of successors. There are concerns that production of Japanese beef will decline gradually in the coming years.
 ただ、肉牛農家でも高齢化と後継ぎ不足は深刻で、生産量がじり貧になりかねないと心配する声が漏れる。

The government should pursue two main goals in negotiating EPAs. First, the government should make sure that Japanese consumers will have more diverse options by slashing tariffs. At the same time, it should take measures, including the effective use of subsidies, to support domestic farmers so the industry will be able to depend more on exports of its products.
 関税を引き下げて、消費者に多様な選択肢を用意する。補助金を有効に使いつつ国内農家を支え、輸出も行える産業に強化していく。
 これが、経済連携交渉に臨む際の基本である。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 8

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:今なお苦しむ多くの人 /東京

January 12, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Don't forget those still suffering from 2011 triple disasters
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:今なお苦しむ多くの人 /東京

I went to Iwaki, Fukushima Prefecture, at the end of last month to hold a seminar for public officials who have been working hard for disaster recovery following the massive earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. The seminar is something I have been holding since the disaster to provide psychological care for municipal officials.
 年末に福島県いわき市へ行ってきた。東日本大震災以来、細々と続ける「自治体職員の心のケア」に関係したセミナーを開催したのだ。

Particularly in Fukushima Prefecture where many residents have had to evacuate and municipal offices have had to move in the wake of the nuclear power plant disaster, municipal officials are worn out.
自治体職員は大震災が発生してからというもの、十分な休みも取れずに激務をこなしている。特に福島県では原発事故により、多くの住民が避難していたり役場そのものも離れた市町村に移っていたりしていて、職員の疲労も尋常ではない。

Before the seminar, I visited the prefectural towns of Tomioka and Naraha where many residents are still unable to return. I could only enter areas that are designated as "zones preparing to lift evacuation orders" and "residency restriction zones."
 セミナーの前、多くの住民が避難を続けている富岡町や楢葉町などを訪ねた。足を踏み入れられるのは「避難指示解除準備区域」や、立ち入りはできるが避難が求められている「居住制限区域」だ。

I saw decontamination work being carried out in many places. While some workers were using heavy machines and high pressure washers, most people I saw were collecting leaves and scraping soil with bamboo brooms and deck brushes.
 あちこちで除染作業が行われていた。重機や高圧洗浄機を使っている人もいるが、ほとんどの人が手作業で行っている。竹ぼうきやすきのような道具で落ち葉を集めたり土を削ったりしている。

Meanwhile, even at large parks and on wide roads, it looked like only a few people were working on decontamination.
広い公園や長い道路でも、作業に携わっている人は数人ずつに見える。

When I saw such a small number of workers, I thought, "They can only get so much done in a day." Workers must also feel exhausted when they see areas that have yet to be decontaminated after working all day and wonder, "When will it ever end?"
これでは1日に作業できる面積は、ごくわずかなはずだ。作業員も一生懸命働いて、ふと顔を上げてまだまだやっていない場所が残っているのを見たら「いったい、いつ終わるのだろう」と、大きな疲れを感じるのではないだろうか。

Of course, they are not the only ones who are wondering if decontamination work will ever end. Nearly 85,000 evacuees from those zones cannot return home until decontamination work is completed.
 もちろん、「いつ終わるのか」と思っているのは作業員だけではない。8万5000人近い避難区域からの避難者は除染作業が終わらないと帰還できない。

Just as I was visiting these evacuation zones, I heard on the car radio that the Ministry of the Environment decided to extend the duration of decontamination work under the direct jurisdiction of the government for a maximum of three years. The ministry had announced in January 2012 that decontamination work would be completed in all 11 municipalities subject to the cleaning plan by the end of fiscal 2013.
 ちょうど私が避難区域を訪れている時に、乗っていた車のラジオから「国直轄の除染について、作業期間を最大で3年間延長すると環境省が発表した」というニュースが聞こえてきた。2012年1月に環境省が示した工程表によれば、11市町村すべての対象地域で13年度中に作業が終了することになっていたのだ。

There are over 10 municipalities in Japan with areas that people can't enter, let alone live, with many residents forced to stay in evacuation. Such a fact should be treated as the top news story each year.
 日本の10以上の市町村に人が住むことのできない地域、立ち入ることさえできない地域がある。まだ大勢の人たちが避難生活を余儀なくされている。これは毎年の重大ニュースでトップになり続けてもいいほどの問題だ。

However, the three-year extension of the decontamination plan was not the top news story on the radio; instead Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's visit to Yasukuni Shrine was the main news story.
 それなのに、「除染作業終了が3年延長」は、その時聞いたラジオニュースのトップではなかった。トップは安倍総理の靖国神社参拝だったのだ。

How Japan functions as part of the world is important, but many people in this country are suffering from domestic problems and feeling hopeless. Some are in the midst of turmoil caused by the triple disasters. I am determined not to forget about these people in this new year.
 世界の中で日本がどうあるべきか。もちろんこれは大切な事だ。しかし、日本の中にも苦しんでいる人や、失望している人が大勢いる。今なお大震災や原発事故の影響の真っただ中にいる人も少なくない。新しい年も、その事は忘れないようにしたいと思う。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年01月07日 地方版

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「ポスト定年世代」考える /東京

January 19, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Time for young people to take center stage
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「ポスト定年世代」考える /東京

While there are still a few days left until the campaign for the Feb. 9 Tokyo gubernatorial election kicks off on Jan. 23, so far candidates who are 65 or older are getting all the attention. Some candidates are in their 70s and 80s. If they worked at a private company, they would have been retired a long time ago.
 東京都知事選が行われる。23日の告示まではまだ間があるが、現時点で立候補意思を示したり、話題になったりしている人たちの中心は65歳以上。70代や80代の人もいる。会社勤めならとっくに定年退職しているはずの年齢だ。

Just as I was watching TV during the New Year holiday, former Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone and Yomiuri Shimbun Chairman Tsuneo Watanabe appeared on the air, discussing various issues Japan is facing. They are 95 and 87, respectively. Although they are considered conservatives, their strong passion for international cooperation and world peace made their points very convincing.
 新年にテレビを見ていたら中曽根康弘氏と渡辺恒雄氏の対談番組を放映していたが、このお二人は95歳と87歳だ。保守派といわれる方々だが、国際協調や平和に対しての強い思いがあり、発言には強い説得力があった。

Meanwhile, the young, from those in their teens to their 30s, claim that they keep getting a bad deal in life because they were born in the midst of the decades-long recession. They also have to face problems with the aging population and declining birth rate. People in this age group might not have a guaranteed pension and it's hard for them to climb up the corporate ladder because the older executives remain in power. Some even struggle to find regular full-time employment. The young sometimes slam the older generation for "hanging onto their vested interests."
 10代から30代の若い世代は、自分たちは不況が始まってから生まれ、少子高齢化のあおりも受け、損ばかりしていると言う。年金も受給できる保証がないし、組織の重要なポストにも年配者が居座って、なかなか自分たちにチャンスが回ってこない。それどころか、正社員の仕事さえ見つけるのが難しい。若者は、上の世代のことを「既得権益にすがる老害」などと呼ぶこともある。

However, when opportunities rise, those in post-retirement age are usually the ones who raise their hands to do the job. Some might argue that young people don't have opportunities, but I often hear people say things like, "The person in their 30s I asked to take the director position firmly declined my offer" and "Nobody raised their hands to serve as the chair when we invited applicants among the young."
 しかし、いざとなると「よっしゃ、私が」と出てくるのは、結局のところ“ポスト定年世代”。若い人には声がかからないからだ、と言う人もいるが、あちこちから「30代の人に組織の代表を、と依頼したけれど固辞された」「下の世代から委員長を募ったけれど、手が上がらなかった」といった声が聞こえてくる。

The younger generation may have sensed from the massive volume of information they have access to that responsible positions are not worth it. Some think that they don't want to fail and embarrass themselves and some might value freedom over a career or social status.
 責任ある立場についても「労多くして実り少なし」なのではないか、ということが情報量の多い若い人たちには読めているのかもしれない。「失敗して恥をかきたくない」「地位よりも自由がほしい」と思っている人もいるのだろう。

Nevertheless, it's sad that every time something big happens, we see the older generation on center stage.
とはいえ、いつまでも「何かがあると表に出てくるのは65歳以上」ではあまりにも寂しい。

As I was rambling on about such a cultural environment to my friends, they asked me, "Wait, what about your generation that falls in between the old and young?"
 そんなことを知人に話したら、「ちょっと待って。若者が表に出てこないと言う前に、間の世代に当たるあなたたちはどうなの」と言われた。

Indeed. We haven't seen people in my age group, in their 50s, or those in their 40s, who are eager to take responsibility for society since Osaka Mayor Toru Hashimoto emerged on the scene.
確かに、私のような50代やすぐ下の40代からも、考えてみれば橋下徹大阪市長以降、「社会を背負って立つ」と意気込むリーダーが出てきていない。

I wonder if we, under the age of 60, would become interested in standing up and taking action after we hit that age where we are free from roles in an organizational structure, or if we would continue to hesitate to take center stage no matter how old we become.
 “アンダー60”の私たちも組織での役割から解放される年代になれば、「私がひと肌脱ごう」と立ち上がるのだろうか。それとも、幾つになっても、「いや、私は矢面には立ちたくないんで」と尻込みし続けるのだろうか。

In any case, we need to think about what we should do to change the cultural tendency where people rely on the post-retirement age group to take on responsible jobs.
いずれにしても「責任ある役割は、ポスト定年世代にお任せ」という風潮をどこかで変えるためには何をすべきかについても、私たちはもっと考えていく必要があるようだ。

〔都内版〕

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年01月14日 地方版

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:受験はあくまで本人次第 /東京

January 26, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Exams are tests for students not their parents
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:受験はあくまで本人次第 /東京

This year's national center test for university admissions has ushered in the university entrance exam season in Japan. I take part in proctoring exams and work as an interviewer during the season, as I teach at universities on top of seeing patients at hospitals. The serious looks on the faces of test-takers and interviewees, I must admit, even make me nervous.
 大学入試センター試験も終わり、いよいよ本格的な入試シーズンが始まった。病院だけではなく大学でも仕事をしている私は、毎年入試の監督や面接官をするのだが、受験生の真剣な表情を見ると、こちらまで緊張してしまう。

Recently, it has become quite normal for examinees' parents and guardians to accompany their children to universities and colleges where entrance exams take place. Some parents just take their children to and from the exam venues while others wait inside school buildings, such as cafeterias, until the exams are over.
 そして今や、わが子の大学入試に両親ら保護者が付き添うのも、ごく当たり前の風景になった。行き帰りの送迎だけを担当している様子の保護者もいれば、試験時間中には学生食堂などの控室で、じっと待っている人までいる。

A few years ago, a patient with depression told me that her daughter was taking university entrance exams that year. "I hear mothers accompany their children to the universities where they will be taking tests, but I can't do that because of my health problems. I feel sorry for my daughter," said the patient.
 何年前だったか、うつ病で通院中の患者さんから、こんな話をされたことがある。
 「うちの娘も今年は大学受験なんです。他のお子さんは、大学まで母親が付き添うようなのですが、私は体調がすぐれないので付いていけません。娘に寂しい思いをさせてしまい、申し訳なく思っています」

I forgot that I was her psychiatrist for a moment and told her my story, remembering the time when I was a high school student who was taking university entrance exams.
 私は精神科医という職業も忘れ、かつて自分が受験生だった時代を思い出して思わずこう言った。

"I was desperately trying to decline my mother's offer to come with me. I thought I wouldn't be able to perform well with her there, worrying too much, asking me if I was all right or telling me that I absolutely had to pass the exam," I said to my patient.
 「えー、私なんて母親が、『付いていこうか』と言うのを断るのに必死でしたよ。ただでさえ心配性の母が一緒に来て『大丈夫か』とか『絶対、受かって』とか言われたら、うるさくてたまったものじゃないと思いましたよ」

This is a true story. I yelled at my mother who told me to do my best on the morning of the exam day, when I already knew that I had to do my best.
 これは本当の話だ。がんばらなければならないのはよくわかっているのに、受験に出かける朝、母親に「がんばってね」と声をかけられて「黙っててよ!」と、声を荒らげてしまったこともある。

Maybe my patient's daughter felt the same way I did and was relieved that her mother was not coming to the exam with her.
もしかすると、その患者さんの娘も「放っておいてほしい」というタイプで、自分の母親が受験に付き添えないことで、むしろホッとしているかもしれない。

When I look around the cafeteria during lunch time on days of the exams, some examinees have hand-made lavish lunches while others eat rice balls from a convenience store. I have never seen, however, those who had hand-made lunches answering all the exam questions at top speed after lunch time. I suspect that how well people do on a test is not a result of how involved their parents are.
 昼休みに見渡してみても、手作りの豪華なお弁当を開いている人もいれば、コンビニで買ってきたおにぎりを食べている人もいる。だからといって、午後からの試験で“手作りお弁当”の受験生が、猛スピードで答案用紙を埋めている、というわけでもない。試験の出来、不出来と、親がどのくらい関わったのかは、あまり関係ないのではないだろうか。

I do understand that some parents want to support their children as much as possible when they are going through something as important as university entrance exams and job interviews. Nevertheless, it doesn't mean that children do not succeed unless their parents help them.
 大切なわが子の大学受験や就職活動で、力になってあげたいと思う親がいるのは理解できる。とはいえ、親が力にならなければ良い結果が出ない、ということはない。

I wish everyone who will be taking university entrance tests and interviews the best during this exam season. I also hope their parents understand that succeeding in exams depends on the test-takers themselves.
 大学受験や就職試験は、あくまで本人のがんばり次第。このことは、すべての保護者にわかってほしいな、と思いながら、受験生たちの健闘を祈る私である。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年01月21日 地方版

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:他人の立場で考えよう /東京

February 02, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Learn to put yourself in someone else's shoes
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:他人の立場で考えよう /東京

I often hear stories from both sides of two opposing parties at my clinic: parent and child, wife and husband and mother-in-law and daughter-in-law. I do think both sides have a point, but I regularly have trouble figuring out what they should do to resolve their differences so that they can have a better understanding of each other.
 診察室にいると相対する立場の人から「それぞれの言い分」を聞く機会がある。親と子。妻と夫。いわゆる姑(しゅうとめ)と嫁。そのたびに「もっともだ」と納得しながらも、「どうすればわかり合えるのか」と頭を抱えてしまう場合も少なくない。

Among those battles, I think "working mothers vs. single women at work" is one of the most troubling relationships.
 違う立場同士の関係の中でも難しいのが、「職場での妊娠あるいは育児中の女性とシングル女性」なのではないか。

Many women today continue working during their pregnancy and after giving birth. At the same time, I often hear working mothers and working mothers-to-be suffering from what is called "maternity harassment" -- where employers or bosses ignorantly say things like "Wouldn't it be easier if you didn't work?" or force heavy work on pregnant staff without consideration of their health. It is a pity that those women have to suffer from harsh comments at work and be given the cold shoulder.
最近は妊娠、出産しても仕事をやめずに頑張ろうという女性が多い。しかし、妊娠しながら働く女性に上司が「退職すれば?」などと言ったり、体調を考慮せずに重労働を命じたりする「マタニティー・ハラスメント」で苦しむ話をよく聞く。「仕事と家庭、両立を」と意気込んでいても、心ない人の冷たい視線や言葉に傷ついてしまうのは気の毒だ。

On the other hand, I see many single women becoming worn out after taking the workload of their colleagues who have children or are pregnant. A patient of mine, who suffered from depression as she kept having to take over her colleague's unfinished tasks because the colleague left work early to pick up her children from daycare, once said, "Even if I work extra for my co-worker who has kids, people only praise her. They would say, 'Oh, she works hard and manages to take care of her kids.' It's not that I want to be admired, but I feel like I've been told I'm unworthy because I don't have a child." I understand where my patient was coming from.
 一方で、子育て中で短縮勤務制度などを利用する女性の陰で、負担のしわ寄せで息切れするシングル女性もいる。「保育所のお迎えが」と、早めに会社を出る同僚の分の仕事を引き受け、うつ状態に陥って診察室に来た女性が言っていた。「その人の分まで仕事をやってあげても、周囲が口にするのは『育児と仕事、頑張ってるよね』という彼女へのほめ言葉ばかり。自分もほめられたいわけじゃないが、何となく『子どもがいない人は価値がない』と言われているような気がして肩身が狭くなる」。こうした言い分もよくわかる。

Working mothers have it tough, but that doesn't mean that all single women enjoy their freedom and have nothing to worry about. Some people are not married, even though they wish they were, for different reasons.
 子育て中の女性も大変。でも、シングル女性が自由を謳歌(おうか)し、何の苦労もないかと言えばそれは全く違う。自分も結婚や出産を、と望んでいても、さまざまな事情やタイミングでできない人もいる。

It's only natural, if we think about it, that both sides have their own troubles, but when people are preoccupied with their own business, they tend to lack the thoughtfulness to understand what others must go through.
考えてみれば、「どちらもそれなりの苦労、悩みがあるよね」というのはごく当然のことなのに、みんな自分のことで精いっぱいになると立場の違う人のことを想像できなくなってしまうのだ。

We should not claim "Look at me! I work so hard!" all the time at work or home and think about what others are going through. I sometimes wish there was a "national pat-on-the-back day" when people can acknowledge and appreciate each other.
 家庭でも職場でも、「私ってこんなに大変」と思ったり主張したりするばかりでなく、互いが自分と異なる立場にある人のことを考えて「あなたも頑張ってるんですね」と言い合う日があればいいのに、などと空想する。

While some advocates are pushing to make ethics courses compulsory at school again, where children learn about manners and patriotism, I would like schools to teach students how to walk in someone else's shoes. Just keeping in mind that "that person too has their own troubles" should help people reduce everyday stress.
Let's start being considerate of others by recognizing each other's hard work.
義務教育で道徳教育の復活を、という声が高まっているが、礼儀や愛国心などを学ぶだけではなく、ぜひ「他人の立場に自分を置いて考える」という練習もしてほしい。「あの人も、きっと苦労があるんだろうな」とお互いが考えてみるだけで、日常のストレスは激減するはずだ。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年01月28日 地方版

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温暖化報告書 排出削減策と適応策を両輪に

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:32 pm, April 07, 2014 World must reduce emissions, employ adaptation measures 温暖化報告書 排出削減策と適応策を両輪に The international community has the urgent task of cooperating in working out measures to curb the onslaught of damage caused by global warming.  地球温暖化による被害をいかに抑えるか。国際社会が協力し合い、対策を急がねばならない。 The U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) compiled a report on the ramifications of and measures against global warming at a general meeting held last month in Yokohama.  国連の「気候変動に関する政府間パネル(IPCC)」が、地球温暖化の影響と対策に関する報告書を横浜市で開いた総会でまとめた。 Temperatures are expected to continue to rise over several decades. The report warned that climate change has impacted “on all continents and across the oceans” and stressed the necessity of taking “adaptation measures” to reduce damage on the premise that the Earth will continue to warm up. It was appropriate for the IPCC to address these issues with its eye on the current situation surrounding global warming.  気温の上昇は今後、数十年は止まらないという。報告書は「全大陸と海洋で影響が生じている」と警鐘を鳴らし、温暖化の進行を前提に被害を軽減させる「適応策」の必要性を強調した。  現状を見据えた適切な問題提起と言えよう。 The report by the IPCC, comprising scientists from around the world, will be a basis for discussion at the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP), which lays out international rules to counter global warming. No nation should take the report lightly: All members of the international community should share the acute sense of alarm expressed in the report.  世界の科学者らで構成するIPCCの報告書は、温暖化対策の国際的ルールを決める国連気候変動枠組み条約締約国会議(COP)の議論の基になる。各国が報告書を重く受け止め、危機感を共有することが求められる。 According to the report, a 2 C rise in temperature from the level at the close of the 20th century will reduce the yields of staple crops in the tropical and temperate zones, while a rise of more than 4 C will cause a devastating global food shortage.  報告書によると、20世紀末より気温が2度上がれば、熱帯や温帯地域は主要穀物の生産量が減少する。4度以上の上昇で、世界は深刻な食料危機に見舞われる。 Accelerating global warming will strip the world of sufficient water sources and increase poverty among the people, raising the specter of conflicts across the world. From the security perspective, too, the world cannot afford to waste time in implementing adaptation measures on a global scale.  温暖化が加速すれば、水資源が不足し、貧困も拡大する。紛争の危険性が高まるだろう。安全保障の観点からも、世界規模での適応策の実行は待ったなしだ。 Utilize Japan’s experience It is worrying that Asia—home to many regions with high temperatures and humidity—is especially susceptible to the adverse effects of global warming. It is possible Asia will suffer from frequent floods due to the likelihood of heavy rains. Urban residents also are expected to face serious consequences from heat waves.  高温多湿な地域の多いアジアは、気温上昇の悪影響を強く受けやすい点も気がかりだ。大雨による洪水が頻発する可能性がある。熱波の襲来で都市部の住民は深刻な危機に直面するとされる。 Adaptation measures are imperative in numerous aspects of society, such as making farm products better withstand heat by improving varieties, establishing and enhancing systems to warn of high tides and floods, and planting trees to prevent people from suffering from heat stroke.  高温に強い農作物への品種改良、高潮や洪水に備えた警報システムの整備、熱中症を防ぐための緑化促進など、社会の様々な分野で適応策が求められる。 Japan has suffered typhoon damage many times in the past. The nation has taken a wide range of measures, such as strengthening river embankments and making hazard maps.  日本は台風の被害を数多く経験し、河川堤防の強化やハザードマップの作成といったハード、ソフト両面での対策を講じてきた。 It is hoped the nation’s experience and technology in this regard will be utilized in adaptation measures taken by developing countries. This will certainly be an effective international contribution by Japan.  その経験と技術を途上国の適応策に生かしたい。実効性のある国際貢献となろう。 COP negotiations have centered on measures to cut the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Needless to say, it is important to reduce emissions throughout the world to stop the acceleration of global warming as much as possible.  COPの交渉は、二酸化炭素など温室効果ガスの排出削減策に重点が置かれてきた。世界全体の排出量を減らし、温暖化の進行を可能な限り食い止めることが重要なのは、言うまでもない。 Furthermore, the world must deepen discussions on adaptation measures. Enormous funds are needed to curb widespread damage from global warming. At stake is how advanced nations can provide support to developing nations with weak financial foundations.  それに加え、今後は適応策の議論も深めていく必要がある。広範な被害を抑えるには莫大ばくだいな費用を要する。財政基盤の弱い途上国に対する先進国の支援策などが、大きな課題となる。 Steadily cutting emissions and taking adaptation measures to fight global warming would be a realistic approach to address a hazard that affects the entire world.  排出削減策と適応策を両輪に、温暖化対策を着実に進めていく。それが、世界共通のリスクに対処する現実的な道筋だろう。 (From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 7, 2014)

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特養待機者急増 在宅支援の拡充が不可欠だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:52 pm, April 07, 2014
Elderly need more at-home support as waiting lists for special facilities grow
特養待機者急増 在宅支援の拡充が不可欠だ

The figure now stands at 524,000. That is how many elderly people are on waiting lists for admission to special nursing care homes, according to a survey by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry. The number has increased by more than 100,000 since a similar survey was conducted four years ago.
 52万4000人――。厚生労働省の調査で明らかになった特別養護老人ホームの入居待機者の数だ。4年前の調査より10万人以上増えた。

More must be done to get people off these waiting lists.
 待機者の解消に力を注がねばならない。

The number of people waiting to be admitted almost matches the total number of inhabitants in special nursing care homes across Japan. Although the capacity of these homes is increasing, the truth is that it cannot keep up with the rising demand for spots at these facilities caused by the aging of Japan’s society.
 待機者数は、全国の特養ホームの総定員数、つまり入居者数とほぼ同じだ。定員は増えているが、高齢化に伴う需要増に供給が追いついていないのが現状である。

Especially disconcerting is that 87,000 elderly people are waiting at home to be admitted to these special homes despite being officially recognized as requiring care level 4 or 5—the two levels with the greatest requirements for long-term care.
 特に問題なのは、要介護4、5の重度者でありながら、自宅で待機している人が8・7万人にも達していることだ。

The government has submitted to the current Diet session a bill to amend the Nursing Care Insurance Law and restrict entry to special nursing care homes to people classified as requiring care level 3 or higher from fiscal 2015.
 政府は、2015年度から特養の入居要件を要介護3以上に限定する介護保険法改正案を今国会に提出している。

There is no option but to limit entry to these homes to people who have the greatest need for such care.
 入居の必要性が高い人に対象を絞り込むのは、やむを得まい。

Many elderly people want to stay at these homes because they can receive care around the clock and the facilities are relatively cheap compared with fee-based nursing homes and other similar facilities. For low-income people in need of long-term nursing care, these special homes are generally their only choice.
 特養は24時間介護が受けられる上、有料老人ホームなどに比べて低料金であるため、入居希望者が多い。低所得の要介護者が入れる施設は、特養にほぼ限られる。

However, even among the services covered by nursing care insurance, special care for the elderly is quite expensive, which places a heavy financial burden on the central government and local authorities. Massive construction costs are also sometimes required, which has hampered the establishment of some facilities.
 だが、介護保険の対象サービスの中でも特養の費用は割高で、国や自治体の財政負担は重い。多額の建設費が必要なこともあり、整備はなかなか進まない。

Difficulty finding land

This is especially so in large cities, where land prices are high. The difficulty in acquiring land makes it even harder to build new special nursing care homes, which is why the Tokyo metropolitan area and other major cities are home to many elderly people on waiting lists.
 特に、地価が高い大都市部では、用地取得が困難で、特養の新設は、より難しい。首都圏などに待機者が多いゆえんである。

We urge local governments to leave no stone unturned in the search for land and buildings suitable for these nursing homes. Perhaps, for example, they could be set up on the vacant grounds of merged or abolished schools, or on a floor of a condominium building.
 統廃合された学校の跡地利用や、マンションの一部フロアでの開設など、自治体は、特養向けの用地や建物の確保に知恵を絞ってもらいたい。

Given that it will not be easy to quickly construct the sheer number of special nursing care homes currently required, it is all the more important to provide excellent at-home nursing care services to handle the needs of the elderly.
 特養の大幅な増設が容易でないことを考えれば、受け皿となる在宅介護サービスの充実が、ますます重要な課題となろう。

Many elderly people wish to continue living in areas where they have resided for many years. Doing so will require providing an environment in which they do not rely on care facilities and instead can continue to live at home with peace of mind.
 住み慣れた地域で暮らし続けたいと願う高齢者は多い。施設頼みを脱し、在宅生活を安心して続けられる環境整備が求められる。

In concrete terms, they need a system that provides integrated medical and nursing care services, even at night. The welfare ministry and local governments must upgrade and expand the provision of 24-hour home-visit nursing services and home-based medical care.
 具体的には、医療・介護サービスが夜間も含め、一体的に提供される体制が必要だ。厚労省と自治体は、24時間対応の訪問介護・看護や在宅医療の拡充を進めなければならない。

Elderly people who want to live at home also will need assistance with things like shopping and meal deliveries, and people to regularly check up on them.
 在宅生活を支えるには、見守りや配食、買い物などの生活支援も不可欠である。

To provide proper services while keeping a lid on costs, local governments should proactively utilize volunteer groups, nonprofit organizations, private-sector companies and other entities.
費用を抑えつつ適切なサービスが提供されるよう、自治体はボランティアやNPO、民間企業などの活用に、積極的に取り組むべきだ。

Finding and retaining enough care workers is also a pending concern. The wages earned by nursing care staff are low despite their heavy responsibilities and tough working conditions, so many walk away from the industry before long. Improving the treatment of these workers is an urgent task.
 介護の担い手確保も懸案となっている。介護職員の賃金は、責任の重さや厳しい労働条件の割には低水準で、早期の離職者が多い。処遇改善が急務である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 7, 2014)

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2014年4月 7日 (月)

集団的自衛権―砂川判決のご都合解釈

April 07, 2014
EDITORIAL: LDP twisting Supreme Court ruling to push collective self-defense
集団的自衛権―砂川判決のご都合解釈

The ruling camp, resorting to twisted logic and a far-fetched argument, is flirting with the idea of using a landmark 1959 Supreme Court ruling to promote its controversial defense policy initiative.
 牽強付会(けんきょうふかい)とはこういうことをいうのだろう。

Some policymakers within the government and the Liberal Democratic Party are maneuvering to use the top court’s ruling over the so-called Sunagawa Incident as a legal basis for the proposal to allow Japan to exercise its right to collective self-defense.
 集団的自衛権の行使容認に向け、政府や自民党内で1959年の砂川事件の最高裁判決を論拠にしようという動きが出てきた。

They argue that the ruling, which focused on the constitutionality of the presence of U.S. forces in Japan, did not ban the nation from using its right to collective self-defense.
「判決は集団的自衛権の行使を否定していない」というのがその理屈だ。

But the Supreme Court decision has not been interpreted by experts to have any such implication for this issue. This is simply a twisted, self-serving interpretation of the ruling by these lawmakers.
 だが、この判決は、専門家の間ではそうした理解はされていない。都合のいい曲解だ。

The incident took place in 1957 in Sunagawa (currently part of Tachikawa) in western Tokyo. Amid demonstrations against the expansion of the U.S. Tachikawa base, several protesters, including students, entered the base and were arrested and later indicted on charges of violating a special criminal law based on the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty.
 事件が起きたのは57年。米軍旧立川基地の拡張に反対する学生らが基地に立ち入り、日米安保条約に基づく刑事特別法違反で逮捕・起訴された。

The Tokyo District Court acquitted the protesters of all charges on grounds that the presence of U.S. military forces in Japan violated Article 9 of the Constitution.
 東京地裁は米軍駐留は憲法9条に反するとして無罪にしたが、最高裁はこれを破棄。

But the Supreme Court overturned the district court’s ruling, arguing that the foreign forces did not represent the military capabilities Article 9 prohibits Japan from maintaining. The top court, however, avoided deciding on the constitutionality of the bilateral security treaty, introducing the “theory on the acts of government,” which says the courts should not pass legal judgments on highly political issues.
外国軍は9条が禁じる戦力には当たらないとする一方、安保条約の違憲性については「統治行為論」によって判断を避けた。

Asserting that Article 9 did not deny Japan the right to defend itself from armed attacks, the Supreme Court ruling went on to say:
 判決は、9条が固有の自衛権を否定したものではないとしたうえで、こう述べる。

“It is indisputable that, as an act of exercising its proper powers as a nation, Japan is allowed to take self-defense measures that are necessary for maintaining its own peace and security and ensuring its existence.”
 「わが国が自国の平和と安全を維持し、その存立を全うするために必要な自衛のための措置をとりうることは、国家固有の権能の行使として当然」

Referring to this part of the ruling, LDP Vice President Masahiko Komura has claimed that the Supreme Court acknowledged Japan’s right to defend itself without distinguishing between “collective” and “individual” self-defense.
 これをとらえ、自民党の高村正彦副総裁は「最高裁は個別的、集団的を区別せず自衛権を認めている。

“There is a sizable leap (of logic) in the Cabinet Legislation Bureau’s argument that Japan cannot use its right to collective self-defense,” Komura said.
内閣法制局が『集団的自衛権は使えない』というのはだいぶ飛躍がある」と語る。

Komura effectively made the case that Japan should be allowed to exercise its right to collective self-defense as part of its minimum necessary defense capability.
集団的自衛権も必要最小限なら認められるというわけだ。

The top court’s ruling came five years after the Self-Defense Forces were established. At that time, there was heated debate at the Diet over the exact meaning of the military power Japan was banned from possessing under Article 9 and whether the SDF was constitutional or not.
 判決が出たのは、自衛隊発足から5年後。9条が保有を禁じている戦力とは何か、自衛隊は合憲なのかどうかが国会で盛んに議論されていたころだ。

The key issues in the trial of the protesters who entered the U.S. military base were whether U.S. forces in Japan were the military power as defined by Article 9 and whether a court should be allowed to decide on the constitutionality of a treaty. The question of whether Japan has the right to collective self-defense was not debated in the trial.
 裁判の争点は、在日米軍が戦力にあたるのか、裁判所が条約の違憲性を審査できるか否かというところにあった。日本の集団的自衛権の有無が争われたわけではない。

Natsuo Yamaguchi, chief of New Komeito, the LDP’s junior coalition partner, recently said his understanding is that the Supreme Court’s ruling only acknowledged Japan’s right to individual self-defense. He is correct.
 公明党の山口代表が「個別的自衛権を認めた判決と理解してきた」と語る通りだ。

New Komeito should not accept the LDP’s self-serving argument.
公明党は、自民党の身勝手な理屈を受け入れるべきではない。

If the Supreme Court’s ruling over the Sunagawa Incident had acknowledged Japan’s right to collective self-defense, it would have been reflected in the Cabinet’s interpretation of the Constitution that was established in ensuing years. But that is not the case.
 砂川判決が集団的自衛権を認めているならば、その後に確立されていった内閣の憲法解釈にも反映されて当然なのに、そうはなっていない。

Acting as if it were underpinned by the authority of the Supreme Court, the LDP is brandishing an interpretation of the top court’s ruling that has not been taken seriously by legal experts. This political ploy could give the public incorrect material for judgment about such an important issue.
 学説としてまともに取り上げられていない解釈を、あたかも最高裁の権威に裏付けられたかのように振りかざすのは、誤った判断材料を国民に与えることになりかねない。

With its move toward Japan’s involvement in collective self-defense criticized for running roughshod over the principle of constitutionalism, the LDP probably wants to use the Supreme Court ruling as a powerful justification for the cause. But such a gross distortion of the ruling can never help the party persuade the public to support the initiative.
 「立憲主義に反する」と批判される自民党にしてみれば、最高裁判決を錦の御旗にしたいのだろう。だが、こんなこじつけに説得力があるはずもない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 6
2014年4月6日(日)付

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:6万人の大学中退者 /東京

February 09, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: University dropouts may be another social issue
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:6万人の大学中退者 /東京

Every time there is a faculty meeting at a university where I teach, we are informed about students who have taken semesters off or left the education facility. I recognize some of the names that appear in reports that get collected after the meeting. Although reasons behind leaving the university are not explained in detail, my heart aches when things like "financial reasons" are mentioned in the papers.
 大学での教授会では毎回、「学籍移動」という名で学生の休学や中退などの報告がある。会議後回収される書類に記されている氏名の中には、見覚えのある学生の名も少なくない。休学に至った詳しい経緯は説明されないが、「経済的理由」などの記載があると「奨学金で何とかならなかったのか」と胸が痛む。

University dropout rates at private schools are estimated at around 3 percent, which means at least 60,000 college students give up on their studies each year. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology recently decided to investigate the reality of university dropouts at public and private schools.
 全国の私大の中退率は推定3%前後。年間で少なくとも6万人以上の学生が、せっかく入った大学を中退していると見られる。文部科学省は全ての国公私大で中退者の実態調査を行う方針を決めた。

I'm not saying that all students who leave universities are problematic. I have had a student who chose to quit college because she wanted to study confectionery in France. I tried to persuade her to stay at the university, telling her she still had time to pursue her dream after graduation, but she was so sure about her decision and didn't want to waste any more time now that she had found what she wanted to do in life. It would be senseless to tell her that a university diploma might come in handy if things didn't go as planned.
 もちろん、全ての中退が問題というわけではない。私がこれまで教えた学生の中でも、「どうしてもフランスでお菓子作りの修業がしたい」として中退を選んだ女性がいた。いったんは「卒業してからでも」と引きとめてみたのだが、「やりたいことがやっと見つかったのだから、これ以上足踏みしたくない」と決意は固かった。彼女のような場合に「もし、挫折したときのために大学卒の学歴を」などと言うのは、やぼというものだろう。

In reality, however, such a positive case is rare. In most cases, students have no choice but to quit university as they can't pay for tuition or they have to take care of their family members. Others decide to drop out because they can't keep up with classes or they are no longer motivated to study.
 実際にはこういう前向きなケースは多くなく、ほとんどが「授業料が払えない」「家族の介護」といった本人以外の事情か、あるいは「授業についていけない」「やる気がなくなった」という、いわゆる本人のドロップアウトによる中退だ。

The latter group especially will likely have a hard time moving forward with their lives and some may become hermits. I often see patients in their 20s who claim to suffer from depression write down "didn't complete university" as their educational background in pre-clinic evaluation questionnaires.
特に後者の場合、中退後も道を見つけられず、ニートや引きこもりになる場合もある。うつ症状を訴えて診察室にやって来る20代の問診票にも「大学中退」という文字をよく見る。

Universities now offer services to prevent students from dropping out. In some schools, teachers call students who continue to miss classes and even visit their dorms. It has come to a point where it's no use preaching about how university students are supposed to be adults.
 どの大学もドロップアウトを防ぐために策を講じている。中には欠席が続く学生に教員が電話をしたり、下宿先にまで訪ねて行ったりする大学もあるようだ。「大学生といえばもう大人なのに」という“正論”は言っていられない状態だ。

Some people say that taking care of those students like they are little kids would only interfere with their independence. I sometimes see patients in their 40s and 50s who have never been independent from their parents. The parents, meanwhile, have continued to take care of their children, thinking they would snap out of it someday.
 「いつまでも子ども扱いし、手取り足取り面倒を見ることが逆に自立を阻んでいる」という考えもある。実際に診察室へ40代、50代になっても親がかりという人が時々来るが、彼らの親たちは「今に目覚めるだろう」と思いながら世話を続け、「手の引きどころ」を逸してしまうようだ。

Until what age should a person be treated as a child is an everlasting problem that is unique particularly to rich societies. People around those who are thinking about leaving university need to encourage them to keep attending classes -- at least for the short-term. Finding out ways to reduce the number of university dropouts is yet another social puzzle that Japan must solve.
 一人の人間をどこまで子ども扱いして面倒を見るかは、特に豊かな社会においては永遠の課題だ。ただ、少なくとも夢破れて大学中退を考えている学生には、誰かが「もう少し頑張ってみよう」と声をかける必要がある。年間6万人の中退者をどう減らすか。悩ましい社会問題が、また一つ現れた。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年02月04日 地方版

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:誰もが感動依存症? /東京

February 17, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Are we all addicted to drama?
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:誰もが感動依存症? /東京

A symphony that was supposed to have been composed for the sake of the souls of the Hiroshima bombing victims by a deaf musician turned out to have been created by someone else. The fraud didn't stop there, as the musician turned out to have been passing off songs written by the other person as his own for 18 years.
 聴覚を失った音楽家が作ったはずのヒロシマ鎮魂の交響曲は、実は別人が作ったものだった。それどころか替え玉による作曲は18年にも及んでいた。

After hearing that the symphony supposedly for the Hiroshima victims was originally written as a song that had nothing to do with Hiroshima or the atomic bomb, I went from angry to flabbergasted.
その交響曲も、もともとは広島や原爆と関係ない作品だったというのだから、怒りを通り越してあきれてしまう。

I myself was one of those who attended that symphony. I was moved by it and joined a standing ovation when the "composer" appeared on stage at the end. He was supposed to have been not only deaf, but suffering from all kinds of ailments. He walked on stage with a cane and his arm in a bandage, and the sight moved some in the audience to tears.
実は私もそのコンサートに出かけ、迫力ある曲に感動し、最後に登場した“作曲家”に立ち上がって拍手を送った一人。聴覚だけではなく全身にいろいろな病があるとかで、腕には包帯、つえをついて歩く姿に涙を流している聴衆もいた。

After the news about the fraud came out, I gave a fresh listen to a CD of the symphony, and though it was as solemn a piece as ever, it did not move me like it had before. It also started to sound to me like it was a patchwork of several other famous compositions, as one critic has alleged.
 事が発覚してから、交響曲のCDを聴き直してみた。重厚な作品であることは変わりないが、やはり感動は半減。ある評論家が言っていたように、確かにさまざまな名曲をつなぎ合わせて作ったようにも聞こえてくる。

While part of me thinks the whole thing was an awful fraud, part of me wonders, "What, then, was I so moved by before?" The fact that it sounds shallow after hearing that it was made by someone other than whom I thought may mean that I was not moved by the piece itself, but by the story of it coming from a deaf composer.
 「ひどい話だ」と思いながらも、「では以前は何に感動していたのだろう」とも思う。「別の人が作っていました」とわかっただけで薄っぺらく聞こえてしまうということは、その作品にではなく、あくまで「聴覚障害がありながら生まれた作品」という物語に感動していたということなのだろう。

Many years ago, I heard from someone involved with classical music production that "lately, you can't sell a CD just with a good composition or performance. You have to have a story, like that the performer is burdened by some personal tragedy or is battling some difficult-to-treat disease."
 もう何年も前、クラシック音楽CDの制作に携わる人から聞いたことがある。「最近はただ名曲、名演奏というだけではCDは売れない。演奏家が悲劇を背負っているとか難病に立ち向かっている、といった物語がないとだめなんです」

Looking at television, it seems that there are moving documentaries being broadcast every day.
 テレビを見ても、毎日のように「感動のドキュメント」が放映されている。

Many people have shed tears and been motivated by stories of those struggling to overcome difficult circumstances like losing their family, their business collapsing, or being told they have only a limited time left to live.
会社が倒産した、家族を失った、余命を告知された−−といった困難な状況に巻き込まれ、それを乗り越えようと頑張っている姿に多くの人が涙し、励まされる。

However, at some point we may have become numbed to all the dramatic stories around us, and started demanding even more dramatic stories.
しかし、いつしか私たちは周囲にあふれる感動の物語にマヒしてしまい「もっと感動させて」と、刺激を求めすぎていたのではないか。

That may be why we embraced the story of a deaf composer who is also a second-generation atomic bomb victim.
だからこそ、「被爆2世で幾多の病と闘う作曲家」という物語に飛びついてしまったのだ。

Of course, much fault lies with the fraud musician who betrayed all those fans who had given him their sincere support.
 もちろん、純粋に応援していたファンを裏切った“作曲家”の罪は大きい。

There are many who have been directly affected, such as ice skater Daisuke Takahashi, who is performing at the Sochi Olympics to one of the songs the musician had falsely claimed as his own.
彼が作ったことになっていた楽曲で演技をするフィギュアスケートの高橋大輔選手ら、直接の被害に遭った人もたくさんいる。

But there is still something that the rest of us should think about: have we not become addicted to drama, always wanting to cry more, to be moved more?
とはいえ、私たちの側にも考えるべき問題はある。それは誰もがいま、「もっと泣きたい、もっと感動したい」という感動依存症になっているのではないか、ということだ。

Many moving tales are sure to be born of the Sochi Games, but I have mixed feelings about it.
ソチ五輪でも多くの感動物語が生まれるはずだが、ちょっと複雑な気分の私である。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年02月11日 地方版

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臨床研究不正 製薬企業と医師の根深い癒着

The Yomiuri Shimbun 11:00 pm, April 06, 2014
Ties between drugmaker, hospitals during clinical trials deplorable
臨床研究不正 製薬企業と医師の根深い癒着

It is shocking to see how entrenched the collusive ties were between a pharmaceutical company and university hospitals during clinical testing of drugs.
 製薬企業と大学病院の癒着の根深さに驚くばかりである。

An outside investigative committee commissioned by Novartis Pharma K.K. has released a report on the inappropriate involvement of Novartis employees in clinical trials of a leukemia drug produced by the drugmaker at the University of Tokyo Hospital and other medical institutions.
 東大病院などが実施した白血病治療薬の臨床研究に、販売元のノバルティスファーマ社の社員が関与していた問題で、同社の外部調査委員会が報告書をまとめた。

The report revealed that Novartis employees wrote research plans for conducting the clinical trials as well as documents explaining the trials to patients and consent forms for them to sign, showing their deep involvement in the research.
 ノバ社の社員が、研究計画書や患者向けの説明・同意文書を作成するなど、研究に深く関与していた実態が明らかになった。

What is particularly disturbing is the fact that Novartis was aware of serious side effects from the drug but did not report them to the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry—an act that could constitute a violation of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law.
 特に問題なのは、ノバ社が重大な副作用を把握しながら、厚生労働省に報告していなかった点だ。薬事法に違反する可能性がある。

This is inexcusable and tantamount to covering up damage done to the health of patients.
患者の健康被害をもみ消すかのような行為は言語道断である。

Also, Novartis’ acquisition of personal information regarding all patients who participated in the clinical testing is suspected to be a violation of the Personal Information Protection Law.
 ノバ社が患者全員の個人情報を取得したことも、個人情報保護法に抵触する疑いがある。

After the scandal surfaced, Novartis discarded survey papers written by the patients in an attempt to destroy evidence. This is unpardonable.
 不正の発覚後、患者アンケートを廃棄するなど証拠隠滅を図っていた問題も許し難い。

A criminal complaint has been filed against Novartis for tampering with clinical trial data for a hypertension treatment drug called Diovan. After this problem surfaced, Novartis decided not to allow its employees to participate in clinical research anymore, but the employees in question continued their involvement in the trial on the leukemia drug.
 ノバ社は、高血圧治療薬「ディオバン」の臨床研究データ改竄かいざんで刑事告発されている。この問題が表面化し、社員を研究に関与させないと決めた後も、白血病治療薬研究への関与は続いていた。

We must say the firm lacks ethics.
 企業として倫理観が欠如しているというほかない。

Swiss finger-pointing

The firm’s headquarters in Switzerland—Novartis AG—removed the president and two other executives at the Japanese firm from their posts, pointing a finger at the Japanese company’s corporate culture as the backdrop of the problem. We wonder, however, if there was any problem in the corporate governance of the Swiss firm itself.
 スイスにあるノバ社の本社は、日本法人の社長ら経営陣を更迭した。「問題の背景に日本法人の企業文化がある」と説明したが、本社のガバナンス(企業統治)に問題はなかったのか。

The university hospitals bear heavy responsibility for the problem. This research was supposed to be “clinical research led by doctors,” meaning doctors were to independently conduct research on the drug. In spite of this, the research was wholly orchestrated by Novartis. This shows how shallow doctors’ awareness is about the necessity of conducting research fairly.
 大学病院側の責任も重い。今回の研究は、医師が自主的に行う「医師主導臨床研究」だった。それにもかかわらず、ノバ社の丸抱えだった。研究を公正に進めるという意識が、あまりに希薄だ。

Novartis donated ¥8 million over three years to the laboratory of the University of Tokyo Hospital professor in charge of conducting the clinical test.
 ノバ社は、東大病院の担当教授の研究室に、3年間で800万円の奨学寄付金を提供していた。

The pharmaceutical company wanted to use the results of the clinical test for advertising the drug, while the university hospital wanted funding in return. Their interests could not have matched more precisely, sowing the seeds for inappropriate conduct.
製薬企業は研究成果を薬の宣伝に使いたい。その見返りに、大学病院は資金を得たい。両者の利害の一致が、不正の背景にある。

The latest scandal is similar to Novartis’ misconduct over Diovan and other research irregularities.
 ディオバン問題をはじめとするこれまでの研究不正にも共通した構図である。

The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry stipulates ethics guidelines for clinical trials, but they are not legally binding. In the wake of this misconduct, the ministry will establish a panel to consider the advisability of legally regulating clinical trials.
 厚労省は、臨床研究に関する倫理指針を設けているが、強制力はない。今回の問題を受けて、臨床研究の法規制についての検討会を発足させるという。

It is hoped that the ministry will come up with effective measures to prevent misconduct. But at the same time, it should consider whether such regulations could stifle research.
 効果的な不正防止策を打ち出してもらいたい。その際、法規制が研究の自由を縛らないかという視点を忘れてはならない。

The Science Council of Japan has suggested that a public institution be established to neutrally conduct clinical trials, a proposal that merits the ministry’s consideration of its feasibility.
 日本学術会議は、臨床研究を中立的に運営する公的機関の創設を提言した。厚労省はその実現可能性も検討すべきだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 6, 2014)

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水循環法成立 外資の森林買収に目光らせよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 07, 2014
Beware of purchases of forestland in reservoir areas by foreign capital
水循環法成立 外資の森林買収に目光らせよ

The large-scale purchase of forestland—which includes an abundance of forests in reservoir areas—by foreign capital and foreign business proxies must be prevented. A law has just been enacted as the first step toward protecting the nation’s vitally precious land.
 水源地を含む森林が外国資本などに大規模に買収される事態を看過できない。貴重な国土を守る第一歩とすべきだ。

Sponsored by a suprapartisan group of Diet members, including those from the Liberal Democratic Party, New Komeito and the Democratic Party of Japan, the so-called basic law on water circulation is aimed at conserving water resources. It won unanimous approval in the Diet.
 自民、公明、民主各党など超党派議員が提出し、水資源の保全を目的とした「水循環基本法」が、全会一致で成立した。

The basic law has defined water resources as a “highly valuable common public asset” and stipulates that both the central government and local entities must act responsibly to conserve them.
 基本法は水を「国民共有の貴重な財産」と位置づけ、政府や自治体に保全の責任があると明記した。

Also incorporated into the law is the creation of a “water circulation policy headquarters” headed by the prime minister and a stipulation calling for the government to work out basic plans for conserving water resources.
首相を本部長とする「水循環政策本部」の設置と、水保全の基本計画の策定も盛り込んだ。

It is noteworthy that the basic law has been enacted at the initiative of politicians, not bureaucrats, to clarify the stance of protecting the country’s water resources comprehensively.
 政治主導で基本法を作り、水資源を包括的に守る姿勢を明示したのは評価できよう。

Serving as one of the triggers for enacting the basic law is the fact that foreign purchases of forests, including those in headwater areas, have taken place one after another.
 基本法制定のきっかけとなったのは、外資による水源地などの森林買収が相次いだことである。

According to a survey by the Forestry Agency, during a period from 2006 to 2012 the number of forestland purchases by foreign capital stood at 68, with a combined area of about 800 hectares.
 林野庁の調査によると、外資による森林の買収は2006年から12年にかけて全国で計68件、約800ヘクタールに及んだ。

For example, it has been learned that Chinese and Hong Kong businesses have purchased forestland in Hokkaido and elsewhere.
中国や香港の外資が北海道などで森林を買収した事例が明らかになっている。

In some transactions, foreign businesses purchased forestland using Japanese firms as proxies. As the situation remains far from clear, the known instances of forestland purchases by foreign concerns should be deemed just the tip of the iceberg.
 日本企業の名義で外国企業が買収する取引もある。実態は不透明で、表面化した買収例は氷山の一角と見るべきだろう。

Ordinances insufficient

More and more local governments throughout the country are enacting ordinances to designate specially important reservoir zones and make it obligatory for potential purchasers of forestland to report in advance on the transactions. However, analysts have warned that the effectiveness of this step is limited.
 全国の自治体では、重要な水源地をあらかじめ指定し、買収の事前届け出を義務づける条例を作る動きが広がっているが、実効性には限界が指摘されている。

One major reason for this is that even though local governments can detect possible problematic forestland transactions involving either foreign or domestic businesses, it is difficult for local authorities to stop the transactions in a binding way.
 外国企業に限らず、国内企業も含めて問題がありそうな取引を察知できても、取引の中止を強制することが難しいのが一因だ。

Even in such cases where there is a risk of an excessive intake of groundwater and water contamination in forestland acquired by foreign capital, administrative guidance by authorities concerned may be ineffective. If forestland is bought by foreign capital in the vicinity of defense installations, national security could be jeopardized.
 外資が買収した森林で地下水の過剰取水や水質汚染といった事態が起きても、行政指導が及びにくい事態も懸念される。防衛施設の周辺地などが買収されれば、安全保障上の問題も起きかねない。

It is reasonable for the suprapartisan group of legislators, who showed increasing anxiety over the prevailing situation, to come up with the legislation to clarify the central government’s role in dealing with the matter.
 超党派で危機感を強め、国の方針を明確にしたのは妥当だ。

However, the basic law simply notes the need to protect water resources and falls short of reining in forestland purchases by foreign capital. This is not good enough.
 ただ、基本法が資源保護の必要性を定めただけにとどまり、外資買収に対する歯止め策までは示せなかったのは物足りない。

The central government, first of all, should promptly embark on fact-finding investigations in tandem with local governments regarding land acquisitions in headwater areas by foreign capital. The government should map out a set of rules similar to those in such countries as the United States and South Korea, which have restricted land acquisitions by foreign capital from the viewpoint of national security.
 政府はまず、自治体と連携し、外資による買収の実態把握を急ぐ必要がある。安全保障の観点から外資の土地取得を制限する米国や韓国などを参考に、具体的なルール作りを図ってもらいたい。

Naturally it is not appropriate to uniformly restrict land transactions merely because they involve foreign capital. In addition to determining which forestland should be conserved as reservoir areas and for related purposes, restrictions on land deals should be strictly limited to exceptional cases in which land acquisition is considered improper.
 もちろん、外資というだけで、土地取引を一律に制限するのは適当ではない。水源地など守るべき土地を明確化するとともに、買収目的が不適切と判断される場合、あくまで特例として取引を規制することが求められよう。

The central government should also consider extending assistance to help fund local governments’ plans to purchase tracts of land in reservoir areas to guard against their purchases by foreign capital.
 外資の買収に備え、水源地の買い取りを進める自治体を国が資金支援することも検討に値する。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 6, 2014)

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2014年4月 6日 (日)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:京のカエル、大阪のカエル /東京

面白い論説ですね。
思わず引き込まれました。
マスコミ、テレビも毛嫌いせずに、その中から真実を探す努力だって必要なんです。
(スラチャイ)

February 23, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: More than meets the eye in media selection
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:京のカエル、大阪のカエル /東京

When I get together with members of my generation, namely those around the age of 50, I sometimes feel that the people who often use the Internet and those who don't are seeing completely different worlds.
 自分と同じ世代、つまり50代前後の人たちで集まると、インターネットをよく使う人とそうでない人とで「触れている世界がまったく違う」と感じることがある。

In particular, those who regularly use the interactive tools we refer to as social media will often say things like, "Now everyone is focusing on that incident, aren't they?" Perhaps this is because they are always exchanging information with others who share their fields of interest.
特にソーシャルメディアと呼ばれる対話型のツールをよく使う人は、自分と同じ分野に関心を持つ人たちと絶えず情報交換をしているせいか、「今みんなの関心があの事件に集中しているね」などと言う。

At the same time, quite a few people in their 50s say they hardly ever use a computer.
 ところが、50代ともなると「パソコンもほとんど使わない」という人も少なくない。

For these people, social media is obviously pretty much out of the picture; rather, television and newspapers serve as their main sources for gathering information.
そうなると当然、ネットやソーシャルメディアともあまり関わらない生活なので、テレビや新聞が情報収集の中心になる。

Now, a person belonging to this group might remark, "I'd have to say at the moment that the Olympics is what draws my interest."
今であれば、「やっぱり気になるのはオリンピック」ということになろうか。

Among younger generations, far more people may say that they get their information from the Net, but it seems that for people aged around their 50s, there is roughly an equal distribution of people in the TV-newspaper and Internet camps.
 もっと下の世代になると、「情報はネットで」という人たちがぐっと増えるのかもしれないが、50代くらいではちょうど「新聞・テレビ派」と「ネット派」が半々という感じなので、

As a result, it's often the case that people from this age bracket end up on different planes when they talk to each other.
集まっても話題がかみ合わないということもしばしばある。

Sometimes things even get ugly. People who use the Internet to gather information tend to think that newspapers and TV programs don't report the truth, so when someone remarks, "I saw it on TV," they will reply, "No, you can't rely on TV!"
しかもネットを多用する人たちは、一般的に「新聞やテレビは真実を報道していない」と思いがちで、誰かが「テレビで見たんだけど」と言うと「ダメよ、テレビなんかに頼っちゃ!」と否定し、場の空気が険悪になることさえある。

I like the Internet, but I like TV too, and when I come across such situations, I am always reminded of "Kyo no Kaeru to Osaka no Kaeru," a folk tale about two frogs from Kyoto and Osaka, who decide they want to see each other's towns.
 ネットも好き、でもテレビも好きな私は、こういう場面に出くわすといつも昔話の「京(京都)のカエルと大阪のカエル」を思い出す。

Both frogs set out and cross paths on a mountain pass, where they decide to stand up to get a view of each other's town. After doing so, they conclude each town is just that same as their own one, so they abandon their journeys and return home.
これは、京のカエルが「大阪の町を見たい」と、大阪のカエルが「京の町を見たい」と思い、互いに見物に出かけ、旅路の途中の山の峠に出会ったので立ち上がって向こうを眺め、互いに「京も大阪も何も変わらんな」と言って戻ることにした、という話だ。

But there is more to the story: The frogs' eyes, being on the tops of their heads, were actually gazing back at their own towns -- the Kyoto frog was looking at Kyoto and the Osaka frog was looking at Osaka.
これにはウラがあり、カエルの目は頭のてっぺんについているので、立ち上がったときには背後が見え、京のカエルは今来た京を、大阪のカエルは大阪を見ていただけだったのだ。

The moral of the story is that when seeking to confirm something, you first have to know yourself.
 この物語の教訓は、「物事を確かめるにはまず自分自身をよく知らなければいけない」ということだが、

The same probably applies in divisions between the newspaper-TV and Internet groups.
「新聞・テレビか、ネットか」も同じだろう。

When a person declares that a particular form of media is false, it may turn out that what they were looking at and criticizing is actually the media they had been looking at to begin with.
「そっちのメディアは正しくない」と批判の対象にしているのは、実は自分が見ていたメディアのほうでした、ということもあるかもしれない。

Of course, the most desirable thing is to peruse a balanced selection of news sources, including the Internet, newspapers, magazines and television. I shouldn't have to point out that this really isn't a difficult thing to do.
もちろん、一番望ましいのは「ネット、新聞、雑誌、テレビ……と、いろいろな情報源をバランスよく見ること」なのだが、それほど難しいことではないのは、あえて言うまでもないだろう。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年02月18日 地方版

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:解決難しい「社会的孤立」 /東京

March 02, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: The difficult to solve problem of social isolation
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:解決難しい「社会的孤立」 /東京

Recent record snowfall was reported in the news as "isolating" many communities, especially in the Kanto Koshin-Etsu region.
 記録的な豪雪で、関東甲信越地方を中心とした多くの集落が「孤立」という状況に陥った。

On the website of a disaster-related government organ "isolation" was defined as "a situation where land and sea traffic routes are blocked and the movement of people and supplies is difficult or impossible."
災害に関連した行政機関のサイトで調べてみると、「孤立」とは「道路交通や海上交通による外部からのアクセスが途絶し、人の移動、物資の流通が困難もしくは不可能となる状態」を指すのだそうだ。

Even if people are connected to the world with phones and the Internet, their lives are still dependent on the roads being clear and supplies making their way in.
 いくら電話やネットは世界とつながっていても、道路が雪で埋もれモノが届かなければ生活は成り立たない。

One of my friends who was in a damaged area hit by food shortages three years ago after the Great East Japan Earthquake described what their thoughts were then: "I turned to my computer and thought, 'If there's no food around, why don't I just order a pizza?' before realizing 'What am I doing?
A pizza delivery is impossible!'
3年前の東日本大震災の際にガソリン、食料不足に苦しんだ被災地の友人は「つい、『食べ物がないならネットでピザの宅配を頼めばいいじゃないか』とパソコンに向かい、『何をやってるんだ。無理に決まってるじゃないか』と気づく。

After some time had passed, I found myself thinking about ordering water on the Internet. I can feel how the conveniences of life have sunk themselves into me."
でもまた時間がたつと『ネットで水を頼もうか』なんて思ってしまう。つくづく便利な生活が身に染み付いていたと感じる」と話していた。

In one community where the roads were finally opened after the recent snow, as mobile shopping vehicles arrived, so did television cameras. It seemed the residents had overcome their period of isolation through helping each other out.
 久しぶりに道路が開通し、移動販売の車とともにテレビカメラが入った集落では、隣近所同士で助け合って、孤立していた期間を乗り切ったようだった。

Many of the residents were elderly, but residents with any strength to spare helped with snow removal. People with stores of foods shared them with neighbors.
高齢者が多い中で少しでも体力のある人が除雪をし、食べ物の備えがあった人は近所でそれを分け合う。

Even though the isolation had lasted almost a week, the residents' faces were surprisingly cheerful. I was surprised by one resident, who seemed much younger than their age of 87.
孤立は1週間近くに及んだのに、人々の表情は意外に明るかった。「え、この人が87歳?」と驚くほど若々しい高齢者もいた。

Among the patients who come to my consultation room are people who are also isolated, but their isolation is not one of supplies. It is a social isolation of having no contact with friends, family and neighbors.
 診察室に来る人々の中にも、「孤立」に陥っている人がいる。その人たちは物資がないわけではなく、家族や友人、近所の人々との交流が途絶えている、いわゆる「社会的孤立」と呼ばれる状態にあるのだ。

Many of these patients are elderly, but there are also young ones, who find themselves socially isolated before they know it.
高齢者が多いが若い人でも、気づいたら孤立していたという人は少なくない。

These people can go to convenience stores and buy what they want online.
 この人たちはコンビニにも自由に行けるしネットで好きなモノを手に入れることもできる。

But they don't have face-to-face conversations in their daily lives and have no one to talk with about their problems.
しかし、日々の暮らしの中で面と向かって誰かと会話することもなければ、生活の中で困ったことが起きても気軽に誰かに相談することもできない。

I have had patients who have told me I am the first person they have talked to all week.
診察室で「今週、誰かと話したのは今日が初めて」と言う人もいる。

These patients have dark expressions, and some look much older than their years.
その表情は当然ながら暗く、年齢よりもずっと老けて見える人もいる。

We shouldn't compare physical isolation due to snow and social isolation and ask which of these is better.
 雪害によって生じた集落の「孤立」と、都会の中での「社会的孤立」。それを比べて、どちらがマシ、などと言うべきではないだろう。

However, while isolation due to snow can be fixed by removing the snow, help for people with no social interaction is harder to provide.
ただ、雪による道路の通行止めは除雪が進めば解除になるが、誰とも交流がない人たちへの解決策は、より難しい。

It is unfortunate, but "isolation" has become a keyword today.
うれしくないことではあるが、「孤立」が時代のキーワードになっている。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年02月25日 地方版

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(社説)領土の教育 冷静に、しっかりと

審判に背を向けるの下りはうまく翻訳されていますね。
朝日の英字もかなりレベルが高いです。
(スラチャイ)

April 05, 2014
EDITORIAL: Revised textbooks fall short in objective views on territorial disputes
(社説)領土の教育 冷静に、しっかりと

References in school textbooks to Japan’s territorial disputes with its neighbors need to be more detailed and informative than those in newly approved textbooks for elementary schools.
 おなじ取りあげるならもっとしっかり書いてはどうか。

All social studies textbooks approved for use in Japanese elementary schools from April 2015 will mention the Takeshima islets and the Senkakus, two separate groups of islands that have been the center of Japan’s bitter diplomatic rows with South Korea and China.
 来春から小学校で使われる社会の教科書で、各教科書会社がそろって竹島と尖閣諸島の領有権問題を扱った。

That’s a sharp increase from the previous screening for fiscal 2009, when only one of 17 textbooks approved by the education ministry gave space to the territorial issues.
09年度の前回教科書検定のときは1冊だけだったから、大幅な増加だ。

But all of the newly authorized textbooks offer little more than the government’s official narrative about these issues. Although both Takeshima and the Senkakus are territory that is an inherent part of Japan, the textbooks say, China claims sovereignty over the Senkakus while South Korea illegally occupies Takeshima.
 だがどの本も、竹島・尖閣は日本固有の領土だが「韓国が不法に占拠している」「中国が領有を主張している」と、政府見解をなぞった程度の書き方だ。

None of the textbooks explain the backgrounds to these disputes nor the grounds on which both sides make their cases.
対立の背景や、双方の主張の根拠には踏み込んでいない。

The authors appear to have failed to pay sufficient attention to the crucial viewpoint of whether the descriptions really help schoolchildren understand the territorial disputes.
 「子どもがこれを読んで領土問題を理解できるか」という肝心な視点が置き去りにされてはいないだろうか。

As for the dispute over the Senkakus, a group of uninhabited islands controlled by Japan in the East China Sea, the authors of one textbook originally wrote that the government is making efforts toward a solution. But the education ministry took objection to this statement, saying the government’s position is that there is no sovereignty issue concerning the Senkakus that needs to be settled. As a result, the passage was deleted.
 尖閣について「政府は解決に向けて努力を続けている」と書こうとした教科書には、検定で「尖閣に解決すべき領有権の問題は存在しない、というのが政府の立場だ」と物言いがつき、このくだりは削られた。

Children who read these textbooks will have no clear idea about why the two countries are locked in a row or understand the reasons behind China’s claims of sovereignty over the islands.
 問題が存在しないならなぜ争っているのか、中国は何を根拠に領有を主張しているのか、子どもたちはちんぷんかんぷんに違いない。

Textbooks presenting just the government’s claim that both Takeshima and the Senkakus are Japanese territory may help build a united front on these issues among Japanese, but the problems will not be solved unless Japan can sell its position to the international community. The government is acting like a team that is asking for more cheering from supporters while turning its back on the referees.
 政府見解だけ教科書に載せ、「竹島も尖閣も固有の領土だ」と身内の結束を確かめあったところで、国際社会を説得できなくては問題は解決しない。審判に背を向け、応援席に声援を求めるようなものだ。

What we should try to achieve through education on these issues is not to make children Japan’s partisan supporters, but educate them to become competent players who can contribute to settling the disputes.
 私たちが育てるべきは身びいきなサポーターではなく、問題の解決に動くプレーヤーであるはずだ。

Descriptions concerning the territorial disputes in textbooks should help children develop the ability to think calmly on their own about the issues with a clear understanding of the arguments of both sides.
双方の主張をふまえ、自分の頭で冷静に考えられる力を養うことをめざしたい。

Territorial spats are usually sticky and dangerous problems that are complicated by histories of wars, colonial rule and conflicting interests related to resources.
 領土をめぐる対立は、戦争や植民地支配の歴史や、資源をめぐる思惑が絡みついた厄介な問題だ。

As for the Senkakus, China claims Japan stole them by taking advantage of the situation created by the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. Japan, on the other hand, rebuts China’s claim by pointing out that the country didn’t protest against Japan’s effective control of the islands until 1971.
たとえば尖閣について、中国は「日清戦争に乗じて奪われた」と主張し、日本は「中国は戦後も1971年まで異議を唱えていなかったのだから、おかしい」と指摘している。

Instead of brief accounts of this dispute containing only several sentences, textbooks should devote more space to the issue and refer to key points of the cases of both countries. That would make it much easier for children to understand the difficulty of resolving the dispute.
 数行の記述ですませず、もう少し紙幅を割いてこうした双方の言い分の要点も紹介した方が子どもたちも解決の難しさを想像しやすいだろう。

If there is not enough space in textbooks for additional explanations, such information can be provided in a collection of reference materials. Or notes can be added to the text that are designed to encourage students to seek more information in newspapers or books in the school library.
 教科書のページが足りなければ資料集に盛り込んでもいい。新聞や図書館の本を使った調べ学習に導く注釈をつけるのも手だ。

Teachers, for their part, should make efforts to give children supplementary information in their classes to help them better understand the issues.
教師も教科書をおぎなう教え方を工夫してほしい。

Even though a rule has been established to require textbooks to present the government’s official positions on these issues, references can also be made, of course, to different views and opinions.
 教科書に政府見解を書かせるルールができたとはいえ、異論の紹介はもちろんできる。

There is no need for textbook authors to mince words or tiptoe around issues.
奥歯に物の挟まったような書き方をする必要はない。

In order to help children acquire the ability to develop and express their own opinions on such issues, it is vital to provide them with objective knowledge and encourage them to think on their own.
知識は客観的に教え、そのうえで自分で考えさせる。そうでなくては意見を言える子に育つまい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 5

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渡辺氏の8億円 「策略」とは論点のすり替えだ

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 05, 2014
Transparency essential to determine how politicians make use of money
渡辺氏の8億円 「策略」とは論点のすり替えだ

We wonder if he is not aware of his duties as the leader of a publicly declared political party. Yes, we are talking about Your Party leader Yoshimi Watanabe, whose unyielding attitude can be taken as a sign of skirting responsibility over his borrowing of ¥800 million.
 公党の党首としての自覚を欠いているのではないか。8億円の借入金問題で責任逃れのような態度を続ける、みんなの党の渡辺代表のことだ。

Watanabe borrowed ¥300 million just before the 2010 House of Councillors election and ¥500 million just before the 2012 House of Representatives election from the chairman of a cosmetics company. Amid growing suspicions about the purpose for which he borrowed the money, he has not been to the Diet, citing health problems, and refused to give explanations about the loans.
 化粧品製造販売会社の会長から参院選直前に3億円、衆院選の直前に5億円を借り、使途に疑惑が持たれていながら、「体調不良」を理由に国会にも姿を見せず、説明を拒んでいる。

In a document he submitted to Your Party, Watanabe said a “power struggle” is at the crux of the matter, asserting it was a ploy by Kenji Eda, who broke with the party to form Yui no To. It is hard to understand why he is making such a claim.
 渡辺氏が党に提出した文書で「問題の本質は権力闘争だ」と指摘し、離党した江田憲司・結いの党代表による「策略」だと主張していることも理解しがたい。

His stance of distorting the essence of the problem and conveniently changing the subject is simply dishonorable.
 問題を歪曲わいきょくし、論点をすり替えようとする姿勢は見苦しい。

At a press conference he held on March 27, Watanabe explained he used part of the money for conferences and travel expenses, not for funding election campaigns or political activities. “I bought a big kumade [good luck charm] at Tori no Ichi [an open-air market in Asakusa, Tokyo,]” he said.
 渡辺氏は、3月27日の記者会見で、借入金は選挙資金や政治資金に使わず、会議費や旅費などに充てたと弁明した。「酉とりの市で大きい熊手を買った」とも語った。

Later, however, he changed his story slightly, saying he had spent some of it on “personal activities as a politician and Diet member.” Why was there such a change in his explanation?
 その後、文書で「個人の政治活動、議員活動に使った」と微妙に説明を変えたのはなぜなのか。

The cosmetic company chairman testified that he received an e-mail from Watanabe just before the last lower house poll, explaining his party’s circumstances in the election and then asking for a loan. Watanabe has not provided sufficient explanation of this point.
 会社会長は、衆院選直前に渡辺氏から、選挙情勢の説明に続けて融資を求めるメールが届いた、と証言している。この点も渡辺氏は十分語っていない。

If he did indeed spend the money for the elections, it constituted a violation of the Public Offices Election Law. It therefore appears that he has been repeatedly trying to talk his way out of the situation.
 選挙に使ったのなら、公職選挙法に触れる。そのため、言い逃れを重ねているように見える。

Calls for resignation

Katsuhiko Eguchi, the party’s supreme adviser, and several younger lawmakers are asking Watanabe to resign as party head, a move which is understandable. Your Party members are alarmed that the party cannot effectively wage a campaign in the unified local elections next spring, as things stand now.
 みんなの党の江口克彦最高顧問や数人の若手議員が代表辞任を求めているのもうなずける。このままでは、来春の統一地方選を戦えないという危機感もあろう。

Secretary General Keiichiro Asao and other party executives said they would conduct an in-house investigation into how the money was spent. But it is doubtful whether investigations by members of Watanabe’s own party will be able to present results that are convincing to other people.
 浅尾幹事長ら党執行部は借入金の使途について党内で調査するとしている。だが、身内による調査で、説得力のある結果が出るかどうかは疑問だ。

Watanabe is the head of a political party that receives more than ¥2 billion a year in subsidies from state coffers. It is advisable for him to voluntarily appear before the lower house council on political ethics to give an explanation.
 年間20億円余の政党交付金を受け取る公党の党首である。渡辺氏は自ら進んで衆院政治倫理審査会で弁明してはどうか。

Watanabe’s case is extremely similar in nature to the violation of the Public Offices Election Law by former Tokyo Gov. Naoki Inose. Regarding ¥50 million he received from the Tokushukai medical group before the Tokyo gubernatorial race in 2012, Inose initially insisted that the money was a personal loan, rather than election funds.
 こうした構図は、猪瀬直樹・前東京都知事の公選法違反事件と極めて似ている。猪瀬氏は、都知事選の前に「徳洲会」側から5000万円を受け取ったことに関し、「選挙資金でなく、個人的な借り入れだ」と主張していた。

He made an about-face and admitted to investigators of the Tokyo District Public Prosecutors Office that the loan was partly for funding the campaign. Can Inose’s sin of having repeatedly deceived Tokyo residents and the metropolitan assembly be atoned for by merely paying a ¥500,000 fine?
 ところが、東京地検の取り調べに前言を翻し、「選挙資金の側面もあった」と認めた。虚偽の説明を繰り返して、都民や都議会を欺き続けた猪瀬氏の罪は、50万円の罰金だけで済まされるのか。

It is disappointing that there was no court hearing to unravel the circumstances and background of the case, for prosecutors filed a summary indictment against Inose.
 略式起訴のため、法廷で公判が開かれず、事件の経緯や背景が判明しなかったのも残念だ。

Political parties and politicians must earnestly address the issue of how to ensure the transparency of money in politics.
 政治とカネの問題で透明性をいかに高めるか。政党や政治家が真剣に取り組むべき課題である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 5, 2014)

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小学教科書検定 自国領土の学習が欠かせない

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 05, 2014
Learning about our own territories via school textbooks indispensable
小学教科書検定 自国領土の学習が欠かせない

As children are the future of Japan, it is crucial to teach them correctly about Japan’s territories through school textbooks.
 国の将来を担う子供たちに、自国の領土について、教科書で正確に教えることが大切だ。

The results of the screening of textbooks to be used at primary schools from next spring have been announced by the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry.
 文部科学省は、来春から小学校で使う教科書の検定結果を発表した。

The average number of textbook pages has increased by 9 percent since the previous screening, which was the first to be based on the new curriculum guidelines aimed at breaking from a focus on cram-free education. Detailed descriptions have been given about the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the crisis at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
 教科書の全体の平均ページ数は、「脱ゆとり教育」を図った新学習指導要領に基づく前回の検定からさらに9%増えた。東日本大震災や福島の原発事故についても、詳しく記載されている。

Of note is the fact that all five textbook publishers that applied for screening of their social studies textbooks and maps make references to the Takeshima islets in Shimane Prefecure and Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture, along with the northern territories off Hokkaido. As a result, primary school students will learn about these Japanese territories from fourth to sixth grades.
 注目したいのは、社会科の検定を申請した教科書会社全5社が、教科書や地図の中で、北方領土と並んで、島根県・竹島と沖縄県・尖閣諸島について記述していることだ。小学4年から6年までの間に、必ず学ぶことになる。

This is the first significant step toward enriching education about our territories.
 領土教育の充実に向けた意義ある一歩である。

Descriptions differ from textbook to textbook, but they all clearly mention that the Takeshima and Senkaku islands are either “territories inherent to Japan” or “Japan’s territories.”
 記述の仕方は教科書により異なるが、「日本固有の領土」「日本の領土」と明記している。

Concerning Takeshima, they mention that it has been “illegitimately occupied” or “occupied” by South Korea. In reference to the Senkakus, they point out that Chinese fishing boats have repeatedly intruded into the territorial waters around the islands, over which China also claims sovereignty.
 竹島に関しては、韓国が「不法に占拠」「占領」と記し、尖閣諸島では、領有を主張する中国の漁船が領海侵入を繰り返しているなどと指摘した。

Facts to be taught

These facts are the minimum of what students should know.
 いずれも、最低限知っておかなければならない事実だろう。

Among social studies textbooks currently in use at primary schools, there is only one textbook that includes descriptions of the Takeshima and Senkaku islands.
 小学校の現行の社会科教科書で、竹島と尖閣諸島について記述しているのは、1点しかない。

As for textbooks for middle and high schools, the education ministry in January revised instruction manuals for curriculum guidelines, which are used as the criteria for textbook editing, and decided on a policy of teaching that the Takeshima and Senkaku islands are “territories inherent to our country.”
 中学校や高校の教科書については、文科省は、今年1月、教科書編集の指針となる学習指導要領の解説書を改定し、竹島と尖閣諸島が「我が国固有の領土」であるとする指導方針を決めている。

The inclusion of descriptions about territorial matters has been decided by textbook publishers on their own initiative, but it can be said that the decision was in line with the intentions of the government.
 小学校の社会科教科書にこうした領土に関する記述が盛り込まれるのは、各社の自主的な判断によるものだが、政府の意向に沿ったものとも言えよう。

Criticizing the screening results of Japanese school textbooks, the South Korean Foreign Ministry said, “If Japan continues provocation over Dokdo [the Korean name for Takeshima], a path to improvement of Korea-Japan relations will become more distant.” The Chinese Foreign Ministry called for Japan to “cease provocations.”
 今回の検定結果について、韓国外交省は、「独島(竹島の韓国名)に対する挑発を続けるなら、韓日関係改善の道は遠ざかることになる」と批判した。中国外務省も、「挑発するのをやめるよう求める」と反発している。

The assertions of the two countries are unjust because they are based on a mistaken view of the facts.
 いずれも、誤った事実認識に基づく、不当な主張だ。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga brushed aside the two countries’ criticism, saying that the textbooks “mention nothing except facts that are taken as matters of course.” Education is an internal issue and is not supposed to be a matter with which other countries are allowed to meddle.
 菅官房長官は、教科書に「ごく当たり前のことを書いただけに過ぎない」と述べた。教育は内政問題であり、他国が口を出す筋合いではない。

The Takeshima and Senkaku islands are undoubtedly the territories of Japan, both historically and in light of international law. It is imperative to have basic knowledge of the territories beginning from the primary school years.
 竹島と尖閣諸島は、歴史的にも国際法上も疑いなく日本の領土である。小学生のうちから、基礎知識を身に付けるのは重要だ。

Promoting territorial education at school is expected to lead to nurturing Japanese citizens who can assert the legitimacy of Japan’s position fairly in the international community.
 学校での領土教育をさらに進めることが、国際社会で日本の立場の正当性を堂々と訴えることのできる人材育成にもつながろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 5, 2014)

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2014年4月 5日 (土)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:失敗したいわけではない /東京

心を打たれました。
(スラチャイ)

March 09, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Nobody wants to fail
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:失敗したいわけではない /東京

Japanese figure skater Mao Asada appeared at the Foreign Correspondents' Club of Japan last month after she returned from the Sochi Olympics.
 ソチ・オリンピックから帰国したフィギュアスケートの浅田真央選手が、外国特派員協会で記者会見した。

After she reflected on her performances at the Games, a reporter asked her how she felt about former Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori's comment where he said, "She (Asada) always falls at the most critical time" in a competition.
試合や今回の結果を振り返った後で、外国人記者が森喜朗元首相の「あの子は大事なところで必ず転ぶ」という発言についてどう思うか、と聞いた。

It was a rather straightforward question for a news conference, Asada, nonetheless, put a smile on her face and said, "I'm only human and humans fail. Of course, nobody wants to fail."
踏み込んだ質問にも、浅田選手が笑顔で「人間なので失敗する。したくてするわけではない」と切り返した言葉にハッとした。

I was taken aback, and then realized that her comment is true in different situations.
 これは、いろいろな場面で共通しているのではないか。

Patients I see at my clinic, for example, sometimes need to apply for handicapped certificates or a pension for handicapped people after suffering from prolonged illness.
例えば診察室にやって来る人たち。病が長引き、障害者として手帳や年金を申請しなければならなくなる人もいる。

Documents necessary for these procedures extend over pages and they require complex medical certificates from doctors.
申請書類は何通にも及び、医師の診断書もけっこう複雑だ。

When patients come to me and ask me to complete the documents by the end of the day, I sometimes unintentionally treat them impolitely, saying something like, "I won't be able to finish them until later after I'm done with my other patients." The patients who asked for the forms would apologize repeatedly for causing me trouble.
「何とか今日中に診断書を書いてもらえませんか」と言われると、つい「診察が終わってから夜、遅くになりますけど」とぶっきらぼうに答えてしまい、患者さんは「本当にすみません」と何度も頭を下げる。

That's when I am reminded that these patients never asked to be sick in the first place and I become embarrassed at how I reacted. I then would say, "I am sorry. I will finish those forms as soon as possible."
 その姿に「そうだった。この人も病気になりたくてなったわけではないんだ」と今更ながら気づいて「こちらこそごめんなさい。なるべく急いで書きますね」と、不機嫌な態度を取った自分が恥ずかしくなることがある。

It's almost the end of university entrance exam season in the country. Some students will get accepted and some will not. If you are a parent and your child didn't get accepted into a university of their choice, please do remember that they didn't want to fail, before yelling, "You didn't study enough!"
 今はちょうど受験のシーズンだ。合格する人がいれば不合格者もいる。我が子が失敗すると、親はつい「どうして不合格なわけ? 勉強しないからこうなるのよ!」と叱ってしまうこともあるが、本人だって落ちたくて落ちたわけではない、ということは忘れないようにしたい。

Of course, not everything will be forgiven even if the person says, "What I have done is not something I wanted to do."
 もちろん、「したくてしたわけじゃない」と言って全てが許されるわけではない。

We have to face punishment or pay an appropriate penalty for our wrong doing, even when the action was unintentional or simply a mistake.
たとえうっかりミスや過失であっても、相応の罰を受けなければならないこともある。

In our everyday lives, however, we should not blame those who try hard, just because they failed to bring expected results.
ただ、日常の場面では、特に一生懸命努力した人が期待された成果を上げられなかったからといって、「どうして?」「あなたが悪いから」と一方的に責めるのは控えたい。

We need to remember in particular that people such as disaster victims or those who have handicaps, didn't ask for such conditions.
 特に病や障害を抱えている人、事故や災害に巻き込まれた人は、「それだけは避けたい」と思っていたのに、そうなってしまったかもしれないということをしっかり胸にとめておくべきだろう。

We should be considerate toward those who experienced difficult times because of illness or disasters and be willing to help them by realizing they didn't ask for those things to happen.
そうすれば、なりたくもない病、経験したくもなかった災難に関わることになってしまった人に対して、もう少しやさしくなり力を貸そうとしたくなるはずだ。

People do not choose to fail or be unhappy.
 失敗したくてする人や、不幸になりたくてなる人はいない。

Olympian Asada reminded us at her press conference about such a simple, but important, thing we tend to forget.
シンプルで、でもつい忘れてしまいそうになる大切なことをオリンピックから帰ってきた浅田選手は教えてくれた。

(Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年03月04日 地方版

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:復興っていったい何? /東京

March 16, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: What is 'disaster recovery?'
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:復興っていったい何? /東京

It has been three years since the March 11 Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident. I think people have different opinions on the progress of recovering from the disaster depending on their current location and the level of involvement in the disaster. There must be many people in the affected areas who are living their lives with hope, feeling that they are heading toward recovery.
 東日本大震災と東京電力福島第1原発事故から3年。自分がどこにいて、この大災害とどういう関わりを持っているかで、「復興の進み具合」の捉え方は大きく違うと思う。たとえ被災地に暮らしていても力強い復興への歩みを感じ、希望を持って日々を送っている人も多いはずだ。

I live in Tokyo and I am hardly convinced that disaster recovery is progressing. This is because I have been involved in psychiatric care programs for civil servants in disaster-affected areas ever since the tragedy.
 私は東京にいるが、正直に言うと、ほとんど復興を実感できずにいる。それは私があの日以降、被災地の自治体職員の、心のケアに携わり続けているからだ。

When large disasters like the 2011 earthquake and tsunami occur, local public officials are the ones who face a major shift in their work. The disaster places many public workers, whether they belonged to the tax department or family registration section, under harsh working conditions at evacuation shelters and temporary mortuaries.
こういった大災害が起きると、仕事の量や内容が最も大きく変わるのが、役場や公立施設などの職員だ。この震災では税務係や戸籍係といった部署に関係なく、多くの自治体職員が避難所や遺体安置所で苛酷な労働に従事した。

Some officials had worked to help residents even though they themselves lost their family members or homes.
 中には自分も家族や家を失い、悲しみの中にありながら、住民のために働き続けた人もいた。

In spite of their hard work, civil servants don't receive a pat on the back or a "thank you" very often. Working under such great stress, many of them started to fall physically or psychologically ill.
それなのに、住民のために尽くすのが仕事である公務員にはねぎらいや感謝の声がかけられない。そんな中で心身の調子を崩す人も少なくなかった。

I have been taking part in phone counseling and holding talk therapy sessions for those public officials in the disaster areas, and the number of requests for the service has remained somewhat the same over the three years since the tragedy. The figure was never large to begin with, but it does not seem to drop to zero, either.
 そういう自治体職員のための電話相談や現地での相談室を続けているのだが、その件数は2年たっても3年たってもあまり変わらない。とはいっても、その件数は最初からそれほど多くなく、かといってゼロになることもなく、いつも同じペースを保っている。

Meanwhile, the contents of my counseling sessions seem to be becoming more serious than the initial therapy sessions right after the disaster.
しかもその内容は、震災直後より最近のほうが深刻になりつつある。

In addition to work-related stress due to a sudden increase in the volume of their work, public officials now go through everyday problems like relationship troubles with their family members and colleagues.  震災後、激増した業務のストレスに加え、自分の家族や同僚との人間関係など日常的な問題も出てきて悩みがより複雑になってきている印象がある。

Their struggles seem to have got more complex than three years ago. The number of reports on power harassment at work is striking as those in managerial positions are also stressed by the slow progress of disaster recovery.
なかなか進まない復興に、管理職らもイライラしてきているせいか、役所内でのパワハラも目立つ。

During these phone counseling sessions, public officials wanting to let their feelings out call to talk.
 被災地自治体職員の電話相談の日。今日も電話が鳴る。

"I have been wanting to get counseling, but haven't even had time for that. Now I can finally call," a public worker would say under an anonymous name.
「ずっと相談したかったのですが、その余裕もなかった。ようやくかけられました」と、匿名で被災地の役所に勤める人が震災以降、たまっていた思いを吐き出す。

He would speak hesitantly at first, then his voice would eventually become louder, sometimes choked up with tears.
最初はおずおずと、そしてそのうち声が大きくなり、涙で言葉が詰まることもある。

I have been receiving such calls for three years.
 こんなことが2年前にも、1年前にも、そして今も続いている。

As I provide talk therapy with other experts, I sometimes want to ask them what disaster recovery really is.
被災地の「支援者への支援」の重要性を感じている専門家仲間と一緒に相談に応じながら「復興っていったい何のこと?」と言いたくなることもある。

Will these phone calls ever end? I believe that someday they will. In the meantime, I have to go along with the slow process of disaster recovery.
電話の件数ゼロが続く日など、本当にいつか来るのだろうか。「きっと来るはず」と信じて、今は「進まぬ復興」に伴走していくしかないと思っている。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年03月11日 地方版

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(社説)NHK経営委 監督責任を果たせ

April 04, 2014
EDITORIAL: Passage of NHK budget should not let Momii off the hook
(社説)NHK経営委 監督責任を果たせ

During Japan Broadcasting Corp.’s (NHK) entrance ceremony for new recruits on April 1, President Katsuto Momii said, “An act of just one NHK employee could cause the public broadcaster to lose public trust altogether.” He also said, “The influence your acts have on NHK and Japanese society or the weight of the responsibilities you have to shoulder for your acts are far greater now than they were until yesterday.”
 「たった1人の行為がNHKに対する信頼のすべてを崩壊させることもある」「自らの行為の影響や責任の重さは昨日までとは全く違う」

Momii was apparently trying to make the new employees aware of the serious responsibility of their jobs at NHK.
 NHKの入局式で籾井勝人会長はそう語り、新人の職員らに自覚を求めた。

Since assuming his current post in January, however, Momii himself has said and done many things that have called into question his awareness of the responsibility of his job as NHK chief. We wonder how his remarks at the entrance ceremony sounded to NHK employees and viewers.
 1月の就任以来、まさにその自覚を問われてきたのは会長自身である。その言葉は職員や視聴者にどう響いただろう。

At the end of March, the Diet approved NHK’s budget plan for fiscal 2014.
 2014年度NHK予算案が3月末に国会で承認された。

NHK’s Board of Governors, which appointed Momii as president, argued that Diet approval of the budget plan would indicate that Momii had offered convincing explanations to viewers about his controversial remarks and actions.
 会長が視聴者への説明責任を果たしたかどうかは、国会承認が一つの目安になる。会長を任命した経営委員会はそんな見解を示してきた。

But Momii’s performance at the Diet was far from being helpful in winning back the confidence of viewers.
 だが、国会での会長の言動は信頼を取り戻したとは、到底言えないものだった。

At his inaugural news conference in late January, Momii made remarks that sounded like a total endorsement of the government’s policies. Regarding NHK’s international broadcasts that touch upon territorial issues, Momii said, “When the government is saying ‘right,’ we cannot say ‘left.’” He also said about the much-criticized state secrets protection law, “It is useless to argue about it now that it has already passed the Diet.”
 「政府が右ということを左というわけにはいかない」「(特定秘密保護法は)通っちゃったんで言ってもしょうがない」

During a subsequent Diet session, Momii apologized for his comments, which cast doubt on NHK’s political neutrality. “I carelessly expressed my personal views at the news conference,” he said. On other issues, however, Momii only repeatedly said, as if mechanically reading from a note, “I will do (my duty) according to the Broadcast Law.” He failed to convince the public that he had done sincere soul-searching on his questionable acts.
 就任会見での政府に寄り添うような発言については国会で、「会見の場で個人的な見解を言ってしまった」と陳謝した。だが、それ以外は「放送法に基づいてやっていく」とメモを棒読みするような答弁を繰り返すばかり。真摯(しんし)な反省は伝わってこなかった。

During Diet sessions, lawmakers repeatedly urged Momii to return the undated letters of resignation he had forced all members of NHK’s Executive Board to submit. Momii’s move has been criticized by the business community as a heavy-handed management method. But he refused to return the letters to the members, saying only, “I will not abuse my power on personnel affairs.”
 議員は再三、理事全員に書かせた日付なしの辞表を返すよう促した。強権的な経営手法と財界も疑問視する問題だ。だが会長は「人事権の乱用はしない」と言い張り、拒んだ。

Forcing employees to submit letters of resignation is in itself an intimidating act that could cause the people to cower. Momii refused to change his ways even after being rebuked. There are legitimate concerns about whether the broadcaster, under his leadership, can create programs in an active manner and protect the health of journalism within the organization.
 辞表を出させるというのは、それ自体が人を萎縮させる行為である。それをとがめられても改めないトップのもとで、伸び伸びした番組づくりができるのか、健全なジャーナリズム精神は守られるのか。そう心配するのは当然だ。

It is assumed that NHK’s budget, which is mainly financed by viewing fees paid by a broad range of people, should in principle be approved by the Diet with support from both the ruling and opposition parties. This time around, however, six opposition parties voted against the budget plan, causing a lack of unanimity on the NHK budget within the Diet for the first time in eight years.
 広く集める受信料でまかなうNHK予算は、与野党の理解を得て承認されるのが原則だ。しかし今回は野党6党が反対し、8年ぶりに全会一致が崩れた。

A supplementary resolution also called on NHK to make efforts to regain public confidence by pointing out that some words and deeds of senior executives have been severely criticized. This is certainly an extraordinary manner for the approval of NHK’s budget plan in the Diet.
 付帯決議には「役員の言動に厳しい批判が寄せられていることから、信頼の回復に努めること」という注文までついた。異常な形での予算承認だ。

The Board of Governors has so far twice admonished Momii to mend his ways. It has also issued a statement saying it regrets the fact that it had to twice admonish the president. However, it is doubtful whether Momii has taken seriously what the Board of Governors told him.
 経営委はこれまで会長に2回注意し、さらに「2度も注意せざるを得なかったのは遺憾」との文書を発表した。それらを会長が真剣に受けとめているかどうか、心もとない。

The Board of Governors is a supervisory body with the power to dismiss the president. It should adopt a tough stance toward Momii’s inappropriate behavior and compel him to return the letters of resignation.  会長の罷免(ひめん)権を持つ監督機関である経営委は、辞表を返還させ、厳しく向き合うべきだ。

The board will be accused of failing to carry out its duties if it loosens its efforts to rein in the president out of concerns about being held accountable for appointing him to the post.
自らの任命責任を問われることを恐れ、会長を律する手を緩めるようであれば、責務を果たしているとはいえない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 4

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日銀短観 消費増税の反動どう乗り切る

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 05, 2014
Press on with Abenomics to overcome adverse effects of consumption tax hike
日銀短観 消費増税の反動どう乗り切る

The national economy has been recovering steadily, but the task for the moment is to focus on how to overcome the impacts of the consumption tax hike to 8 percent.
 足もとの景気は順調に回復しているが、消費増税のショックをどう乗り切るかが問題だ。

The government and the Bank of Japan must take every possible measure to avert an economic slowdown.
 政府と日銀は景気失速の回避に、万全を期さなければならない。

The central bank’s Tankan quarterly survey for March has underscored the briskness of the national economy, but at the same time revealed the uncertainty of business prospects.
 日本経済の好調さを裏付ける一方、先行き不透明感も浮き彫りにしたのが、3月の日銀企業短期経済観測調査(短観)である。

The diffusion index (DI) for large companies’ sentiment about current business conditions, said to be a barometer for judging economic performance, rose to plus 17 for manufacturers and plus 24 for nonmanufacturers. Both marked an improvement for the fifth straight quarter and the latter represented the highest level in about 22 years. The DI represents the percentage of companies witnessing good business conditions minus that of those feeling the opposite.
 景気のバロメーターとされる大企業の業況判断指数は、製造業がプラス17、非製造業がプラス24となり、ともに5四半期連続で改善した。非製造業は約22年ぶりの高水準だった。

The last-minute surge in demand ahead of the tax increase from 5 percent and a package of economic measures centering on public works investments are believed to have contributed to improvement in the current business sentiment among large firms.
 消費税率が5%から8%に引き上げられる前の「駆け込み需要」や、公共投資を柱とした経済対策が追い風になったのだろう。

However, the DI for business sentiment looking ahead to June showed a drastic drop of about 10 points from March for both large manufacturers and nonmanufacturers. The index for small and medium-size companies is likely to fall into negative territory.
 ただし、6月の景況感を予測した指数は、製造業、非製造業とも3月から10ポイント前後の大幅な低下を示している。中小企業はマイナスに落ち込む見通しだ。

By industry type, the Tankan survey anticipates the index will decline sharply for car manufacturing and retailing, which saw a sharp rise of sales due to the last-minute demand ahead of the sales tax hike that came into effect on Tuesday.
 業種別では、駆け込み需要で販売が急増した自動車や小売りが、指数の急低下を予想している。

It is unavoidable that sales will temporarily slacken from April in a backlash after vigorous sales before the tax hike. What is important is to prevent the hike from having a serious impact.
 増税前に売れた反動で4月以降、一時的に販売不振となるのはやむを得まい。大切なのは影響を深刻化させないことである。

Avoid 1997 consequences

In 1997, when the sales tax was raised from 3 percent to 5 percent, the national economy plunged into a serious slump because it was faced with sluggish personal consumption on top of an Asian monetary crisis. It is imperative to prevent the national economy from suffering such consequences.
 消費税率が3%から5%に引き上げられた97年は、消費不振にアジア通貨危機などが重なり、深刻な不況に陥った。同じ轍(てつ)を踏んではならない。

The Abe administration needs to steadily carry out its Abenomics economic policy, thereby bringing about the maximum effects of its three arrows—bold monetary easing, flexible fiscal policy and growth strategy.
 安倍政権は経済政策「アベノミクス」を着実に推進し、大胆な金融緩和、機動的な財政政策、成長戦略の「3本の矢」の効果を最大限に発揮する必要がある。

More important than anything else is for the Japanese economy to recover self-sustainable growth, led by the private sector, and build a “fundamental economic power” that can withstand the adverse effects of a tax hike.
 日本経済が民間主導の自律的な成長を回復し、増税の悪影響に耐えられる「基礎体力」をつけることが、何より重要となる。

It is encouraging that many large firms have agreed to pay increases in this year’s annual spring negotiations with labor unions. This can be regarded as a first step toward a “virtuous circle” in which an increase in income pushes up consumption, leading to an improvement in corporate profits. The promotion of this cycle must be accelerated.
 今年の春闘で多くの大企業が賃上げに踏み切ったのは心強い。収入増が消費を押し上げ、さらに企業の利益を増やす「好循環」へ一歩を踏み出したといえる。好循環の加速が大事だ。

The government is urged to swiftly carry out dramatic deregulation measures that would stimulate the fostering of new industries, as well as drastic cuts in the corporate tax rate, which is higher than those in other major countries.
 政府は新産業の育成に弾みをつける大胆な規制緩和や、主要国の中で高い法人税率の大幅な引き下げを急いでもらいたい。

The latest Tankan survey covered firms’ price forecasts for the first time.
 今回の短観では、企業の物価見通しを初めて調査した。

They anticipate that consumer prices are likely to rise 1.5 percent on average a year from now and will be rising at a year-on-year rate of 1.7 percent three and five years from now, all less than the central bank’s targeted 2 percent year-on-year rate.
 消費者物価上昇率の見通しは、1年後が平均1・5%、3年後、5年後はともに1・7%と、日銀の目指す2%を下回った。

This indicates how difficult it will be to end deflation. The central bank should earnestly look into the viability of adopting an additional monetary easing measure, while closely watching the trends of business and prices.
 デフレ脱却への道のりが、いかに険しいかをうかがわせる。日銀は景気や物価の動向をしっかり注視し、追加金融緩和策の必要性を真剣に検討すべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 4, 2014)

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集団的自衛権 限定容認論で合意形成を図れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 05, 2014
Consensus must be formed on theory of limited collective defense
集団的自衛権 限定容認論で合意形成を図れ

It is of crucial importance for this country to adequately cope with the deteriorating national security environment while ensuring a degree of logical consistency with the government’s current interpretation of the Constitution.
 現行の憲法解釈と一定の論理的整合性を保ちつつ、安全保障環境の悪化に的確に対応する。

A theory that may be considered convincing from this point of view has just been proposed.
そのための、説得力を持つ理論と評価できる。

Within the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, members have voiced growing support for the case presented by LDP Vice President Masahiko Komura, which calls for enabling the country to exercise its right to collective self-defense in a limited capacity.
 自民党内で、高村副総裁の唱える集団的自衛権の限定容認論が支持を広げている。

In the first meeting on Monday of the party’s task force for consolidating the legal basis of national security, a lecture delivered by Komura to that effect won approval even from the many LDP legislators who had been taking a cautious stance on the matter.
3月31日の安全保障法制整備推進本部の初会合では、高村氏の講演に対し、容認慎重派からも賛成が相次いだ。

Komura’s theory in favor of the limited exercise of collective self-defense is based on a mode of thinking that would make it possible for the country to use its “minimum necessary self-defense right for the purpose of securing Japan’s existence as a nation,” and would not cover all categories of collective defense rights.
 限定容認論は、あらゆる集団的自衛権ではなく、「国の存立を全うするための必要最小限の集団的自衛権」に限って、行使を可能にするという考え方である。

He conceived the idea by drawing on a 1959 Supreme Court ruling handed down in the so-called Sunagawa case, which said that the exercise of self-defense rights “can be permitted if doing so is necessary to maintain Japan’s peace and security, and to ensure its existence as a nation.”
 「自国の平和と安全を維持し、その存立を全うするために必要な自衛のための措置はとりうる」との砂川事件に関する1959年の最高裁判決を根拠としている。

Specifically, the concept of partially exercising the right to collective self-defense recognizes, for instance, a counteroffensive by Self-Defense Forces in defense of a U.S. military vessel under attack in the vicinity of Japan, and minesweeping operations by the SDF on sea lanes of key national interest.  具体的には、日本の近くで米軍艦船が攻撃された際の自衛隊の反撃や、海上交通路(シーレーン)での掃海活動などを認める。

Situations in which the country could become embroiled in wars in foreign territories, such as SDF troops being dispatched to the United States to fight in the event of an armed attack within the United States, are said to be deliberately excluded under this conceptualization.
米本土が攻撃された際、米国に行って戦うといった、外国領内の戦争への参加は除外するという。

The proposed change to the constitutional interpretation can be considered an alteration of the conventional interpretation with restrictions, as it maintains that partial exercise of the collective self-defense right can be considered compatible with the current government interpretation of the supreme law,which specifies the exercise of the nation's self-defense right should be limited to the minimum scope necessary to defend Japan.
 自衛権は必要最小限の範囲内にとどめるとの現行解釈を継承しながら、一部の集団的自衛権の行使はこの範囲内に含まれる、とする抑制的な解釈変更となる。

Dispel worries of bias

Meanwhile, there remains a strong body of opinion that the current interpretation of the Constitution—as prohibiting the exercise of the collective self-defense right—is wrong, and the full exercise of the right must instead be recognized. This mode of thinking, too, can be considered to have significant logical merit.
 一方で、集団的自衛権は憲法上行使できないとの現行解釈は誤りであり、全面的に行使を容認すべきだという主張も根強い。理論的にも、十分成り立とう。

This line of argument, fully endorsing the exercise of the collective defense right, has the merit of leaving open the government’s options as well as discretion from the standpoint of ensuring the country’s preparedness for a wide spectrum of emergencies.
 様々な緊急事態に備える観点から、全面的な容認により、政府の裁量範囲と選択肢を広げておく方が良い面もある。

However, to counteract any misinterpretation that the proposed collective defense right concept could open the way for the country to wage a war, it is useful to clarify the restrictions and conditions imposed on the use of collective self-defense based on the idea of making the country capable of partially exercising the right.
 しかし、解釈変更が日本の戦争参加に道を開くかのような偏向した“解釈”による懸念を払拭するには、限定容認論によって、集団的自衛権行使の歯止めや条件を明確化することが有効である。

The idea proposed by Komura can safely be viewed as a balanced, realistic approach to ensuring the stability of the new interpretation, by formulating widespread agreement among the ruling and opposition camps as well as obtaining the understanding of the public.
 幅広い与野党の合意を形成し、国民の理解を広げて、新解釈の安定性を確保するには、バランスの取れた現実的な手法と言える。

Now the focus of discussions should be shifted to the scope and conditions for giving the go-ahead for limited exercise of the right. Discussions well suited to concrete instances of circumstances, rather than abstractions, are imperative.
 今後、議論すべきは、行使を限定的に容認する範囲や条件だ。抽象論でなく、具体的な事例に即した論議が求められる。

Some have asserted that the nation’s individual right to self-defense should be considered sufficient for the SDF to make a counterattack in defense of U.S. warships under assault in waters near Japan.
 日本近海での米艦防護については、個別的自衛権で反撃が可能との意見もある。

Given that it is quite normal for warships to operate at least several kilometers apart from each other, however, the attempt to justify such a phase of SDF operations in defense of U.S. warships based purely on the individual self-defense right is unlikely to work.
だが、艦船は最低でも数キロ離れて活動するのが通常で、これを個別的自衛権で正当化するのは困難だろう。

Allowing the country to provide U.S. forces with logistic support in case of a contingency on the Korean Peninsula in a more active manner, based on a theoretical limited exercise of the collective self-defense right, would be sure to help strengthen the alliance between Japan and the United States.
 朝鮮半島有事の際も、限定容認論に基づき、従来より踏み込んだ米軍への後方支援活動を可能にしておくことは、日米同盟を強化する。

Constructive discussions should be made on this theory.
前向きに検討すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 4, 2014)

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2014年4月 4日 (金)

最高裁新長官 違憲審査権の適切な行使を

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 03, 2014
Top court under new chief must use power of judicial review appropriately
最高裁新長官 違憲審査権の適切な行使を

In realizing a judiciary that can be trusted by the people, the new chief justice has his work cut out for him.
 国民に信頼される司法の実現に向けて、新長官の手腕が問われよう。

Itsuro Terada has become the 18th chief justice of the Supreme Court. His father, Jiro Terada, was the 10th chief justice. It marks the first time for a father and son to have both assumed the post.
 最高裁の第18代長官に寺田逸郎・最高裁判事が就任した。父親の治郎氏も第10代長官を務めた。初の親子2代の長官就任である。

Terada, a former judge, worked for many years at the Justice Ministry and on tasks such as the development of legal systems related to the Civil Code. He has likely been appointed as the chief justice due to his knowledge of not only the judiciary, but also the legislative process and public administration.
 寺田氏は裁判官出身だが、法務省勤務が長く、民事関係の法整備などに携わった経歴を持つ。司法だけでなく、立法や行政の分野にも精通している点が評価されての起用と言えるだろう。

What is expected from the new chief justice, among other things, is firmly establishing reforms in the justice system within society, an ongoing process that Terada was involved in when he was at the Justice Ministry.
 新長官にまず期待されるのは、寺田氏自身が法務省時代に関与した司法制度改革の定着だ。

The reforms, which aimed to create a justice system that the public would feel close to and find useful, have achieved tangible results.
身近で使い勝手の良い司法を目指す改革は、一定の成果を上げている。

The lay judge system, one of the reforms’ key features, will have been in force for five years in May. Although the system was implemented without major confusion, it is a cause of concern that among those who have served as lay judges, the number of people who say that the trial process is “easily comprehensible” has been declining.
 改革の目玉だった裁判員制度は5月で施行5年を迎える。大きな混乱もなく実施されているが、「審理が理解しやすかった」という裁判員経験者の声が減少傾向にあるのは気がかりだ。

In implementing the lay judge system, the court intended to improve the level of interaction within the judiciary during the trial, such as during witness examination. But there has been much criticism that trials have often been conducted on the basis of written documentation, mainly with records of pretrial interrogation being read out.
 制度施行にあたっては、証人尋問など公判でのやりとりを充実させるはずだった。ところが、調書を読み上げる書面中心の審理が目立つとの批判が多い。

We hope the new chief justice will exercise his leadership so that trials are conducted in an easy-to- understand manner.
わかりやすい審理を徹底するよう、寺田氏は指導力を発揮してほしい。

Respect other branches

The court has the power of judicial review to evaluate the constitutionality of laws and administrative procedures, with the final judgment to be made by the Supreme Court.
 裁判所は、法律や行政手続きが憲法に適合するかどうかを監視する違憲審査権を持つ。
最終判断を担うのが最高裁だ。

Trials involving constitutional judgments are examined by all 15 justices on the grand bench, with Terada serving as chief judge.
憲法判断が絡む裁判は、15人の裁判官全員による大法廷で審理され、寺田氏が裁判長を務める。

The power of judicial review is an important source of authority in a nation ruled by law. But from the viewpoint of the separation of administrative, legislative and judiciary powers, it is essential to heed the discretion of the legislative and executive branches when exercising the power.
 違憲審査権は法治国家における重要な権限だが、行使には、三権分立の立場から、国会や行政の裁量権への目配りが欠かせない。

The top court’s stance has been deemed questionable in this respect, as indicated by its ruling on vote-value disparity.
 その観点で疑問なのは、「1票の格差」を巡る判決の中で示された最高裁の姿勢である。

In a ruling that described the 2009 House of Representatives election to have been in “a state of unconstitutionality,” the grand bench said that the vote-value disparity primarily stems from the current seat-distribution system. The system allots one seat to each prefecture as a quota before deciding the number of seats that should be allocated to its single-seat section of the election in proportion to its population. The court called for an immediate abolition of the distribution formula.
 2009年の衆院選を「違憲状態」とした判決で、大法廷は、まず各都道府県に小選挙区の1議席を割り振る「1人別枠方式」が格差の主因だと指摘し、速やかな廃止を求めた。

In a ruling that also stated the 2012 lower house election to have been in “a state of unconstitutionality,” the top court said structural problems in the distribution of the quota of seats for single-seat constituencies had not been resolved.
 12年衆院選を違憲状態とした判決でも、別枠方式の構造問題は解決されていないと言及した。

It can be said that the top court has gone so far as to step into the legislative branch’s sphere of discretion, going beyond making a judgment on the constitutionality of a vote-value disparity.
 格差が合憲か違憲かの判断にとどまらず、立法府の裁量の範囲にまで踏み込んだと言える。

The issue of whether a framework concerning Diet seat distribution should be abolished is one that must be judged by the Diet. The top court must exercise its power of judicial review appropriately.
議席配分に関する仕組みの存廃は、国会が判断すべき事柄だろう。最高裁には、違憲審査権の適切な行使が求められる。

The Supreme Court is the “last bastion” in the three-tiered system of justice.
 最高裁は、3審制における「最後の砦とりで」でもある。

It is vital that, under the new chief justice, each justice on the top court properly evaluates the conclusions reached by lower courts, so that there are no more victims of false accusation.
万が一にも冤罪えんざいの被害者を出さぬよう、寺田新長官の下、最高裁の各裁判官は、下級審の結論をしっかりチェックすることが肝要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 3, 2014)

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調査捕鯨敗訴 水産資源の管理を戦略的に

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 03, 2014
Japan must manage fisheries resources strategically, watch international moves
調査捕鯨敗訴 水産資源の管理を戦略的に

Efforts to expand the understanding of the international community are indispensable for effective utilization of limited fisheries resources.
 限られた水産資源を有効利用するには、国際社会の理解を広げる努力が欠かせない。

In a case before the U.N. International Court of Justice at The Hague where the legitimacy of Japan’s research whaling in the Antarctic Ocean was examined, the ICJ ruled that Japan’s actions violate the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling and ordered the country to suspend operations.
 南極海における日本の調査捕鯨の合法性が争われた裁判で、オランダ・ハーグの国際司法裁判所(ICJ)は、国際捕鯨取締条約に違反すると判断し、中止を言い渡した。

Australia has claimed in the suit that Japan’s research whaling is actually commercial whaling to profit from the sale of whale meat. Japan has counterargued that it is scientific research authorized under the treaty and that it is necessary to scientifically investigate the current situation of whales, including their geographic distribution and changes in the population.
 豪州が「調査捕鯨の実態は鯨肉を売って利益を得る商業捕鯨だ」と訴えたのに対し、日本は条約が認める「科学的研究」であり、鯨の分布や増減など実態を調査する必要があると反論していた。

It is quite regrettable that the ICJ did not recognize the validity of Japan’s arguments.
 日本の主張の正当性が認められなかったのは、残念である。

Japan has been advocating the importance of the rule of law, proposing that South Korea refer the sovereignty issue over the Takeshima islands in Shimane Prefecture to the ICJ, for example. It is therefore inevitable that the government decided to suspend the current research whaling in the Antarctic Ocean in acceptance of the ICJ ruling.
 日本は「法の支配」の重要性を唱えてきた。韓国には、島根県・竹島の領有問題のICJ付託を呼び掛けている。政府がICJの判決を受け入れ、現行の調査中止を決定したのは、やむを得ない。

The ICJ pointed out in its conclusion that the purpose of the whaling— which should be for research purposes—has not been fulfilled since Japan catches about 100 Antarctic minke whales a year, although it set an annual catch of the species at about 850.
 判決は、日本がクロミンククジラの年間捕獲枠を約850頭に設定しながら100頭ほどしか捕っていないため、研究という目的は満たされていないと指摘した。

Japan could not satisfy the catch quota because of illegal obstructions by the antiwhaling organization Sea Shepherd. It is quite questionable that the ICJ did not take this point into consideration.
 反捕鯨団体「シー・シェパード」の違法な妨害が原因なのに、それを考慮しないのは疑問だ。

Antiwhaling pressure

Some observers have said the decision was influenced by the fact that many of the judges on the case are from antiwhaling countries. This reflects the harsh reality of international politics.
 反捕鯨国出身の裁判官が多いことが判決に影響した、との見方もある。国際政治の冷徹な現実を浮き彫りにしたと言えよう。

In the future, antiwhaling nations may heighten their pressure to demand the suspension of research whaling that Japan has been conducting in the North West Pacific Ocean.
 今後、日本が北西太平洋で実施している調査捕鯨についても、反捕鯨国から中止を求める圧力が強まる可能性がある。

Based on a verification of the content of the ICJ’s ruling, the government needs to review the number of whale catches and the research methods. It must also deal with international public opinion.
 ICJの判決内容についての検証を踏まえ、捕獲頭数や調査手法などを見直す必要がある。国際世論対策も講じねばなるまい。

The government aims to restart the commercial whaling it was forced to suspend in 1988. It cannot be denied that research whaling is necessary for this purpose.
 政府は、1988年に中断を余儀なくされた商業捕鯨の再開を目指している。そのために調査捕鯨が必要という面も否めない。

Yet even in Japan there are those who question whether it is necessary to continue research whaling by spending several billions of yen in state funds, even though domestic consumption of whale meat remains low.
 ただ、鯨肉の国内消費量が低迷する中、数十億円もの国費をかけた調査捕鯨を続けることを疑問視する声は、国内にもある。

We are not saying the significance of research whaling has diminished, but it may be necessary to thoroughly reexamine Japan’s whaling policy.
 調査捕鯨の意義が薄れたわけではないが、捕鯨政策を総点検する必要もあるのではないか。

Of course, small-scale whaling operations in coastal areas, such as those in Taiji, Wakayama Prefecture, are outside international restrictions. The ICJ decision will not affect this type of whaling at all. We have to pass such traditional food culture, unique to Japan, onto future generations.
 無論、和歌山県太地町などで行われている、沿岸の小型捕鯨は、国際規制の対象外だ。ICJの判決の効力はまったく及ばない。日本固有の伝統的な食文化は、後世に継承していきたい。

On the other hand, we are worried that the ICJ ruling might lead to more stringent limits on catches of Pacific bluefin tuna—a pricey fish species favored in Japan—in addition to other fish species.
 一方で懸念されるのは、今回の判決が、日本で高級魚として好まれるクロマグロなどの漁獲規制の強化につながりかねないことである。

The government must maintain and manage fisheries resources in a strategic manner, while closely monitoring the actions of the international community.
政府は、国際社会の動向を見極めつつ、水産資源の維持・管理を戦略的に進めるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 3, 2014)

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:春、一念発起 整理整頓を /東京

March 23, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Ditching the habit of hoarding
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:春、一念発起 整理整頓を /東京

In spring, many people think about moving to a new home or redecorating as they graduate, enter university or change jobs. Around this time, I suppose there are also people who get depressed when they realize afresh just how cluttered their homes are or how many possessions they have accumulated. Thoughts such as, "Why didn't I clean this up sooner?" or "This place is a junkyard" run though their minds.
 春は卒業や入学、転勤などで「引っ越し」をしたり、部屋の模様替えを考えたりする人の多いシーズンだ。それと同時に、「どうしてもっと早く片づけなかったのだろう」「これじゃゴミ屋敷だ」と自宅の散らかり具合やモノの多さにあらためて気づき、落ち込む人もいるのではないか。

In this age of bulk production and buying, a significant number of people fret over cleaning up and what to do with all the things they have. Some people have so many things that they have hardly any standing room, so they find spaces to live among piles of clothes and papers. Among them are people who come for counseling, thinking, "This is no good. Maybe I'm ill."
 大量生産、大量購入の時代に、部屋の片づけやモノの始末に頭を悩ませる人は少なくない。中には、足の踏み場もないくらいにモノが増え、積み重ねられた衣類や紙のすき間に身を潜めるように暮らしていて、「これじゃマズイ。もしかすると病気では」と診察室にやって来る人もいる。

People who remain incapable of tidying up their piles of possessions have recently garnered attention in the field of mental health as having what is known as "hoarding disorder." But why do people end up like this? Some may suggest it's because they're particularly lazy, but that's not the case.
 この「大量のモノを片づけられない人」は最近、精神医療の分野で、「ホーディング(病的なため込み)症候群」と呼ばれ注目を集めている。なぜそんなことになってしまうのか。その人たちはけた外れの怠け者なのかというと、そうではない。

First, of course, these people value things, thinking it's a shame to throw them away. But by itself, that spirit of thinking it's a waste does not lead to houses overflowing with junk. It's evident that in the process of accumulating possessions, they also tend to shop compulsively, thinking that shopping is the only way to relieve their daily stress.
 もちろん「捨てるのはもったいない」と、モノを大切にする気持ちがまずある。ただ、その“もったいない精神”だけではゴミ屋敷にはならない。モノが増える過程では、日ごろのストレスを解消するためにはショッピングするしかない、という買い物依存症の傾向があることも確かだ。

Hoarders have a unique attachment to the things that start to accumulate around them. This attachment is excessive, leading them to think, "There is meaning in every object," or, "My connection with this thing is unique." When that happens, they could look at a single T-shirt or a pamphlet, for example, and think, "This is an indispensable part of my life," then conclude, "Throwing this away is the same as losing a part of my body."
 そして、「ホーディング」の人たちは、増え始めたモノにも独特のこだわりを持つ。一つ一つのモノへのこだわりが強すぎて、「全てのモノには意味がある」「このモノと私との関係は独特」と思うようになる。そうなると、たとえTシャツ1枚、パンフレット1冊だけでも「自分の人生にとって欠かせないもの」となり、「捨てるなんて私の体の一部を失うのと同じ」となってしまうのだ。

Treatment of hoarders begins with them taking a square look at the state of their home or their room. Needless to say, telling the person, "It's because you're slacking off in tidying up," is not the thing to do. Instead, confirming the bias underlying every single notion that a particular thing must not be thrown away, and then releasing that thing to put the person at ease will also lead to things being tidied up.
 「ホーディング」の人たちへの治療は、まず自分の家や部屋の状態を直視することから始める。もちろん、「あなたが掃除をサボるからだ」と責めることはしない。そして、「捨ててはいけない」という思い込みの背景にある考え方の偏りを一つ一つ確認し、それを手放して気持ちをラクにすることで、モノの片づけにもつなげていく。

Saying that, the path to recovery is not easy. No matter how tidy the person's room may be at one stage or another, if nothing is done to mend their basic idea that shopping is the only way to relieve stress, then they'll soon suffer a relapse.
 とはいえ、その道のりは平坦(へいたん)ではなく、いくら一時的に部屋がきれいになっても「ストレス解消は買い物だけ」という基本も何とかしなければ、すぐに逆戻りだ。

Not being a great organizer myself, I can't say too much, but this spring, I think I'll set my mind on doing away with hoarding. How about you?
 私も、整理整頓は得意ではないのであまり大きなことは言えないが、この春は一念発起して、モノのため込みから脱出してみようかな。皆さんもいかがでしょう。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年03月18日 地方版

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:若者のサポート、誰が? /東京

March 30, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Are troubled youths supposed to support themselves?
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:若者のサポート、誰が? /東京

The trial of a 36-year-old man arrested for sending threatening letters to organizers of events related to the popular manga series, "Kuroko no basuke" (Kuroko's basketball), and to bookstores selling the manga, has begun. I was shocked by the graveness of the lengthy statement the defendant wrote (which is now posted online) -- part of which he read out loud in court.
 人気マンガに関連したイベントや単行本を売る書店などに脅迫状を送ったとされる、36歳の男性の公判があった。法廷では被告が自ら書いた長文の陳述の一部が読まれ、ネットでは全文が公開されたが、その内容の深刻さに衝撃を受けた。

"My life is filthy, hideous and miserable," he writes. His mother told him that he had an "ugly face" and his father hit him. He was bullied in elementary school, but no adults took up the matter. Eventually he began to feel that he had been "punished since birth" and suffered a lonely life plagued by a sense of inferiority.
 被告は「自分の人生は汚くて醜くて無残」と言う。母親に「お前は汚い顔だ」と言われ父親には殴り飛ばされた。小学校ではいじめに遭うが、大人は誰も「まともに対応してくれなかった」という。次第に被告は「生まれた時から罰を受けている」と感じるようになり、コンプレックスに苦しみながら孤独な人生を歩むことになる。

The man does not go into detail about his later life, but he went on to a local preparatory high school. Still, he's "never earned more than 2 million yen a year" and describes himself as a member of "the lowest rung of losers." He says that in seeking relief from his suffering, he decided to kill himself after exacting revenge on whatever "it" was that was punishing him. That was when he zeroed in on the author of the successful manga, "Kuroko no basuke."
 それ以降の具体的な生活史は語られていないが、高校は地元の進学校に進んだものの、「年収が200万円を超えたことは一度もない」と言い、自らを「負け組の底辺」と称する。この苦痛から解放されるため、自分に罰を与えた「何か」に復讐(ふくしゅう)を遂げてから自殺しようと考える中で、その「何か」として人気マンガの作者を選んでしまった、と動機を自己分析するのだ。

Of course, actions that strike fear among the public should not be condoned, no matter what the reason. But for now, let's try to divorce the man from his actions. From what I can tell from his statement, the defendant possesses a delicate sensitivity and an abundance of knowledge. In that sense there was no need for him to feel inferior, and he could have been expected to take advantage of those strengths to find work and make friends.
 もちろん、どんな理由があろうとも、不特定多数の人たちを不安に陥れるような脅迫を繰り返した行為を肯定することはできない。しかし、ここではあえて行為を切り離して考えたい。陳述を読む限り、被告は繊細な感受性と豊かな知識を持つ人物のようだ。その点では劣等感を抱く必要もなく、それをうまく生かして仕事に就き、友人を得ることもできたはずだと思われる。

But why couldn't he? Because he never experienced his parents or any other adult telling him that he had his strengths and that he was going to be OK. When you grow up without any praise or acceptance, you ultimately become unable to trust even yourself. You end up deciding that you are a loser who has no way of redeeming yourself and must live in despair.
 なぜそうできなかったのか。それは、彼が両親をはじめ、周りの大人に「あなたにはいいところがある」「大丈夫だよ」と支えられた経験を持てなかったからだ。誰からもほめられず、受け入れられずに育つと、結果的には自分で自分を信頼することもできなくなり、被告のように「挽回する見込みのない負け組」と決めつけ、絶望のうちに生きなければならなくなる。

At the Olympics and Japan's national high school tournaments, young interviewees are always saying things like, "I'd like to thank my family for supporting me." Meanwhile, there are youth who have been rejected both at home and at school, and wonder why they were born in the first place. In times past, adults looked out for other people's children, inviting them in for a chat if they seemed troubled -- but not anymore.
 オリンピックでも高校野球でも、インタビューで「ここまで支えてくれた家族に感謝したい」と屈託なく語る若者がいる。一方で、家族に否定され学校でも受け入れられずに、「なぜ生まれてきたのか」と自分を責めながら生きる若者もいるのだ。昔のように地域の世話好きな人がそんな若者を家に招き、励ますようなこともない。

Whose job is it to support children and youth who are growing up in a loveless environment? Are we so cruel as to insist that these young people stick it out on their own?
 誰にも愛されることのない環境で生まれ育った子どもや若者をサポートするのは誰の役割なのか。その人たちにまで「自己責任で頑張れ」と言うのはあまりに残酷な気がする。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年03月25日 地方版

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武器輸出緩和―平和主義が崩れていく

April 03, 2014
EDITORIAL: New arms export rules undermine Japan’s pacifism
武器輸出緩和―平和主義が崩れていく

Japan effectively lifted its ban on weapons exports with Cabinet approval April 1 of a new set of principles to replace the three that had held sway for nearly five decades.
 歴代内閣が、曲がりなりにも50年近く掲げてきた武器輸出三原則。これに代わる新たな原則を安倍内閣が決定した。

In an apparent effort to blot out images of Japan being a “merchant of death,” the Abe administration named the new rules “three principles concerning transfer of defense equipment.”
 「死の商人」との連想を避けるためだろうか。新原則は「防衛装備移転三原則」という。

But in reality the move represents a 180-degree shift in policy, from banning arms exports in principle to approving them if they meet certain conditions.
だがその実体は、武器輸出の原則禁止から、条件を満たせば認める百八十度の方針転換だ。

This shift has paved the way for Japan’s entry into the international weapons business.
 これで日本は、国際的な武器ビジネスの戦列に加わることができるようになる。

The old principles constituted one of the main pillars of Japan’s postwar pacifism, which is based on the basic tenets of the Constitution. We have to say that the Abe administration's decision was rash to say the least.
 旧原則は、憲法の理念に基づく日本の平和主義の柱のひとつだった。極めて拙速な決定と言わざるをえない。

The three new principles are as follows:
 新しい原則は次の三つだ。

First, Japan cannot export weapons to countries that are violating international treaties or resolutions of the United Nations Security Council.
 ①条約や国連安保理決議に違反する国には輸出しない。

Secondly, arms exports are allowed only in cases where the government has decided through strict examinations that they contribute to peace or Japan’s national security.
 ②輸出は、平和貢献や日本の安全保障に資する場合などに限定し、厳格に審査する。

Thirdly, the government must make sure that weapons exported from Japan will not be used for purposes other than the original intent or transferred to third countries without Japan’s consent.
 ③原則として、日本の同意なしの目的外使用や第三国移転がないよう管理する。

The preamble of the new rules says, “Japan cannot secure its peace and safety on its own, and the international community is expecting Japan to play an active role (in the area of security).”
 新原則は前文で、「我が国の平和と安全は我が国一国では確保できず、国際社会も我が国が積極的な役割を果たすことを期待している」とうたう。

This phrase indicates that the policy change is an embodiment of the “proactive pacifism” advocated by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and reflects his defense policy agenda, which is behind his initiative to allow Japan to exercise its right to collective self-defense.
 安倍首相が唱える「積極的平和主義」の具体化であり、首相がめざす集団的自衛権の行使容認と同じ文脈にある。

The government’s principal purpose in establishing the new rules lies in Japan’s participation in international joint projects to develop state-of-the-art weapons, which have been becoming increasingly more sophisticated and expensive.
 政府が新原則で主に想定しているのは、ハイテク化と高額化が進む最新鋭兵器の国際的な共同開発への参加だ。

The Abe administration has already approved exports of parts for the F-35 fighter jet, which has been developed jointly by nine countries, including the United States and Britain. Japan will deploy the stealth fighters and Japanese companies will manufacture parts for them. The government wants to promote Japan’s participation in such international weapons programs from the development phase in the future.
 安倍内閣はすでに旧原則の例外として、米英など9カ国が共同開発したF35戦闘機の部品輸出を認めているが、今後はこうしたケースに開発段階から加わりたい考えだ。

The Abe administration has been driven by its desire to cut costs for defense equipment and promote the development of the domestic defense industry. Some Japanese defense contractors have been complaining that the old rules hamper their efforts to develop cutting-edge weapon technologies and cause them to lose business opportunities.
 背景には、コスト削減と防衛産業の育成がある。国内の企業には、旧原則が足かせとなって最先端の技術開発から取り残され、ビジネスチャンスを失っているという不満がある。

But the self-imposed ban on arms exports is a policy Japan has maintained amid support from a majority of the public. It must not be abandoned simply to accommodate the logic of business.
 しかし、国民の多くの支持のもと、日本が選んできた道である。産業界の論理で割り切っていいはずがない。

Under the new rules, an export embargo is applied only to countries that are recognized by the U.N. Security Council as parties to conflict. This rule is a very weak measure and limited in its effectiveness to prevent questionable arms exports. The provision calling for disclosure of information about arms exports is too vague to be meaningful.
 新原則では、国連安保理が紛争当事国と認めない限り、禁輸の対象にはならない。歯止めとしては極めて緩く、限定的だ。輸出内容の情報公開の指針も、抽象的すぎる。

These problems with the new rules inevitably raise concerns that Japan's arms exports could create a situation that fuels international conflict while Japanese people are not aware of what is happening.
 これでは国民が知らぬ間に、国際紛争を助長するような事態がおきかねない。

The Abe administration has also started considering using the government’s official development assistance for military purposes in a radical departure from the tradition of limiting such aid to civilian areas. This would be another major shift away from the nation’s postwar pacifist credo.
 安倍政権は、民生分野に限っていた途上国援助(ODA)の軍事利用の検討も始めた。これもまた、平和主義の大転換である。

All these moves point a way toward making it possible for Japan to use its right to collective self-defense.
その先に控えるのが集団的自衛権の容認だ。

We can never accept these attempts to gradually erode the pacifist principles to which the nation has long been committed.
 こんな「なし崩し」を、認めるわけにはいかない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 3
2014年4月3日(木)付

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2014年4月 3日 (木)

STAP問題 再発防止へ全体像を解明せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 02, 2014
Truth about STAP fabrication case must be uncovered
STAP問題 再発防止へ全体像を解明せよ

The controversy over two articles written by an international team led by a RIKEN researcher, about what it calls stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP), must be regarded as a situation that seriously affects this nation’s scientific research. Japan’s scientific efforts are at risk of losing international confidence.
 日本の科学研究に対する国際的な信用を損なうゆゆしき事態である。

On Tuesday, RIKEN’s investigative committee published a final report that concluded the papers in question contained “deliberate alterations and fabrication.”
 STAP細胞の論文について、理化学研究所の調査委員会が「意図的な改ざんと捏造ねつぞうがあった」とする最終報告書を発表した。

RIKEN has said it will urge the team led by Haruko Obokata, the lead author of the theses, to retract them.
 理研は、論文の筆頭著者である小保方晴子ユニットリーダーらに論文撤回を勧告するという。

RIKEN’s authority has been dealt a serious blow, only two months after the team drew international attention to papers claiming success in creating the STAP cell as “a third kind of pluripotent cell.” What were the factors behind this? We hope RIKEN will keep trying to uncover the whole truth, including whether the STAP cell truly exists.
 「第3の万能細胞」として世界的に注目を集めた発表から、わずか2か月で、理研の権威は大きく傷ついた。なぜこのようなことになったのか。理研は引き続き、STAP細胞の存在の真偽も含め、全容解明に努めてもらいたい。

Through fact-finding interviews with people involved with the papers in question, the investigative panel has declared that Obokata was solely responsible for misconduct that included alterations to an image used in the articles.
 調査委は、関係者からの聞き取り調査などを行い、画像の加工などについて、小保方氏単独の不正行為があったと断定した。

The RIKEN committee has concluded that several photos used in the articles were “fabricated.” This conclusion is particularly disconcerting in that the images in question were claimed by the team as evidence proving the pluripotency of STAP cells. The authenticity of the papers has been fundamentally shaken.
 特に深刻なのは、STAP細胞の万能性を示す証拠とされた画像を「捏造に当たる」と結論づけた点だ。論文の信ぴょう性が根底から揺らいだと言えよう。

The panel also mentioned inadequacies attributable to figures with ties to RIKEN, whose names were included in the list of the papers’ coauthors. Its report said these people had not done enough to fulfill their duties related to the articles, including the examination of the data presented by Obokata.
 調査委は、論文の共著者の理研関係者について、小保方氏が示したデータのチェックなどに不十分な点があったとも指摘した。

When the papers about the STAP method were published in January, RIKEN officials spoke with a unified voice in praising the achievement claimed by Obokata’s team. They emphasized the discovery had been made possible as a result of veteran scientists supporting the innovative ideas generated by such a young researcher.
 論文の発表時に理研は、若手の斬新なアイデアをベテランの共著者が支えたと強調し、研究所一丸となった成果を誇っていた。

Ignored rules

However, the results of the panel’s investigation brought to light the carelessness evident in the process of putting the papers together, as the scientists involved failed to properly communicate with each other.
 だが、調査結果から浮き彫りになったのは、研究者間の意思疎通を欠いたまま進められたずさんな論文作成の実態だ。

RIKEN has kept in place a set of regulations aimed at preventing its staff from conducting dishonest research activities. The rules include an obligation to ensure procedures, facts and data related to experiments are appropriately written into laboratory notebooks, while also properly preserving these records. Also included in the rules is to thoroughly confirm what kind of responsibility is to be assumed by each coauthor of an article.
 理研は、不正な研究を防ぐため、実験手順やデータを記録する実験ノートの適切な記載と保管、論文の著者間の責任分担確認などを徹底させる規定を設けている。

Obokata was found to have retained such records only in two notebooks over the past three years. It has also been discovered that the notebooks only contained fragmentary and undated facts and data.
 それにもかかわらず、小保方氏の実験ノートは、3年間で2冊だけで、日付も記入されていない断片的な内容だったという。

In a statement issued about the results of the investigation, she has called the report totally unacceptable. Obokata also said she would file a complaint against Riken. However, if she wants to rebut the results of the investigation, Obokata must appear in public and explain the grounds on which her assertion is based.
 小保方氏は調査結果について「とても承服できない」とのコメントを発表した。理研に不服申し立てを行うという。反論があるのなら、小保方氏は公の場できちんと根拠を説明せねばならない。

The dispute over the papers is believed to affect a government plan to name RIKEN as a specified national research and development corporation under a new designation system.
 理研を「特定国立研究開発法人」に指定する政府の方針にも影響が出よう。

Large salaries would be paid to attract excellent researchers. RIKEN needs, first and foremost, to enhance its governance as a research institution while also implementing steps to prevent a similar incident from taking place again.
優秀な研究者を高給で集める新制度だが、理研がガバナンス(組織統治)を確立し、再発防止を図ることがまずは必要だ。

The STAP case has raised questions about reporting news on scientific discoveries.
 今回の問題は、科学報道のあり方に課題を突きつけた。

Any science paper that has just been published is to be regarded as showing that theories and advancements documented therein are in the process of being verified.
Such theories often prove to be misconceived.
論文発表は、「仮説」の検証過程であり、後に誤認が判明することも多い。

Even an achievement that scientists claim can overturn long-held beliefs has the possibility of turning out to be false.
常識を覆すとされる成果でも、その可能性はある。

We must all be reminded of the importance of reporting scientific news objectively and calmly.
 客観的で冷静な報道の重要性を改めて肝に銘じたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 2, 2014)

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防衛装備3原則 移転の透明性確保が重要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 02, 2014
Ensuring transparency will be key to defense equipment exports
防衛装備3原則 移転の透明性確保が重要だ

The government should actively promote the joint development and production of weapons and related

technologies with other nations as part of Japan’s international cooperation under the newly established

guidelines on exports of defense equipment.
 新しい原則に基づき、武器や関連技術といった防衛装備品の共同開発・生産などの国際協力を積極的に推進すべき

だ。

On Tuesday, the government adopted the “three principles on transferring defense equipment,”

replacing the three principles on arms exports.
 政府が、武器輸出3原則に代わる「防衛装備移転3原則」を閣議決定した。

The government will continue to ban exports to nations subject to embargoes under U.N. resolutions as

well as those involved in conflicts. On the other hand, the guidelines allow the government, after

intensive review, to export and transfer weapons and related technologies if doing so promises to

contribute to world peace or to benefit Japan’s national security. The new policies are a complete

overhaul of a 1976 government policy that effectively banned all weapons exports.
 国連決議による禁輸対象国や紛争当事国への禁輸は継続する一方で、平和貢献や日本の安全保障に資する場合

は厳格な審査を条件に輸出や移転を認める。武器輸出を事実上、全面的に禁じた1976年の原則の抜本見直しとなる

The old principles were phrased as though exporting weapons and providing weapons-related

technologies to other nations were evil deeds. The significance of revising this underlying idea and

establishing a new policy that emphasizes national security and promotes cooperation with other

countries on defense equipment is huge.
 武器の輸出や関連技術の提供がすべて悪いかのような発想を改めて、安全保障の観点を重視し、装備面の協力を進

める新方針を打ち出した意義は大きい。

As a result of the country’s long-standing blanket ban on arms exports—which seems to have been

excessive self-regulation—almost all Japan-made weapons have been procured by the Self-Defense

Forces. Domestic production was limited, which resulted in inflated prices. The ban has become a major

obstacle to defense equipment production in Japan and to the maintenance of the necessary

technological base, two foundations of Japan’s national security.
 武器の全面禁輸という長年にわたる日本独自の過剰な規制は、国内産の武器の納入先を自衛隊にほぼ限定し、少量

生産による高価格化という弊害を招いた。日本の安全保障を支える防衛生産・技術基盤を揺るがす要因でもあった。

The new guidelines also enable Japan to export completed weapons and parts under security

cooperation agreements with other nations, including relief activities, transportation and surveillance. We

expect that the shift to mass production will lead to a subsequent drop in the prices of Japan-produced

weapons and enhanced competitiveness for domestic companies.
 今回、救難・輸送・警戒などの安保協力として、装備の完成品や部品の輸出も可能になった。量産効果による国内製

品の低価格化や日本企業の競争力の強化につながることが期待されよう。

Moderate approach

In cases where importing countries consider using Japan-made weapons or technologies for purposes

beyond those originally intended or transferring them to other nations, those countries must obtain prior

approval from Japan. However, this process could be simplified, for example by having Japan examine

the management systems of these countries in the case of minor deals, such as the transfer of parts that

comprise only a minor part of a complete product. We believe this is a realistic and moderate approach.
 新原則は、輸出製品の目的外使用や第三国移転に関する日本政府の事前同意を義務づけた。ただ、対象がごく一

部の部品にすぎない場合などは、相手国の管理体制の確認といった簡便な措置で代替する。現実的で妥当な内容だ。

The Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry is responsible for approving exports and transfers of defense

equipment, but important deals will be assessed by the National Security Council. Details of such deals

will be made public after receiving NSC approval, and the trade ministry will issue annual reports on

such matters.
 移転の可否は通常、経済産業省が判断するが、重要案件は国家安全保障会議(日本版NSC)が審査する。NSC

が移転を認めた場合、その内容を公表するほか、経産省は年次報告書も作成する。

As the new guidelines enable the transfer of defense equipment not allowed under the former

principles, ensuring transparency is crucial.
 新たな移転を可能にする以上、透明性の確保が欠かせない。

What will be important going forward is to steadily expand and increase cooperation with other

countries.
 今後、重要なのは、国際協力を着実に拡大することだ。

In December 2011, the government virtually lifted the ban on joint development and production with

other countries, but this yielded very minor results, including the joint development of a chemical-proof

suit with Britain.
 2011年12月に国際共同開発・生産が原則解禁されたが、具体的な成果は、英国との化学防護服の共同開発など

に限られる。

In recent years, developing fighter jets and other state-of-the-art military equipment together with other

nations has become the prevailing trend. To improve the nation’s defense technology and curb

development costs, Japan should proactively engage in joint projects with the United States and

European countries.
 近年、戦闘機などの最新鋭装備は共同開発が主流だ。防衛技術の向上や開発費の抑制のため、日本は米国や欧州

との共同事業に前向きに取り組む必要がある。

It will be important to strengthen Japan’s existing systems for collecting information on nations to which

it considers exporting weapons, as well as the framework for cooperation on defense equipment. The

development and training of specialist personnel also cannot be neglected.
 関係国からの情報収集や装備協力の体制を拡充し、専門的人材を育成することが大切だ。

In addition, the government should promote exports of patrol ships and rescue planes to countries in

Southeast Asia and the Middle East. Helping such nations reinforce their maritime security capabilities

would directly impact the safety of Japan’s sea-lanes. Japan should seek international cooperation that

provides mutual benefit.
 東南アジアや中東への巡視船や救難機の輸出も促進したい。相手国の海上保安能力を高めることは日本の海上交通

路の安全に直結する。日本と相手国の双方にプラスとなる協力を追求すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 2, 2014)

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STAP論文―理研の責任は重い

April 02, 2014
EDITORIAL: Riken cannot blame Obokata alone in STAP cell scandal
STAP論文―理研の責任は重い

Is the Riken national research institute in a hurry to bring the curtain down on the scandal over supposedly groundbreaking studies on stem cells? We cannot dispel this suspicion.
 理化学研究所は幕引きを急いでいるのではないか。そんな疑念をぬぐえない。

On April 1, Riken’s internal investigative committee concluded in its final report that Haruko Obokata had committed wrongdoing in the “stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency” (STAP) research led by her at the Riken Center for Developmental Biology (CDB). The committee, set up in February after many questions were raised about articles published by Obokata in the prestigious British science journal Nature, accused her of misconduct, including “fabrication” and “doctoring” of research data.
 多くの疑問点がふきだしている新万能細胞「STAP(スタップ)細胞」の論文について、理研の調査委員会はきのう、筆頭著者の小保方(おぼかた)晴子ユニットリーダーに「捏造(ねつぞう)」と「改ざん」という研究不正があったとする最終報告書を公表した。

In her statement, Obokata vehemently challenged the committee’s conclusion and expressed her intent to lodge a formal complaint.
 これに対し、小保方氏は「承服できない。不服申し立てをする」とのコメントを発表した。

The committee did not examine Obokata’s research papers in their entirety. Rather, it limited the investigation to six points and merely looked for evidence of misconduct as opposed to innocent mistakes. With Obokata denying the allegations, public opinion is likely divided on whether the committee has sufficient evidence with which to accuse her of wrongdoing.
 調査委は論文全体を精査してはいない。6項目にしぼり、ミスを超える不正の有無を判断しただけである。また、小保方氏本人は否定している。不正と決めつける十分な根拠があるのか、見方はわかれそうだ。

Riken intends to consider taking disciplinary action against Obokata and others responsible, and start establishing measures to prevent a recurrence. But without a full explanation of what really happened, we cannot possibly expect the institute to come up with effective countermeasures.
 理研は報告書を受けて、小保方氏らへの処分や再発防止策の検討に進む方針だ。しかし、全容を解明せずに、実のある再発防止策が打ち出せるとはとうてい思えない。

The government was expected to grant the status of “special national research and development corporation” to deserving cutting-edge research institutes this month. Riken was the top contender for this designation. Could this be the reason why Riken was in a rush to put an end to the Obokata affair?
 国は今月、研究開発を先導する特定国立研究開発法人を指定する方針だった。理研はその最有力候補だった。それをにらんで結論を急いだ面はないか。

And isn’t Riken placing excessive blame on Obokata alone?
 そして、責任を小保方氏個人に集中させていないか。

What did her co-authors--older and more experienced than the young, 30-year-old stem-cell biologist--do or not do? Where did the problems lay with respect to lab work and the management of research data and materials?
共著者のベテラン研究者らは何をし、何をしなかったのか。実験やデータ、試料の管理のどこに問題があったか――。

Instead of relying only on the internal investigative committee, Riken should bring in a third-party committee and publish its findings. Without doing so, the institute will never regain its credibility.
 理研は内部調査で済ますのでなく、第三者に調査を委ねて結果を公表すべきだ。それなくして信頼は取り戻せないだろう。

Advances in science have been made possible by responsible scientists contributing their papers to reputable academic journals and accepting objective criticism from their peers. The research institutes to which those scientists belonged used to play a relatively inconspicuous role.
 科学は、研究者が個人の責任で学術誌に論文を投稿するなどし、他の研究者の批判にさらされることで前進してきた。研究者が所属する研究機関の役割はさほど目立たなかった。

But in this day and age of massive research funding being budgeted for survival in cutthroat international competition, universities and research institutes are now being forced to fulfill a new responsibility.
 だが、厳しい国際競争を背景に多額の研究予算がつぎ込まれる現在、大学や研究所などは新たな役割を果たさなければならなくなってきた。

Specifically, they must guarantee the “quality” of their researchers and the research they conduct.
 研究者や研究の「質の保証」である。

It has been reported that Obokata kept only two notebooks documenting her three-year lab work and that she saw nothing wrong with copying images from her past data. Aside from her alleged misconduct, such behavior would be utterly unthinkable to any self-respecting researcher.
 不正の認定以前に、小保方氏の実験ノートが3年間で2冊しかなかったとか、画像切り張りを問題と認識していなかったといった事態は、およそ研究者の常識からは考えられない。

Neither the university that conferred a doctorate upon her, nor Riken that hired her as a lead researcher, can escape responsibility as an organization.
 博士号を与えた大学や指導的研究者として迎えた理研は、組織としての責任を免れない。

If Obokata’s co-authors who were in a position to give her guidance had taken a look at her lab notes, perhaps this whole sorry mess could have been prevented.
 指導的立場の共著者が実験ノートをひと目見ていれば、今回の問題は防げたのではないか。

This blunder in the field of basic research followed a series of fiascoes in clinical studies, including one concerning a hypertension drug.
 高血圧薬など臨床研究をめぐる不正発覚に引き続き、基礎研究でも失態が明るみに出た。

Ensuring the quality of research is an urgent task of the nation’s scientific community.
 研究の質を確かなものにする取り組みが急務である。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 2
2014年4月2日(水)付

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2014年4月 2日 (水)

住まいる水道24で急なトイレの詰まりだって安心

トイレ、風呂場、台所などの水まわりにはトラブルがつきものなんですが、それはある日突然やって来ます。
ついつい自分で簡単に修理出来るのではないかと考えるのですが、大抵それは大変難しいことなのです。
団地の1階に住んでいたときにトイレの詰まりを経験しました。
朝から夕方まで自分で修理しようとして、果敢に挑戦しましたが、大失敗でした。
台所では水道の蛇口の水漏れが気になりました。
こちらも蛇口の既製品を購入して来て、取り付けましたが、同じようにぽたぽた状態なんです。
蛇口を締め付けるボルトを思いっきりしめたら、グキッという不気味な音が発生し、せっかく購入した蛇口を壊してしまいました。

これら水まわりの修理は、やはりプロにお任せするのが良いです。
で、住まいる水道24をご紹介します。
東京・埼玉・神奈川・千葉・静岡・愛知にお住まいの方だったら、こちらの水道工事屋さんが頼りになります。
住まいる水道24サイトには大きな特徴があります。
例えば水まわりのトラブル解消(修理)、リフォームなどなんですが、見積もり、出張費が無料の上に、基本料も無料なんです。
このサイトの特徴は迅速なサービスにあります。
メンテナンススタッフが清潔なのもうれしいですね。
そして一番うれしいのは、サービスのお値段が格安だということなんです。

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習氏「南京」発言 一方的な主張は看過できない

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 01, 2014
Xi’s unilateral claims on history issues must not go unanswered
習氏「南京」発言 一方的な主張は看過できない

While visiting another country, Chinese President Xi Jinping made assertions on history issues as if they were cut-and-dried facts, even though these issues are perceived differently by Japan. His remarks cannot be ignored.
 中国の習近平国家主席が、日中で見解の異なる歴史問題を巡り、自らの一方的主張を客観的事実であるかのように第三国で訴えた。看過できない行為である。

In a recent lecture meeting in Germany, Xi stated that “more than 300,000 people were massacred” in the 1937 Nanjing Incident perpetrated by the former Imperial Japanese Army. He emphasized to the international community that China was a “victim” by mentioning only the figure claimed by his government.
 習氏はドイツでの講演で、旧日本軍による1937年の南京事件について、「30万人以上が虐殺された」と述べた。中国政府の主張する数字だけを示して、中国の「被害者」としての立場を国際社会に強調したものだ。

The Japanese government has admitted that the Nanjing Incident took place and the victims included noncombatants, but takes the stand that it is difficult to determine how many people died.
 日本政府は、南京事件で非戦闘員の殺害などがあったことを認めている。だが、犠牲者数の確定は難しいとしている。

Xi’s statement in Germany disregarded Japan’s position, and it is reasonable to assume that his remarks were aimed at denigrating Japan’s image.
 習氏の発言は、こうした日本の立場を無視しており、日本のイメージダウンを狙ったプロパガンダと言われても仕方あるまい。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga criticized Xi’s statement, saying, “Amid a situation in which opinion differs [between the two countries] over the number of victims [in the Nanjing Incident], it is extremely unproductive for a Chinese leader to make such a statement in another country.” Suga’s criticism is a natural response.
 菅官房長官が「(南京事件の)犠牲者数などで意見が分かれている中、中国の指導者が第三国で、あのような発言をしたことは極めて非生産的だ」と批判したのは、当然である。

The dominant view in Japan is that “over 300,000 victims” claimed by China is far in excess of the actual figure when the demographic statistics of Nanjing and other factors at that time are taken into consideration.
 日本では、中国政府の言う「30万人以上」は、当時の南京の人口動態などから、実際の犠牲者数とはかけ離れているのではないかとの見方が支配的だ。

Even in a report published by the Japan-China joint research committee on history in 2010, which was established based on an agreement by the two governments, the Japanese side pointed out that “there are various estimates of victim numbers ranging from 20,000 or 40,000 to 200,000.”
 日中両政府の合意で発足した日中歴史共同研究委員会が2010年に発表した報告書でも、日本側は「20万人を上限として、4万人、2万人などの様々な推計がなされている」と指摘している。

Differing victim numbers

Even John Rabe, a German who has been praised by Xi for protecting refugees at the time of Nanjing Incident, put the number of victims at “50,000 to 60,000” in a report he submitted to Adolf Hitler.
 南京事件当時、避難民を保護したとして、習氏から称賛されたドイツ人ジョン・ラーベ氏も、ヒトラーへの上申書に、犠牲者は「5万~6万人」と記している。

Xi also said, “More than 35 million Chinese were killed and injured in the war of aggression committed under Japanese militarism,” but he failed to provide any evidence to support his claim.
 習氏は「日本軍国主義による侵略戦争で中国人3500万人以上が死傷した」とも述べたが、明確な拠より所は示されていない。

Xi’s hard-line stance is stronger than that of former Chinese President Jiang Zemin, who demonstrated his anti-Japan position repeatedly in words and actions, leading to a deterioration of bilateral relations.
 習氏の強硬姿勢は、反日的言動を繰り返し、対日関係を悪化させた、かつての江沢民国家主席を上回るものと言えよう。

The German government reportedly declined Xi’s request to visit the Holocaust Memorial during his visit to the country. This apparently was because of Berlin’s wariness about becoming involved in a dispute between Tokyo and Beijing.
 今回、ドイツ政府は、習氏のホロコースト(ユダヤ人大虐殺)記念碑への訪問を断ったと伝えられている。日中間の対立に巻き込まれることを警戒したのだろう。

Efforts must be made to prevent erroneous information about historical perceptions from spreading in the international community. The New York Times, in a recent online edition, carried an editorial saying that Prime Minister Shinzo Abe asserted the Nanjing Incident did not happen.
 歴史認識に関する誤った情報が国際社会に流布するのは阻止せねばならない。米紙ニューヨーク・タイムズ電子版は最近、安倍首相が南京事件は起きなかったと主張しているとの社説を掲載した。

To prevent such misapprehensions from prevailing, it is crucial for Tokyo to sincerely present its stance on the issue of historical perceptions and continuously and resolutely rebuff China’s anti-Japan propaganda campaign.
 こうした誤解を広めないためにも、日本政府は、歴史認識問題への真摯しんしな姿勢をアピールするとともに、中国の反日宣伝に毅然きぜんと反論し続けることが肝要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 1, 2014)

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日朝政府間協議 まずは軍事的挑発を自制せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
For bilateral talks, North Korea must halt military provocations
日朝政府間協議 まずは軍事的挑発を自制せよ

If North Korea continues its foolish military provocations, it will gain nothing at all. Making Pyongyang understand this point is the first priority.
 軍事的な挑発といった愚かな行為を続けるようでは、北朝鮮は何も得られない。それをわからせることが先決だ。

Director general level officials at the foreign ministries of Japan and North Korea have held official talks in Beijing. During their two-day meetings, which lasted for 8½ hours, they discussed topics including North Korea’s abduction of Japanese nationals years ago, and Pyongyang’s nuclear and missile development programs. The North Korean officials reportedly demanded Japan’s “settlement of its past,” a reference to compensation for its colonial rule of the Korean Peninsula.
 日本と北朝鮮の外務省局長級による協議が中国・北京で行われ、日本人の拉致や核・ミサイル問題などを計8時間半、話し合った。北朝鮮は「過去の清算」を求めてきたという。

Although yawning gaps remain between both sides’ positions on some issues, it is somewhat significant that they have agreed to continue high-level talks.
 双方の見解に大きな隔たりがある中、協議継続で一致したことには一定の意義があるだろう。

On the abduction issue, the Japanese side demanded North Korea reinvestigate the whereabouts of several Japanese people the government has officially identified as having been abducted by North Korean agents, and look into the cases of “missing Japanese probably related to North Korea,” people for whom the possibility of abduction by North Korea cannot be ruled out. We hope the Japanese side negotiates tirelessly and creates some developments in these cases.
 拉致問題について、日本側は政府の認定した拉致被害者の再調査に加え、拉致の可能性が否定できない「特定失踪者」にも対応を要求した。粘り強く交渉し、問題の進展へつなげてもらいたい。

The U.N. Human Rights Council has already adopted a resolution that denounced Pyongyang’s policies, including “the enforced disappearance of persons” and torture at political prison camps, as “crimes against humanity.” It called for the officials responsible for these crimes to be held accountable under law.
 すでに国連人権理事会は、北朝鮮が拉致や政治犯の虐待などを国策として行っていることを「人道に対する罪」と糾弾し、責任者に法の裁きを受けさせることを求める決議を採択している。

How can the net that is gradually tightening around North Korea be used to resolve the abduction problem? Japan must adopt a diplomatic approach that involves the international community.
 次第に強まってきた北朝鮮包囲網を、拉致問題の解決にどう生かすか。国際社会を巻き込んだ外交を展開する必要がある。

Worries about a building

During the latest talks, North Korea expressed awareness and deep concern over a recent Japanese court ruling that authorized the sale of the headquarters site and building of the General Association of Korean Residents in Japan (Chongryon). Should this property in Tokyo be sold and the association evicted from it, North Korea would be stripped of a vital activity base in this country.
 今回の協議で北朝鮮は、在日本朝鮮人総連合会(朝鮮総連)中央本部の土地・建物に売却許可決定が出ていることに関し、強い懸念と問題意識を示した。売却され、退去を迫られると、日本での重要拠点を失うからだ。

However, the bottom line is that the properties were put up for auction because Chongryon had failed to return billions of yen in loans from credit associations affiliated with pro-Pyongyang residents in Japan.
 だが、そもそも原因は、朝鮮総連が在日朝鮮人系信用組合から巨額の融資を受けながら返済せず、競売にかけられたことにある。

It is outrageous and misdirected for North Korea to express concern over the court ruling.
 それなのに懸念表明とは、筋違いも甚だしい。

Meanwhile, North Korea’s recent firing of medium-range ballistic missiles into the Sea of Japan was also on the meeting agenda. The Japanese side quite rightly protested the launches as violations of the 2002 bilateral Pyongyang Declaration and U.N. Security Council resolutions, and demanded that North Korea refrain from further launches.
 一方、北朝鮮が中距離弾道ミサイルを日本海に向けて発射したことも、協議のテーマになった。日本が、日朝平壌宣言や国連安全保障理事会決議に反すると抗議し、自制を求めたのは当然である。

The UNSC condemned the missile launches in a statement by the council’s president. It is disconcerting that North Korea has blatantly ignored the statement.
 国連安保理は弾道ミサイル発射を非難する議長談話を発表しているが、北朝鮮がこれをまったく無視しているのは問題だ。

North Korea has tried to justify the ballistic missile launches as self-defense drills. In a statement, North Korea said that it “would not rule out a new form of nuclear test for bolstering up its nuclear deterrence,” which can be taken as a threat.
 弾道ミサイル発射については自衛的な訓練だと強弁し、「核抑止力を一層強化するための新たな形態の核実験も排除しない」と脅しともとれる見解を示している。

On Monday, North Korean forces conducted live-fire exercises near the Northern Limit Line, a disputed maritime border in the Yellow Sea. About 100 shells landed in South Korea’s territorial waters. The South returned fire into the sea across the border. The exchange has heightened tensions on the Korean Peninsula.
 31日には、北朝鮮軍が黄海上の軍事境界線付近で射撃訓練を実施し、約100発が韓国側に着弾した。韓国軍がこれに対応射撃するなど、南北の緊張も高まった。

The Kim Jong Un regime should halt its dangerous provocations immediately.
 金正恩政権は、危険な挑発行為を即座に止めるべきである。

North Korea must wake up to the fact that cooperation with the international community is the only way to save the impoverished nation.
 国際社会との協調以外に、窮乏した国家を救う道はないことを自覚しなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 1, 2014)

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(社説)17年ぶり消費増税 改革の原点に立ち返れ

April 01, 2014
EDITORIAL: With new tax rate up and running, spending reform must be next step
Previous ArticleEDITORIAL: Japan loses credibility as corruption-tainted aid projects continue
(社説)17年ぶり消費増税 改革の原点に立ち返れ

The consumption tax rate went up from 5 percent to 8 percent on April 1.
 消費税率が、5%から8%に引き上げられた。

This is obviously a painful increase for the public. But given the fiscal deficits and debt morass that plague this nation, it was inevitable.
 国民にとっては、つらい負担増である。だが、借金漬けの日本の現状を考えれば、やむを得ない選択だ。

The question is whether political leaders are taking steps to make the pain bearable for the right reasons. Let us remember the reason the tax rate was hiked in the first place.
 問題は、その痛みに政治がきちんとこたえているかどうかである。消費増税の原点に返って考えたい。

BURDEN SHIFTED TO FUTURE GENERATIONS
 ■ツケ回しを減らそう

It is simply the key component of the government’s policy to reform the tax and social security systems in an integrated manner.
 消費増税は「社会保障と税の一体改革」の柱だ。

Social security spending, which accounts for more than 30 percent of the general-account budget, is partly financed by the issuance of government bonds because social insurance premiums and taxes do not cover the total outlay. In short, part of the burden of financing social security payouts for people living today is being shifted to future generations.
 国の一般会計予算の3割強を占める社会保障の財源は、保険料や税金だけでは足らず、国債の発行に頼っている。つまり、今の世代への給付を維持するために、将来世代にツケを回す構図である。

The proposed reform is designed to change this situation and secure long-term financial sustainability of the public pension system, along with the health and nursing-care insurance programs, while enhancing meager policy support for child-rearing families. The overhaul is aimed at re-energizing the economy by easing consumers’ concerns about their future and thereby stimulating their spending.
 それを改め、手薄な子育て支援策を充実させつつ、年金や医療・介護を安定させる。先々への安心感を高めることで消費を促し、経済の活性化にもつなげる狙いがある。

Under a policy initiative to achieve these goals, it was decided that the consumption tax rate will be raised to 10 percent in a two-stage hike. The next increase is slated for October 2015. The additional tax revenue will be used exclusively to fund social security spending.
 そうした考えから、国民が広く負担する消費税の税率を今回と15年10月の2段階で10%に上げ、増税分はすべて社会保障に使うことになった。

But not all the increase in tax receipts will go to improve social security benefits. Much of the money will be used to reduce the amount of new government bonds to be issued. The tax increase, however, will not be enough to make up the revenue shortfall as social security spending keeps rising due to the aging of the population.
 増収分がそっくりサービスの充実に充てられるのではなく、多くは国債の発行を減らすことに回される。それでも財源不足は解消せず、高齢化に従って社会保障費は増え続ける。

This is the grim reality facing Japan.
 日本の厳しい現実である。

What, then, can be done to prevent financial collapse?
 では、財政破綻(はたん)に陥らないために、どうすればいいのか。

Three things are essential. First, effective steps must be taken to lay the foundation for renewed economic growth, which would automatically bolster tax revenue. Secondly, the state budget needs to be seriously overhauled to ensure that the limited revenue is used as effectively as possible. Thirdly, the government should confront the need to implement more tax hikes.
 経済成長によって税収が自然に増える環境を整える▼限られた金額が有効に使われるよう、予算の見直しに取り組む▼増税から逃げない――この三つが欠かせない。

Especially important is the budget reform. Taxpayers will not support any proposal to raise taxes unless they are convinced the money they pay is used properly.
 とりわけカギを握るのは予算改革だろう。税金の使い道に納得感がなければ、国民は増税に反発するからだ。

SWELLING PUBLIC WORKS SPENDING
 ■膨らむ公共事業

But the Abe administration is showing no signs that it is seriously aware of the need to cut state finances.
 ところが、政権からは緊張感が一向に伝わってこない。

The administration compiled a supplementary budget worth 5.5 trillion yen ($53.3 billion) last fiscal year, aiming to alleviate the expected economic impact of the tax hike. The amount is even bigger than the estimated increase in tax revenue for the first year following the tax increase. Combined with the initial budget for the new fiscal year starting on April 1, which is the largest on record, the government’s total spending will top 100 trillion yen.
 消費増税をにらんだ昨年度の補正予算は5・5兆円に膨らんだ。初年度の増税分を上回る額だ。当初予算として過去最大となった今年度予算と合わせ、総額は100兆円を超す。

The figure is based on two separate spending plans for different fiscal years and should not be compared simply with a budget for a single year. But it is still worth pointing out that the amount is on a par with the bloated budgets formulated by the previous government led by the Democratic Party of Japan, which Abe’s Liberal Democratic Party harshly criticized as a reckless spending spree.
 年度をまたぐため単純比較はできないが、自民党が「ばらまき」と批判していた民主党政権下の予算規模に肩を並べる。

There are many issues that should be dealt with to cushion the impact of the tax increase. The government, for instance, should take measures to lessen the “regressivity” of the consumption tax, which means the burden is heavier for people with less income.
 所得の少ない人ほど消費税の負担が重くなる「逆進性」への配慮など、欠かせない対策は少なくない。

But the Abe administration is ramping up the budget, claiming the tax increase create fresh room for spending growth or that public spending should be increased to prevent the economy from losing steam. The administration’s spending binge raises serious doubts about its commitment to the original purpose of integrated tax and social security reform.
 しかし、「増税で財源に余裕ができた」「景気の冷え込みを防ぐ」といって予算を膨らませていては、何のための一体改革なのか。

Symbolizing the administration’s willingness to pump up spending is its public works budget.
 象徴は、公共事業である。

Policymakers within the government and the ruling parties are clamoring for an expansion of public works spending. Proponents argue that it is urgently needed to repair aged infrastructure and improve the nation’s preparedness for natural disasters. They call for forward spending on public works to tackle these challenges and keep the economy on a recovery path. Some of them also claim public works spending should be increased if only to ease the negative effects of massive cuts made by the DPJ-led government.
 「老朽化したインフラや防災への対策は待ったなし。景気対策を兼ねて前倒しを」「民主党政権が大幅に削減したひずみをただすだけ」。こんな声が政府・与党にかまびすしい。

The administration appears to be bent on promoting public works projects without making any serious assessment of their cost effectiveness by waving the banner of disaster preparedness. It is hard to believe that the government is making serious efforts to consolidate existing public facilities while shifting the focus of its public works policy from new construction projects to measures to deal with the deterioration of existing facilities.
 「防災」を錦の御旗に、費用対効果の検証をおろそかにしたまま、建設ありきの対策を続けていないか。新設から老朽化対策へと軸足を移しつつ、既存の施設を集約する試みが徹底しているとはとても思えない。

In addition to projects to rebuild areas devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in 2011, the government has also embarked on new public works projects to stoke economic growth and improve infrastructure for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. The expansion of infrastructure spending has triggered steep rises in the wages of construction workers and the prices of construction materials. There have been many cases where bidding for a public works contract failed to result in the selection of the contractor and forced the government to raise the bid ceiling. Rising construction costs inevitably lead to increases in both public spending and debt.
 東日本大震災の復興事業に、景気対策としての公共事業の積み増しや東京五輪の準備が加わって、現場では賃金や建設資材の高騰が深刻だ。入札の不調が相次ぎ、当初の予定価格を引き上げてやっと業者が決まる例も珍しくない。その分、税金が多く費やされ、借金は増える。

PUBLIC DEBT TRIPLED
 ■国債残高は3倍に

A study of past government attempts to improve their fiscal health found that successful efforts were focused more on spending cuts than on tax hikes.
 財政再建のために増税と歳出削減が実施されているが、成功したケースは歳出削減に重点を置いていた――。

The survey was conducted in the late 1990s by Alberto Alesina, a professor of political economy at Harvard University. Alesina wrote a paper on the study, which looked into various attempts for fiscal rehabilitation made by industrial nations since 1960 onward. In successful cases, the ratio between spending cuts and tax hikes was around 7 to 3.
 90年代後半、米ハーバード大のアルベルト・アレシナ教授らが60年以降の先進国の取り組みを調べ、こんな論文をまとめた。成功例では、歳出削減と増税の比率はおおむね7対3だったという。

Even though the study only covered a limited number of cases, it clearly supports the conventional wisdom that budget reforms and spending reductions are vital for fixing state finances. Given Japan’s woeful fiscal conditions, which are among the worst in the developed world, there is no choice for the government but to pursue simultaneously both tax increases and budget reforms.
 限られた事例の分析だが、予算の見直し・削減が財政再建に欠かせないことは常識だ。先進国の中で最悪の水準に落ち込んだわが国の財政難を考えれば、増税と予算改革を同時並行で進めるしか道はない。

In its campaign platform for the 2009 Lower House election, the DPJ, which came to power through the poll, promised to raise more than 10 trillion yen to finance its policy proposals through budget restructuring. But the party failed to deliver on the promise.
 民主党は、政権を獲得する09年の総選挙で、新たな政策の財源として既存の予算の組み替えで十数兆円を用意すると公約したが、実現できなかった。

Overhauling the budget for spending cuts cannot be done overnight. It requires scrutinizing individual policy programs and reducing the expenditures on surviving ones as much as possible. Only such low-profile, tenacious efforts can lead to real progress. The Abe administration is clearly moving in the opposite direction by taking advantage of the tax hike to increase government spending.
 見直しは一朝一夕にはできない。個々の政策を一つひとつ吟味し、継続する場合もできるだけ少ない金額でまかなう。
 そんな地道な作業を積み重ねるしかないのに、増税を理由に予算を膨らませるのでは、改革の方向が逆である。

Since the collapse of the asset-inflated economy in the early 1990s, the Japanese government has put together extra budgets almost every year to promote economic growth.
 90年代のバブル崩壊後、景気対策のために、毎年のように補正予算が編成された。

The total value of outstanding government bonds has tripled to 750 trillion yen since the last consumption tax increase 17 years ago. The overall government debt load, including borrowing, has surpassed 1,000 trillion yen.
 17年前の消費増税時と比べると、国債の発行残高は3倍の750兆円である。借り入れなどを加えた国の借金総額は1千兆円を超えた。

If it proceeds with the planned additional hike in the consumption tax rate to 10 percent, the government will have to push through a fundamental reform of the bloated budget for significant spending cuts.
 膨れあがった予算を抜本的に見直し、削減につなげる。それが、消費税率を10%に上げる前提である。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 1
2014年4月1日05時00分

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2014年4月 1日 (火)

どうした日本の政策金利! FX投資で稼げます

一円を笑うものは一円に泣くという諺があります。
たとえ小額でも、それを馬鹿にすると、あとで痛い目に逢うという戒めなんです。
FX投資なんですが、金融商品の自由化に伴い、取引の手数料すなわちスプレッドがどんどん小さくなって来ています。

FX投資歴5年を超えましたが、やはりスプレッドがお安いとずいぶん助かります。
ですが、この投資で一番大切なのが投資会社の信用なんです。
信頼できる会社でないと、自分の退職金を託すことは出来ません。

そこで日産センチュリー証券 なんです。
FX投資業界で確実なる実績と信用があり、スプレッドがわずか1銭というのは、我々FX投資家にとって大助かりなんです。
繰り返しますがFX投資で一番大切なのは、投資会社の信用です。

退職後、預貯金金利で稼げなくなっている現状に鑑みると、我々だってどこかに打って出る必要があるんです。
銀行貯金や郵便局貯金だけでは、今のインフレ政策でどんどん財産としての価値が目減りします。
FX投資は、賢く運用すれば、そこそこ稼ぐことが出来ます。
ですが、過度なるレバレッジに身をやつすのはやめておきましょう。
確実な投資方法もあります。



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少子高齢化社会で光る結婚アドバイザーとは

その昔、結婚といえば恋愛結婚よりもお見合い結婚のほうが圧倒的に多かったですね。
お見合い結婚を段取りする人は仲人(なこうど)と呼ばれ、昔はたくさんいましたが、今では大変少なくなってしまいました。
仲人 のお仕事は適齢期の男女の間に入り、様々な調整をなし、結婚に至るまで導くのが役目でした。

現代においても、同じような役目を果たしている人たちがいます。
結婚アドバイザーと呼ばれる人々がそうなんです。
少子高齢化で人口が激減している現在の状況を鑑みれば、適齢期の男女を出来るだけ素早く結びつけ、子宝でもって日本を繁栄させるお仕事はとても大切なものですね。

自宅で簡単に始められるアルバイト感覚の結婚アドバイザーのお仕事があります。
ネットで簡単な登録をしたらすぐに活動が開始出来るのが魅力なんです。
収入を増やしたいのだけれども出来れば外に出ないで自宅で稼ぎたい人たちには最適のお仕事だと思います。
あなたも結婚アドバイザーになって、日本の繁栄に寄与してみませんか。



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あす消費税8% 社会保障安定への大きな一歩

The Yomiuri Shimbun March 31, 2014
Raising consumption tax rate to 8% big step for social welfare stability
あす消費税8% 社会保障安定への大きな一歩

 ◆景気失速の回避に全力尽くせ◆

On April 1, the consumption tax rate will be raised from 5 percent to 8 percent. The extra income the government accrues from this increase will be a source of revenue for the nation’s social welfare system.
 消費税率があす1日、5%から8%に引き上げられる。増税分は社会保障費の財源になる。

In addition to providing a robust social welfare system, the government must mitigate any negative impact the tax hike may have on the economy to ensure that the recovery does not lose steam this spring and beyond.
 政府は、社会保障制度を充実させるとともに、増税の打撃を緩和し、春以降の景気失速を回避しなければならない。

The effects of the Abenomics policies of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s administration have helped the economy get back on its feet. However, the work to shake off the shackles of deflation and generate genuine economic growth is not complete. Japan’s economy now faces a moment of truth.
 安倍政権の経済政策、アベノミクスの効果で景気は回復してきたが、デフレ脱却や、本格的な経済成長は道半ばである。日本経済は正念場を迎えよう。

The Liberal Democratic Party, New Komeito and the Democratic Party of Japan signed off on the higher consumption tax rate as part of a three-party agreement on unified reform of the social security and tax systems. After the rate is increased to 8 percent, it is scheduled to be jacked up to 10 percent in October 2015.
 消費増税は、自民、公明、民主の3党が合意した社会保障と税の一体改革で決まった。8%に続き、2015年10月には10%へ引き上げる予定になっている。

Give future generations a break
 ◆次世代につけを回すな◆

Japan’s national debt exceeds ¥1 quadrillion. Its fiscal situation is the gloomiest among advanced nations. The chronically low birthrate and aging population, combined with a declining working population, have conspicuously resulted in snowballing social welfare expenses for medical, pension, nursing care and child-rearing costs.
 国の借金は1000兆円を超え、先進国最悪の財政状況だ。少子高齢化や、働く世代の減少などにより、特に膨張しているのが、医療、年金、介護、子育て支援などの社会保障費である。

Social welfare expenditures have already reached ¥30 trillion annually and are expected to go up by an additional ¥1 trillion each year.
 年30兆円に達している社会保障費はさらに毎年1兆円程度も増える見通しだ。

Meeting these costs through a massive issuance of debt-covering government bonds, which leaves future generations with the bill, must not continue any longer.
 巨額の赤字国債発行で、将来世代へのつけ回しを続けるべきではない。

By increasing the consumption tax, which can be collected widely from all consumers, the government can ensure a steady tax revenue stream for maintaining and improving Japan’s social welfare system. The significance of this point should not be underestimated.
 消費者全体で幅広く負担する消費税の増税によって、安定的な税収を確保し、社会保障制度を維持・充実する意義は大きい。

The government plans to spend the extra revenue generated by the tax increase mainly on strengthening medical and nursing care services that support the elderly, assistance for people raising children, and steps to combat the low birthrate.
 政府は増税分の使途について、高齢者を支える医療と介護の連携体制の強化、子育て支援、少子化対策などに充てる方針だ。

Given that each citizen will be required to shoulder an extra financial burden, the government in turn must implement effective policies to help them. It needs to quickly consider additional steps, including curbing medical, nursing care and pension benefits to help stabilize the social welfare system.
 国民に一層の負担を求める以上、効果的な施策を実施しなければならない。社会保障制度を安定させるため、医療、年金、介護の給付費抑制も含めて、政府はさらなる検討を急ぐ必要がある。

In the months before the tax hike went into effect, many consumers splashed out on durable goods such as bicycles and home appliances, and stocked up on a wide range of foods and household goods. This boosted demand and expanded consumption.
 消費増税に先立ち、消費者の間では、自動車、家電といった耐久消費財をはじめ、食品、家庭用品など幅広い商品で駆け込み需要が高まり、消費が拡大してきた。

As a result, Japan’s economic growth rate is predicted to be about 5 percent in January-March this year. The big question will be what happens to the economy after the consumption tax hike kicks in.
 それにより、今年1~3月期の成長率は5%前後の伸びが見込まれているが、問題は、増税後の日本経済の動向といえる。

Learn from previous hikes
 ◆成長戦略で基盤強化を◆

Japan’s economy tanked after the consumption tax rate was increased from 3 percent to 5 percent in April 1997. The situation was exacerbated by the Asian currency and financial crisis as well as financial insecurity.
 1997年4月に消費税率が3%から5%に引き上げられた際、アジア通貨危機や金融不安も重なり、景気は急激に悪化した。

Most analysts expect that Japan’s economy will also experience negative growth in the April-June quarter, partly due to the likely drop in demand after last-minute shopping sprees before the tax increase. Growth is forecast to return to positive territory in the July-September quarter, but the outlook does not warrant unbridled optimism.
 今回も、駆け込み需要の反動減による販売の落ち込みなどで、増税後の4~6月期にマイナス成長に陥るとの予測が大勢を占める。7~9月期以降、再びプラス成長に回復するとみられるが、先行きは楽観できない。

Abe said, “We will do everything we can to minimize any negative effects of the consumption tax rise, and quickly get the economy back on a growth path.” His comment is absolutely right.
 安倍首相が、「増税の悪影響を最小限に抑え、速やかに景気が回復軌道に戻るよう万全を期す」と強調しているのはもっともだ。

The aces up the government’s sleeve for buoying the economy are the ¥5.5 trillion fiscal 2013 supplementary budget, which centered on public works projects, and the initial general account budget for fiscal 2014, which will total a record-high ¥95.9 trillion.
 政府が景気下支えの「切り札」としているのが、公共投資を柱とした5・5兆円の13年度補正予算と一般会計総額が過去最大の95・9兆円の14年度当初予算だ。

The government wants this earmarked money spent ahead of schedule. To achieve this, it has set the numerical target of implementing “at least 60 percent” of budget spending on public works projects and other outlays in the fiscal 2014 budget before the end of September.
 予算が前倒しで使われるよう、政府は新年度予算の公共事業などの執行率を「9月末に6割以上」とする数値目標を設けた。

By quickly carrying out these projects, the government expects to avoid strangling the economic recovery. However, it is worrisome that a labor shortage at construction sites and rising building material costs have caused some projects to attract few bidders.
 迅速な執行を通じ、景気の腰折れを防ぐ効果が期待される。ただ、建設現場の人手不足や建材価格の値上がりで、入札が不調となる例が目立つのは気がかりだ。

Corporate investment in equipment and exports are major drivers of economic growth, but these still lack oomph.
 景気の牽引けんいん役である企業の設備投資と輸出は依然、力強さを欠いている。

Companies will need to brace for a dip in sales and other unfavorable conditions in April and beyond. It seems the ability of private-sector demand to orchestrate a robust economic recovery will be tested for some time to come.
 企業各社は、4月以降の販売減などの逆風も覚悟しなければなるまい。民需が主導する力強い景気回復に向け、試練が続きそうだ。

All this makes the second round of the government’s economic growth strategy, which will be unveiled in June, even more important. We hope the new strategy will shore up the foundations of the economy by incorporating a significant cut in the corporate tax rate, and regulatory reforms that stimulate business activity and encourage the development of new industries.
 それだけに重要なのが、政府が6月にまとめる成長戦略の第2弾である。企業活力を引き出したり、新産業の育成に弾みをつけたりする規制改革や、大胆な法人税率引き下げなどを打ち出し、経済の基盤を強化してもらいたい。

It also is important that the government and local authorities step up their monitoring to ensure that businesses can smoothly pass on the full tax rise to customers through higher retail prices.
 消費増税分を円滑に販売価格に転嫁できるよう、政府や自治体が監視を強めることも大切だ。

Pass on hike through prices
 ◆価格への転嫁は着実に◆

Steps must be taken to prevent large companies from exploiting their advantageous position to force suppliers to absorb the tax increase while freezing their own purchase prices.
 大企業が有利な立場を利用し、納入業者に価格据え置きを強いる買いたたきを防ぐ必要がある。

At the same time, it is problematic that government efforts to assist households whose budgets will be stretched by the higher consumption tax rate remain insufficient. The government has decided to provide low-income earners with a special cash benefit.
 一方、消費増税で負担が増す家計への対策が不十分な点は問題だ。政府は低所得者に給付金を支給することにした。

However, this will be a one-off payment to selected recipients, so it will have only a limited effect on reducing their economic burden.
 だが、対象者を絞った1回限りの給付では、負担軽減の効果は限定的だろう。

Abe plans to decide at the end of this year whether to go ahead and lift the consumption tax rate to 10 percent in October 2015. His decision will undoubtedly hinge on the economic growth rate logged in the July-September quarter.
 首相は、今年末に15年10月に消費税率を10%に引き上げるかどうか決定する方針だ。今年7~9月期の経済成長率が決断のポイントになるに違いない。

If the consumption tax rate is indeed bumped up to 10 percent, we think the government should introduce a reduced tax rate for some daily necessities. The LDP and Komeito have restarted talks on such a reduced rate. The two parties should quickly decide to introduce a lower levy when the rate is increased to 10 percent, and select which items should qualify for it.
 10%とする場合は、生活必需品の税率を低く抑える軽減税率の導入が不可欠だ。軽減税率の協議を再開した自民、公明両党は、10%と同時の導入を決断し、対象品目の選定を急ぐべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 31, 2014)

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