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2014年4月26日 (土)

日米首脳会談 中国念頭に強固な同盟を築け

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:26 pm, April 25, 2014
Stronger Tokyo-Washington alliance key as a check on ambitious China
日米首脳会談 中国念頭に強固な同盟を築け

◆TPP合意へ一層歩み寄る時だ

Building synergy between the “principle of proactive contribution to peace” espoused by the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and the “rebalance” policy of the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama, which reprioritizes the Asia-Pacific region, is a matter of utmost importance. The Japanese and U.S. governments should coordinate closely on policies to effect this end.
 安倍政権の「積極的平和主義」と、米オバマ政権のアジア重視のリバランス(再均衡)政策が、相乗効果を上げることが肝要である。日米両政府は緊密に政策調整すべきだ。

Abe and Obama met Thursday in Tokyo. The two leaders used the summit as a forum to reaffirm the leading role the Japan-U.S. alliance plays in ensuring peace and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region, and to express their mutual dedication to further enhancing bilateral ties.
 安倍首相とオバマ大統領が東京で会談し、日米同盟について、アジア太平洋地域の平和と繁栄に主導的役割を果たしているとして、一層強化する方針で一致した。

This week was the first time in 18 years a U.S. president visited Japan as a state guest. What made these talks between Abe and Obama especially significant was that they sent a message to the world about the spirit of bilateral cooperation between the two countries. Observers had sensed strain in the relationship after Washington expressed “disappointment” with Abe’s December visit to Yasukuni Shrine, but the talks appear to show that the vitality of Japan-U.S. relations has been restored.
 米大統領の国賓としての来日は18年ぶりだ。安倍首相の靖国神社参拝に米国が「失望」を表明し、一時はすきま風が指摘された日米関係を立て直し、連携を国際的にアピールできた意義は大きい。

Senkaku remarks a victory
◆尖閣「安保適用」は成果

At a joint press conference following the summit talks, the prime minister stressed that the Japan-U.S. alliance is “more robust than ever before.” Obama, for his part, said the United States is eager to see Japan make “even greater contributions to peace and security around the world,” a development he said “the United States very much welcomes.”
 首相は共同記者会見で「日米同盟はかつてないほど盤石だ」と強調した。大統領は「日本がさらに多くの世界の平和に貢献してくれることを期待する」と語った。

Particularly worthy of note for Japan were President Obama’s remarks at the summit concerning the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture, to which China lays a claim. He stated an explicit and unequivocal position that Article 5 of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty “covers all territories under Japan’s administration, including the Senkaku Islands.” This is the first time that the U.S. president has publicly acknowledged that Article 5 of the pact regarding the United States’ obligation to defend Japan in case of a military attack applies to the Senkaku group of islets. This clear commitment by the United States can be called, without qualification, a milestone achievement of Japan’s diplomacy and relations with the United States.
 注目すべきは、オバマ大統領が尖閣諸島について「日米安保条約第5条の適用対象となる」と初めて明言し、対日防衛義務の対象と認めたことである。日本外交の大きな成果と言えよう。

The two leaders also reconfirmed their opposition to any attempt by China to “change the status quo” by force, while also pressing forward with a policy of cooperation aimed at engaging Beijing in the creation of a free Asia-Pacific region open to the rest of the world.
 両首脳は、自由で開かれたアジア太平洋地域に中国を関与させるために日米が連携する一方、「力による現状変更」には明確に反対する方針を確認した。

China’s recent actions in the region include the unilateral declaration of an air-defense identification zone in the East China Sea and repeated intrusions into Japanese territorial waters in the vicinity of the Senkaku Islands. In the South China Sea, too, China has been moving openly to expand its territorial and maritime interests with the leverage of its military might.
 中国は、東シナ海で防空識別圏を一方的に設定し、尖閣諸島周辺で日本の領海侵入を繰り返している。南シナ海でも、軍事力を背景に領土・海洋権益の拡張を図る動きを公然と見せている。

Regional deterrent capabilities and the effectiveness of the Japan-U.S. alliance are crucial instruments in pursuing greater self-restraint from China and an end to such actions.
 中国にこうした行動の自制を求めるには、日米同盟の抑止力と実効性を高める努力が欠かせない。自衛隊と米軍の協力を強化し、今回の首脳会談の政治的メッセージを具体化すべきだ。

The next key task for the government is to make the political message born from the latest bilateral summit meeting a reality by further bolstering cooperation between the Self-Defense Forces and the U.S. military.
Working-level negotiations to lay the groundwork for a review of Japan-U.S. defense cooperation guidelines need to be accelerated, in order to make clear what joint Japan-U.S. responses to contingencies should look like.
 年末に予定される日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)見直しの作業を加速し、日米共同対処のあり方を明確化する必要がある。

Endorse collective defense
◆集団的自衛権の容認を

To make the presence of U.S. forces in Japan more stable and sustainable, the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station within Okinawa Prefecture to the Henoko district of Nago and the transfer of marines from the prefecture to Guam must be expedited. Similarly important is the steady alleviation of the burden on Okinawa Prefecture imposed by hosting U.S. military bases.
 在日米軍の駐留をより安定的で持続可能なものにするため、米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設や在沖縄海兵隊のグアム移転を進め、沖縄の基地負担を着実に軽減することも大切である。

During the summit, Obama expressed appreciation for and backed the Abe administration’s move toward revising the constitutional interpretation of the right to collective self-defense.
 オバマ大統領は会談で、安倍政権による集団的自衛権の憲法解釈の見直しを歓迎し、支持した。

Changing the interpretation to allow enforcement of the right to collective self-defense would be a fairly effective means of buttressing the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 憲法解釈を変更し、集団的自衛権の行使を可能にすることは、日米同盟を強化するうえで、極めて有効な手段となろう。

Based on a report to be submitted by an expert panel next month, the government and ruling parties must step up efforts to build a consensus on allowing the minimum necessary exercise of the right to collective self-defense.
 政府・与党は、来月の有識者懇談会の報告書を踏まえ、必要最小限の集団的自衛権に限って行使を容認する「限定容認論」の合意形成を急がねばならない。

On the issue of North Korea’s nuclear and missile development, Abe and Obama agreed on the importance of tripartite cooperation among Japan, the United States and South Korea. Obama met representatives of the families of Japanese citizens abducted by North Korea for the first time and offered U.S. cooperation in resolving the abduction issue.
 北朝鮮の核・ミサイル問題について、両首脳は、日米韓3か国の連携の重要性で一致した。大統領は、日本人拉致被害者の家族の代表と初めて面会し、拉致問題の解決に協力する考えを表明した。

While leveraging the U.S. backing, Japan must work to realize a fresh investigation into the abduction victims through negotiations between Tokyo and Pyongyang to make concrete progress in resolving the issue.
 米国の支持をテコに、日朝協議で拉致問題の再調査を実現し、具体的な進展につなげたい。

Regarding the situation in Ukraine, Abe and Obama confirmed that they oppose any attempts to change the status quo by force, with Russia’s annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in mind. Together with Europe, Tokyo and Washington must explore ways to resolve territorial disputes peacefully, so as to avoid giving Beijing the wrong message on such issues.
 ウクライナ情勢について会談では、ロシアのクリミア半島編入を念頭に「力による現状変更は許されない」ことを確認した。領土問題で中国に誤ったシグナルを送らないよう、日米は欧州と協力し、平和的解決を模索すべきだ。

Obama will visit South Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines after leaving Japan on Friday.
 オバマ大統領は日本訪問後、韓国、マレーシア、フィリピンを歴訪する。

It is crucial for Japan and the United States to build multilayered cooperative ties with South Korea and southeast Asian nations to enhance the maritime surveillance capabilities of each country and ensure safety on sea traffic routes.
 日米両国が、韓国や東南アジア各国と重層的な協力関係を構築し、各国の海洋監視能力を高めて、海上交通路の安全を確保することが重要だ。

Concerning the Trans-Pacific Partnership multilateral free trade talks, Tokyo and Washington failed to iron out differences in their summit meeting and agreed instead to continue negotiations between Akira Amari, state minister in charge of TPP talks, and U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉に関しては、首脳会談で決着せず、甘利TPP相とフロマン米通商代表による閣僚協議を継続する異例の展開となった。

This is because the two countries could not reach a broad agreement over key five trade categories that Japan demanded to be treated as exceptions to tariff abolition.
 日本が関税撤廃の例外扱いを求める農産品の重要5項目を巡り、大筋合意できなかったためだ。

Path to mutual prosperity
◆自由貿易で共栄を図れ

A certain degree of progress has been made on rice, wheat and sweetener sources. But discord has continued in the talks on the beef and pork category. Obama has called for further concessions by Japan, stressing the need for greater access to the Japanese market.
 5項目のうち、コメ、麦、甘味作物は一定の前進があったが、牛・豚肉などは対立が続いている。大統領は「日本市場のアクセス(開放)が必要だ」と強調し、日本に一層の譲歩を求めた。

Both Japan and the United States face severe domestic challenges, including pressure from their respective agricultural industries. But now is the time for the two countries to make political decisions based on mutual concessions from the comprehensive viewpoint of promoting economic growth throughout Asia for coexistence and mutual prosperity.
 日米双方とも、農業団体の圧力など厳しい国内事情を抱えている。だが、アジア全体の経済成長を促進して、共存共栄を図るという大局的見地から、両国が政治決断し、歩み寄る時である。

A Tokyo-Washington accord is indispensable for the successful conclusion of the 12-nation TPP negotiations to establish a high-level free trade framework in the Asia-Pacific region.
 アジア太平洋地域で高いレベルの自由貿易体制を導入するTPPの12か国による交渉の妥結には、日米両国の合意が不可欠だ。

It is also essential to remember that if the two countries can demonstrate leadership in establishing new rules on trade and investment, it will have the strategic effect of serving as a check against China, which has been making waves internationally.
 日米が新たな貿易・投資のルール作りを主導することは、国際的発言力を強める中国に対するけん制効果を持つという戦略的な視点も忘れてはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 25, 2014)

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