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2014年4月21日 (月)

性暴力被害者 “駆け込み寺”を充実させたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun 6:59 pm, April 20, 2014
Support centers must be expanded for victims in sexual violence cases
性暴力被害者 “駆け込み寺”を充実させたい

Efforts must be redoubled to minimize the number of those victims of sexual violence such as sexual assault and forcible indecent exposure who have no other choice but to suffer in silence.
 性的暴行や強制わいせつなど、性暴力の被害を受けながら、泣き寝入りせざるを得ない人を少しでも減らす。

To achieve this end, it is imperative that support centers that can serve as shelters, or safe havens, for such victims are improved.
そのためには“駆け込み寺”となる救援施設の整備が必要だろう。

Conceived as “one-stop support centers” for victims of sexual violence, two additional facilities were established earlier this month, one at each of two privately run hospitals in Fukui and Shiga prefectures.
 性暴力被害者のための「ワンストップ支援センター」が今月、福井、滋賀両県の民間病院に新たに設置された。

Support teams with expertise and obstetrics and gynecology specialists are routinely stationed at each facility to provide victims of sex-related offenses with counseling and medical care. Depending on the individual’s wishes, the centers can also serve as a liaison to enable victims to seek assistance from lawyers, professional counselors, local municipalities’ social welfare officials and police. The role that the centers will play in facilitating communication between such victims of sex-related crimes and a range of related support organizations is undoubtedly very important.
 専門の支援員や産婦人科医が常駐して相談や診療に当たる。希望に応じて弁護士やカウンセラー、福祉窓口、警察への仲介役にもなる。様々な支援の窓口として、センターが果たす役割は大きい。

Sexual violence is characterized by the fact that victims often find it difficult to speak out about the offenses to those around them, resulting in the failure of cases to be brought to the fore. In many instances, victims have encountered difficulties in various aspects of everyday life, such as being unable to go out due to lingering anxieties and fear.
 周囲に打ち明けにくく、潜在化しやすいのが、性暴力被害の特徴だ。消えない不安や恐怖心で外出できなくなるなど、生活に支障をきたす例も多い。

Support centers must provide sexual assault victims with responses well suited to help them alleviate the mental and physical scars inflicted by offenders.
 支援センターに求められるのは、心身に傷を抱える被害者に寄り添った対応である。

The country’s first sexual assault support center was launched in 2010 at a private-sector hospital in Osaka Prefecture. The center receives as many as about 6,500 inquiries and requests for counseling a year.
 支援センターは2010年、大阪府内の民間病院に初めて設置された。現在、年6500件もの相談が寄せられる。

The government incorporated a goal of expediting the construction of new support centers into the key items in the Second Basic Plan for Crime Victims that was announced in 2011. A prescriptive guide for the establishment and administration of support centers was completed in 2012, with a policy calling for setting up “at least one center in each prefecture,” including Tokyo and Hokkaido.
 政府は、第2次犯罪被害者等基本計画の重点項目に、支援センターの設置促進を盛り込んだ。12年には開設・運営の手引を作成し、「都道府県内に少なくとも1か所は設置することが望ましい」との方針を示した。

Govt subsidies needed

But such centers have been launched in only about 10 prefectures nationwide, including Tokyo and Hokkaido. The biggest factor behind the small number of facilities is a lack of funding.
 しかし、これまでに設けられたのは、東京、北海道など10か所程度にとどまる。整備が進まない最大の要因は、資金不足だ。

Private-sector organizations are largely behind the establishment of such facilities, making their operation dependent on donations. At some centers, the staff who provide support to victims work without being paid at all. Due to shortages of obstetricians and gynecologists, some centers have faced difficulty securing hospitals to serve as the primary base for their activities.
 設置主体の多くは民間団体で、運営資金を寄付に頼っている。支援員が手弁当で対応している支援センターもある。産婦人科医が不足する中、拠点となる病院を確保できない地域も多い。

In the United States and European countries as well as South Korea, support centers have been founded through government-backed networks. The United States has as many as 1,100 rape crisis centers, which are run by subsidies from the federal government and other public entities.
 欧米や韓国では、24時間対応の公的支援網が整っている。米国では1100か所ものレイプクライシスセンターが、連邦政府などからの補助金で運営されている。

Similarly, the central and local governments in Japan should subsidize the establishment and management of support centers. Plans to establish such centers at publicly operated hospitals should also be encouraged.
 支援センターの設置や運営に、政府や自治体による一定の補助が必要ではないか。公立病院内のセンター設置も進めるべきだ。

Fostering support providers is also important, as high levels of knowledge and techniques are needed to deal effectively with sexual assault victims. In addition, measures are indispensable for the prevention of so-called secondary victimization, in which victims, after being subject to sexual violence, suffer further due to the inappropriate words and deeds of those around them.
 支援員の養成も重要である。被害者対応には、高度な知識と技術が要求される。被害者が周囲の不用意な言動で傷つく「二次被害」対策も欠かせない。

Some organizations aiding sexual assault victims have made it mandatory for prospective support providers to undergo a 40-hour training program.
 支援員希望者に40時間に及ぶ養成プログラムを課している団体もある。

It may be advisable for local governments and others to sponsor training workshops for both actively working supporters and prospective supporters to ensure that specialized expertise is disseminated.
優れたノウハウを普及させるため、自治体などが研修会を開催することも可能だろう。

There are plenty of tasks the central government and municipalities must address, including the issue of providing sexual assault victims with subsidies to partially fund their medical care and examinations.
 被害者の治療・検査の費用補助など、政府や自治体が検討すべき課題は少なくない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 20, 2014)

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