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2014年4月 5日 (土)

集団的自衛権 限定容認論で合意形成を図れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 05, 2014
Consensus must be formed on theory of limited collective defense
集団的自衛権 限定容認論で合意形成を図れ

It is of crucial importance for this country to adequately cope with the deteriorating national security environment while ensuring a degree of logical consistency with the government’s current interpretation of the Constitution.
 現行の憲法解釈と一定の論理的整合性を保ちつつ、安全保障環境の悪化に的確に対応する。

A theory that may be considered convincing from this point of view has just been proposed.
そのための、説得力を持つ理論と評価できる。

Within the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, members have voiced growing support for the case presented by LDP Vice President Masahiko Komura, which calls for enabling the country to exercise its right to collective self-defense in a limited capacity.
 自民党内で、高村副総裁の唱える集団的自衛権の限定容認論が支持を広げている。

In the first meeting on Monday of the party’s task force for consolidating the legal basis of national security, a lecture delivered by Komura to that effect won approval even from the many LDP legislators who had been taking a cautious stance on the matter.
3月31日の安全保障法制整備推進本部の初会合では、高村氏の講演に対し、容認慎重派からも賛成が相次いだ。

Komura’s theory in favor of the limited exercise of collective self-defense is based on a mode of thinking that would make it possible for the country to use its “minimum necessary self-defense right for the purpose of securing Japan’s existence as a nation,” and would not cover all categories of collective defense rights.
 限定容認論は、あらゆる集団的自衛権ではなく、「国の存立を全うするための必要最小限の集団的自衛権」に限って、行使を可能にするという考え方である。

He conceived the idea by drawing on a 1959 Supreme Court ruling handed down in the so-called Sunagawa case, which said that the exercise of self-defense rights “can be permitted if doing so is necessary to maintain Japan’s peace and security, and to ensure its existence as a nation.”
 「自国の平和と安全を維持し、その存立を全うするために必要な自衛のための措置はとりうる」との砂川事件に関する1959年の最高裁判決を根拠としている。

Specifically, the concept of partially exercising the right to collective self-defense recognizes, for instance, a counteroffensive by Self-Defense Forces in defense of a U.S. military vessel under attack in the vicinity of Japan, and minesweeping operations by the SDF on sea lanes of key national interest.  具体的には、日本の近くで米軍艦船が攻撃された際の自衛隊の反撃や、海上交通路(シーレーン)での掃海活動などを認める。

Situations in which the country could become embroiled in wars in foreign territories, such as SDF troops being dispatched to the United States to fight in the event of an armed attack within the United States, are said to be deliberately excluded under this conceptualization.
米本土が攻撃された際、米国に行って戦うといった、外国領内の戦争への参加は除外するという。

The proposed change to the constitutional interpretation can be considered an alteration of the conventional interpretation with restrictions, as it maintains that partial exercise of the collective self-defense right can be considered compatible with the current government interpretation of the supreme law,which specifies the exercise of the nation's self-defense right should be limited to the minimum scope necessary to defend Japan.
 自衛権は必要最小限の範囲内にとどめるとの現行解釈を継承しながら、一部の集団的自衛権の行使はこの範囲内に含まれる、とする抑制的な解釈変更となる。

Dispel worries of bias

Meanwhile, there remains a strong body of opinion that the current interpretation of the Constitution—as prohibiting the exercise of the collective self-defense right—is wrong, and the full exercise of the right must instead be recognized. This mode of thinking, too, can be considered to have significant logical merit.
 一方で、集団的自衛権は憲法上行使できないとの現行解釈は誤りであり、全面的に行使を容認すべきだという主張も根強い。理論的にも、十分成り立とう。

This line of argument, fully endorsing the exercise of the collective defense right, has the merit of leaving open the government’s options as well as discretion from the standpoint of ensuring the country’s preparedness for a wide spectrum of emergencies.
 様々な緊急事態に備える観点から、全面的な容認により、政府の裁量範囲と選択肢を広げておく方が良い面もある。

However, to counteract any misinterpretation that the proposed collective defense right concept could open the way for the country to wage a war, it is useful to clarify the restrictions and conditions imposed on the use of collective self-defense based on the idea of making the country capable of partially exercising the right.
 しかし、解釈変更が日本の戦争参加に道を開くかのような偏向した“解釈”による懸念を払拭するには、限定容認論によって、集団的自衛権行使の歯止めや条件を明確化することが有効である。

The idea proposed by Komura can safely be viewed as a balanced, realistic approach to ensuring the stability of the new interpretation, by formulating widespread agreement among the ruling and opposition camps as well as obtaining the understanding of the public.
 幅広い与野党の合意を形成し、国民の理解を広げて、新解釈の安定性を確保するには、バランスの取れた現実的な手法と言える。

Now the focus of discussions should be shifted to the scope and conditions for giving the go-ahead for limited exercise of the right. Discussions well suited to concrete instances of circumstances, rather than abstractions, are imperative.
 今後、議論すべきは、行使を限定的に容認する範囲や条件だ。抽象論でなく、具体的な事例に即した論議が求められる。

Some have asserted that the nation’s individual right to self-defense should be considered sufficient for the SDF to make a counterattack in defense of U.S. warships under assault in waters near Japan.
 日本近海での米艦防護については、個別的自衛権で反撃が可能との意見もある。

Given that it is quite normal for warships to operate at least several kilometers apart from each other, however, the attempt to justify such a phase of SDF operations in defense of U.S. warships based purely on the individual self-defense right is unlikely to work.
だが、艦船は最低でも数キロ離れて活動するのが通常で、これを個別的自衛権で正当化するのは困難だろう。

Allowing the country to provide U.S. forces with logistic support in case of a contingency on the Korean Peninsula in a more active manner, based on a theoretical limited exercise of the collective self-defense right, would be sure to help strengthen the alliance between Japan and the United States.
 朝鮮半島有事の際も、限定容認論に基づき、従来より踏み込んだ米軍への後方支援活動を可能にしておくことは、日米同盟を強化する。

Constructive discussions should be made on this theory.
前向きに検討すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 4, 2014)

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