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2014年4月 6日 (日)

(社説)領土の教育 冷静に、しっかりと

審判に背を向けるの下りはうまく翻訳されていますね。
朝日の英字もかなりレベルが高いです。
(スラチャイ)

April 05, 2014
EDITORIAL: Revised textbooks fall short in objective views on territorial disputes
(社説)領土の教育 冷静に、しっかりと

References in school textbooks to Japan’s territorial disputes with its neighbors need to be more detailed and informative than those in newly approved textbooks for elementary schools.
 おなじ取りあげるならもっとしっかり書いてはどうか。

All social studies textbooks approved for use in Japanese elementary schools from April 2015 will mention the Takeshima islets and the Senkakus, two separate groups of islands that have been the center of Japan’s bitter diplomatic rows with South Korea and China.
 来春から小学校で使われる社会の教科書で、各教科書会社がそろって竹島と尖閣諸島の領有権問題を扱った。

That’s a sharp increase from the previous screening for fiscal 2009, when only one of 17 textbooks approved by the education ministry gave space to the territorial issues.
09年度の前回教科書検定のときは1冊だけだったから、大幅な増加だ。

But all of the newly authorized textbooks offer little more than the government’s official narrative about these issues. Although both Takeshima and the Senkakus are territory that is an inherent part of Japan, the textbooks say, China claims sovereignty over the Senkakus while South Korea illegally occupies Takeshima.
 だがどの本も、竹島・尖閣は日本固有の領土だが「韓国が不法に占拠している」「中国が領有を主張している」と、政府見解をなぞった程度の書き方だ。

None of the textbooks explain the backgrounds to these disputes nor the grounds on which both sides make their cases.
対立の背景や、双方の主張の根拠には踏み込んでいない。

The authors appear to have failed to pay sufficient attention to the crucial viewpoint of whether the descriptions really help schoolchildren understand the territorial disputes.
 「子どもがこれを読んで領土問題を理解できるか」という肝心な視点が置き去りにされてはいないだろうか。

As for the dispute over the Senkakus, a group of uninhabited islands controlled by Japan in the East China Sea, the authors of one textbook originally wrote that the government is making efforts toward a solution. But the education ministry took objection to this statement, saying the government’s position is that there is no sovereignty issue concerning the Senkakus that needs to be settled. As a result, the passage was deleted.
 尖閣について「政府は解決に向けて努力を続けている」と書こうとした教科書には、検定で「尖閣に解決すべき領有権の問題は存在しない、というのが政府の立場だ」と物言いがつき、このくだりは削られた。

Children who read these textbooks will have no clear idea about why the two countries are locked in a row or understand the reasons behind China’s claims of sovereignty over the islands.
 問題が存在しないならなぜ争っているのか、中国は何を根拠に領有を主張しているのか、子どもたちはちんぷんかんぷんに違いない。

Textbooks presenting just the government’s claim that both Takeshima and the Senkakus are Japanese territory may help build a united front on these issues among Japanese, but the problems will not be solved unless Japan can sell its position to the international community. The government is acting like a team that is asking for more cheering from supporters while turning its back on the referees.
 政府見解だけ教科書に載せ、「竹島も尖閣も固有の領土だ」と身内の結束を確かめあったところで、国際社会を説得できなくては問題は解決しない。審判に背を向け、応援席に声援を求めるようなものだ。

What we should try to achieve through education on these issues is not to make children Japan’s partisan supporters, but educate them to become competent players who can contribute to settling the disputes.
 私たちが育てるべきは身びいきなサポーターではなく、問題の解決に動くプレーヤーであるはずだ。

Descriptions concerning the territorial disputes in textbooks should help children develop the ability to think calmly on their own about the issues with a clear understanding of the arguments of both sides.
双方の主張をふまえ、自分の頭で冷静に考えられる力を養うことをめざしたい。

Territorial spats are usually sticky and dangerous problems that are complicated by histories of wars, colonial rule and conflicting interests related to resources.
 領土をめぐる対立は、戦争や植民地支配の歴史や、資源をめぐる思惑が絡みついた厄介な問題だ。

As for the Senkakus, China claims Japan stole them by taking advantage of the situation created by the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. Japan, on the other hand, rebuts China’s claim by pointing out that the country didn’t protest against Japan’s effective control of the islands until 1971.
たとえば尖閣について、中国は「日清戦争に乗じて奪われた」と主張し、日本は「中国は戦後も1971年まで異議を唱えていなかったのだから、おかしい」と指摘している。

Instead of brief accounts of this dispute containing only several sentences, textbooks should devote more space to the issue and refer to key points of the cases of both countries. That would make it much easier for children to understand the difficulty of resolving the dispute.
 数行の記述ですませず、もう少し紙幅を割いてこうした双方の言い分の要点も紹介した方が子どもたちも解決の難しさを想像しやすいだろう。

If there is not enough space in textbooks for additional explanations, such information can be provided in a collection of reference materials. Or notes can be added to the text that are designed to encourage students to seek more information in newspapers or books in the school library.
 教科書のページが足りなければ資料集に盛り込んでもいい。新聞や図書館の本を使った調べ学習に導く注釈をつけるのも手だ。

Teachers, for their part, should make efforts to give children supplementary information in their classes to help them better understand the issues.
教師も教科書をおぎなう教え方を工夫してほしい。

Even though a rule has been established to require textbooks to present the government’s official positions on these issues, references can also be made, of course, to different views and opinions.
 教科書に政府見解を書かせるルールができたとはいえ、異論の紹介はもちろんできる。

There is no need for textbook authors to mince words or tiptoe around issues.
奥歯に物の挟まったような書き方をする必要はない。

In order to help children acquire the ability to develop and express their own opinions on such issues, it is vital to provide them with objective knowledge and encourage them to think on their own.
知識は客観的に教え、そのうえで自分で考えさせる。そうでなくては意見を言える子に育つまい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, April 5

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