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2014年4月 3日 (木)

防衛装備3原則 移転の透明性確保が重要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun April 02, 2014
Ensuring transparency will be key to defense equipment exports
防衛装備3原則 移転の透明性確保が重要だ

The government should actively promote the joint development and production of weapons and related

technologies with other nations as part of Japan’s international cooperation under the newly established

guidelines on exports of defense equipment.
 新しい原則に基づき、武器や関連技術といった防衛装備品の共同開発・生産などの国際協力を積極的に推進すべき

だ。

On Tuesday, the government adopted the “three principles on transferring defense equipment,”

replacing the three principles on arms exports.
 政府が、武器輸出3原則に代わる「防衛装備移転3原則」を閣議決定した。

The government will continue to ban exports to nations subject to embargoes under U.N. resolutions as

well as those involved in conflicts. On the other hand, the guidelines allow the government, after

intensive review, to export and transfer weapons and related technologies if doing so promises to

contribute to world peace or to benefit Japan’s national security. The new policies are a complete

overhaul of a 1976 government policy that effectively banned all weapons exports.
 国連決議による禁輸対象国や紛争当事国への禁輸は継続する一方で、平和貢献や日本の安全保障に資する場合

は厳格な審査を条件に輸出や移転を認める。武器輸出を事実上、全面的に禁じた1976年の原則の抜本見直しとなる

The old principles were phrased as though exporting weapons and providing weapons-related

technologies to other nations were evil deeds. The significance of revising this underlying idea and

establishing a new policy that emphasizes national security and promotes cooperation with other

countries on defense equipment is huge.
 武器の輸出や関連技術の提供がすべて悪いかのような発想を改めて、安全保障の観点を重視し、装備面の協力を進

める新方針を打ち出した意義は大きい。

As a result of the country’s long-standing blanket ban on arms exports—which seems to have been

excessive self-regulation—almost all Japan-made weapons have been procured by the Self-Defense

Forces. Domestic production was limited, which resulted in inflated prices. The ban has become a major

obstacle to defense equipment production in Japan and to the maintenance of the necessary

technological base, two foundations of Japan’s national security.
 武器の全面禁輸という長年にわたる日本独自の過剰な規制は、国内産の武器の納入先を自衛隊にほぼ限定し、少量

生産による高価格化という弊害を招いた。日本の安全保障を支える防衛生産・技術基盤を揺るがす要因でもあった。

The new guidelines also enable Japan to export completed weapons and parts under security

cooperation agreements with other nations, including relief activities, transportation and surveillance. We

expect that the shift to mass production will lead to a subsequent drop in the prices of Japan-produced

weapons and enhanced competitiveness for domestic companies.
 今回、救難・輸送・警戒などの安保協力として、装備の完成品や部品の輸出も可能になった。量産効果による国内製

品の低価格化や日本企業の競争力の強化につながることが期待されよう。

Moderate approach

In cases where importing countries consider using Japan-made weapons or technologies for purposes

beyond those originally intended or transferring them to other nations, those countries must obtain prior

approval from Japan. However, this process could be simplified, for example by having Japan examine

the management systems of these countries in the case of minor deals, such as the transfer of parts that

comprise only a minor part of a complete product. We believe this is a realistic and moderate approach.
 新原則は、輸出製品の目的外使用や第三国移転に関する日本政府の事前同意を義務づけた。ただ、対象がごく一

部の部品にすぎない場合などは、相手国の管理体制の確認といった簡便な措置で代替する。現実的で妥当な内容だ。

The Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry is responsible for approving exports and transfers of defense

equipment, but important deals will be assessed by the National Security Council. Details of such deals

will be made public after receiving NSC approval, and the trade ministry will issue annual reports on

such matters.
 移転の可否は通常、経済産業省が判断するが、重要案件は国家安全保障会議(日本版NSC)が審査する。NSC

が移転を認めた場合、その内容を公表するほか、経産省は年次報告書も作成する。

As the new guidelines enable the transfer of defense equipment not allowed under the former

principles, ensuring transparency is crucial.
 新たな移転を可能にする以上、透明性の確保が欠かせない。

What will be important going forward is to steadily expand and increase cooperation with other

countries.
 今後、重要なのは、国際協力を着実に拡大することだ。

In December 2011, the government virtually lifted the ban on joint development and production with

other countries, but this yielded very minor results, including the joint development of a chemical-proof

suit with Britain.
 2011年12月に国際共同開発・生産が原則解禁されたが、具体的な成果は、英国との化学防護服の共同開発など

に限られる。

In recent years, developing fighter jets and other state-of-the-art military equipment together with other

nations has become the prevailing trend. To improve the nation’s defense technology and curb

development costs, Japan should proactively engage in joint projects with the United States and

European countries.
 近年、戦闘機などの最新鋭装備は共同開発が主流だ。防衛技術の向上や開発費の抑制のため、日本は米国や欧州

との共同事業に前向きに取り組む必要がある。

It will be important to strengthen Japan’s existing systems for collecting information on nations to which

it considers exporting weapons, as well as the framework for cooperation on defense equipment. The

development and training of specialist personnel also cannot be neglected.
 関係国からの情報収集や装備協力の体制を拡充し、専門的人材を育成することが大切だ。

In addition, the government should promote exports of patrol ships and rescue planes to countries in

Southeast Asia and the Middle East. Helping such nations reinforce their maritime security capabilities

would directly impact the safety of Japan’s sea-lanes. Japan should seek international cooperation that

provides mutual benefit.
 東南アジアや中東への巡視船や救難機の輸出も促進したい。相手国の海上保安能力を高めることは日本の海上交通

路の安全に直結する。日本と相手国の双方にプラスとなる協力を追求すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, April 2, 2014)

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