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2014年5月29日 (木)

グレーゾーン 切れ目ない事態対処を可能に

The Yomiuri Shimbun 8:08 pm, May 28, 2014
Seamless SDF response in gray zone needs legal basis, deeper discussion
グレーゾーン 切れ目ない事態対処を可能に

We have come to understand that there are situations that fall between peacetime and crisis that are difficult for Japan to handle under current legislation. The ruling parties should deepen their discussions on how to quickly and effectively deal with such “gray-zone” situations, and hasten their preparations for establishing the necessary laws.
 平時と有事の中間に相当するグレーゾーン事態に対し、いかに迅速で効果的な対処を可能にするか。与党は議論を深め、法整備を急ぐべきだ。

The government on Tuesday presented to the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito 15 security scenarios that could not be dealt with adequately under the current constitutional interpretation and legal framework. Following the presentation, the ruling parties began discussing some of the scenarios that could be said to fall within the gray zone, such as the seizure of a remote island by an armed group.
 政府が、現在の憲法解釈や法制度では十分な対処ができない15事例を自民、公明両党に提示した。与党は、15事例のうち、武装集団による離島占拠などグレーゾーン事態に関する議論を始めた。

China has unilaterally set an air-defense identification zone in the East China Sea. Earlier this month, Beijing’s fighter jets flew abnormally close to Self-Defense Force aircraft. Intrusions of Chinese vessels into Japan’s territorial waters continue in areas near the Senkaku Islands.
 中国は東シナ海に防空識別圏を一方的に設定し、戦闘機が自衛隊機に異常接近した。尖閣諸島周辺では領海侵入が続いている。

The scenario of special forces or an armed group disguised as fishermen landing on Japan’s remote island seems within the realm of possibility. We must prepare adequately for such situations.
 武装した偽装漁民や特殊部隊による離島上陸は、十分起こり得るシナリオだ。きちんとした備えをしておく必要がある。

Of course, primary responsibility for dealing with such emergencies rests with the Japan Coast Guard and police, but there are cases the Maritime Self-Defense Force could handle more speedily, or even more appropriately. Under Japan’s current legal provisions, however, the MSDF could not be mobilized without the issuance of a maritime policing order or a public security operations order.
 無論、一義的に海上保安庁や警察が対応すべきだが、海上自衛隊が対処した方が早く、適切な場合もあろう。だが、現行法では海上警備行動や治安出動が発令されない限り、海自は対処できない。

The issuance of such orders takes time, as procedures such as obtaining Cabinet approval must be followed. Even if the orders are issued, the MSDF’s use of arms would be subject to the same restrictions that apply to police. The gap between such orders and mobilization orders issued for the sake of national defense—through which Japan could exercise its right to self-defense—is huge.
 海上警備行動などの発令には、閣議決定の手続きが必要となり、時間がかかる。発令されても、武器使用は警察権の範囲内に制約される。自衛権を行使できる防衛出動との落差は大きい。

Extend scope of weapons use

What counts is to establish a framework that enables a seamless response to all eventualities, from normality to emergency, appropriate to the severity of each situation. The government needs to establish the legal basis required to ensure the SDF can take effective action, with no shortcomings in timescales or the use of weapons.
 重要なのは、平時から有事への事態の進展に応じて、切れ目のない対処を可能にすることだ。自衛隊の行動に「時間」と「武器使用」の両面で隙間を生じないようにする法整備が求められる。

In particular, the government should assign to the SDF additional duties, including peacetime territorial security. The SDF should cooperate with the JCG and the police to create a system that enables the nation to respond to a full range of circumstances. It is also essential to extend the scope of the SDF’s authority on use of weapons, so that they are able to fire warning shots or even direct shots, if necessary.
 具体的には、自衛隊に平時から領域警備などの任務を与え、海保・警察と連携して、様々な事態に対処できる体制を構築したい。必要に応じて、警告射撃や危害射撃ができるよう、武器使用権限を拡大することも欠かせない。

Extending the scope of the SDF’s authority to use weapons does not mean that the SDF will automatically use weapons in every case. The purpose of the extension is to broaden the SDF’s options with regards to the use of weapons, depending on the circumstances and demeanor of potential adversaries. Such precautions could prevent the occurrence of incidents as well as their escalation.
 武器使用権限の拡大は、必ず武器を使うことを意味するものではない。相手の出方次第で、武器を使える選択肢を広げるのが目的だ。その備えが、事態の発生や拡大を防ぐことにつながる。

U.S. President Barack Obama has said recently that the Senkaku Islands fall under the scope of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, a political message that strengthened deterrence against actions targeting the islets. Establishing laws to deal with gray-zone situations, and training SDF forces on the basis of those laws, would reinforce that deterrence on a practical level.
 オバマ米大統領が尖閣諸島を日米安保条約の適用対象と明言したことは、抑止力を高める重要な政治的メッセージとなった。グレーゾーン事態の法整備や、それに基づく自衛隊の訓練は、現場レベルで抑止力を補強するものだ。

We also would like to stress that preparations of security-related laws should not be limited to gray-zone related issues. Such preparations should be considered together—as a package—with establishing legal provisions regarding Japan’s international cooperation, such as allowing SDF troops to rescue foreign troops during peacekeeping operations, and activities that require changes to the government’s interpretation of the constitution in relation to the right to collective self-defense.
 安全保障の法整備は、グレーゾーン事態対処だけでなく、「駆けつけ警護」など国際協力や、集団的自衛権の憲法解釈変更を伴う活動と一体で進めるのが筋だ。

Considering the fact that there are so many different opinions on each of the 15 scenarios, it is unlikely that LDP-Komeito discussions will proceed at sufficient depth if they are held only once a week for one hour at a time. If the LDP wants to reach a conclusion by the end of June, discussions should be held much more frequently.
 15事例について多くの論点がある中、与党協議が週1回、1時間程度では議論が深まらない。自民党が来月中に結論を出すつもりなら、協議時間を増やすべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 28, 2014)

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