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2014年5月 2日 (金)

取り調べ可視化 対象事件の範囲をどう絞るか

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:45 pm, May 01, 2014
Audiovisual records of interrogations should support efforts to seek truth
取り調べ可視化 対象事件の範囲をどう絞るか

To avoid false charges, how should the audiovisual recording of interrogations be conducted? A system that acknowledges the necessity to preserve investigative capabilities and effectiveness is being sought.
 冤罪えんざいを防ぐために、取り調べの録音・録画(可視化)をどう進めるか。
 真相を解明する捜査力の維持にも目配りした制度設計が求められる。

The Justice Ministry has presented a draft proposal at a subpanel of the ministry’s Legislative Council, which has been discussing possible legislation for a system to increase the transparency of the interrogation process in the wake of a series of irregularities involving prosecutors. The draft proposal will become the basis for further discussion on the issue.
 一連の検察不祥事を契機に、取り調べの可視化の法制化を検討してきた法制審議会の部会で、法務省が試案を示した。今後の議論のたたき台になる。

Central to the draft proposal is that when an investigator’s record of an oral statement is used as evidence in court, audio and video recordings of the entire interrogation process should have been made.
 試案の柱は、供述調書を裁判で証拠として使う場合には、取り調べの全過程を録音・録画しておかねばならないとした点だ。

The audiovisual recordings will be key materials when judges and lay judges determine in court whether interrogators forced suspects to confess or asked leading questions.
 取り調べの映像は、捜査官による供述の強要や誘導がなかったかどうか、公判で裁判官や裁判員が判断する有力な材料となろう。

Regarding the proposal, there are concerns that suspects will be too conscious of audiovisual recording equipment to tell the truth, or will be reluctant to testify in fear of reprisals from organizations with which they are affiliated.
 録音・録画に対しては、容疑者が、カメラを意識して真相を語らなかったり、所属する組織からの報復を恐れて供述を渋ったりする事態が懸念されている。

It is appropriate that the draft proposal permits exceptions for cases in which a suspect directly refuses audiovisual recording of the interrogation process, or where an organized crime syndicate is involved.
 試案が、容疑者本人が録音・録画を拒んだ場合や暴力団犯罪を例外としたのは妥当である。

The next point under scrutiny is the scope of cases that will be subject to audiovisual recording. The draft proposal presents two alternatives. One is that use of audio and video recordings should be limited to cases that will be tried by lay judges. The other is for audiovisual recordings to be required for police interrogations for lay judge trials and all criminal investigations by prosecutors in which suspects have been arrested.
 今後の焦点は、可視化の対象とする事件の範囲だ。試案は二つの選択肢を示した。裁判員裁判対象事件に限定する案と、警察の取り調べは裁判員裁判対象事件、検察の場合は容疑者が逮捕された全事件を対象にする案である。

Recording scope under debate

As 3 percent of all cases are subject to lay judge trials, it has been pointed out that introducing the rules only for this category will lead to recording being used in too few cases. On the other hand, it is questionable whether the requirement would be workable for prosecutors were it applied to all cases. A realistic debate is necessary.
 裁判員裁判で審理されるのは全事件の3%で、可視化の対象としては少なすぎるとの指摘がある。一方で、全事件を対象にした場合、検察は対処できるのか、疑問が残る。現実的な議論が必要だ。

It is worth noting that the draft proposal includes the broadening of investigative methods.
 試案に捜査手法の拡充が盛り込まれたことは注目される。

One is the introduction of plea bargaining, which is already widespread in the United States and Europe. Under the system, prosecutors and lawyers enter an agreement that if a suspect provides information about an accomplice, the suspect will not be indicted.
 一つが欧米で普及している司法取引の導入だ。容疑者が共犯者の情報を提供すれば、本人の起訴を見送る。そうした合意を、検察と弁護側が交わす仕組みである。

It is expected that plea bargaining will make it easier to foster investigative cooperation in cases such as corruption, where a conspiracy is formed behind closed doors. If plea bargaining is adopted, it will be important to pay attention to the risk that suspects may point to individuals unrelated to the crime in an attempt to lighten their own criminal responsibility.
 密室で謀議が行われる汚職などの犯罪で、捜査協力を得やすくする効果が期待できよう。導入する場合には、容疑者が自らの刑事責任を軽くしてもらうために、無関係な人を事件に巻き込む危険性にも留意することが大切だ。

The draft proposal also presents the necessity to expand wiretapping—currently limited to criminal investigations of drug and gun related investigations—to cases of organized theft and fraud. Considering how such crimes have become more harmful and sophisticated, it could be said that the adoption of such investigative methods is necessary.
 薬物や銃器などの犯罪捜査に限られている通信傍受を、組織的な窃盗や詐欺などの捜査に拡大する方向性も示された。犯行が悪質、巧妙化する現状を考えれば、必要な措置と言えよう。

Under the draft proposal, prosecutors will be obliged to present a list of evidence that has been preserved before trials in criminal cases. This can then be assessed with a view to protecting defendants’ rights.
 試案が、検察に対し、公判前に保管証拠の一覧表の提示を義務づけたのは、被告の防御権を保障する観点から評価できる。

Evidence collected by prosecutors using public funds is not the exclusive possession of prosecutors. All evidence—including those advantageous to the defendant—should be disclosed by prosecutors, and used to help reveal the truth in cases under investigation.
 公金を使って集めた証拠は、検察の独占物ではない。被告に有利な証拠も含めて開示し、事件の真相解明に役立てるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 1, 2014)

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