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2014年5月17日 (土)

集団的自衛権 日本存立へ行使「限定容認」せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 8:02 pm, May 16, 2014
Limited use of collective self-defense right essential for nation’s existence
集団的自衛権 日本存立へ行使「限定容認」せよ

 ◆グレーゾーン事態法制も重要だ◆

A set of proposals has been put forth that is most certainly of historic significance for substantially beefing up Japan’s security policy framework and making this country better prepared for a wide range of emergencies.
 日本の安全保障政策を大幅に強化し、様々な緊急事態に備えるうえで、歴史的な提言である。

A government council of experts—the Advisory Panel on Reconstruction of the Legal Basis for Security—presented to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe a report on Thursday proposing that the government enable the nation to exercise its right to collective self-defense.
 政府の有識者会議「安全保障の法的基盤の再構築に関する懇談会」が、集団的自衛権の行使を容認するよう求める報告書を安倍首相に提出した。

At a press conference later the same day, Abe stressed, “It has become a common view in the world that peace cannot be maintained [through efforts] by a single country.”
 首相は記者会見し、「もはや一国のみで平和を守れないのが世界の共通認識だ」と強調した。

Citing such examples as the need for the Self-Defense Forces to defend U.S. transport vessels carrying Japanese civilians from overseas, he also urged changing the government’s interpretation of the Constitution for the purpose of enabling Japan to exercise its collective self-defense right. We support the basic direction of the envisaged change of the constitutional interpretation.
 在外邦人を輸送する米輸送艦に対する自衛隊の警護などを例示し、集団的自衛権の行使を可能にするため、政府の憲法解釈の変更に取り組む考えも表明した。その方向性を改めて支持したい。

No problem in changing
 ◆解釈変更に問題はない◆

The Liberal Democratic Party and its junior coalition partner, New Komeito, are scheduled to begin consultations on the matter on Tuesday. The government is poised to make a Cabinet decision on the new interpretation of the Constitution and relevant matters as early as the end of June. The acceleration of the pace of the ruling coalition discussions is necessary.
 自民、公明両党は20日に協議を開始する。政府は来月中にも新たな憲法解釈などを閣議決定することを目指しており、与党協議の加速が求められる。

The report by the expert panel, in light of changes in the nature of threats surrounding this country—such as North Korea’s nuclear tests and the growing influence of China, as well as fast-advancing military technologies—pointed out that responses to these threats through the individual self-defense right are bound to be limited, raising the risk of the nation plunging into perilous isolation.
 懇談会の報告書は、北朝鮮の核実験や中国の影響力の増大など、日本周辺の脅威の変化や軍事技術の進歩を踏まえ、個別的自衛権だけでの対応には限界があり、むしろ危険な孤立主義を招く、と指摘した。

Furthermore, the report, giving such instances as the possible defense by the SDF of U.S. vessels in the event of contingencies in the vicinity of Japan, forcible inspections of potentially hostile ships and minesweeping activities on key sea traffic routes, placed great importance on making it possible for Japan to exercise its right to collective self-defense.
 さらに、周辺有事における米軍艦船の防護や強制的な船舶検査、海上交通路での機雷除去の事例を挙げ、集団的自衛権を行使できるようにする必要性を強調している。

Should Japan be unable to adequately deal with such grave situations, the Japan-U.S. alliance, and other nation’s cooperation with Japan as well, could face the danger of crumbling.
 こうした重大な事態にきちんと対処できないようでは、日米同盟や国際協調は成り立たない。

The report presented two different views. One view favors a new constitutional interpretation that would allow the exercise of the full range of Japan’s collective self-defense right, and the other view upholds only what is referred to as a “limited approval of collective self-defense.” Empowering the nation to exercise a minimum level of collective self-defense through the second option would mean limiting use to the minimum extent necessary for ensuring the very existence of the country. The expert panel also said Japan should be allowed to take part in U.N. collective security measures that would be accompanied by the possibility of combat operations.
 報告書は、あらゆる集団的自衛権の行使を認める新解釈と、国家の存立にとって必要最小限の集団的自衛権に限って認める「限定容認論」を併記した。戦闘行動を伴う国連の集団安全保障措置への参加も可能としている。

However, Abe stated explicitly during the news conference that he has no intention of adopting the idea of a full-scale exercise of the nation’s collective self-defense right and full-fledged participation in collective security operations, which the prime minister noted are both logically inconsistent with the government’s conventional interpretation of the supreme law.
 これに対し、安倍首相は、集団的自衛権の全面行使や集団安全保障への全面参加は従来の憲法解釈と論理的に整合しないとして、採用できないと明言した。

Instead, he would pursue a coordination of views between the government and the ruling parties on the basis of a limited approval of collective self-defense.
一方で、「限定容認論」に基づき、与党との調整を進める方針を示した。

It is quite extraordinary for a prime minister to deny part of a government advisory panel’s recommendations immediately after their announcement. The way Abe has refused part of the expert panel proposals, however, can be seen as an admirably well-considered political judgment that pays attention to Komeito, which is wary of the envisioned alteration of the constitutional interpretation.
 首相が有識者会議の提言の一部を直ちに否定するのは異例だが、解釈変更に慎重な公明党に配慮した政治的判断と評価できる。

If it became possible for this country to exercise the full scale of the collective self-defense right, the government would certainly have a wider selection of options in the face of a contingency.
 集団的自衛権の全面行使が可能になれば、有事における政府の選択肢が増えるのは確かである。

However, it is indispensable for Japan as a nation governed by law to secure legal grounds while maintaining consistency with the conventional interpretation of the Constitution. Approving a limited exercise of the collective self-defense right seems to be a realistic way to clear up the misunderstanding that participation in wars overseas would be permitted and build a national consensus with broad backing by ruling and opposition parties and the people.
 ただ、従来の解釈との整合性を保ち、法的な安定性を確保することは法治国家として不可欠だ。海外での戦争参加を認めるかのような誤解を払拭し、幅広い与野党や国民の合意を形成するためにも限定容認論が現実的である。

Changing the constitutional interpretation has been criticized by some people as “an attempt to deny constitutionalism.”
 解釈変更には、「立憲主義の否定」といった批判もある。

But no such problem exists if the Cabinet seeks to change the interpretation within a rational range based on its right to an official interpretation of the Constitution carefully and in line with due procedures.
 だが、内閣の持つ憲法の公権的解釈権に基づき、丁寧に手順を踏み、合理的な範囲内で解釈変更を問うことに、問題はなかろう。

Enhancing deterrence
 ◆主眼は抑止力の強化◆

The panel’s report listed six conditions as the requirements for exercise of the collective self-defense right, including that “inaction would significantly affect Japan’s security” and “Diet approval is granted.” The report clearly stated that exercise of the right “would be studied comprehensively” by taking into consideration the probability of Japan being attacked and the impact on trust in the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 報告書は、集団的自衛権の行使の要件として「我が国の安全に重大な影響を及ぼす可能性」「国会承認」など6項目を挙げた。日本攻撃に発展する蓋然性や日米同盟の信頼性への影響を含め、「総合的に勘案する」とも明記した。

The report’s contents are by and large adequate. As it is difficult to predict what situations will emerge, it is necessary to allow room for government discretion.
 おおむね適切な内容だ。どんな事態が発生するかを事前に予測するのは困難であり、政府に一定の裁量の余地を残す必要がある。

As the report pointed out, collective self-defense is not an obligation but a right. Therefore, it is highly possible that the government would not exercise the right after studying whether to use it.
 報告書も指摘するように、集団的自衛権は権利であり、義務ではない。政府が検討した結果、行使しないとなることも、十分あり得よう。

Changing the constitutional interpretation is aimed primarily at enabling the exercise of the collective self-defense right to reinforce the Japan-U.S. alliance and enhance deterrence, thereby preventing future conflicts. It must be remembered that the right to live peacefully and the principle of international cooperation are stipulated in the nation’s supreme law in addition to pacifism.
 解釈変更は、行使を可能にしておくことで日米同盟を強化し、抑止力を高めて、紛争を未然に防止することにこそ主眼がある。憲法には平和主義に加え、平和的生存権や国際協調主義がうたわれていることも忘れてはなるまい。

As for the so-called gray-zone incidents that do not amount to an armed attack, such as seizure of remote Japanese islands by foreign intruders disguised as fishermen, the report proposed improving the legal system so that a “seamless response” could be made even in peacetime.
 偽装漁民による離島占拠など、武力攻撃に至らない「グレーゾーン事態」について、報告書は、平時から「切れ目のない対応」を可能にするよう、法制度を充実すべきだと主張している。

Abe also said the matter would be studied on a priority basis during the ruling parties’s talks.
 安倍首相も、与党協議で優先して検討する考えを示した。

Seamless responses key
 ◆「切れ目のない」対応を◆

Such gray-zone incidents could happen at any time, given the background of China stepping up its naval presence and making intrusions into Japanese territorial waters around the Senkaku Islands an ordinary practice.
 中国が海洋進出を活発化し、尖閣諸島周辺での領海侵入を常態化させる中、グレーゾーン事態はいつ発生してもおかしくない。

Under the current Self-Defense Forces Law, SDF mobilization in line with the self-defense right is limited to cases in which Japan faces an armed attack. According to some observers, the current maritime security operations in which arms are allowed to be used under police authority are inadequate to bring armed special forces under control.
 現行の自衛隊法では、自衛権に基づく「防衛出動」は武力攻撃を受けた場合に限られる。警察権で武器を使う「海上警備行動」では、武装した特殊部隊の制圧などには不十分との指摘がある。

It is crucial to change the system so that the Maritime Self-Defense Force and Japan Coast Guard can respond swiftly and flexibly and use arms effectively.
 海上自衛隊や海上保安庁がより迅速かつ機動的に対応し、効果的に武器を使用できる仕組みにしておくことが重要だ。

Komeito is also showing a positive attitude toward preparing legal arrangements to deal with gray-zone situations, so the LDP should deepen discussions on the matter with its coalition partner.
 公明党もグレーゾーン事態に対処する法整備には前向きな姿勢を見せており、議論を深めたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 16, 2014)

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