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2014年5月16日 (金)

避難勧告発令 市町村は「空振り」を恐れずに

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:18 pm, May 14, 2014
Local govts should not hesitate to issue evacuation warnings
避難勧告発令 市町村は「空振り」を恐れずに

Delays in issuing an evacuation advisory and directive if there is imminent danger of a natural disaster could lead to irrevocable consequences. City, town and village governments should not hesitate to issue such warnings before it is too late.
 災害時の避難勧告・指示の遅れは、取り返しのつかない事態を招く。市町村は、早めの発令をためらうべきではない。

The evacuation advisory is intended to encourage residents to move to a safe location if there is a possibility of a disaster, while the evacuation directive is to be issued if residents face imminent danger from a disaster.
 住民に被災の恐れがある時、安全な場所に移るよう促すのが避難勧告だ。避難指示は、さらに危険性が高い場合に発令される。

The Cabinet Office has revised its evacuation guidelines for the first time in nine years.
内閣府は、発令の目安となる指針を9年ぶりに改定した。

The basic principle of the new guidelines is that local governments are being urged to issue evacuation advisories or directives within an appropriate time frame without fear that a warning was made needlessly should no damage occur.
 新指針は、結果的に被害が生じない「空振り」を恐れず、市町村が早めに発令することを基本原則とした。

We find the new guidelines to be reasonable in that they are designed, first and foremost, to secure the safety of residents.
住民の安全確保を最優先する適切な内容と言える。

The motive for the Cabinet Office’s decision to reconsider its old guidelines was the disaster caused by a typhoon-triggered avalanche of rocks and earth on Tokyo’s Izu-Oshima island in October. An evacuation advisory was never issued, and 39 people either died or are still missing.
 見直しのきっかけは、昨年10月に起きた伊豆大島の土石流災害だ。避難勧告が発令されず、39人の死者・行方不明者が出た。

In some previous cases, city, town and village governments hesitated to issue evacuation warnings, fearing they would be criticized by local residents if their warning proved to be a false alarm. We hope the Cabinet Office’s move to revise its guidelines will do much to prevent disaster damage due to delays in issuing evacuation calls.
 過去の災害では、勧告が空振りになった場合の住民からの批判を恐れ、市町村が発令をためらうケースもあった。
 指針の改定を機に、発令の遅れによる被災をなくしたい。

There are concerns that if local residents see a succession of cases in which an early evacuation advisory or directive turns out to be unnecessary, they would stop responding to such warnings and refuse to evacuate.
 早期発令で空振りが相次げば、住民が勧告や指示に反応せず、避難しなくなる恐れもある。

With this in mind, local governments should explain to residents about the importance of issuing early warnings and gain their support, even if no damage from a disaster occurs.
 被害が発生しなかった場合でも、市町村は、早期発令の重要性を住民に丁寧に説明し、理解を得ることが大切だ。

We believe the revised guidelines should deserve praise in that they incorporate a clear yardstick by which an evacuation advisory or directive should be issued. This is in contrast to previous ones, which critics say were ambiguously phrased and not easy to understand.
 「記述があいまいで、わかりにくい」との批判が多かった旧指針に比べ、新指針が、避難勧告・指示を発令する際の目安を明確にした点も評価できる。

Timeline mapped out

The new guidelines are specific in providing the timing for issuing an evacuation advisory. For instance, the guidelines cite such cases as “if a river rises to a dangerous level” at a time when flood damage is feared. In case of landslide damage, the guidelines state a similar warning should be issued “if the pertinent authorities have released alerts and relevant information.”
 水害の避難勧告は「河川が氾濫危険水位に達した場合」、土砂災害については「警戒情報が発表された場合」などと、発令のタイミングを具体的に示した。

The revised guidelines also include detailed instructions to be followed under the disaster management systems operated by city, town and village governments. For example, the guidelines say “the chief of each local government must report for work at his or her office” if a heavy rain warning has been issued. The guidelines also state “all staff responsible for disaster management must report to work at their offices” if a landslide warning has been issued.
 市町村の防災体制についても、大雨警報が出た時には「首長が登庁する」、土砂災害警戒情報の際には「防災対応の全職員が登庁する」と詳細に記した。

However, it is disturbing to realize that a considerable number of local governments have been slow to take measures to address the problem. This is evident in a finding confirmed by the Fire and Disaster Management Agency, an affiliate of the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry.
 問題は、対応の遅れている市町村が少なくないことだ。

About 20 percent of local governments whose areas are prone to flooding, landslide or tsunami damage have not created a yardstick for issuing evacuation warnings, even under the old guidelines. Meanwhile, the lack of such efforts are apparent in close to 40 percent of local governments whose regions could be hit by flooding caused by high tides combined with heavy winds, according to the agency.
 総務省消防庁によると、水害や土砂災害、津波被害の恐れがある市町村の約2割、高潮被害の恐れがある市町村の4割近くが、旧指針に基づく発令基準さえ策定していないという。

The Cabinet Office has urged city, town and village governments to reexamine their criteria for issuing evacuation warnings by the end of the next fiscal year based on its new guidelines. There is no telling when a natural disaster will strike. We hope local governments will quickly work to create criteria appropriate for their areas’ geographical features and the distribution of their residents.
 内閣府は来年度末までに新指針に沿って発令基準を見直すよう市町村に求めている。災害はいつ起きるか分からない。市町村は、地形や住民の分布などに応じた基準作りを急いでもらいたい。

It is also important for individual residents to raise their disaster preparedness levels—a task essential for protecting their own lives. Every member of the public needs to check for possible disaster hazards in their neighborhood, while also making sure of where to evacuate to if an evacuation advisory or directive has been issued.
 無論、住民一人ひとりが防災意識を高め、自らの責任で身を守ることも重要だ。自宅周辺の災害の危険性をチェックし、避難勧告・指示が出た場合の避難場所を確認しておく必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 14, 2014)

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