« 2014年5月 | トップページ | 2014年7月 »

2014年6月

2014年6月30日 (月)

ネット関連外注ならば、MAKEPOアウトソーシング検索 が便利です

インターネット関連なんですが、外注先の企業をお探しならばMAKEPOアウトソーシング検索 が便利です。
わずかの簡単な条件を入力していくだけで、条件を絞り込み、あなたが求めている外注業者を即座に検索してくれます。
地域(場所)からも条件を絞り込めるので、とても重宝しています。

あなたの事業を成功へと導いてくれるインターネット関連外注業者との出会いが、その後の運命を左右すると申し上げて差し支えありません。
MAKEPOアウトソーシング検索で、ウェブ製作をやってもらう業者を選択し、その後のSEO対策も引き続いてやってもらうことが出来れば、完璧だと思います。
一期一会のネット業者選択は慎重かつ大胆にやりたいものです。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

イラク流動化 無秩序の拡大を食い止めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Further chaos must be stemmed in face of deepening Iraq crisis
イラク流動化 無秩序の拡大を食い止めたい

The chaos in Iraq has been fast spreading across its border. To avoid this situation leading to destabilization of the Middle East as a whole, countries concerned such as Iraq and the United States must join hands in pressing ahead with addressing this challenge.
 イラクの混乱が、国境を越えて急速に広がっている。中東全体の不安定化を避けるため、イラクと米国など関係国は、協力して事態の収拾を図らなければならない。

The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, a Sunni militant extremist group that claims to uphold the founding of a new state based on Islamic law, has taken control of towns and oil fields in the central and western regions of Iraq, and expelled Iraqi government forces from the Iraqi-Syrian border area.
 イスラム法に基づく新国家建設を標榜するスンニ派過激派組織「イラク・シリアのイスラム国(ISIS)」がイラク中・西部で都市や油田を制圧し、国境地帯からイラク軍部隊を排除した。

In the region near the border with Syria, the Al-Nustra Front, a terrorist organization affiliated with Al-Qaida that is fighting the administration of Syrian President Bashar Assad, has launched a joint struggle with ISIS. Members of the two extremist groups have reportedly moved freely between the two countries as if no border exists, thus aggravating the chaotic situation.
 シリア国境付近では、シリアのアサド政権と対立するアル・カーイダ系テロ組織「ヌスラ戦線」が、ISISと共闘を始めた。二つの過激派が、国境が存在しないかのように両国を自由に行き来し、無秩序状態を作り出している。

As a result, the Syrian military has carried out air strikes on the border region, which has been welcomed by the Iraqi government. The new development is indicative of a blending of the civil wars in the two countries stemming from conflicts between Shiite and Sunni militants, exposing how complex the confrontation really is.
 危機感を抱いたシリア軍が、イラク国境地帯を空爆し、イラクがこれを歓迎した。シーア派とスンニ派の対立に根ざす両国の内戦の一体化と、複雑な対立の構図を印象づけるものだ。

As if taking advantage of this turmoil, Kurdish forces, a minority group based in northern Iraq, have embarked on running one of Iraq’s main refineries and oil exports on their own, a highly alarming move that could end up splitting Iraq.
 こうした混乱に乗じるように、イラク北部の少数派クルド人が独自に油田管理や原油輸出を始めた。イラクの分裂につながりかねない、憂慮すべき動きだ。

Iraqi existence at stake

Also problematic in this connection are reports that huge amounts of cash have been flowing to Sunni extremists from Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, a major Sunni power. Saudi Arabia’s decision to sever the flow of funds would be a key step toward resolving the imbroglio.
 ISISに、スンニ派の大国サウジアラビアなど湾岸諸国内から巨額の活動資金が流れているとされる点も問題だ。サウジがこの資金の流れを断つことが、混乱収拾への重要な一歩となろう。

It is only natural that U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, on a tour of Middle East and European countries earlier this month, warned that the ongoing crisis could be fatal to “Iraq’s existence as a state, and it is also a threat to the wider region [of the Middle East as a whole].” As it has ruled out the option of deploying ground troops in Iraq, the United States should accelerate its diplomatic efforts.
 ケリー米国務長官が中東・欧州訪問で、「イラクが国家存亡の危機に直面し、中東全体が脅威にさらされている」と警告したのは、当然である。地上部隊を投入する選択肢を排除した米国は、外交努力を加速させるべきだ。

Washington, for that matter, has decided to extend financial assistance to Syria’s moderate rebels against the Assad regime. The decision appears to be aimed at blunting the capability of ISIS by helping the moderates hold the Al-Nusra Front in check.
 米国は、穏健なシリア反体制派に対する資金援助を決めた。穏健派によるヌスラ戦線への牽制を通じて、ISISの力を殺ぐ狙いがあるのだろう。

In the meantime, a 180-strong team of U.S. military advisers has begun operating in Iraq. Washington says the advisers will help rebuild the Iraqi forces, while collecting information about how ISIS is organized and its probable future moves, in an effort to eventually specify targets by armed drones, which are one of the options the United States may employ in the future.
 同時に、米国の軍事顧問団の約180人がイラクでの任務を開始した。イラク軍の立て直しを図りつつ、ISISの組織や動向に関する情報を集め、将来の選択肢である「無人機による空爆」の目標も特定するという。

To prevent the collapse of Iraq’s foundation as a state, the United States aims to rally states and other forces that have an influence over Iraq, but has still fallen short of completing the task of drawing up any feasible scenario.
 イラクの国家基盤が崩れる事態を防ぐため、米国は、イラクに影響力を持つ国や勢力の結集を目指しているが、実現可能なシナリオを描き切れていない。

Kerry has been persistently urging Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki to form a government of national unity, including Sunni and Kurdish forces. The Iraqi prime minister must waste no time in realizing national reconciliation.
 ケリー長官はマリキ首相に、スンニ派やクルド人を含む挙国一致の内閣作りを改めて求めた。首相は国民融和を急ぐ必要がある。

The Japanese government, for its part, has decided to provide about ¥600 million in assistance to Iraqi refugees. This country should continue its cooperation to help stabilize the Iraqi situation.
 日本政府はイラク避難民支援に約6億円の緊急援助を決めた。イラク安定に日本も協力したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 29, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

株主総会 外部の声を経営改革に生かせ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Make good use of outside suggestions to realize effective corporate reform
株主総会 外部の声を経営改革に生かせ

Actively seeking suggestions from outside people for good use in corporate management is essential if companies want to enhance their worth.
 外部の声を積極的に採り入れ、経営に生かしていくことが、企業価値の向上に欠かせない。

During this year’s season of shareholders meetings, which has peaked, top executives of some companies were busy apologizing and explaining their positions in the face of shareholders venting their dissatisfaction. The companies include Mizuho Financial Group Inc., which was implicated in problematic loans to gang members and others, and Sony Corp., which has no prospect in sight for a business recovery.
 今年の株主総会シーズンが山場を越えた。
 暴力団員らへの融資が問題となったみずほフィナンシャルグループや、業績回復のメドが立たないソニーなどの総会では、株主からの批判が相次ぎ、経営陣が謝罪や釈明に追われた。

Shareholders meetings provide crucial opportunities for the top corporate echelons to listen in person to what stockholders have to say. Aside from the annual shareholders meetings, an increasing number of companies are routinely attempting to adopt suggestions from outside.
 株主総会は経営陣が直接、株主の声に耳を傾ける大切な機会である。年1回の総会にとどまらず、日常的に外部の声を採り入れようとする企業が増えてきた。

At this year’s stockholders meetings, about 250 companies appointed external directors for the first time, bringing the ratio of corporations listed in the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange with outside directors to more than 70 percent of the total listed companies.
 今年の株主総会では、新たに社外取締役を選任する企業が約250社にのぼり、社外取締役を置く東証1部の上場企業は全体の7割を超えた。

The revised Companies Law, which was enacted this month to require companies from next spring to explain reasons for not having external directors on their boards, prompted many companies to newly appoint directors from outside.
 今月、成立した改正会社法で、社外取締役のいない企業に来春から理由の説明が義務付けられることも、導入を後押しした。

It is hoped that an increase in the number of companies reexamining their management with eyes from outside will help solve problems faced by Japanese corporations, such as the management style of following precedents and low rates of return.
 社外の目で経営を見直す企業の増加が、前例踏襲型の経営や低収益率など、日本企業の課題解決につながることに期待したい。

Independence crucial

Appointing name-only directors from business partners and others will not function to fully check management. It would be meaningless if external directors did not make tough, independent proposals.
 ただ、取引先などから「お飾り」のような社外取締役を迎えるだけでは、十分なチェック機能は果たせまい。独立性の高い立場から厳しい注文をつけてもらわないと、意味はない。

Above all, it is essential that companies carefully select talented outsiders with broad perspectives and insights who are capable of pointing out problems that insiders overlook.
 社内では見落とされている問題点を指摘できる視野の広さや見識を備えた人材を、しっかり選ぶことが、何より大切である。

Providing sufficient information to external directors, who are not familiar with the companies’ situations, is indispensable if they want to use such directors effectively.
 会社の事情に疎い社外取締役への十分な情報提供も、実効性を上げるために欠かせない。

The pros and cons among shareholders of having measures against hostile takeover bids attracted attention this year.
 今年の株主総会は、敵対的な合併・買収(M&A)を阻止する買収防衛策への株主の賛否も、注目を集めた。

At its shareholders meeting, major game developer Capcom Co. proposed the continuation of measures to prevent hostile mergers and acquisitions, but shareholders rejected the idea.
 ゲーム大手のカプコンの総会では、会社側が買収防衛策の継続を提案したが否決された。

With about 45 percent of its shareholders’ voting rights held by foreign institutional investors, the anti-takeover measures were apparently seen by many shareholders as steps to protect the management of the company itself, not to benefit shareholders.
 カプコンは外国の機関投資家の議決権が約45%を占めている。防衛策は経営陣の自己保身であり、株主の利益にはつながらないと考えた株主が多かったのだろう。

To win the support of diversifying shareholders, the top management needs to give more thorough explanations to them.
 多様化する株主の理解を得るには、経営トップが一段と丁寧に説明する必要がある。

Of course, assertive shareholders do not always make proper claims.
 もちろん、「物言う株主」の主張が常に正しいとは限らない。

During the shareholders meetings of the electric power companies, shareholders submitted proposals that nuclear power generation be stopped. The companies explained that resuming the operation of nuclear power plants is pivotal for their business recoveries, and eventually all proposals were rejected.
 電力各社の株主総会では、脱原発を求める株主提案が出された。経営陣は、業績回復には原発の再稼働が欠かせないと説明し、提案は全て否決された。

Shareholders and the top management are urged to repeatedly hold intense but constructive dialogues to push forward management reform.
 株主と経営陣が建設的で緊張感のある対話を重ね、経営改革を進めることが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 29, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月29日 (日)

脱法ドラッグ 摘発と啓発の強化が急務だ

Quasi 発音注意(クウェイザイ)(クワシではありません^^)同じような性質を持つという意味です
Having a likeness to something; resembling: a quasi success.
Quasi-legal drugs 脱法ドラッグ (合法みたいなドラッグ^^)
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Regulation, education must be urgently implemented to tackle quasi-legal drugs
脱法ドラッグ 摘発と啓発の強化が急務だ

A passenger car driven by a man who was said to have smoked quasi-legal drugs ran onto a sidewalk along a busy street in Ikebukuro, Tokyo, on Tuesday, killing one person and injuring seven others, some seriously.
 脱法ドラッグを吸ったとされる男の運転する乗用車が歩道に突っ込み、1人が死亡、7人が重軽傷を負う事件が東京・池袋の繁華街で起きた。

The man, who was sent to the prosecutors office on suspicion of dangerous driving causing death and injury, was quoted as telling police, “I have no memory of anything about the incident.”
 危険運転致死傷容疑で送検された男は、当時の状況について「覚えていない」と供述している。

Quasi-legal drugs, which could harm people other than the users themselves, should not be left uncontrolled and allowed to spread. Cracking down on such drugs must be urgently accelerated.
 周りに危害を及ぼす脱法ドラッグの蔓延まんえんを放置してはならない。摘発の強化が急務だ。

There have been too many incidents involving quasi-legal drugs. In May 2012, a man who had smoked quasi-legal drugs drove a car recklessly on an Osaka shopping street and fled after hitting a woman. In October of the same year, a company executive of Aichi Prefecture drove a car under the influence of quasi-legal herbs and fatally hit a female high school student who was on a bicycle.
 脱法ドラッグが絡む事件は後を絶たない。大阪市で2012年5月、脱法ドラッグを吸った男が商店街を車で暴走し、女性をひき逃げした。同じ年の10月には、愛知県の会社役員が車で自転車の女子高生をはね、死亡させた。

According to the National Police Agency, 176 people were found to have been involved in quasi-legal drug cases last year—16 times the number of 2009. Forty of them caused traffic accidents after taking such drugs, injuring 41 people.
 警察庁によると、昨年は176人が脱法ドラッグ関連で摘発された。09年の16倍に上る。40人は吸引などの後に交通事故を起こし、41人にけがを負わせた。

Quasi-legal drugs cause hallucinations and stimulant effects, which are similar to those caused by narcotic and stimulant drugs. They could also cause derangement and loss of consciousness, even resulting in deaths in some cases. They are also said to be highly addictive.
 脱法ドラッグは、麻薬や覚醒剤に似た幻覚や興奮作用を引き起こす。錯乱や意識消失も招き、死亡することさえある。強い依存性が指摘されている。

The sale of quasi-legal drugs containing components designated as “scheduled [controlled] substances” under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law is banned.
 薬事法で「指定薬物」とされた成分を含む脱法ドラッグの販売は禁じられている。

Sale unrestricted

Despite a ban, such drugs are sold openly in downtown areas and online under the pretense that they are incense or aromas. This is the biggest problem to be tackled. Many of them are also sold at relatively low prices of several thousand yen.
 それにもかかわらず、お香やアロマなどと偽り、繁華街やインターネット上で公然と売られているのが最大の問題だ。数千円程度と比較的安価なものが多い。

It is imperative for police and the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry to strengthen oversight and more actively crack down on such drug dealers.
 警察と厚生労働省は監視を強め、販売業者を積極的に摘発することが重要である。

The ministry in March last year adopted a system to comprehensively regulate drugs with similar components. As a result, the types of drugs designated for control have increased to 1,378.
 厚労省は昨年3月、成分が似た薬物を一括して規制する「包括指定」を導入した。その結果、指定薬物は1378種に増えた。

But a system has yet to be established wherein such drug substances can be quickly identified. Currently it takes at least one month to identify whether substances being investigated are such drugs.
 ただ、短時間で成分を特定する簡易鑑定の手法が確立されておらず、結論が出るまでに、少なくとも1か月を要している。

Technology to analyze substances must be improved to break through the current situation in which the sale of even dubious drugs cannot be halted until the results of an analysis are known.
 鑑定技術を向上させ、怪しいドラッグであっても鑑定結果が出るまで販売を止められない現状を、打破しなければならない。

There are many cases in which young people try quasi-legal drugs out of curiosity after being enticed to do so by their friends. The fact that such drugs can be obtained rather easily, causing only a slight sense of guilt, could be a factor behind their spread.
 若者の中には、友人に誘われ、興味本位に手を出すケースが少なくない。簡単に手に入るため、罪悪感が希薄なことも蔓延の背景にあるのだろう。

Quasi-legal drugs are called “gateway drugs” in that they can lead to the abuse of narcotic and stimulant drugs.  脱法ドラッグは、麻薬や覚醒剤などの乱用につながるゲートウェー・ドラッグ(入門薬物)と呼ばれる。

Under the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Law that took effect in April, not only the production or sale, but also the purchase, possession or use of quasi-legal drugs—containing the designated chemicals—is banned.
今年4月からは薬事法で、指定薬物を含む脱法ドラッグの製造や販売だけでなく、購入、所持、使用も禁じられた。

It is essential for the government to make widely known the illegality of quasi-legal drugs and give priority to educational and rehabilitation programs in cooperation with organizations concerned, including schools.
 政府は脱法ドラッグの違法性をきちんと周知し、学校などの関係機関と連携して啓発や更生に力を入れる必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 27, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

ODA大綱改定 平和構築へ戦略性を高めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Peace-building efforts should be strategic priority of ODA
ODA大綱改定 平和構築へ戦略性を高めよ

Japan should make active use of its official development assistance programs to help crystallize the goal of the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in transforming the country into a “proactive contributor to peace.”
 安倍政権の掲げる「積極的平和主義」を具体化するため、政府開発援助(ODA)も積極的に活用すべきだろう。

On Thursday, a Foreign Ministry panel of experts presented a report to Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida after wrapping up discussions on a review of Japan’s ODA Charter, a set of principles governing the country’s overseas development aid. The government is set to give Cabinet approval to a new ODA Charter by the end of the year, completing the first major review in 11 years.
 ODA大綱の見直しを検討してきた外務省の有識者会議が、岸田外相に報告書を提出した。11年ぶりの見直しで、政府は年末までに、新しい大綱を閣議決定する予定だ。

The report cites the “pursuit of international peace through nonmilitary activities” as one of the guiding principles of ODA funding.
 報告書は、ODAの基本方針の一つとして「非軍事的手段による平和の希求」を掲げた。

Conventionally, the government has banned assisting foreign military forces with Japan’s ODA. The report by the panel, however, recommends that aid to foreign militaries be permitted on a case-by-case basis, asserting that support for armed forces activities concerning nonmilitary objectives such as stabilizing citizens’ livelihoods and disaster relief “should not be excluded uniformly” simply because they are military-related.
 従来は、軍隊に対する支援は認めていなかったが、民生目的や災害救助などの非軍事目的の支援については、「一律に排除すべきではない」として、ケースによっては認めるよう提言した。

A number of potential projects would be included in the envisioned uses of ODA funding, including improvement of ports, harbors and airports for joint military and civilian use and inviting military personnel from abroad for disaster relief training and other nonmilitary operations.
 軍民共用の港湾や空港を整備したり、軍人を日本に研修に招いたりすることなどが想定される。

Many countries have been utilizing military forces in peace-building, the enhancement of people’s living standards and other objectives. ODA disbursements are an important diplomatic policy resource for Japan, and utilizing those funds for such purposes is commendable and in keeping with the philosophy of “proactive contribution to peace.”
 多くの国が軍隊を平和構築や民生目的に活用している。日本が重要な外交カードであるODAをこうした分野に使うのは、「積極的平和主義」の理念とも合致すると評価できる。

Coordination with U.N.

Regarding ODA funding for the purpose of peace-building, the government has decided to provide the Philippines with 10 patrol boats using yen loans. A provision of patrol boats to Vietnam is also being considered.
 平和構築目的のODAでは、政府は、円借款により、フィリピンに巡視船10隻を供与することを決めた。ベトナムにも巡視船を供与する方向で検討している。

China has been maneuvering to make maritime advances by force in the South China Sea. Helping the Philippines and Vietnam beef up their maritime security capabilities will help to ensure the safety of key sea lanes vital to maritime transport of trade and energy for Japan. Such strategic use of ODA must be expanded.
 南シナ海では中国が力ずくの海洋進出を展開しており、両国の海上保安能力の向上を支援することは、日本の海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保にも資する。こうした戦略的なODAのさらなる拡大が欠かせない。

The report also proposes advocating strengthened coordination between Japan’s ODA and U.N. peacekeeping activities. This suggestion is based on the National Security Strategy approved by the Cabinet last December, which calls for a similar roadmap.
 報告書は、ODAと国連平和維持活動(PKO)の連携強化も提言した。政府が昨年末に決定した国家安全保障戦略が同様の方針を示したことを踏まえたものだ。

Under the strategy, Self-Defense Forces members participating in U.N. peacekeeping activities will engage in projects such as building roads and facilities, while the Japan International Cooperation Agency helps ODA-recipient countries expedite their nation-building endeavors. Every possible effort must be made to ensure optimal synergy between SDF activities and JICA operations.
 PKOに参加する自衛隊が道路や施設を整備する一方、国際協力機構(JICA)がODAで国づくりを支援する。双方の取り組みが相乗効果を上げるよう、大いに知恵を絞りたい。

Japan’s ODA missions are marking their 60th anniversary this year. The government’s budgetary appropriations for ODA projects peaked in fiscal 1997 at about ¥1.17 trillion, and have been on the decline, standing at about ¥550 billion for the current fiscal year, less than half the peak level. Now is the time to put the brakes on the downward trend in ODA outlays.
 日本のODAは今年で60周年を迎えた。政府のODA予算は、1997年度の約1兆1700億円をピークに減少傾向をたどり、今年度は約5500億円とほぼ半減した。そろそろ、ODAの減少に歯止めをかけるべきだ。

The report also stresses the significance of increasing the roles played by private-sector funds in developmental cooperation fields.
 報告書は、開発協力分野での民間資金の活用も求めている。

It is estimated that private-sector funds flowing from industrially advanced countries into developing countries total around 2.5 times as much capital as the aggregate of all global ODA.
 先進国から途上国に流れている民間資金は、ODAの2・5倍に上るとされる。

Improving infrastructure in developing nations though an organic linking of government ODA with the business activities of Japanese companies should run parallel to Japan’s growth strategy.
政府のODAと日本企業の経済活動を有機的に組み合わせて途上国の社会資本整備を支援することは、日本の成長戦略にも沿うはずだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 27, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

集団的自衛権 解釈「適正化」が導く自公合意

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Accord on collective self-defense an epoch-making step forward
集団的自衛権 解釈「適正化」が導く自公合意

We applaud the fact that repeated, tenacious talks between the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito have brought them to the verge of an epoch-making agreement that is critical for Japan’s security.
 自民、公明両党が粘り強く協議を重ね、日本の安全保障にとって画期的な意義を持つ合意をまとめ上げつつあることを、高く評価したい。

The government on Friday presented to the ruling parties a draft outline for a new constitutional interpretation that will approve the limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense. Komeito, which was cautious about condoning the limited exercise of the right, did not object to the draft, leading to a broad accord between the ruling parties. The new interpretation is expected to be approved by the Cabinet on Tuesday.
 政府が、集団的自衛権行使を限定的に容認する新たな憲法解釈の概要案を与党に示した。行使容認に慎重だった公明党から異論は出ず、与党は大筋で了承した。新たな解釈は、7月1日に閣議決定される見通しだ。

According to the draft, the Constitution allows the nation to use the minimum necessary force when a foreign nation with which it has close ties comes under attack and there is a clear danger that threatens to fundamentally undermine the rights of the Japanese people.
 概要案は、「我が国と密接な関係にある他国」が攻撃され、日本国民の権利が「根底から覆される明白な危険がある」場合、必要最小限度の実力を行使することが憲法上許容される、としている。

The government and the Liberal Democratic Party have incorporated expressions in the draft to limit the exercise of the right in line with Komeito’s position, paving the way for the exercise, under certain conditions, of the right of collective self-defense. The exercise of this right has heretofore been seen as banned under the Constitution.
 政府・自民党が、公明党の主張する「歯止め」の表現も盛り込みながら、長年、憲法上はできないとしてきた集団的自衛権の行使を条件付きで容認したものだ。

It is important to mention that this change in the constitutional interpretation is aimed at enhancing the nation’s deterrence by strengthening the Japan-U.S. alliance and international cooperation.
 重要なのは、この憲法解釈の変更が日米同盟や国際協調を強化して、抑止力を高めることを目指していることだ。

Extreme opinions, like those in some quarters of the nation, that this will open the way for Japan’s participation in a war are far off the mark.
「戦争参加への道を開く」といった一部の極論は全くの的外れである。

As the draft points out, Japan’s security environment has gone through a fundamental transformation. No single nation can keep peace by itself, given the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles as well as the threat of international terrorism.
 概要案が指摘するように、日本の安全保障環境は根本的に変容している。大量破壊兵器や弾道ミサイルの拡散、国際テロの脅威などを踏まえれば、どの国も一国のみで平和を守ることはできない。

Securing own safety

By contributing to the stability of not only Asia but also the entire world, and by forging closer ties of cooperation with its ally the United States and other friendly nations, Japan will secure its own peace and safety. To that end, the ability to exercise the right of collective self-defense is essential.
 日本が世界とアジアの安定に貢献し、同盟国の米国や友好国と緊密に連携することが、日本自身の平和と安全の確保につながる。集団的自衛権の行使は、そのための重要なカードである。

We must not treat lightly the fact that many relevant countries are supporting Japan’s move to change its constitutional interpretation.
 多くの関係国が、日本の憲法解釈の変更を支持していることを軽視すべきではない。

Masahiko Komura, chairman of the ruling parties’ panel on the development of the legal framework for security, has stressed that the new constitutional interpretation is meant to make appropriate adjustments to the interpretation, not amend the Constitution.
 与党協議会の高村正彦座長は、新たな解釈について「解釈の適正化であって、解釈改憲ではない」と強調している。

Indeed, the new interpretation keeps the core parts of the 1972 government view and only approves the exercise of the right of collective self-defense at the minimal necessary level.
 確かに、新解釈は1972年の政府見解の根幹部分を踏襲し、必要最小限度に限定した集団的自衛権の行使しか認めていない。

The reinterpretation is within a rational range and maintains a certain level of consistency with the government’s view thus far.
 従来の見解とも一定の整合性を維持した合理的な範囲内の解釈変更であり、

Criticism that the issue should have essentially been dealt with by a constitutional amendment but was handled through constitutional reinterpretation instead, and that the move goes against constitutionalism, is completely inaccurate.
「本来は憲法改正すべきなのに、解釈変更ですませた」「立憲主義に反する」といった批判は当たるまい。

The draft stipulates that the exercise of the right of collective self-defense in principle requires prior Diet approval, from the viewpoint of democratic control.
 概要案は、集団的自衛権を行使する場合は、民主的統制の観点から、原則として「国会の事前承認」が必要と明記している。

This is an appropriate step. After the Cabinet approval of the new interpretation, the government must spare no efforts to explain the significance and details of the new constitutional interpretation by, for example, discussing the matter at a committee session while the Diet is in recess to win greater acceptance of the interpretation among the people.
 妥当な内容だ。政府は閣議決定後には、国会の閉会中審査などを通じて、新憲法解釈の意義や内容を丁寧に説明し、国民の理解を広げることが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 28, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

東京五輪計画 整備費の膨張防ぐ工夫が要る

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Costs of building Olympic facilities must be kept to reasonable levels
東京五輪計画 整備費の膨張防ぐ工夫が要る

The financial resources that can be allocated for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics are limited. Given that the budget for the construction of Olympic venue facilities is expected to balloon significantly, efforts must be made to slash costs as much as possible by flexibly reviewing original projects.
 東京五輪に投入できる財源は限られている。施設整備費の大幅な膨張が見込まれる以上、計画を柔軟に見直し、可能な限り費用を圧縮していく努力が求められる。

The decision has been made to change part of the plans for facilities where Olympic and Paralympic events will be held. This is because estimates for 10 facilities to be newly built by the Tokyo metropolitan government were found to have soared from the original ¥153.8 billion to about ¥380 billion.
 2020年東京五輪・パラリンピックの競技会場の計画が一部で変更されることになった。東京都が新設する10か所分の施設整備費などの見積もりが、当初の1538億円から約3800億円に増加することが分かったためだ。

Hikes in the prices of construction materials and labor costs are said to be a primary factor behind the change. The metropolitan government has a fund of ¥410 billion for the Olympics, but if most of the amount is used only to build facilities, there will be a shortfall in the budget for the construction and expansion of the roads around them.
 建設資材や人件費の高騰が主な要因とされる。都は五輪資金として、4100億円の基金を有しているものの、施設整備費だけにその大半を充てれば、周辺の道路整備費などが不足してしまう。

It was reasonable that Gov. Yoichi Masuzoe announced the change, saying the plans “will be modified adequately and swiftly.”
 舛添要一都知事が「適切かつ速やかに改める」と計画変更を表明したのは、もっともである。

The construction cost for the Sea Forest Waterway, where canoe sprint and rowing events will be held, was originally estimated at ¥6.9 billion, but the possibility has emerged that it may swell to ¥100 billion.
 見直しの対象として浮上している施設のうち、カヌー・スプリントとボート競技を行う水上競技場については、69億円のはずだった整備費が1000億円にまで膨らむ可能性が出てきた。

While the metropolitan government said it would seek to reduce the cost by changing the construction methods, there is no denying that its original estimate was too optimistic.
 工法の変更で費用の圧縮を図るというが、当初の見通しが甘過ぎたことは否めない。

Consider future use

The venue for basketball and badminton events was originally scheduled to be built with an investment of ¥36.4 billion, but given no prospect of the facilities being used again after the Games, the metropolitan government will look into the possibility of canceling the construction project. It is a prudent judgment. The significance of Olympic facilities lies in the fact that they will continue to serve as a bastion for the promotion of sports.
 五輪後の活用が見通せないため、364億円をかけて整備する予定だったバスケットボールとバドミントン会場は、建設中止を検討する。賢明な判断だ。五輪施設は将来にわたり、スポーツ振興の拠点となることに意義がある。

Efforts must be also made to curtail costs for other facilities.
 他の施設の建設についても、コスト削減を図ってもらいたい。

Tokyo won the hosting bid by emphasizing its plan for a “compact Olympics” in which major venues will be located within an eight-kilometer radius of the Olympic Village. It is inevitable that the venues will be dispersed to a certain extent as a result of the planned review.
 東京は、選手村から半径8キロ以内に主要会場を集める「コンパクトな五輪」をアピールし、開催を勝ち取った。計画見直しで、会場の多少の分散は避けられまい。

Plans have been altered in previous Olympics, including the 2012 London Summer Games. Concluding its inspection tour, an International Olympic Committee panel expressed understanding Friday about Tokyo’s intention to change the original venue plans, saying that if there is room for improvement, it is very important to start working soon.
 12年のロンドン五輪などでも、計画の変更は行われた。東京五輪の準備状況視察のために来日した国際オリンピック委員会(IOC)調整委員会は27日、「早い段階で改善の作業をすることは、非常に重要だ」と理解を示した。

The Tokyo organizing committee and the metropolitan government will submit a basic program for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics by next February. They will need to revise the program after gaining approval from sports organizations while ensuring that it will not significantly reduce convenience for athletes.
 大会組織委員会と都は来年2月までに、開催の基本計画をIOCに提出する。選手の利便性が著しく損なわれないよう留意し、各競技団体の理解を得て計画を練り直す必要がある。

Regarding the new National Stadium to be built by the government, there is criticism that it will be too big.
 政府が整備する新国立競技場についても、「巨大過ぎる」といった批判がある。

As the new stadium will be the main venue for the Olympics, its capacity must remain at 80,000 as promised to the IOC. A thorough review is needed to inspect whether there are still any unnecessary elements in its design plans, which have already seen total floor space curtailed by more than 20 percent.
 五輪のメイン会場だけに、IOCとの約束である8万人収容の規模は維持せねばならない。一方、当初より延べ床面積を2割以上縮小した設計案にも無駄な部分がないか、徹底した点検が必要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 28, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月27日 (金)

骨太の方針 成長と改革の両立が肝心だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Govt must achieve both economic growth and regulatory reform
骨太の方針 成長と改革の両立が肝心だ

What should be done to make progress on fiscal reconstruction and other mid- to long-term challenges while also improving the economy, an immediate task to be tackled by the government?
 足元の景気回復を図りつつ、財政再建など中長期的な課題の解決をどのように進めていくか。

The administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe will be tested on its ability to act on these issues.
 安倍政権の実行力が問われよう。

On Tuesday, the Abe Cabinet finalized a new version of its Basic Policies for Economic and Fiscal Management and Reform, a guiding principle for the government’s economic management, and a revised version of its Japan Revitalization Strategy. The new version of the revitalization strategy is the second of its kind to be adopted by the administration for its growth strategy.
 政府は、経済政策の指針となる「経済財政運営と改革の基本方針」(骨太の方針)と、成長戦略の第2弾である新たな「日本再興戦略」を閣議決定した。

At a press conference, the prime minister emphasized his determination to carry out reforms aimed at revitalizing the Japanese economy, saying, “The growth strategy is a no-holds-barred reform.”
 安倍首相は記者会見で「成長戦略にタブーも聖域もない」と述べ、日本経済再生に向けて改革を断行する決意を強調した。

A document on the revised version of the policy for economic management stated that the economy is “no longer in a state of deflation” and that efforts to carry out the growth strategy would be further accelerated to ensure the nation remains out of deflation.
 骨太の方針は、日本経済は「もはやデフレ状況ではない」としたうえで、脱デフレを確実にするため、成長戦略をさらに加速させる考えを示した。

We believe the key to success in improving our nation’s ability to achieve mid- and long-term economic growth is to replenish the depleted state coffers while at the same time overcoming problems arising from the ongoing population decline.
 中長期的な成長力向上のカギを握るのは、財政の立て直しと、人口減対策だろう。

The government will be unable to conduct its policies in a stable manner if it lacks a sound fiscal foundation. The country’s population is a source of consumption and productivity.
 健全な財政基盤がなければ、安定した政策運営ができない。人口は消費や生産力の源泉だ。

The document on the economic management policy spelled out a set of measures to create a virtuous cycle of economic revitalization and fiscal reconstruction as a tool for restoring health to the troubled government finances.
The strategy for achieving this goal entails a mix of mutually complementing plans: placing priority on expenditures conducive to economic development on one hand and reforming the tax system to help facilitate economic growth on the other.
 財政健全化について骨太の方針は、経済発展に資する歳出への重点化と、成長志向の税体系を両輪に、経済再生と財政再建の「好循環」を目指す戦略を掲げた。

Success remains elusive

The document stated the government’s determination to stem the tide of a decreasing and graying population by around 2020 through progress in promoting regulatory and institutional reforms in a wide range of fields.
 人口減対策では、幅広い分野で規制・制度の改革を進め、2020年をめどに「人口減・高齢化」の流れを変えると宣言した。

It also included a plan to set up a headquarters for fighting the population decrease from a comprehensive point of view, thus achieving the goal of maintaining our nation’s population at the 100 million level 50 years from now.
 総合的に人口減対策を担う推進本部を設け、50年後も人口1億人を維持するとしている。

We believe the government deserves much credit for its resolve to squarely grapple with the fiscal crisis and the population decrease, both structural problems facing our country.
 財政と人口という日本の構造的な問題に、正面から取り組む姿勢は高く評価できる。

However, it should be noted that few satisfactory results have been achieved from the government’s long-standing efforts to improve the fiscal condition and stem the declining birthrate. This can be largely attributed to the lack of coordination among the Cabinet Office and other government ministries as well as objections from organizations to be affected by these government measures. Specific, workable measures must be resolutely implemented.
 とはいえ、財政改革も少子化対策も、長年の課題でありながら、府省縦割りや関係団体の抵抗で、十分な成果を上げてこなかった。肝心なのは、有効な具体策を、ためらわず実行することである。

It is also important for the government to make steady progress in carrying out immediate plans devised for the latest growth strategy.
 当面の成長戦略メニューを着実に進めることも大切だ。

Critics have said last year’s growth strategy lacked thorough efforts to relax what are called the entrenched bedrock regulations supported by strong antireform forces in agricultural and other sectors.
 昨年の成長戦略は、農業分野をはじめ、強い抵抗勢力に守られた「岩盤規制」に対する踏み込み不足が指摘された。

This year’s growth strategy incorporated such additional measures as a reduction in the effective corporate tax rate—the ratio of corporations’ national and local tax payments to their taxable incomes—to under 30 percent, as well as organizational reform of agricultural cooperatives. Many market players and business leaders have praised the revised growth strategy as a step forward in the promotion of full-fledged regulatory reforms.
 その改訂版とも言える今年の戦略には、法人税実効税率の20%台への引き下げや農協組織改革などの追加措置を盛り込んだ。市場や経済界には、本格的な規制改革へ前進したと評価する声が多い。

It is essential for political leaders to keep watch on the process of translating each planned policy into specific measures, so bureaucrats and other antireform forces will be prevented from scuttling the plans designed for the new growth strategy.
 各施策が、具体化の過程で官僚などに骨抜きにされないように、政治がしっかりと目を光らせることが大事だ。

Now is the time to make headway in promoting drastic reforms, when the Abe administration enjoys a good deal of stability. We hope the government and the ruling parties will unite their efforts to achieve the intended goals under the prime minister’s leadership.
 政権の安定している今こそ、大胆な改革を前に進める好機と言える。首相のリーダーシップのもと、政府・与党一体となって取り組んでもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 25, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

与党安保協議 自衛隊活動を制約し過ぎるな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
SDF’s ability to defend nation must not be excessively restricted
与党安保協議 自衛隊活動を制約し過ぎるな

The government and the ruling parties are trying to make arrangements to have a Cabinet decision sometime next week on a reinterpretation of the Constitution that will allow this nation to exercise its right of collective self-defense.
 政府・与党は、集団的自衛権の行使を容認する閣議決定を来週中に行う方向で調整している。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has indicated he wants this decision made sooner rather than later. “As responsible ruling parties, we will make a decision when it needs to be made,” he said at a press conference.
 安倍首相は記者会見で「責任与党として決める時はしっかり決める」と語り、早期の閣議決定に意欲を示した。

Initially, the ruling parties were not in tune on this issue. The Liberal Democratic Party was enthusiastic about enabling Japan to exercise a right it possesses but has prohibited itself from using. By contrast, New Komeito was very cautious about making any changes to the government’s interpretation. We warmly applaud both parties for being willing to compromise and reaching a point where their discussions have neared an agreement.
 当初、行使容認に前向きな自民党と、慎重な公明党の主張の隔たりは大きかった。双方が歩み寄り、詰めの協議に入ったことを前向きに評価したい。

During a series of meetings, representatives of the LDP and Komeito discussed the draft of the wording for the Cabinet decision. It has been proposed that the limited exercise of this right would be permitted only when there is an “impending danger” that the nation’s existence is threatened and the people’s right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness will be fundamentally undermined. This wording would be a change from the condition that there was a “fear” that these threats could occur.
 与党協議では、閣議決定案の文言を調整した。集団的自衛権の行使要件である「国民の生命、自由及び幸福追求の権利が根底から覆されるおそれがある」場合について、「おそれ」を「明白な危険」に変更することが提案された。

This was a nod to Komeito, which wanted to ensure adequate restraint on the scenarios in which Japan could exercise the right of collective self-defense.
 行使できるケースを極力限定するため、「歯止め」をかけたい公明党に配慮したものだ。

Both ruling parties will need to make some compromises as they seek an agreement, but the important thing is to ensure that in the event of an emergency, the Self-Defense Forces can operate effectively and are not subjected to excessive restrictions.
 与党合意に向けて一定の妥協は必要としても、重要なのは、緊急事態の発生時に、自衛隊が過剰な制約を受けることなく、効果的に活動できるようにすることだ。

We think a framework should be put in place to ensure the nation can fundamentally exercise this right of collective self-defense in the eight key instances presented by the government, including protecting U.S. vessels under armed attack, minesweeping operations and missile defense.
 米艦防護、機雷除去、ミサイル防衛など、政府が示した集団的自衛権の8事例は基本的に実施できるようにしておくべきだ。

Minesweeping in limelight

The move to enable the use of this right was designed to guarantee the nation’s peace and security, and to strengthen the bilateral alliance with the United States and relations with other affected nations, as the security environment surrounding Japan has deteriorated in recent years. Imposing excessive restrictions on the scope under which this right can be exercised will prevent Japan from being able to achieve these goals.
 集団的自衛権の行使容認は、近年の安全保障環境の悪化を踏まえて、日米同盟や米国以外の関係国との連携を強化し、日本の平和と安全を確保するのが目的だ。行使できる範囲を限定しすぎれば、その目的が果たせなくなろう。

The LDP had sought to have minesweeping operations permitted under a U.N. collective security framework, as well as making it a case in which Japan could exercise the right of collective self-defense. However, it plans to postpone a decision on this matter.
 機雷除去に関しては、自民党が集団的自衛権の行使に加えて、集団安全保障に基づく活動も可能にするよう求めていたが、結論を先送りする方向となった。

This delay was unavoidable, as the LDP’s priority is to quickly gain Cabinet approval on the reinterpretation even as some Komeito members remain firmly opposed to yielding any ground. Nevertheless, it is important that some leeway be left in place regarding authorizing the use of force as part of a collective security framework.
 公明党内の慎重論が強い中、早期の閣議決定を優先するには、それもやむを得ない。だが、集団安保に基づく武力行使を認める余地は残しておくことが大切だ。

If the U.N. Security Council adopted a resolution authorizing minesweeping while the Maritime Self-Defense Force was already engaged in clearing mines, the basis for the operation would switch to the collective security framework, and the MSDF might come under pressure to abort its mission. This is absurd. The international community will not understand how such a situation came to pass.
 海上自衛隊が機雷を除去中に、国連安全保障理事会で掃海の決議が採択されたら、活動の根拠が集団安保に移るため、掃海の中断を迫られるのは、おかしな話だ。国際社会からも理解されない。

The adoption of a U.N. resolution was originally a process for adding legitimacy to the use of force, but under Japan’s current position, it would do the opposite.
 国連決議の採択は本来、武力行使の正当性を高めるはずなのに、本末転倒である。

Abe has denied Japan will use force under a collective security framework, but that was in the context of an attack on another country. There is no need to lump minesweeping operations that do not injure or kill personnel under the same “use of force.”
 安倍首相は集団安保による武力行使を否定しているが、それは他国を攻撃するケースを念頭に置いたものだ。同じ武力行使でも、人員の殺傷などを伴わない機雷除去を同列に扱う必要はない。

It is possible that the basis for an operation could change from the exercise of collective self-defense to a collective security framework in situations other than minesweeping. The government and ruling parties should reach a definite conclusion on this matter in the near future.
 集団的自衛権の行使が集団安保に移行する例は、掃海以外にも起こり得る。政府・与党は近い将来、きちんと結論を出すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 25, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

NTT回線開放 公正な競争の確保が重要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Keep the playing field level after NTT’s optical network is opened up
NTT回線開放 公正な競争の確保が重要だ

This opportunity must be taken to promote competition in the information and telecommunications market and improve the services provided to customers.
 情報通信市場の競争を促進し、利用者の利便性を向上させる契機としなければならない。

From this autumn, NTT East Corp. and NTT West Corp. will make their optical fiber lines available for a fee to regular business operators.
 NTT東日本、西日本が今秋から、光ファイバー回線を一般事業者向けに有料で開放する。

This will enable businesses from a wide spectrum of fields, in addition to telecommunications companies such as SoftBank Corp. and KDDI Corp., to provide services to ordinary households and offices through the NTT optical fiber network.
 ソフトバンクやKDDIなどの通信会社だけでなく、様々な業種の企業がNTTの光回線を使い、一般家庭やオフィス向けのサービスを提供できるようになる。

These optical lines are mainly used for land-line telephones and Internet connections. Giving greater access to these lines will increase the freedom of businesses to use them for their own purposes. The scope of businesses that will take advantage of this opening looks likely to expand to new fields, such as home builders, security companies, and at-home nursing care and telemedicine services provided by medical facilities working together.
 光回線は、主に固定電話やインターネット接続などで使われている。開放によって事業者は利用の自由度が高まる。住宅メーカーと警備会社、医療機関が連携した在宅介護や遠隔医療など、新事業への応用範囲は広がりそうだ。

Another factor that will appeal to businesses is that NTT’s network will enable them to provide services across the entire nation. This is an advantage absent from the optical lines available only in certain areas, such as those used by cable TV stations.
 ケーブルテレビなど地域限定の光回線とは違い、NTTのネットワークによって、サービスを全国展開できるのも魅力と言える。

We hope this will lead to the creation of new companies, and give a boost to Japan’s economic growth.
 新たな事業が生み出され、日本の経済成長を後押しする効果に期待したい。

If a package deal contract was offered for the transmission of video games, karaoke and other services, the operator could offer customers a discounted rate.
 ゲームやカラオケの配信などを事業者と一括契約できるようになれば、料金も割安になろう。

NTT East and West’s optical fiber lines hold 70 percent of the domestic market, but the companies are struggling to acquire new customers due to the surging popularity of smartphones in recent years. Opening up its network to businesses is aimed at generating a new revenue source.
 NTT東西の光回線は、国内7割のシェア(占有率)を持つが、スマートフォンの普及などで契約が伸び悩んでいる。企業向けに利用を開放し、新たな収益源とする狙いがある。

Good news for customers

The use of the optical fiber network of NTT Docomo Inc., a company of the NTT group, has been restricted under the Telecommunications Business Law to prevent the group from holding a monopoly. The Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry will also permit NTT Docomo to give new clients greater access to its network, in line with the freeing up of the NTT network.
 NTTグループの市場独占を避けるため、グループのNTTドコモによる光回線の利用は電気通信事業法で制限されてきたが、総務省は一般企業への開放に合わせ、ドコモにも認める。

NTT Docomo plans to start offering communications services through the optical fiber network, and offer discounts for customers who sign up for package deals that include mobile phone services.
 ドコモは光回線による通信サービスに参入し、携帯電話との一括契約で料金を割り引く「セット割」を始める方針だ。

As a result, the three major mobile phone service providers will all offer cheaper prices to customers who use a set of services. Mobile virtual network operators, which are developing cheap smartphone services, are also expected to offer package deals by tapping into NTT’s optical fiber network.
 携帯大手3社がそろって「セット割」を行うことになる。「格安スマホ」を展開している仮想移動体通信事業者(MVNO)も、NTTの光回線とのセット販売に乗り出すとみられる。

We hope this increased competition over services and charges will benefit many consumers.
 料金やサービス面で競争が促され、多くの消費者にメリットが広がるようにしたい。

However, it will be important to ensure that conditions allowing fair competition are established, such as preventing overly preferential treatment regarding the charges levied on NTT group companies such as Docomo.
 重要なのは、ドコモなどNTTグループ向けの利用料の過度な優遇を防止するなど、公正な競争条件を確保することだ。

The communications ministry is drawing up rules for NTT’s optical fiber network when it is opened up to telecommunications firms and other businesses. We think the usage charges for NTT Docomo and other companies in the group should be made public in principle.
 総務省は、NTTの光回線を通信会社や一般事業者に開放する際のルール作りを進めている。ドコモをはじめグループ会社向けの利用料については、公表を原則とすべきだろう。

A system should also be put in place to check whether these rules are being followed appropriately.
 ルールが適切に運用されているかどうか、監視する体制作りも課題である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 26, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

司法取引 捜査の新たな切り札になるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Will plea bargains become new trump card for criminal investigators?
司法取引 捜査の新たな切り札になるか

Criminal investigations by the police and prosecutors may change greatly as prospects grow for Japan to adopt plea bargaining, a tactic already used widely in the United States and European countries.
 警察・検察の犯罪捜査が、大きく変わる可能性がある。欧米で普及している司法取引が、日本にも導入される見通しが強まったためだ。

A committee of the Legislative Council, an advisory panel to the justice minister, has largely agreed to the introduction of a form of plea bargaining. The Justice Ministry is set to submit related bills to next year’s ordinary Diet session.
 政府の法制審議会の部会では、導入賛成の意見が多数を占めている。法務省は、早ければ来年の通常国会に関連法案を提出する方針だ。

Adopting plea bargaining as a new investigative method to close in on the truth of matters is a significant shift.
事件の真相に迫る上で、司法取引という新たな捜査手法を採り入れる意義は小さくない。

Under the envisaged plea bargaining system, prosecutors and police investigators will not indict suspects or will seek reduced penalties in exchange for their cooperation in investigations. This could involve, for example, a suspect revealing information on crimes committed by a primary leader.
 司法取引は、容疑者が首謀者の犯罪を明らかにするなど捜査に協力すれば、見返りとして、本人の起訴を見送ったり、求刑を軽くしたりする制度である。

When dealing with such cases as bank transfer fraud and drug trafficking, investigators have often been unable to track down ringleaders even when suspects in marginal positions were arrested. If a ringleader were tracked down through plea bargaining, it would lead to a clearer, more complete picture of the crime.
 振り込め詐欺や覚醒剤売買などの事件では、末端の容疑者を逮捕しても、首謀者まで捜査がたどり着けないケースが多い。司法取引で首謀者を特定できれば、犯罪の全容解明につながる。

Plea bargaining should also prove effective in investigating financial crimes, including those involving organizations as a whole, such as bid-rigging and so-called window-dressing accounting. With plea bargaining, it would become easier for investigators to obtain statements from rank-and file employees who played a part in the crime, which would aid in the pursuit of criminal liability for corporate management.
 談合や粉飾決算など会社ぐるみの経済犯罪の捜査にも有効だ。犯罪に加担した従業員から供述を得やすくなり、経営陣の刑事責任の追及が円滑に進むだろう。

The issue of adopting plea bargaining systems has emerged amid discussions on possible legislation to implement video recording of the interrogation process to increase transparency.
 今回の導入論議は、取り調べの録音・録画(可視化)の法制化を検討する中で浮上してきた。

Dangers of recording

Video recordings have the merit of preventing investigators from forcing suspects to make disadvantageous statements or asking leading questions. Yet some experts have also cited possible ill effects, including the risk of suspects being overly conscious of the camera and declining to make a statement as a result.
 可視化には、捜査官による供述の誘導や強制を防ぐ利点がある一方で、容疑者がカメラを意識し、供述を渋る弊害も指摘される。

In the event that full video recording is implemented in the future, a plea bargaining system would encourage suspects to provide testimony, and is expected to prove effective in reducing losses in investigative capability to a certain extent.
 今後、可視化を本格的に実施する場合、司法取引で供述を引き出す仕組みを作っておけば、捜査力の低下をある程度食い止める効果が期待できよう。

Meanwhile, it is appropriate that discussions currently aim to prohibit the use of plea bargaining over crimes such as murder, and instead apply the system only to prosecutions involving drugs or firearms, fraud and corruption.
 司法取引の対象から殺人などを除外し、薬物・銃器犯罪や詐欺・汚職などに限定する方向で議論が進んでいるのは妥当と言える。

These discussions seek to address the deep-rooted antipathy among victims’ relatives toward permitting accomplices in murder cases to escape with lighter penalties through plea bargaining with investigating organizations.
殺人の共犯者が捜査機関との取引によって軽い刑になることに、被害者側の抵抗感が根強いためだ。

One matter of concern is the fear that suspects will make false statements shifting the blame onto others, in the hope of having their punishments lessened. We must not allow innocent people to be falsely charged.
 懸念されるのは、容疑者が自らの刑を軽くしてもらおうと、他人に罪を着せる虚偽の供述をする恐れがあることだ。冤罪えんざいを生んではならない。

As a countermeasure, a tentative proposal presented by the Justice Ministry requires prosecutors and police investigators to obtain an agreement with suspects’ defense counsel when offering a plea bargain.
 法務省が示した試案では、対策として、司法取引の際に容疑者の弁護士の同意を必要としている。

Regardig false statements, the proposal stipulates punitive provisions imposing imprisonment of up to five years. But are these measures alone sufficient?
虚偽供述に対しては、5年以下の懲役という罰則も設けているが、これらだけで十分だろうか。

Police investigators and prosecutors must perform full investigations to identify corroborative evidence for suspect statements. The court must also examine the credibility of such statements rigorously during the trial.
 警察・検察が供述の裏付け捜査を徹底する必要がある。裁判所も公判で供述の信用性を厳正にチェックすることが求められる。

In criminal cases involving organized crime groups, there could be instances in which gang members will refuse to cooperate in investigations for fear of retaliation. Investigative organizations need to bear in mind that the plea bargaining system is not all-powerful.
 暴力団が絡む事件では、組員らが報復を恐れ、捜査に協力しないケースも出るだろう。司法取引は万能でないことも、捜査機関は念頭に置くべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 26, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月25日 (水)

まったく新しいタイプの化粧品 プロモーション用マスコット人形デザイン募集中

近頃再生医療という言葉をよく耳にします。
どうやら再生医療技術が化粧品分野にも進出して来ているようですね。
お肌を若々しく保つため手段として、楽してそれを手に入れるとなれば、再生医療技術は十分現実的なタクティクスとなりえるような気がしました。

株式会社ジェーティックスという会社なんですが、次世代化粧品成分である「幹細胞培養液」成分配合化粧品を開発しています。
私は直感的なんですが、「幹細胞培養液」というのが再生医療技術と関連しているのではないかと思っています。

この先進の化粧品をデビューさせるために、プロモーション用マスコット人形(ドール)のデザインを公募しています。
入賞すると、賞品がユニークですね。
東京上空の遊覧飛行で写真を撮ったりできちゃいます。
夢のある企画の名前は次世代化粧品マスコット募集イベントなんです。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

都議会ヤジ問題 セクハラ謝罪で収拾できるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Will one apology resolve issue of sexist remarks at assembly?
都議会ヤジ問題 セクハラ謝罪で収拾できるか

Why didn’t the male assembly member come forward sooner to admit to the sexist remark he made toward a female colleague during a Tokyo Metropolitan assembly session?
 なぜ、もっと早く名乗り出て、謝罪できなかったのだろうか。

During a session last Wednesday, Ayaka Shiomura of Your Party was raising a question about the metropolitan government’s support measures for pregnancy and child-rearing.
 東京都議会で、みんなの党の塩村文夏都議が質問中に浴びせられたヤジの問題である。

She did so by taking into account the current situation in which women tend to marry and give birth later in life, while an increasing number of women are receiving fertility treatment.
 18日の本会議で、塩村氏は、晩婚・晩産の傾向が進み、不妊治療を受ける女性が増えている現状を踏まえ、都の子育て支援体制などについて質問した。

A male assembly member then yelled at her, “You should get married soon.” The remark was said to be followed by other similarly harassing remarks, although in different voices, such as “You should have a baby, yourself, first” and “Can’t you have a baby?”
 その際、議場から、男性の声で「早く結婚した方がいいんじゃないか」というヤジが飛んだ。別の声で「まずは自分が産めよ」「産めないのか」といった不規則発言も続いたという。

There was even laughter from those who had apparently been amused by the hecklers’ remarks.
 議場では、ヤジを面白がるような笑い声さえ上がった。

We are surprised by the disgraceful conduct of the hecklers and their followers at the assembly.
 ヤジの張本人や同調した議員の不見識には、あきれるばかりだ。

We wonder how such remarks sound to those women who would very much like to have a baby but are unable to do so, and to couples who are continuously undergoing fertility treatment.
子どもを産みたくても産めない女性や、不妊治療を続ける夫婦には、どう聞こえただろうか。

Heckling has been described as “flowers in the assembly,” meaning the right kind of remarks made at the right moments can strike to the heart of the debate, spurring and invigorating productive discussions.
 「ヤジは議会の華」とも言われ、核心を突いたヤジが議論を活性化させることもある。

However, it is a matter of course that sexist remarks impairing the dignity of an individual are unpardonable.
だが、個人の尊厳を傷つけるセクハラ発言が許されないのは、当然である。

Tardy confession

On Monday, Akihiro Suzuki, an assembly member of the Liberal Democratic Party, at last came forward to admit that he was the one who made the first heckling remark. On the same day, Suzuki met with Shiomura and made an apology with his head bowed, saying, “I sincerely apologize for causing anguish.”
 23日になって、自民党の鈴木章浩都議が、最初にヤジを飛ばしたことをようやく認めた。塩村氏に面会し、「ご心痛をおかけして誠に申し訳ない」と頭を下げた。

At a press conference earlier in the day, Suzuki said, “I didn’t mean to slander her...I had missed an opportunity to apologize earlier,” adding that “It can’t be helped that I’m being criticized for running away.”
 鈴木氏は記者会見で、「誹謗ひぼうするつもりはなかった。謝罪する機会を逸してしまった」と釈明し、「逃げていたと言われても仕方ない」と述べた。

Osamu Yoshiwara, secretary general of the LDP grouping in the metropolitan assembly, also apologized as the group’s representative, saying, “We will take the gravity of the matter seriously.”
 都議会自民党の吉原修幹事長も「事の重大性を深く受け止める」と、会派代表として謝罪した。

Suzuki had consistently denied his involvement in the heckling. As the issue swelled to serious proportions, he was probably driven into a corner with no way out but to admit to his actions.
 鈴木氏はこれまで、ヤジへの関与を一貫して否定していた。騒ぎが大きくなり、名乗り出ざるを得ない状況に追い込まれたということだろう。

Taking responsibility for his remark, Suzuki left the LDP grouping in the assembly, but he said he would remain as an assembly member.
 鈴木氏は、発言の責任を取り、会派を離脱したが、都議としての活動は続けるという。

Following Suzuki’s apology, Shiomura said, “I am somewhat relieved...I can bring the issue to a certain end.”
 塩村氏は、鈴木氏の謝罪について、「少しほっとした」「一つの区切りがついた」と語った。

Regarding the fact that there has so far been no one, besides Suzuki, who has come forward to admit to the remarks, she expressed her skepticism by saying, “I don’t think it’s right that the whole ordeal should come to an end with just one man admitting it.” Such remarks are deemed quite reasonable, as we take into account the nastiness of the latest heckling.
 一方で、鈴木氏以外の発言者が名乗り出ていないことに対しては、「一人だけで終わるというのは違うんじゃないか」と疑問を呈した。ヤジの内容のひどさを考えれば、もっともである。

To resolve the entire issue, it is necessary for other assembly members who made the harassing remarks to take responsibility. They cannot remain hidden any longer.
 問題を収束させるには、ヤジを飛ばした他の都議も自らの発言にけじめをつける必要がある。これ以上、頬かぶりは許されまい。

The metropolitan assembly has been flooded with protests. Each assembly member group must make utmost efforts to prevent such controversy from recurring by becoming fully aware that the dignity of the assembly is being tested.
 都議会には抗議が殺到している。議会の品位が問われていることを自覚し、各会派は再発防止に努めなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 24, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

首相沖縄訪問 米軍基地負担を着実に減らせ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Government must work to reduce Okinawa U.S. base-hosting burdens
首相沖縄訪問 米軍基地負担を着実に減らせ

The government must make utmost efforts to steadily ease the burden that hosting U.S. military bases places on Okinawa Prefecture.
 沖縄の米軍基地負担を着実に軽減するため、政府は全力で取り組まなければならない。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe attended a memorial service on Monday for those killed in the war commemorating the 69 years since the end of the Battle of Okinawa, which raged just before the Pacific War came to an end in 1945.
 太平洋戦争末期の沖縄戦の終結に合わせた「慰霊の日」の23日、安倍首相は、沖縄全戦没者追悼式に出席した。

In a speech at the ceremony, Abe said: “We will give consideration to the feelings of the people of Okinawa and will do our best to reduce their burden for hosting the bases, while assuming a stance of carrying out what we can do as much as possible.”
 あいさつで、沖縄県内の基地負担軽減について「沖縄の方々の気持ちに寄り添いながら、『できることは全て行う』との姿勢で全力を尽くす」と強調した。

Okinawa Gov. Hirokazu Nakaima last December approved a reclamation project necessary to transfer the functions of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station in Ginowan to the Henoko coastal district in Nago. Nakaima had previously called for “relocation to a place outside Okinawa” in a peace declaration at the ceremony for three consecutive years, 2011-13. This year, however, he changed his wording to shift away from insistence on a plan for relocation outside of Okinawa.
 仲井真弘多知事は昨年末、米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設に伴う埋め立てを承認した。式典の平和宣言では、3年連続で「県外移設」を訴えてきたが、今年は県外に固執しない表現に変えた。

His difficult about-face on the matter came as strong calls persist among prefectural residents for relocation outside of Okinawa. To show good faith in supporting Nakaima after his wrenching decision, the government must implement various measures to reduce the prefecture’s burden in hosting U.S. military bases.
 沖縄県では依然、県外移設を求める声が根強い中、苦渋の判断をした仲井真知事を支えるためにも政府は、様々な基地負担軽減策をきちんと実行する必要がある。

The Futenma issue is expected to be a major topic of contention in November’s gubernatorial election, as Nakaima’s term in office ends. Nakaima remains uncommitted on whether he will run for a third term. At the same time, the conservative mayor of Naha, an opponent of the Henoko relocation plan, has been seeking to run in the election.
 仲井真知事の任期満了に伴う11月の知事選では、普天間問題が大きな争点となろう。辺野古移設に反対する保守系市長が出馬の構えを見せる一方、知事は3選出馬に関して態度を保留している。

To minimize the impact of the gubernatorial election results on the relocation plan, it is imperative to take every possible measure.
 知事選結果が辺野古移設に与える影響を最小限にするため、可能な手を打つことが重要である。

Advance return of Futenma

The central government reportedly plans to begin boring as part of soil investigations at the planned reclamation site in July and to advance construction work on replacement facilities ahead of schedule as much as possible. It is imperative that the planned return of Futenma Air Station and associated land to Japan, targeted for fiscal 2022 and onward, be advanced as much as possible by speeding design and construction.
 政府は、埋め立て予定地のボーリング調査を7月にも開始し、代替施設の工事をできる限り前倒しする方針という。設計・工事期間の短縮を図り、「2022年度以降」とされる普天間飛行場の返還を早めるべきだ。

Tokyo and Washington agreed last week to restrict entry into the area scheduled for land reclamation and the surrounding waters at all times.
 日米両政府は先週、埋め立て予定地を含む周辺水域を常時立ち入り禁止とすることで合意した。

This may be an inevitable step to preclude obstruction by opponents and avoid unexpected confusion. To help promote the work, not only the Defense Ministry but also the National Police Agency, as well as the Japan Coast Guard and other relevant organizations, must join hands in taking all possible measures.
 反対派による妨害を排除し、不測の事態を避けるにはやむを得ない。作業を円滑に進めるため、防衛省だけでなく、警察、海上保安庁など関係機関が連携し、万全の体制をとることが求められる。

The government is also looking into the possibility of drastically pushing forward the return of Camp Kinser in Makiminato, which has been targeted for return to Japan in 2024-25 or later.
 政府は、「24~25年度以降」とされる牧港補給地区の返還の大幅繰り上げも検討している。

Japan and the United States have also been negotiating to conclude a new agreement under which environmental surveys for U.S. bases to be returned to Japan would be conducted in advance. This could amount to a de facto revision of the Japan-U.S. Status of Forces Agreement. If such a change were to be realized, it would have a great significance.
 返還予定の米軍基地内の環境調査を事前に行えるようにする新たな協定の締結に向けた日米交渉も行っている。事実上の日米地位協定の改定に当たるもので、実現すれば、その意義は大きい。

As for training involving the U.S. military’s MV-22 Osprey transport aircraft deployed at the Futenma base, efforts must be made to move more training to areas outside of Okinawa Prefecture. It is essential that the prefecture’s heavy burden be shared broadly across the whole of Japan.
 普天間飛行場に配備されている米軍輸送機MV22オスプレイの訓練についても、県外への分散移転をさらに拡大したい。沖縄の過重な負担を日本全体で引き受けることが大切である。

Moving forward with the realignment of U.S. bases in Okinawa, while maintaining deterrence capabilities of U.S. troops, and completing this work in conjunction with regional development, will be an important part of reinforcing trust between the Abe administration and the local governments and residents of Okinawa.
 在沖縄米軍の抑止力を維持しつつ、地域振興とも連動した基地再編を進めることが、安倍政権と地元の信頼関係を強化しよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 24, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月24日 (火)

通常国会閉幕 与野党協調を一層進化させよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Ruling, opposition parties must continue productive cooperation
通常国会閉幕 与野党協調を一層進化させよ

The 150-day ordinary Diet session came to a close on Sunday. Many bills were enacted thanks to cooperation between the ruling and opposition parties. Continual efforts must be made to further revitalize Diet activities, placing high importance on this trend of cooperation.
 通常国会が閉幕した。与野党の協力で成立にこぎつけた法律も少なくない。この流れを大切にしながら、国会を活性化する必要がある。

Of 81 bills newly presented by the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to the just adjourned legislature, 79 were enacted, including one for the promotion of comprehensive arrangements for medical and nursing care services. That represents an amazingly high passage rate of 97 percent.
 安倍内閣が今国会に提出した新規の81法案のうち、医療・介護総合推進法など79本が成立した。成立率は97%と極めて高い。

The ordinary Diet session, which was the first after the divided Diet was resolved in the House of Councillors election in July last year, can safely be said to have achieved a degree of success.
 昨年7月に衆参のねじれが解消されてから初の通常国会は、一定の成果を上げたと言える。

One factor behind the smooth proceedings of the Diet deliberations may be the fact that the Abe Cabinet has remained stable, with none of its ministers replaced since the inauguration of the second Abe administration in December 2012.
 一昨年12月の第2次安倍内閣の発足以来、閣僚が一人も交代せず、内閣が安定していることも、国会が円滑に進んだ一因だろう。

During the closing phase of the session, a remark made by Environment Minister Nobuteru Ishihara regarding the issue of finding intermediate places for storing radioactive soil and other materials from the Fukushima nuclear crisis—saying the problem could eventually “end up [being resolved] with cash handouts”—cannot help but be called inappropriate. It is only natural that Ishihara has apologized for the gaffe and retracted his words.
 国会終盤に石原環境相が、原発事故に伴う汚染土などの中間貯蔵施設の建設を巡り、「最後は金目でしょ」と発言したのは不適切だった。石原氏が謝罪し、発言を撤回したのは当然だ。

The opposition parties submitted to both chambers a nonconfidence motion and censure resolution against Ishihara, but both were voted down. All Cabinet members must bear in mind the need to address their duties properly, and not become complacent due to the ruling camp’s comfortable majority in the Diet.
 野党は、衆参両院に石原氏の不信任決議案などを提出したが、否決された。閣僚は、国会での与党多数に慢心せず、緊張感を持って職務に努めねばならない。

Regarding bills sponsored by members of the Diet, the latest session saw a further remarkable step forward in terms of cooperation between the ruling and opposition blocs.
 議員立法では、与野党の協調が一段と進化した。

The revision of the national referendum law for clarifying procedures on revising the Constitution was favored by more than 90 percent of the House of Representatives and upper house lawmakers as seven ruling and opposition parties came together to form a suprapartisan agreement.
 憲法改正の手続きを明確にする改正国民投票法は、与野党7党が歩み寄って超党派の合意を形成して、衆参両院の9割を超える議員が賛成した。

Accord on key policies

On the issue of creating a Diet organ in charge of supervising the enforcement of the special state secrecy law, the ruling coalition parties consulted with such opposition parties as Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) and Your Party. Regarding the ruling coalition-presented bill for revising the Diet Law, an agreement was obtained from Your Party in the final stage of the Diet session, and it became law on Friday.
 特定秘密保護法の運用を監視する国会の監視機関についても、与党は日本維新の会、みんなの党などと協議した。最終的に、与党提出の国会法改正案は、みんなの党も賛成し、成立した。

It is praiseworthy that the ruling parties, instead of trying to dominate Diet proceedings on the strength of their numerical superiority, were fairly successful in building cooperative relations with the opposition camp. The Abe administration should continue to keep in mind the importance of running the Diet conscientiously.
 与党が「数の力」で押し切るのでなく、野党と協力関係を構築したことは評価できる。安倍政権は、引き続き丁寧な国会運営を心掛けることが大切である。

The configuration of strength in the Diet characterized as “one strong party versus the others, which are all weak,” with the Liberal Democratic Party as the strongest force, will remain unchanged. The Democratic Party of Japan has failed to exert its presence, as the leadership of its head, Banri Kaieda, has been waning to the extent that some party members are calling for a party representative election to be held earlier than scheduled.
 国会では、自民党の勢力が突出した「1強多弱」の状況が続く。民主党は海江田代表の求心力が低下し、代表選の前倒し論が出るなど、存在感を示せなかった。

Ishin no Kai will split due to the conflicting views of its coleaders, Shintaro Ishihara and Toru Hashimoto, over nuclear energy policy, in addition to a schism concerning how to forge ahead with the realignment of opposition parties. Hashimoto and his allies are set to finalize arrangements to merge with Yui no To as soon as possible.
 維新の会は、石原、橋下両共同代表が、原発政策を巡る対立に加え、野党再編に関する意見の違いを埋められず、分裂することになった。橋下氏側と結いの党は、合流への調整を急いでいる。

We can understand the goal of rallying opposition parties to create a force capable of opposing the LDP, but the parties involved should first agree on key policies. The opposition parties should also take to heart the importance of being a “responsible opposition party” ready to extend cooperation to the government depending on the content of specific policies.
 自民党に対抗する勢力の結集を目指す狙いは理解できるが、政策の一致を前提とすべきだ。政策ごとに政権と協力する「責任野党」の立場も忘れてはならない。

The Abe administration is poised to encourage discussions on reviewing the government’s constitutional interpretation regarding the nation’s right to collective self-defense. It is indispensable for the ruling coalition parties to redouble their efforts to garner cooperation from such parties as Ishin no Kai and Your Party, which have taken stands favorable to reinterpreting the Constitution on the matter.
 安倍政権は今後、集団的自衛権の憲法解釈の見直しに関する議論を活発化させる考えだ。与党は、解釈変更に前向きな維新の会やみんなの党などの協力を得るよう、努めることが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 23, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

被災地の防潮堤 地域に応じた見直しが必要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Seawall plans should be amended to suit the needs of local people
被災地の防潮堤 地域に応じた見直しが必要だ

Plans to build huge seawalls along the coastal areas hit hardest by the Great East Japan Earthquake have been met with staunch opposition from local residents one after another. We urge the Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectural governments to calmly reexamine their seawall plans and alter them as necessary.
 東日本大震災の被災地で、巨大な防潮堤の建設計画に住民から異論が相次いでいる。計画を冷静に再点検し、必要に応じて見直すべきだ。

In the 2011 earthquake, 60 percent of seawalls with a total length of about 300 kilometers in the three prefectures were either seriously damaged or destroyed. The central and three prefectural governments are currently pushing a project to build 390 kilometers of new seawalls with ¥800 billion from state coffers.
 大震災では、岩手、宮城、福島の3県で、計約300キロあった防潮堤の6割が全半壊した。政府と3県は8000億円の国費を投じ、新たに計390キロに及ぶ整備を進めている。

To prepare for tsunami, adequately sized seawalls must be constructed. The problem is that many communities are opposed to the project as local residents consider the proposed walls “too high.”
“[The seawalls] will leave less land available along the coasts, adversely affecting fisheries” and “They will block ocean views” are two of the opinions expressed by local residents.
 津波に備え、適切な規模の防潮堤は必要だ。問題は、住民が「防潮堤が高すぎる」として、計画に反対する地域が少なくないことだ。「海沿いの土地が減り、漁業に支障が出る」「海が見えなくなる」といった声が出ている。

Miyagi Prefecture has yet to win approval for the project from 40 of 276 communities where the construction of new seawalls is planned.
 宮城県では県が建設を計画する276か所のうち、約40か所で合意を得られていない。

Compared to the Great Hanshin Earthquake, which struck mainly urban areas, the disaster-hit regions in the three Tohoku prefectures are mostly depopulated. If the fishery and tourism industries on which local residents depend decline, their livelihood would be severely affected.
 主に都市部が被災した阪神大震災と異なり、東北3県の被災地には過疎地が多い。頼みの綱の漁業や観光が振るわなくなれば、住民の生活への影響は大きい。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s wife, Akie, is among those who have questioned the advisability of building such high seawalls, saying, “I’m not sure that reconstruction should be carried out in such a way that it will block ocean views.” We completely understand their concerns.
 安倍首相の昭恵夫人らが「海が見えない復興でいいのだろうか」と、防潮堤の高さに疑問を投げかけたのは理解できる。

Study cost-effectiveness

The higher the seawall is the more effective it will be as a safeguard against tsunami. But on the other hand, higher seawalls are more expensive to construct, ruin scenic views and take a toll on the environment. Such seawalls also entail higher maintenance costs. Moreover, the life of concrete seawalls is roughly 50 years, which makes rebuilding them inevitable at some point in the future.
 防潮堤は、高いほど津波の防御効果は大きいが、一方で、建設費がかさみ、周辺の景観や環境は損なわれる。維持するための補修費もかかる。コンクリート製の堤防は耐用年数が50年程度とされ、将来的に改築は避けられない。

Also from the viewpoint of cost-effectiveness, the project should be carefully studied.
 費用対効果の観点からも慎重な検討が必要である。

Each of the three prefectures has decided on the height of the seawalls based on guidelines compiled by an examination committee of experts at the Central Disaster Management Council. The standard of seawalls in the guidelines is to protect the lives and property of local residents in the event of a huge tsunami, which can occur once in a few decades or more than a century.
 防潮堤の高さは、中央防災会議の専門調査会が示した指針に基づき、各県が決めた。数十年から百数十年に1度の頻度で起きる大津波から、住民の生命と財産を守ることが基準となっている。

Under its plan, Miyagi Prefecture will raise the height of its seawalls from the pre-disaster average of four meters to 7.5 meters. That height, however, will be insufficient to block gigantic tsunami equivalent to those in the Great East Japan Earthquake, which are said to occur once in a millennium.
 宮城県の場合、震災前に平均4メートルだった高さを、7・5メートルにまで引き上げる計画となった。
 それでも、1000年に1度と言われる東日本大震災級の巨大津波は防げない。

Instead, the purpose of building seawalls should be to reduce the force of tsunami, thereby securing more time for residents to flee the area. It is important to ensure the construction of seawalls is a part of comprehensive measures to minimize damage from a disaster that also include the establishment of evacuation centers and routes.
 防潮堤は、津波の勢いを抑え、住民が逃げる時間をより長く確保することを目的とすべきだろう。避難場所や経路の整備などと併せ、総合的な減災対策の一環として建設することが重要だ。

Some communities have lowered the planned height of seawalls, while taking such measures as transferring houses to higher ground and building seawalls in locations further inland.
 住宅の高台移転や防潮堤の内陸移転などを組み合わせ、防潮堤を計画より低くした地区もある。

If the prefectural governments insist on keeping the planned heights and invite a backlash from local residents as a result, it will further delay work to implement disaster management measures and scuttle efforts to rebuild communities, and placing roadblocks in the path of reconstructing people’s lives.
 県側が「高さは変えられない」と主張して住民の反発を招けば、かえって防災対策は遅れる。町づくりも進まず、住民の生活再建に支障を来す。

Bearing this in mind, the prefectural governments must listen to what local residents have to say.
 そのことを念頭に、行政は住民の声に耳を傾けてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 23, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月23日 (月)

今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

99%の起業家・経営者が間違えているFacebookのほんとうの使い方「集まる集客ファンメイク講座」無料レポート配布キャンペーン開始! 株式会社アクティブノート

| | コメント (0)

児童ポルノ 所持の禁止を一掃の契機に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Revised child porn law should help eradicate such photos, videos
児童ポルノ 所持の禁止を一掃の契機に

A revision of the law banning child prostitution and child pornography was enacted on Wednesday and will probably be put into force by the end of July. We hope this will be an opportunity to eradicate child pornography, which preys on children.
 改正児童買春・児童ポルノ禁止法が成立した。7月中に施行される見通しだ。子どもを食いものにする児童ポルノを一掃する契機にしたい。

Child pornography means obscene photos and videos of children aged below 18.
 児童ポルノは、18歳未満の子どもを被写体にした、わいせつな写真や映像のことだ。

The revised law has newly incorporated a provision prohibiting personal possession of and taking possession of child porn. Anyone found guilty of being in possession of child porn for the purpose of satisfying one’s sexual urges could face up to a year in prison or a maximum fine of ¥1 million.
 改正法には、児童ポルノを個人的に所持・保管する「単純所持」の禁止規定が新たに設けられた。自らの性的好奇心を満たす目的で所持・保管した者に対しては、1年以下の懲役、または100万円以下の罰金を科す。

At present, regulations prohibit only such activities as production, transfer and selling of child porn images. Introduction of punitive measures against personal ownership of child pornography was left unaddressed for a considerable time on the grounds that they could impinge on the privacy of owners of pornography and there were fears investigators could abuse their authority.
 これまでの規制対象は、製造、譲渡、販売などの供給行為に限られていた。単純所持に対する罰則については、所持者のプライバシーの侵害や捜査権の乱用につながる恐れがあるとして、導入が見送られてきた。

However, there is no room for doubt that purchasing and collecting child porn photos or videos are a serious infringement on the human rights of children who are the targets of the camera. Banning the possession of child porn is vitally important.
 しかし、児童ポルノを購入、収集する行為が、被写体となっている子どもの人権を著しく侵害しているのは明らかだ。単純所持を禁じるのは当然である。

To ensure that innocent people who receive child porn images via e-mail do not become subjects of police investigations, a proviso has been added to the revised law that punitive measures should only be applied to the “possession [of child porn] based on the voluntary intention” of a person involved. This is adequate from the standpoint of preventing arbitrary investigations by authorities.
 一方的にメールで送りつけられた場合などは摘発の対象外とするため、「自己の意思に基づく所持」という要件も設けた。恣意しい的な捜査を排除する観点から、適切な措置と言えよう。

Offenses at all-time high

It is worth noting that Japan has been the only member of the Group of Seven industrialized nations that has not prohibited possession of child pornography. In joining other industrially advanced nations in banning such porn, it is important for Japan to beef up international cooperation to root out child pornography.
 先進7か国(G7)で単純所持を禁じていないのは、日本だけだった。今回、各国と足並みがそろったのを機に、児童ポルノの根絶に向け、国際協力を強めていくことが重要だ。

In defining child pornography, the revised law has added words to the effect that the term signifies “photos and videos that inordinately expose or focus on children’s sexual parts.” Some people, however, have criticized the wording as ambiguous.
 改正法は、児童ポルノの定義について、「ことさらに性的な部位が露出され、または強調されているもの」との文言を追加したが、なお曖昧だとの指摘がある。

There should be a clear-cut distinction between punishable possession of child porn and such instances as parents taking photos of their children without clothes for the purpose of recording their growth.
 我が子の裸を写した成長記録などとの明確な線引きが必要だ。

The number of child porn cases being reported by police is on the rise, mainly due to the spread of Internet use. Police uncovered 1,644 cases in 2013 throughout the country, an all-time high, according to the National Police Agency. The figure is nearly 10 times higher than a decade ago. There were 646 victims of reported child porn offenses last year, the agency said.
 児童ポルノの国内の摘発件数は、インターネットの普及に伴い、増加する一方だ。警察庁によると、昨年1年間に摘発された事件は過去最多の1644件に上った。2004年の10倍近い。被害に遭った子どもは646人を数える。

Some cases involved children who were injured when they were raped or molested during the process of producing porn. Sexual abuse damages children both mentally and physically and seriously affects the formation of their personality. Should the images be posted online, the victims’ agony and humiliation could continue indefinitely.
 ポルノの製造過程で、強姦ごうかんや強制わいせつの被害を受けた例もある。性的虐待は、子どもの心身にダメージを与え、その後の人格形成に悪影響を及ぼす。画像がネット上に流出すれば、被害者の苦しみや屈辱はいつまでも続く。

In reference to deleting child porn from the Internet and preventing its spread on that medium, the revised law includes a nonbinding provision calling for Internet service providers to do their utmost in this regard. The law also calls for improving measures to protect children subject to harmful influences mentally or physically after being victimized in child porn offenses. Active efforts by the government and related organizations in this connection are indispensable.
 改正法には、児童ポルノの削除・拡散防止について、ネット事業者の努力規定が盛り込まれた。心身に有害な影響を受けた被害児童を保護する施策の充実も求めている。政府や関係機関の積極的な取り組みが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 22, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

富岡製糸場 世界に誇る近代日本の原点

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Tomioka Silk Mill: A starting point of modern Japan we can be proud of
富岡製糸場 世界に誇る近代日本の原点

We applaud the fact that the value of facilities that came to be the starting point of Japan’s modernization has been acknowledged internationally.
 日本の近代化の原点となった施設の価値が、世界的に認められたことを喜びたい。

UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee decided Saturday to add Tomioka Silk Mill and related industrial heritage sites in Gunma Prefecture to its list of cultural heritage sites, following last year’s registration of Mt. Fuji and bringing the number of Japan’s World Cultural Heritage sites to 14.
 群馬県の「富岡製糸場と絹産業遺産群」が、国連教育・科学・文化機関(ユネスコ)の世界文化遺産に登録されることが決まった。国内の世界文化遺産は、昨年登録された「富士山」に次いで14件目となる。

It is the first time the committee has designated industrial remnants built in the Meiji era (1868-1912) and thereafter as a heritage site. It is essential for Japan to preserve with utmost care the facilities as valuable assets that track the process of Japan’s industrial development.
 明治以降の産業の遺構が世界遺産になったのは、初めてである。日本の工業発展の歩みを伝える貴重な資産として、大切に保存していくことが必要だ。

Tomioka Silk Mill was established in 1872 as a model publicly run factory. It was then one of the largest silk mills in the world, which integrated Japan’s own technology to produce high-quality raw silk with French machinery technology.
 富岡製糸場は、1872年に官営模範工場として設立された。
 日本が独自に編み出した良質の生糸の生産技術と、フランスの機械技術を結合させた世界最大規模の製糸工場だった。

The mill, which was later sold to the private sector, would pave the way for the mass production of the finest raw silk. Japan’s raw silk production grew to 80 percent of the global market in the 1930s.
 後に民間に払い下げられたが、富岡の技術は、高品質な生糸の大量生産への道を開いた。1930年代、日本の生糸は世界市場の80%を占めるに至った。

The fact that the Tomioka mill played a major role in the history of industry and civilization exchanges was apparently behind the World Heritage designation.
 世界の産業史や文明交流史の上でも、富岡製糸場が大きな役割を果たした点が、世界遺産に値すると評価されたのだろう。

Operator deserves credit

We should be proud that the structure built in the early Meiji era has been preserved almost perfectly. The reeling facility where female factory workers demonstrated brilliant dexterity as well as the redbrick warehouse where cocoons were stored under temperature control showcase the footprints from our predecessors to us in present-day Japan.
 明治初期の建物が、完璧に近い状態で保存されていることも、誇るべき特徴だ。女子工員たちが鮮やかな手さばきを見せた繰糸場や、温度に配慮しながら繭を保存した赤れんが倉庫が、先人たちの足跡を今日に伝えている。

The business operator, which continued raw silk production through 1987, should be credited for keeping employees at the mill and spending ¥100 million annually to maintain the factory for nearly 20 years after its closure. We should never forget the operator’s self-sacrifices that led to the registration of the mill.
 1987年まで操業を続けた事業主が、工場閉鎖後も20年近く社員を配置し、年間1億円をかけて維持管理を続けた功績が大きい。世界遺産登録の陰には、こうした献身的な努力があったことも、忘れてはならない。

In addition to the mill, three remnants closely related to the silk industry, including the former house of sericultural farmer Yahei Tajima and Arafune wind cave, where silkworm eggs were kept, were incorporated into the heritage site.
 富岡製糸場に加え、養蚕農家の田島弥平旧宅、蚕種を貯蔵した荒船風穴など、製糸場と密接な関係にあった三つの絹産業遺産も世界遺産となった。

An initial plan was aimed at registering 10 assets, including the Usui Pass Railway, but they were later narrowed down to those directly related to technological innovation in the silk industry—a strategy that proved to be effective. This should be used as a good example when studying strategies for obtaining World Heritage registration for other sites.
 当初は、碓氷峠鉄道施設など10件の資産の登録を目指す計画だったが、製糸業の技術革新に直接関わった資産だけに絞り込んだことが功を奏した。今後の世界遺産登録に向けた戦略を考える上でも参考となるだろう。

With this World Heritage registration, the central and related local governments are now obliged to cooperate in maintaining the facilities. And the facilities must prepare themselves to ensure that visitors can fully enjoy their splendor, but they should keep in mind that disorderly tourism development could impair the value of the World Heritage site.
 世界遺産登録により、政府や自治体は協力して維持管理していく義務を負うことになる。来場者が施設の素晴らしさを満喫できる受け入れ態勢の整備は必要だが、無秩序な観光開発は、世界遺産の価値を損ないかねない。

The emphasis should be placed on informing many people of the facilities’ historical significance, not on simply promoting them as tourist destinations.
 単なる行楽地として振興を図るのではなく、歴史の重みを多くの人に知ってもらうことに力を入れるべきだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 22, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月22日 (日)

DVD作成愛好家には福音となります 脅威の高速エンコーディング

家族のビデオアルバムを作るのが老後の楽しみとなっています。
Blu-rayはまだやったことがありませんが、通常のCDやDVD作成はよくやります。
CDにしろDVDにしろ、ビデオ作成過程で避けられないのがエンコードという作業なんです。
信じられないくらい時間がかかる作業なんですね。
CDあたりだと、1時間くらいで焼付作業まで完成しますが、DVDになると、もういけません。
エンコードするのに何時間もかかるので、寝る前にセットして、朝、出来たかどうか確認するという方式にしています。
そんなわずらわしい作業から開放してくれる脅威のソフトウェアを発見しました。
脅威の高速エンコーディングのDVDFab4 BD&DVD コピープレミアムなんです。
このソフト1本で、ディスクコピー、ディスク作成、動画ファイル変換まで完璧にさくさくとこなせませす。
特に威力を発揮するのがDVD作成時なんです。
もうこのソフトウェアは離せません。
Jungle ストア で購入できます。







ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ レビューブログからの情報です

| | コメント (0)

諫早湾開門問題 政治主導で解決の道を探れ

最後は金目^^
このプロジェクトは結果的に失敗だったのではないでしょうか。
自然の摂理に逆らうとこうなります。
中途半端なリクラメーションではなかったのでしょうか。
ダム建設も見直しされていますね。
漁民たちは不労所得に喜んでいるのでは。
我々の税金ですからね。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Political leadership needed to solve complicated Isahaya Bay dike issue
諫早湾開門問題 政治主導で解決の道を探れ

An extraordinary situation has developed in connection with the land reclamation project in Isahaya Bay in Nagasaki Prefecture, as the government must pay penalties because it has refused to follow a court decision.
 長崎県の諫早湾干拓を巡り、国が確定判決に従わず、制裁金を支払わねばならないという異常な事態となった。

Early settlement through the judiciary is difficult because the situation has become more complicated. A solution must be sought through political leadership.
 混迷に拍車がかかり、司法による早期決着は難しい情勢だ。政治主導で解決の道を探るべきである。

Fishermen in Saga Prefecture and elsewhere have been calling for the opening of floodgates at a dike in Isahaya Bay, arguing that their fishing has been harmed. Farmers on land reclaimed by the installation of the floodgates oppose opening them, on the grounds that it will cause salt damage to their crops.
 佐賀県などの漁業者が干拓事業で漁業被害を受けたとして堤防排水門の開門を求める一方、干拓地の営農者らは農作物の塩害などを理由に開門に反対している。

The Fukuoka High Court ordered the government in 2010 to open the gates to examine the effect on fishing for five years, but the government did not open the gates even after the ruling was finalized. The Saga District Court ordered the government in April to pay fines of ¥490,000 a day—¥10,000 each to 49 fishermen—until it opens the gates. The grace period for payment ended on June 11, obligating the government to pay the penalties from the next day on.
 福岡高裁は2010年、漁業などへの影響を見極めるため、国に5年間の開門調査を命じた。判決確定後も開門は実現せず、佐賀地裁は開門まで漁業者らに1日49万円を払うよう国に命じ、12日から支払い義務が生じた。

In a completely opposite development, the Nagasaki District Court has ordered the government to pay the same amount of penalties to farmers if it opens the gates.
 ところが長崎地裁は、開門した場合は、営農者に同額の制裁金を支払うよう命じた。

Given the two contrary court decisions, the government has been forced to pay penalties whether it decides to open the gates or not.
 相反する二つの司法判断が示され、国は開門してもしなくても、制裁金を支払わなければならない立場に追い込まれた。

There is no alternative but to establish a forum apart from court trials, in which those concerned can discuss resolution measures with cool heads, thereby dispelling the deep-rooted antagonism between fishermen and farmers.
 国はそれぞれの決定について、上級審に抗告したが、いつ結論が出るのか見通せない。
 裁判とは別に、関係者が冷静に話し合う場を設け、漁業者と営農者の根深い対立を解きほぐしていくしかないだろう。

Forum for reconciliation

The government has called on the parties concerned and local governments to hold talks, but the Nagasaki prefectural government and farmers have both been particularly stubborn in rejecting the request.
 これまで国も、当事者や自治体に話し合いを呼びかけてきたが、特に長崎県と営農者は、かたくなに拒んでいる。

In response to the Fukuoka High Court’s 2010 ruling that ordered the government to open the gates, then Prime Minister Naoto Kan decided not to file an appeal with the Supreme Court without consulting the Nagasaki prefectural government. The prefectural government has every reason to strongly distrust the government, given the fact that its long years of cooperation with the Isahaya Bay reclamation project, which was promoted by the government, were not rewarded.
 開門を命じた福岡高裁判決に対し、当時の菅首相は長崎県に相談もなく上告を断念した。国策の干拓事業に対する長年の協力を裏切られた長崎県が、国に根強い不信感を抱くのも無理はない。

But to perform its role as an administrative office—namely, coordinating various conflicting interests among the prefectural residents—the prefectual government must sit at the negotiating table.
 しかし、県民のために様々な利害を調整するという、行政本来の役割を果たすためには、話し合いの席につくべきだ。

The central government, for its part, needs to make greater efforts to create an environment to alleviate confrontation and facilitate constructive talks.
 国は対立を和らげ、建設的に話し合える環境作りに、もっと努力する必要がある。

It is essential to present concrete proposals on such subjects as how the gates can be opened without having a huge impact on farming on the reclaimed land, and how compensation will be made if damage is caused.
 干拓地の営農に大きな悪影響を及ぼさないような開門調査の方法や、被害が生じた場合の補償のあり方などについて、具体的に提案することが重要だ。

The fact that the government gave priority to continuing the project, and did not pay due heed to the environmental impact of the land reclamation, has created the complicated situation we see today.
 そもそも国が事業の継続を優先し、干拓が漁業に及ぼす影響について、十分な配慮をしてこなかったことが、事態をこれほどこじれさせた原因と言える。

Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Minister Yoshimasa Hayashi has repeatedly said that his ministry “will make efforts to find an opening for talks.” It is essential for him to act on his words. As the minister in charge, he must exercise his political muscle.
 林農相は、「話し合いの糸口をつかむ努力をする」と繰り返し述べている。その言葉通り、積極的に調整に動くことが大切だ。担当閣僚として、政治力を発揮してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 21, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

河野談話検証 外交的配慮が事実に優先した

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Diplomatic consideration outweighed historical facts in Kono statement
河野談話検証 外交的配慮が事実に優先した

Once again a flaw in the 1993 statement issued by then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono on so-called comfort women has come to the fore.
 いわゆる従軍慰安婦に関する河野官房長官談話の綻びが、改めて浮き彫りになった。

A team of experts set up by the government has compiled a report examining the process of drafting the Kono statement, which was issued in August 1993 and expressed apologies and remorse to former comfort women.
 有識者による政府の検討会が、元慰安婦への「おわびと反省」を表明した1993年8月の河野談話の作成過程を検証した報告書をまとめた。

South Korea demanded changes in certain expressions in the initial draft, saying The documents must be evaluated favorably by the South Korean people. The report shed light on the close coordination about the statement’s wording between the Japanese and South Korean governments.
 韓国側が「韓国国民から評価を受け得るものでなければならない」と談話の修正を求めるなど、日韓両政府が緊密に表現を調整した実態が明らかになった。

Regarding whether coerciveness was involved in the recruitment of comfort women, a focal point of this issue, the 1993 statement said, “They were recruited generally against their own will, through coaxing, coercion, etc.”
 焦点の慰安婦募集の強制性について、談話は「甘言、強圧による等、総じて本人たちの意思に反して行われた」としている。

In explaining why the statement used such expressions, the report clearly said, “...the question of how ‘coerciveness’ of the recruitment of the comfort women would be expressed and worded in the statement constituted the main issue of contention in the communication” with the South Korean side and “Coordination took place until the last moment.”
 こうした表現になった経緯に関し、報告書は「どのような表現・文言で織り込むかが韓国側とのやりとりの核心」で、「最後まで調整が実施された」と明記した。

As for the Japanese military’s involvement in the establishment of comfort stations, the South Korean side insisted on using the expression “instruction,” which was rejected by Japan, the report said. Both sides eventually settled on the word “request” instead.
 慰安所の設置に関する日本軍の関与については、日本軍の「指示」との表現を盛り込むよう韓国側が求めたが、日本側は拒否し、「要請」との表現に落ち着いた。

At the request of the South Korean government, the Japanese government interviewed 16 former comfort women, but the statement was drafted within the Japanese government before all the interviews were concluded.
 韓国側の求めで、日本政府は元慰安婦16人の聞き取り調査を行ったが、調査終了前に政府内で原案が作成されていたという。

Problem-plagued statement

It is clear that the government gave priority to making political compromises and paying diplomatic consideration over historical facts. It is a problem-plagued statement made jointly by Japan and South Korea.
 事実関係よりも政治的妥協と外交的配慮を優先したのは明らかだ。極めて問題の多い“日韓合作”の談話と言えよう。

Until this time, the Japanese government had avoided in-depth discussions to ascertain the facts regarding the issue of comfort women and the Kono statement.
 日本政府は従来、慰安婦問題や河野談話の事実関係について、突っ込んだ議論を避けてきた。

Examining in detail the process of drafting the statement and releasing the results are meaningful in resolving misunderstanding in the international community about the issue of comfort women.
 今回、談話の作成過程を詳しく検証し、公表したことは、慰安婦問題をめぐる国際社会の誤解を解くうえで一定の意味がある。

According to the report, the statement did not say the authorities were “forcefully taking away” women, as the Japanese government was not able to confirm it based on its investigations.
 日本側は、調査では官憲による強制連行は確認できなかったとして、談話には「強制連行」という言葉は使わなかった。

But at a press conference during which the statement was released, Kono responded to a question about whether women were forcefully taken away by saying, “We accept that to be the case.” Kono committed a serious transgression by further spreading wrong conceptions about the issue.
 だが、河野氏は談話発表時の記者会見で、強制連行の有無についての質問に、「そういう事実があった」と答えた。誤った認識をさらに広げた河野氏の罪は重い。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has made it clear that the government will not review the statement, a decision he probably made from the broader political perspective of seeking an improvement in relations between Japan and South Korea. Seoul, however, refuted Japan’s verification of the statement, saying the move could “impair the credibility of the statement.”
 安倍首相は、河野談話を見直さない方針を明言している。日韓関係の改善を模索するための大局的な政治判断だろう。だが、韓国政府は、検証について「談話の信頼性を損ねる」と反発している。

Since the Kono statement, there has been widespread misunderstanding in the world that Japan forcibly took away comfort women.
 河野談話が起点となり、日本が慰安婦を強制連行したかのような誤解が世界中に広がっている。

In the U.S. city of Glendale, Calif., Korean-Americans with strong ties with South Korea engaged in anti-Japanese activity by setting up a statue of a comfort woman.
米国では昨年、グレンデール市に慰安婦像が設置され、韓国系米国人による反日運動が展開された。

The government has not launched effective counterarguments because of the Kono statement.
 河野談話があるために、政府は有効な反論を行えずにいる。

We believe it will eventually be unavoidable to change the statement.
 談話の見直しは、いずれ避けられないのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 21, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)都議会の暴言 うやむやは許されぬ

June 21, 2014
EDITORIAL: Tokyo assembly needs to identify, punish sexist hecklers
(社説)都議会の暴言 うやむやは許されぬ

It is distressing to know there are members of the Tokyo metropolitan assembly who can shamelessly hurl sexist abuse at a female colleague during an assembly session, which is a public forum.
They apparently lack the bravery to announce themselves as the hecklers.
 議場が公の場であることをわきまえず、汚いヤジを飛ばして恥じることがない。名乗り出る潔さすら、持ち合わせない。
 そんな人が首都の議会にいるとは情けない。

The incident occurred on June 18, when Ayaka Shiomura, a 35-year-old member of the opposition Your Party, pointed out that women in Tokyo tend to marry and have babies far later than their counterparts in other parts of Japan. She called for policy support for women facing challenges in getting pregnant, having babies and raising children.
 東京都議会の本会議。塩村文夏(あやか)議員が、東京は全国でとびぬけて晩婚晩産だと指摘し、妊娠・出産・育児に悩む女性への支援の充実を訴えていた。

While she was making the presentation, male members of the assembly shouted abuse at Shiomura, with one saying, “You are the one who must get married as soon as possible.”
 そこへ、男の声で「早く結婚した方がいいんじゃないか」などとヤジが飛んだ。

When she was rendered speechless by the jeers, a ripple of sneers swept through the chamber.
 塩村氏が絶句すると、議場に冷笑が広がった。

A senior assemblyman of the party that is suspected to have the hecklers among its members has shown a reluctance to identify and punish them. “We cannot act on rumors,” the senior assembly member said.
暴言の出どころと疑われた会派の幹部は「臆測で言われても困る」と、発言者を特定せずに幕を引こうとしている。

The verbal abuse and the party’s response to the incident are deeply disgraceful.
 発言そのものも、事後の対応も、二重三重に罪深い。

The nation’s declining birthrate is a structural problem in a society where women face many hurdles in trying to have and raise children while working.
 まず、少子化は、子どもを産み育てることを難しくしている社会構造の問題だ。

The hecklers wrongfully described it as a problem with individuals by effectively saying that Shiomura can help solve the problem by having children.
 それを、ヤジの主は「あなたが産めば解決する」と個人の問題にすりかえた。

What they did was tantamount to sending a message to individual women in this nation that they are responsible for the nation’s demographic decline by failing to have children.
 世の女性ひとりひとりに「あなたが産まないのが悪い」とメッセージを送ったに等しい。

Their words show no sign of awareness of the fact that behind the trend toward marrying and having babies later in life are factors related to both men and women.
 晩婚や晩産は男女双方の問題であるのは当然だが、そういう認識もまるで感じられない。

This lack of an accurate understanding of the problem is at the root of the social pressure on women to choose between pursuing a career and having children. It is also one of the key reasons for many Japanese women to feel hesitant about getting married.
 この無理解こそ、既婚の女性に仕事か子どもかの二者択一を迫り、未婚の女性に結婚をためらわせる元凶ではないか。

If the capital’s assembly fails to make a serious response to the scandal without trying to identify the hecklers, it would effectively be tolerating verbal abuse. That would cause this incident to have far more serious implications than the simple existence of some impudent people among the assembly members.
 このまま発言者を特定もせずにうやむやにすれば、議会として暴言を許容したことになる。不心得な議員が一部にいたという話にとどまらなくなる。

The assembly members are elected representatives of the citizens. Their attitude and behavior are seen as reflecting the prevailing sentiments in society.
 議員たちは選挙を通じて住民らに選ばれた代表である。その姿勢は、世の中の空気を映していると受け取られる。

This episode of abuse suffered by Shiomura could make many Japanese women who are struggling with problems concerning pregnancy and childbearing at their workplaces or homes hesitant to discuss their challenges or seek support.
 妊娠や出産の悩みを語ったり支援を求めたりすると、こんな仕打ちにあうのか――。

That would hamper efforts to solve these intricate and deep-rooted social problems, creating the worst of the negative effects of the sexist jeers.
 職場や家庭で悩みを抱えている女性たちを、そんなふうに萎縮させる。そして、社会の難題の解決をますます遅れさせる。それがなにより罪深い。

When former Tokyo Governor Naoki Inose got embroiled in a money scandal, the metropolitan assembly bitterly criticized him for “making light of” the citizens of the capital and urged him to step down to take responsibility. Now it is time for the assembly to demonstrate its ability to clean up its act.
 猪瀬直樹前知事のカネの疑惑の際は、あれほど厳しく「都民をなめるな」「自らえりをただせ」と迫った都議会である。自浄作用を働かせることを強く求めたい。

Shiomura’s message about the incident on Twitter was retweeted more than 20,000 times in one day, causing a wave of anger to spread like a wildfire nationwide.
 塩村氏のツイッターへの投稿は、1日のうちに約2万回もリツイート(転載)され、全国に怒りが燃え広がった。

This is an age when anger among ordinary citizens manifests itself in a highly visible manner. We can take some solace in the fact that the wave of anger has put strong pressure on the assembly members to act.
 ふつうの生活者の怒りが目に見える時代になった。あっという間に議員たちを取り囲んだ。

We hope this episode will serve as an important lesson for as many local assembly members as possible about the responsibility they have to bear for their remarks in public.
救いはそこにある。これを教訓に、公に発言する責任の重さを全国の一人でも多くの議員にかみしめてもらいたい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 21

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月21日 (土)

ビッグデータ 安心して活用できるルールに

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Rules must quickly be formulated for safe utilization of personal data
ビッグデータ 安心して活用できるルールに

How should so-called big data—a blanket term for the huge quantities of digital data accumulated by businesses and other entities—be used? Rules must urgently be worked out regarding the utilization of such data while also paying due attention to the protection of people’s privacy.
 企業などが蓄積している膨大な電子情報「ビッグデータ」をどう活用するか。プライバシーにも配慮した、ルール作りが急務である。

A government study panel has drafted an outline for the revision of the Personal Information Protection Law to enable active utilization of big data.
 政府の検討会が、ビッグデータの積極活用を図る個人情報保護法改正の大綱案をまとめた。

When personal information—including names, birth dates and addresses—is provided to a third party, the providers are required under the law to obtain the approval of the individuals to which the data pertains.
 個人情報保護法では、氏名や生年月日、住所などの「個人情報」を第三者に提供する場合は、本人の同意が必要と定めている。

Anonymous big data, such as online purchasing histories and smartphone location tracking, does not constitute personal information. However, due to progress in technology, it has become possible to identify individuals if two or more pieces of data are combined.
 通販の購買履歴やスマートフォンの位置情報など匿名化されたビッグデータは個人情報に当たらないが、技術の進歩で複数のデータを組み合わせれば、個人を特定することが可能になってきた。

Some people may be concerned about whether information pertaining to their behavior and preferences is circulated without their knowledge. Last year, East Japan Railway Co. faced criticism for selling passenger records from its Suica electronic cards without obtaining the permission of users. It is reasonable for the government to have started work on laying down rules regarding the provision of big data.
 知らぬまに自分の行動や好みが流布されないか不安に思う人もいよう。JR東日本は昨年、ICカード乗車券の乗降履歴を利用者に無断で販売し、反発を受けた。政府がビッグデータ提供のルール作りに乗り出したのは妥当だ。

As for data processed to prevent individuals from being identified, the draft outline allows it to be provided to a third party without obtaining the approval of the individuals to which the data pertains.
 大綱案は、個人を特定できないよう加工したデータについては、本人の同意がなくても第三者に提供できるとした。

Details such as whether address information is provided on a municipal or prefectural level would be worked out under rules established by each industry providing the data, before the data is used by firms.
 住所を市町村と都道府県のどちらの単位で提供するかなど、詳細を業界の自主ルールで定めたうえで、各企業が情報を活用する。

Watchdog eyed

A third-party organization would be established to inspect and supervise businesses to monitor whether they are honoring such commitments as scrubbing the data of identifying information.
 情報の匿名化などが確実に行われるよう、企業を検査・監督する第三者機関も設置する。

If individuals are identified from various data and personal information is abused, on-site investigations would be conducted and the names of the companies involved made public.
 複数のデータから個人を特定され、情報が悪用されるなどの被害が出た場合は、立ち入り検査や企業名の公表を行う。

Big data can be applied widely, including solving traffic congestion based on location information obtained via the Global Positioning System. Likewise, retailers could create more efficient systems for selling products by utilizing sales data. The Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry estimates an annual economic impact of more than ¥7 trillion from such applications.
 ビッグデータは、カーナビゲーションの位置情報に基づく渋滞解消や、小売店の販売データを使った効率的な商品仕入れなどに幅広く応用でき、総務省は年7兆円超の経済効果を見込んでいる。

The government aims to enact the revision bill for the Personal Information Protection Law at an ordinary Diet session next year. The system must be fine-tuned to ensure that data can be used safely. It is also important to set up a mechanism for adjusting the rules decided independently by each industry.
 政府は来年の通常国会で法改正を目指す。データを安全に活用できるよう、制度を詰めてもらいたい。業界別の自主ルールの食い違いを調整する仕組みも重要だ。

Since the law was enforced in 2005, such negative repercussions have arisen as sources of information avoiding news media organizations out of fear of the law and administrative offices using the law as an excuse for intentionally concealing information.
 個人情報保護法を巡っては、2005年の施行後、報道機関に対する情報提供に関し、取材先が萎縮したり、行政機関が意図的な情報隠しの口実に使ったりする弊害が生じている。

It is problematic that the outline for the first revision of the law does not reflect the people’s right to know.
 初の法改正に向けた大綱案に、「国民の知る権利」を守る視点が欠けているのは問題だ。

If people further avoid talking to the media as a result of the supervision of a third-party organ, it will restrict news coverage and reporting activities even more.
 第三者機関による監視で、取材先が一段と萎縮すれば、取材・報道の制約は拡大する。

In working out a revision bill, it must be clarified that the provision of personal information by administrative offices and private firms to media organizations is not subject to the restrictions.
 改正案では、行政機関や民間企業による報道機関への個人情報提供が、規制の対象外であることをさらに明確化すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 20, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

医療・介護改革 「在宅」支える体制作りを急げ

この論説はなんか変だ。
高齢者に対する医療改善政策というよりも、予算削減対策ではないでしょうか。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Efforts must be made swiftly to boost medical, nursing care services at home
医療・介護改革 「在宅」支える体制作りを急げ

To effectively deal with the rapidly growing demand for medical and nursing care services for the elderly using only the limited funding available, a series of needed reforms to address the challenge must be implemented steadily.
 限られた財源で、増大する高齢者の医療・介護ニーズに対応するため、必要な改革を着実に実行しなければならない。

The Diet enacted a bill on Wednesday promoting comprehensive arrangements for medical and nursing care services through blanket reviews of legal frameworks such as the Medical Service Law and the Nursing Care Insurance Law.
 医療法や介護保険法を一括して見直す医療・介護総合推進法が成立した。

The legislation is intended to provide medical and nursing care, as well as lifestyle support, to elderly citizens in an integrated manner, helping them continue living at home instead of relying on hospitals and nursing care facilities. With the envisaged arrangements, the new law aims to curb government expenditures for medical and nursing care benefits for the aged.
 高齢者が病院や施設に頼らず、在宅生活を続けられるよう、医療や介護、生活支援を一体的に提供する。そうした体制を築き、給付費を抑制するのが目的だ。

The law gives special attention to providing support for elderly patients staying in hospitals to help them return home sooner, through a strategic realignment of hospital beds and resources to promote home-based medical services.
 医療分野では、退院支援を重視して病院・病床の再編を図り、在宅医療を推進する。

The law will also raise the patient contribution level for nursing care from 10 percent to 20 percent for high-income earners, effective August 2015. Stricter requirements for admissions to elder care facilities providing around-the-clock nursing care will also be put in place.
 介護保険では、収入の多い人の自己負担割合を1割から2割に引き上げる。特別養護老人ホームの入所要件も厳しくする。

Every opposition party opposed the legislation, saying that it will lead to shrinking benefits and higher out-of-pocket payments for recipients of the services.
 全野党が、給付縮小と負担増につながる推進法に反対した。

Knowing that Japan’s postwar baby boomers will be at least 75 in 2025, we can be certain that medical and nursing care expenses for the aged will continue to balloon. The existing medical and nursing care systems will hardly be sustainable if left as they are today. It is indispensable to make more effective use of benefit payments and improve benefit allocations. There is simply no avoiding the reform measures incorporated into the comprehensive medical and nursing care promotion law.
 だが、団塊の世代が75歳以上になる2025年にかけて、医療・介護の費用は膨張し、このままでは制度の維持が困難になる。給付の効率化と重点配分は不可欠だ。推進法に盛り込まれた改革は避けて通れない。

Rethink lesser needs

One focus of Diet deliberations on the legislation was the need for a review of nursing care services for recipients who need only light or moderate degrees of care.
 国会審議では、比較的軽度の「要支援者」向け介護保険サービスの見直しが焦点となった。

The new law seeks a shift away from the current system of nursing care services, which is uniform nationwide and calls for caregivers to visit recipients’ homes, and recipients to visit nursing care facilities, on a regular basis. It would instead put in place a formula enabling municipalities to decide on specific services at their own discretion. The inclusion of volunteers and nonprofit organizations is encouraged as a cost-saving measure.
 訪問・通所介護を全国一律の保険サービスから外し、市町村が独自に内容を決めて実施する方式にするものだ。ボランティアやNPOも活用し、費用抑制を図る。

Some existing nursing care service programs include tasks that do not demand the involvement of professional caregivers, such as cleaning recipients’ homes and doing laundry, and providing recipients with recreational activities. The law is wise to focus such reviews on care for those with more significant physical or mental impediments.
 現行のサービスには、掃除や洗濯、レクリエーションなど、専門職が携わる必要のないものが含まれている。財源を重度者へ重点的に振り向けるためにも、適切な見直しと言えよう。

However, a number of problems have yet to be resolved.
 ただ、課題も多い。

For example, many cities, towns and villages are struggling to secure adequate numbers of caregivers. There is also concern over widening regional disparities in services, and degradation of services in some areas. If the elderly don’t have access to proper services, they could face worsening conditions.
 担い手の確保が難しい市町村は少なくない。サービスの地域格差の拡大や質の低下を懸念する声も根強い。高齢者が適切なサービスを受けられなければ、症状の悪化を招く恐れがある。

Some municipalities have already seen tangible results with their own initiatives, including programs to foster nursing care volunteers or help establish organizations to provide services.
 一部の市町村は既に、ボランティアの養成や、サービスを提供する団体の設立支援などに取り組み、実績を上げている。

The government should throw its support behind municipal entities, sharing expertise on the latest pioneering efforts and instruction on specific methods of service management.
 政府は、先駆的なノウハウを紹介し、事業展開に関する具体的な運営指針を示すなど、市町村を支援していく必要がある。

If regional residents actively volunteer their time for nursing-care activities, it will create new opportunities for improved neighborhood cooperation. Municipalities should take the latest legislation as a good opportunity to innovate to ensure a rebirth of communities at the initiative of residents.
 地域住民が、ボランティアとして積極的に事業に参加すれば、新たな支え合いの仕組みも生まれるだろう。市町村は、住民主体の街作りのチャンスととらえ、工夫を重ねてもらいたい。

To prevent those who are not eligible for admission to nursing care facilities or hospitals from becoming so-called nursing care refugees, every local body should do its best to support the aged living at home through the efforts of the entire community.
 施設や病院に入れない人が「介護難民」とならないよう、地域ぐるみで在宅の高齢者を支えることが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 20, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

集団的自衛権の協議―歴史の審判に耐えられぬ

June 20, 2014
EDITORIAL: Ruling coalition's radical security policy shift doomed to fail test of history
集団的自衛権の協議―歴史の審判に耐えられぬ

The talks between the ruling Liberal Democratic Party and its junior coalition partner, New Komeito, over Japan’s right to collective self-defense are already entering the final stages, despite Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s promise not to set a fixed deadline for concluding the negotiations.
 「期限ありきではない」 
こんな前提で始まったはずの集団的自衛権をめぐる与党協議が、いつの間にか大詰めを迎えつつある。

Abe and New Komeito leader Natsuo Yamaguchi held talks on June 19, and agreed to continue the discussions after the current Diet session concludes on June 22.
 きのう、安倍首相と公明党の山口代表が会談し、22日に国会が閉会した後も、議論を続けていくことを確認した。

The focus of the coalition talks has already shifted from whether to allow Japan to exercise its right to collective self-defense to the issue as to what extent it can be exercised.
 与党協議の焦点は、集団的自衛権の行使を認めるかどうかではなく、どの範囲まで認めるかに移っている。

Abe is intent on putting his Cabinet’s official seal of approval on this important security policy shift by early July at the latest.
 首相は、遅くとも7月初めまでに閣議決定をする構えだ。

No matter what restrictions are placed on the actual implementation of the new policy, allowing Japan to use the right to collective self-defense will lead to Japan’s involvement in the defense of other countries, which successive Cabinets had said is banned by Article 9 of the Constitution.
 たとえどんなに限定をつけようとも、集団的自衛権を認めるのは、歴代内閣が憲法9条によって「できない」と言ってきた他国の防衛に、日本が加わるということだ。

This policy shift will pave the way for overseas deployments of the Self-Defense Forces for missions that are not performed under the traditional defense-only policy.
 専守防衛に徹してきた自衛隊が、これまで想定していなかった任務のため海外に出動することになる。

It has been little more than a month since Abe announced his intention to consider changing the government’s interpretation of the Constitution. It is hard to claim that this radical change in the nation’s security policy, which would even require school textbooks to be rewritten, is supported by broad public consensus.
 首相が、憲法解釈の変更に向けた検討を表明してから、わずか1カ月あまり。教科書を書き換えねばならないほどの基本政策の転換に、国民の合意が備わっているとは言い難い。

This is not an issue that should be settled simply through political compromise between the ruling parties after negotiations under an effectively fixed time frame.
 実質的に期限を切ったなか、与党間の政治的妥協で決着をつけていい問題ではない。

The debate on this issue should be brought back to square one.
 ここはいったん、議論を白紙に戻すべきだ。

LIMITED OPTIONS FOR NEW KOMEITO
■協議の限界あらわに

Having discussed 15 specific cases cited by the government as likely situations where Japan would participate in collective self-defense operations, the ruling parties on June 20 shifted the focus of debate to the draft text for a Cabinet endorsement, which is based on the private proposal made by LDP Vice President Masahiko Komura.
 きょうからの与党協議の焦点は、政府が示した15事例の具体的な検討から、自民党の高村正彦副総裁の私案を下敷きとした閣議決定の文案に移る。

The 15 cases were actually a stage prop for discussions, and they are no longer necessary, according to a New Komeito senior official. Although that was clear from the beginning, it is hard not to feel a sense of futility about the discussions so far.
 公明党幹部によれば、15事例は議論のための「小道具」に過ぎず、その役割はもう終わったのだという。はじめからわかっていたこととはいえ、それではいままでの協議は何だったのか。空しさが残る。

There are serious concerns about Komura’s private proposal.
 一方、高村私案には重大な懸念がある。

The primary condition set by the proposal for the use of armed force by the SDF in response to an armed attack against another country is that “there are concerns that Japan’s existence could be threatened and that the Japanese people’s right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness could be fundamentally violated.”
 「我が国の存立が脅かされ、国民の生命、自由及び幸福追求の権利が根底から覆されるおそれがあること」。
これが、「他国に対する武力攻撃」に、日本の自衛隊が武力を使うにあたっての条件だという。

At first glance, this appears to impose tight restrictions on Japan’s participation in collective self-defense. Actually, however, the SDF would be allowed to use armed force if the government judges the conditions are met.
 一見、厳しい枠がはめられているようにも見える。だが、結局は政府がこの条件にあてはまると認定さえすれば、自衛隊は武力を使える。

That’s why the promise to allow only limited use of the right to collective self-defense is in reality an empty pretense.
 ここに「限定容認論」のまやかしがある。

The move will open the door to the SDF’s use of armed force to defend other countries under vague requirements. It is glaringly obvious that once this door is opened the scope of the “minimum necessary” will be widened swiftly.
 あいまいな要件のもと、自衛隊が他国を守る武力行使に踏み出す。いったん認めてしまえば、「必要最小限」の枠などあっという間に広がっていくのは目に見えている。

In response to a request from New Komeito, the LDP may agree to change the wording of the condition to make it sound a little stricter in the text of the Cabinet approval, but the essence of this move cannot change. In a case of cunning political maneuvering, the revision to the text will be used as another incentive to entice New Komeito to support the initiative.
 公明党の要求を受け、閣議決定にあたってはもう少し厳しめの表現に修正されるかもしれない。だが、その本質は変わりようもない。そして、その修正がまた、公明党を容認に引き込むための新たな「小道具」となる矛盾をはらむ。

This clearly shows a fundamental limitation to the influence New Komeito can have on the results of the talks, given New Komeito’s decision in an early stage to deny itself the option of dissolving its alliance with the LDP.
 公明党が「連立離脱」というカードを早々に封印して行われた協議の限界である。

ABE'S EXPANDING VISION
■広がる首相の狙い

The talks between the LDP and New Komeito were initiated after Abe, in a news conference in May, made a passionate call for changing the government’s interpretation of the Constitution.
“Under the current interpretation of the Constitution, the SDF is not allowed to protect a U.S. vessel carrying Japanese nationals,” the prime minister said at the news conference.
 「日本人が乗っている米国の船を、自衛隊は守ることができない。これが憲法の現在の解釈だ」。与党協議は、先月の首相の記者会見での訴えを受けて始まった。

As the discussions began, however, it quickly became clear that the government envisions many other new roles that the SDF will play under the pretext of collective self-defense.
 ところが、いざ始まってみれば、政府の狙いがそればかりにあるわけではないことが次々に明らかになった。

Typical of Abe’s ambition to expand the scope of the SDF’s missions is his argument that Japan should contribute to minesweeping efforts in areas such as the Persian Gulf.
 ペルシャ湾を念頭に置いた自衛隊による機雷除去への首相のこだわりは、その典型だ。

Meanwhile, Abe has stressed in news conferences and Diet sessions that the security environment surrounding Japan is changing dramatically, citing China’s rapid military buildup and recent incidents of Chinese fighter jets flying dangerously close to SDF aircraft.
 一方、首相は記者会見や国会審議で、中国の軍備拡張や東シナ海での自衛隊機への異常接近などを例に挙げて、安全保障環境の変化を強調した。

To be sure, China’s military expansion is beginning to pose a security threat to Japan. But the issue of Japan’s right to collective self-defense does not have a direct bearing on the question of how to respond to China’s actions to put pressure on Japan related to the territorial dispute over the Senkaku Islands, which have made many Japanese uneasy. But this is a problem that should be dealt with under the context of the right to individual self-defense.
 中国の軍拡は日本への脅威となりつつある。ただ、多くの国民が不安に感じている中国の尖閣諸島に対する圧力は、集団的自衛権の議論とは直接には関係がない。本来、個別的自衛権の領域の話である。

Cases cited by the government include a response to the landing of a foreign armed group on a remote island belonging to Japan. But this problem has basically been solved by an agreement between the two parties to simplify the procedures for mobilizing the SDF for policing missions. The focus of the talks has already shifted from these issues.
 政府が事例に挙げた離島への武装集団の上陸への対応も、自衛隊が警察権にもとづいて出動する際の手続きを簡素化することでほぼ決着。議論の焦点はもはやそこにはない。

Why is the Abe administration using such half-baked, unconvincing arguments to make a headlong rush toward Cabinet approval to allow Japan to use its right to collective self-defense?
 なぜ、こんなちぐはぐな議論のもとで、集団的自衛権を認める閣議決定になだれ込もうとしているのか。

FOLLOW CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURES
■憲法に背を向けるな

The answer is clear.
 答えは明らかだ。

The Abe administration is not interested in serious policy debate on what should be done to ensure Japan’s security. Enabling the nation to exercise its right to collective self-defense has become its No. 1 political goal. Allowing the Abe administration to push its way to change the interpretation of the Constitution will create serious problems for the future.
日本の安全を確保するにはどうすべきなのかという政策論から入るのではなく、集団的自衛権の行使を認めること自体が目的になっているからだ。このまま無理やり憲法解釈を変えてしまっては、将来に禍根を残す。

If the prime minister really believes that using collective self-defense is vital for Japan’s national security, Abe should make a compelling case for his initiative without making an emotionally charged vow to “protect the lives” of people or playing up the security threat posed by China.
 集団的自衛権が日本の防衛に欠かせないというのなら、首相は「命を守る」と情に訴えるのではなく、ことさら中国の脅威を持ち出すのでもなく、理を尽くして国民を説得すべきだ。

After arguing his case, Abe should then initiate the process of amending the Constitution as stipulated in Article 96 for ratification by the people through a national referendum.
 そのうえで憲法96条に定めた改憲手続きに沿って、国民の承認を得る。

The radical security policy change envisioned by the prime minister will not pass the test of history unless it is made through this formal process of forming a national consensus.
 この合意形成のプロセスをへなければ、歴史の審判にはとても耐えられまい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 20

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月20日 (金)

教育委員会改革 首長と二人三脚で課題克服を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Local leaders, new councils must work together closely to fix education problems
教育委員会改革 首長と二人三脚で課題克服を

The board of education system introduced after World War II is at a major turning point. We hope this leads to an overhaul of education administration in regions across the nation.
 戦後、導入された教育委員会制度の大きな転換点だ。地方教育行政の立て直しにつなげたい。

A bill to revise the Local Education Administration Law was enacted last week by a majority vote in the House of Councillors with support from the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, New Komeito and other parties. The revised law will come into force in April.
 改正地方教育行政法が自民、公明両党などの賛成多数で成立した。来年4月から施行される。

The crux of the revision is that the heads of prefectural and municipal governments will be able to have a stronger influence on local education administration, which has hitherto been guided by decisions made by boards of education. Despite the change, the authority to select textbooks and teaching personnel will remain with the boards.
 改正法のポイントは、教委が意思決定を担ってきた自治体の教育行政に、首長の意向を反映しやすくしたことだ。一方で、教職員人事や教科書採択などの権限は従来通り、教委に残した。

The opposition Democratic Party of Japan and Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) submitted a counterproposal that would have extensively strengthened the power of governors and mayors over education matters and abolished boards of education. However, education administration demands political neutrality. To prevent local leaders from acting recklessly, the revised law quite rightly keeps boards of education in place to retain fairness in the authority over schooling matters.
 民主党と日本維新の会は、教委を廃止し、首長の権限強化を徹底する対案を提出した。だが、教育行政には政治的中立性が求められる。首長の暴走を防ぎ、権限の均衡を図る観点から、改正法が教委を存続させたのは適切である。

The move to revise the law was sparked by the 2011 suicide of an Otsu middle school student who had been viciously bullied. This case exposed the local board of education’s inability to respond quickly and take appropriate action to deal with bullying. It also shed light on difficulties in pinpointing where responsibility lies due to the fact that they must work in tandem with superintendents in charge of practical matters and education board chiefs representing the boards.
 大津市のいじめ自殺事件で、教委が迅速に対処できず、機能不全を露呈したことが法改正のきっかけだった。教委を代表する教育委員長と実務を統括する教育長が併存し、責任の所在があいまいな問題も浮き彫りになった。

The new legislation creates the post of school superintendent, who will assume the responsibilities currently held by superintendents and heads of boards of education. It also gives governors and mayors the right to directly appoint and dismiss the person in this new role. The designation of responsibility has become clearer.
 改正法は、教育委員長と教育長の権限を「新教育長」に一元化し、首長にその任免権を持たせた。責任体制はこれまでより明確になったと言えよう。

We urge the superintendents to strengthen the ability of boards of education to deal with crises and work hard to resolve problems that arise at schools.
 新教育長は教委の危機管理能力を高め、学校現場で起こる問題の解決に取り組んでほしい。

Putting an end to bias

Many employees of the secretariat, which handles the administrative side of education board matters, were previously teachers. Some observers have said that such employees tend to be lenient when dealing with schools that become embroiled in misconduct or scandal, as they feel a sense of camaraderie due to their shared background. The closed nature of boards of education also needs to be improved.
 教委の実務を担う事務局の職員には教員出身者が多く、不祥事などの際に、身内意識から学校に甘い対応をとりがちだとの指摘がある。教委の閉鎖体質も改善していかねばならない。

The concentration of power in the hands of the school superintendent makes the appointment of this role an important task. Governors and mayors should not simply choose someone who holds political views similar to their own. Rather, they must appoint the best candidate after carefully evaluating whether each has the skills and acumen to handle educational and administrative affairs.
 権限が集中する新教育長の人選は重要である。首長は、自らの政治的立場に近いといった理由だけではなく、教育や行政に関するしっかりした識見や能力を持っているかどうかを見極めて、登用することが欠かせない。

The new law also stipulates that “comprehensive education councils” will be set up in each municipality. Headed by the local governor or mayor, these councils will comprise school superintendents and representatives of boards of education.
 改正法には、首長が主宰し、新教育長、教育委員らで構成する「総合教育会議」を各自治体に新設することも盛り込まれた。

As well as deciding on the basic direction of education administration in their own regions, the councils will serve as a forum where local leaders and boards of education can discuss important issues that affect budget allocations, such as improvements to school facilities and increasing the number of teachers.
 教育行政の基本方針を策定するほか、学校施設の整備や教員の定数増といった予算措置を伴う重要施策について、首長が教委と協議する場と位置づけられている。

One nagging concern we have is how a comprehensive education council will react if the governor or mayor becomes locked in a fierce dispute with board of education representatives.
 気がかりなのは、総合教育会議で、首長と教委が激しく対立した場合の対応だ。

The council’s failure to settle on the direction of education policies could cause confusion in the classroom.
施策の方向性が定まらなければ、学校現場が混乱してしまう。

To ensure that children and students receive the best possible education, these councils must be able to reach a consensus on key matters.
児童・生徒に最善の教育を施すために、合意形成を図る必要がある。

It is imperative that governors and mayors put aside election considerations and firmly resist the temptation to forcefully impose their own views on the councils.
 首長が選挙を意識し、自らの考えを強引に押しつけるようなことは、厳に慎むべきだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 19, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

カジノ解禁法案 娯楽の「負の側面」も勘案せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Legislators must consider possible negative effects of casino resorts
カジノ解禁法案 娯楽の「負の側面」も勘案せよ

Legislators should give careful consideration not only to the effect of revitalizing the economy but also to various adverse impacts on society as a whole.
 経済活性化だけではなく、社会全体への様々な悪影響を慎重に考慮することが大切である。

The Cabinet Committee of the House of Representatives on Wednesday began deliberation of a bill to legalize casino resorts. The bill was submitted in December last year by the Liberal Democratic Party, Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) and the People’s Life Party.
 自民、日本維新の会、生活の3党が提出したカジノ解禁法案が、衆院内閣委員会で審議入りした。

While the three parties hope the bill becomes law within the year, cautious views remain strong among New Komeito, the Democratic Party of Japan and other parties. Prospects for the bill’s passage look uncertain.
3党は年内の成立を目指しているが、公明、民主両党などには慎重論が強く、見通しは不透明だ。

The bill is designed to legalize casinos, presently illegal as gambling under the Criminal Code, and to promote the development of so-called integrated resorts combining casinos with hotels, convention centers, and amusement and commercial facilities.
 法案は、刑法が賭博として禁じるカジノを合法化し、ホテル、娯楽・商業施設などとともに構成する「統合型リゾート」(IR)の整備を進める内容だ。

According to the bill, the government will establish a headquarters to promote the development of the integrated resorts, while relevant laws will be enacted within one year following the enforcement of the casino legalization law.
政府に推進本部を設置し、法施行後1年以内に関連法を制定するという。

The relevant legislation is to be implemented through a two-step process: The lawmaker-initiated legislation aims only to establish its framework; and the government is tasked with drawing up its detailed institutional design.
 議員立法では骨格だけを定め、詳細な制度設計は政府が行う、という二段構えである。

The suprapartisan group of legislators that compiled the casino legalization bill asserts development of integrated resorts will pave the way for the revitalization of local economies, tourism promotion, job creation and tax revenue growth.
 法案を作成した超党派の議員連盟は、IRの整備が地域の活性化や観光振興、雇用創出、税収増などにつながる、と主張する。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is also positive about the development of integrated resorts, saying, “Although there are some problems to deal with, it also has sufficient merits.” He toured integrated resorts during his recent visit to Singapore. The growth strategy, to be compiled late this month, is expected to call for a study on the development of integrated resorts.
 安倍首相も「課題もあるが、メリットも十分にある」と意欲的で、シンガポール訪問時にIRを視察した。月末の成長戦略にはIRの検討が盛り込まれる予定だ。

Look at pros, cons

Those in economic circles expect synergistic effects with the Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics slated for 2020. Meanwhile, local governments including those of Tokyo, Osaka, Hokkaido and Okinawa have also launched campaigns to invite integrated resorts.
 経済界は、2020年の東京五輪との相乗効果を期待する。東京、大阪、北海道、沖縄など地方自治体も誘致活動を始めている。

Attracting more visitors with casinos may indeed generate certain positive effects of increased foreign tourist numbers and stimulated local economies.
 カジノによる集客が外国観光客の増加や地域経済の刺激に一定の効果を持つのは確かだろう。

But it is necessary to clearly recognize that casinos have a number of “negative aspects.”
 だが、カジノは、多くの「負の側面」を併せ持つことを、しっかりと認識すべきだ。

To prevent casinos from becoming hotbeds of crime, it is essential to take measures to thoroughly exclude criminal organizations from casinos and prevent money laundering.
 犯罪の温床とならないように、暴力団を徹底的に排除し、資金洗浄(マネーロンダリング)の防止策を講じることが欠かせない。

There are also concerns over various ill effects on young and elderly people.
 青少年や高齢者に対する様々な悪影響も懸念される。

In connection with casinos overseas, including those in Singapore, South Korea and China’s special administrative region of Macao, the increasing number of people with gambling habits has become a social problem. These countries have taken such measures as limiting the admission of their own citizens, collecting admission fees and offering counseling to those with gambling addictions. But these measures have yet to effectively solve the problems.
 中国・マカオ、シンガポール、韓国など海外のカジノでは、ギャンブル依存症者の増大が社会問題となっている。自国民の入場制限や入場料の徴収、カウンセリングなどの対策を講じているが、解決の決め手にはなっていない。

In Japan, many people already have become heavily indebted through involvement in publicly run forms of gambling, such as horse and bicycle racing, or privately operated pachinko games.
 日本でも、競馬、競輪などの公営ギャンブルやパチンコで多重債務に陥る人が少なくない。

Statistics show that the percentage of people with gambling addictions is higher in Japan than in other countries. Will casinos further fuel such a tendency?
日本のギャンブル依存症者の割合は諸外国より高いとの統計もある。この傾向に拍車をかけないか。

It is necessary to take into account the enormous social costs involved in the implementation of measures to cope with such gambling dependence.
 依存症者対策の社会的なコストの大きさを考える必要がある。

Meanwhile, it can hardly be said that public understanding of casinos has deepened.
 カジノに関する国民の理解も深まっているとは言えない。

If legislators aim to lift the ban on casinos in earnest, they must examine the various real-world problems and challenges related to casinos being encountered overseas and properly deliberate relevant matters at the Diet. Hasty enactment of the bill must be avoided.
 本気でカジノの解禁を目指すなら、海外の様々な問題事例や課題を検証し、国会できちんと議論せねばなるまい。法案を拙速に成立させることは避けるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 19, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

環境相の発言―「最後は金」が蝕むもの

June 19, 2014
EDITORIAL: Ishihara’s remark about interim storage facility adds insult to injury
環境相の発言―「最後は金」が蝕むもの

No doubt about it. Environment Minister Nobuteru Ishihara’s insensitive remark about the problem of selecting a site to temporarily store radiation-contaminated soil reflected a slice of the grim reality of the terrible mess caused by the 2011 disaster at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
 そうだ。石原伸晃環境相の言葉が無神経に映したのは、いまの福島の一断面である。

“In the end, it will come down to money,” Ishihara said, giving the impression that giving wads of cash to residents in Fukushima Prefecture was the only way to resolve the problem.
 「最後は金目でしょ」

Indeed, there are a slew of issues in areas affected by the nuclear catastrophe that cannot be solved without payments of money. A huge amount of funds will be needed to pay compensation to victims, complete decontamination work of affected areas and rebuild disaster-hit areas. There is also the question of returning local residents to their homes and providing support for evacuees who are living in new areas.
 損害賠償も除染も帰還も、移転先での新しい生活も。復興でさえも。原発事故の被災地には、「最後は金目」な案件がうずまいている。

But it is not money people in the affected areas in Fukushima really want.
 だけど、福島の人たちが本当に欲しいのはお金じゃない。

What they really crave is a return to the good old days when they didn’t have to worry about radiation while working their rice and vegetable fields or spending their leisure time on the beach laughing with their children and grandchildren.
 放射能なんかこれっぽっちも気にしなくてよかった日々であり、田んぼや畑や海で汗をぬぐうひとときであり、子どもや孫と笑って過ごせる生活だ。

They know full well that they can’t get that life back. That is what makes their current situation all the more wretched.
 取り戻せないことはわかっている。だからこそ、やりきれない。

It is the central government, not residents in areas around the Fukushima nuclear plant, that wants to solve all the problems with money.
金目で済ませたいのは、住民ではない。国のほうなのだ。

Money is certainly a convenient tool. It seems to be a panacea for issues involving compensation.
 確かに、お金は便利だ。「代償」の道具として万能にみえる。

Since the triple meltdown in 2011, however, money has been undermining the affected communities in Fukushima.
だけど、そのお金は原発事故のあと、福島をひたすら蝕(むしば)んでもきた。

Some people in these communities have received payouts, while others haven’t. Some have received what was seen as “too much” compensation, while others felt the payments to them were “insufficient.”
 「もらった」「もらえない」「足りない」「もらいすぎだ」――。

Despite appearing to be neutral and impartial, the money has aggressively intruded into local communities, families and relationships between friends in a divisive manner.
無色透明を装いながら、遠慮なしに地域や家族や友人関係に踏み込み、分断した。

Over the past three years, people in Fukushima have had enough painful experiences to make them aware of how money can create contradictions and emptiness. During the period, they have also had to fight the perception that they are pursuing money as their ultimate goal.
 この3年間、その矛盾と空虚さをいやというほどかみしめてきた。「どうせ金なんだろ」という目と闘いながら。

Given these circumstances, they have been struggling to pull themselves together, rebuild their relations with people around them and figure out how to live. It is people in Fukushima, not the central government, who have been addressing these weighty problems.
 その中で自分をどう取り戻し、周りとの関係を結びなおし、いかに生きるか。重たい問いと向き合ってきたのは、国ではない。彼らのほうだ。

The same can be said about the proposed facility for interim storage of radioactive soil. The residents, quite naturally, do not want such a facility in their hometowns. But there can be no progress in the efforts to rebuild Fukushima unless contaminated soil can be stored somewhere.
 中間貯蔵施設もそうだ。ふるさとに、そんなものは欲しくない。だが、除染した汚染土をどこかで保管しなければ、福島全体の復興が進まない。

Some people probably attended explanatory meetings for local residents as a way to escape from their anxieties and find answers for the way forward.
 葛藤から抜け出し、なにか前を向いていくための答えを探しに住民説明会へと足を運んだ人たちもいただろう。

Ishihara’s remark broke the hearts of those people.
 石原氏の言葉は、そういう人たちの心をへし折った。

The government’s promise to dispose of the soil outside the prefecture within 30 years can now only sound hollow.
 「30年以内の県外処分」も、もはやそらぞらしい響きにしか聞こえまい。

Which community outside the prefecture would be willing to accept a huge amount of contaminated soil?
 膨大な量の汚染土を、いったい県外のどこが引き取るというのか。

The grossly irresponsible way the government has been making empty promises concerning the issue seems to be reflected in the callous attitude of the minister, who bluntly said that it is after all a question of money.
あてもないまま「約束します」と繰り返す国の軽さが、「最後は金目」と言い放つ大臣の姿と重なる。

Since the controversial remark, Ishihara has been busy explaining what he meant and offering apologies.
 発言後、石原氏は釈明と陳謝に追われている。

The negotiations over the storage site have already been difficult and arduous.
ただでさえ、むずかしさを増していた交渉だ。

It will be a formidable task to repair the government’s relations with the local communities that have been badly damaged by Ishihara’s gaffe.
こんな形で断ち切ってしまった関係を修復するのは、容易ではないだろう。

Ishihara, the minister responsible for the issue of the storage site, didn’t attend any of the explanatory meetings held over a period of about two weeks.
 約2週間にわたった説明会に担当大臣である石原氏は一度も出席しなかった。

Ishihara should visit the communities and listen to what their residents say.
まずは現地に足を運び、耳を傾けるといい。

Doing so would help him realize the grave implications of what he said and the seriousness of the damage it caused to the communities.
 自らの発言の罪深さを、蝕んでしまったものの重さを、骨身で実感するために。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 19

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月19日 (木)

電力販売自由化 利用者本位で競争の促進図れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Liberalized electricity retailing should ease burden of power bills
電力販売自由化 利用者本位で競争の促進図れ

Power providers must take advantage of the full liberalization of electricity sales to ensure greater convenience for the nation’s consumers.
 電力販売の全面的な自由化をテコに、利用者の利便性を向上させなければならない。

The revised Electric Utility Law was passed into law, and as a result, electricity sales to customers, including small household contracts, are slated to be fully liberalized, potentially as soon as 2016.
 改正電気事業法が成立し、家庭向けなどの電力販売は2016年をメドに自由化されることになった。

The revised law allows for companies other than the existing suppliers who own power-generating facilities to sell electricity to small contract holders, as well as new entrants in the retail electricity market who procure electricity from power companies for resale.
 自前の発電設備を持つ一般企業や、電力会社から電気を仕入れている新規事業者などが、小口電力を販売できるようになる。

Under the existing “regional monopoly” system, the country is divided by region into exclusive small contractor sales territories for major power companies. The revised law allows other companies to enter areas dominated by the major companies and sell electricity to customers there.
 「地域独占体制」のもと、小口電力の販売区域をすみ分けている大手電力会社にも、他電力管内での販売が解禁される。

With the upcoming liberalization in mind, companies from various domains including gas and information and telecommunications companies, are planning to enter the retail electricity market.
 今回の自由化をにらみ、ガスや情報通信など様々な業種の企業が、参入を計画している。

It is reasonable to expect that the liberalization of electricity sales, by promoting competition in the market, will lead to lower electricity charges and higher quality of service.
 電力市場の競争を促進させ、料金の引き下げやサービスの向上につなげようという自由化の狙いは妥当だろう。

The important thing is finding ways to generate such competition in the market as planned.
 肝心なのは、狙い通りに競争が起きるようにすることだ。

Liberalization of “large-lot” electricity sales to factories and other businesses have already been enacted. However, the market share held by new entrants remains at just 4 percent. Electricity sales by major power companies within the established territories of other power companies also is small.
 大規模工場向けなどの大口電力は、すでに販売が自由化されている。だが、新規参入組のシェア(占有率)は約4%にとどまる。大手電力による他電力管内での「越境販売」もわずかだ。

The promise of competition

After the full liberalization, it is possible that discounts could be offered to customers who bundle their electricity contracts with other services, such as mobile phone contracts. We hope new entrants will apply their ingenuity and create services attractive enough to spur the major power companies into action.
 全面自由化後は、携帯電話と電気のセット割引なども可能になる。大手電力が危機感を持つほど魅力的なサービスの開発に、新規事業者は知恵を絞ってほしい。

There is no question that major power companies grew complacent under the regional monopoly system, avoiding competition. To make a free market where customers choose their power companies a reality, the major firms will need to abandon their old mind-set of “mutual nonaggression” regarding each other’s territory.
 大手電力の側も地域独占にあぐらをかき、競争を避けていた面は否めない。利用者が気に入った電力会社を選べる、自由な市場を実現するには、大手自身が「相互不可侵」などの古い意識を捨て去ることが求められる。

With the operation of all of the nation’s nuclear power plants suspended, electricity is in short supply—a cause for real concern. The revised law obliges electricity retailers to ensure a steady supply of electricity to their contractors. A potential failure to secure the power needed to meet the demand would be a barrier to business expansion.
 全ての原子力発電所が停止し、電力供給が不足しているのも懸念材料だ。改正法で、電気の販売業者は、契約先に電力を確実に供給する義務を負う。需要に見合う電気を確保できなければ、事業拡大の支障となろう。

Steadily promoting the resumption of operations at nuclear power plants once their safety has been confirmed is crucial in preparing an environment in which new entrants will be able to secure sufficient electricity.
 安全性を確認できた原発の再稼働を着実に進め、新規参入組が十分な電力を確保できる環境を整備する必要がある。

In addition to the liberalization of electricity sales, the government aims to separate power generation from the transmission and distribution businesses of power companies as the next step, between 2018 and 2020. The change seeks to improve openness of the power transmission and distribution, thereby encouraging new entrants to join the market.
 政府は販売自由化に続く改革として、18年~20年をめどに電力会社の発電と送配電部門の分離を目指している。送配電の中立性を高め、新規参入を促す狙いだ。

However, in the United States, the lack of cooperation between power generation operators and transmission and distribution operators has triggered large-scale power failures. It has been suggested that funds needed for power cables and other equipment were not invested due to the influence of fierce competition.
 ただ、米国では発送電分離による発電業者と送電業者の連携不足が引き金となり、大停電を招いた例がある。競争激化の影響で、送電線などに十分な設備投資が行われていないとも指摘される。

The government should aim for down-to-earth reforms and give top priority to ensuring a steady supply of electricity.
 電力安定供給の確保を最優先にした、地に足のついた改革を目指さねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 18, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

集団的自衛権 機雷除去も可能にすべきだ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Collective self-defense right should enable minesweeping
集団的自衛権 機雷除去も可能にすべきだ

The ruling parties are reaching the final stage of their talks over our nation’s right to collective self-defense. It is necessary to avoid narrowing, without much thought, the latitude to be afforded to this country if it is permitted to exercise the self-defense right.
 集団的自衛権に関する与党協議が大詰めを迎えている。自衛権行使の範囲を安易に狭めることは避けるべきだ。

The government has presented to the Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner New Komeito a draft version of a constitutional reinterpretation regarding the exercise of the collective self-defense right, with a view to finalizing the new stance on the right as a Cabinet decision.
 政府が、集団的自衛権行使の新たな憲法解釈の閣議決定原案を与党に提示した。

The draft would permit the nation to exercise its collective self-defense right, though this would be limited to some cases, including the one described by such a phrase as “osore-ga aru,” or “there is a fear that...” The case in question is “if there is a fear that the people’s lives, liberty and property, and their right to the pursuit of happiness, could be profoundly violated.”
 原案は、「国民の生命、自由及び幸福追求の権利が根底から覆されるおそれがある」場合などに限定し、集団的自衛権行使を容認している。

The draft was based on “three new conditions for exercising the right to self-defense,” a set of rules on that action proposed by LDP Vice President Masahiko Komura as a personal opinion.
高村正彦自民党副総裁が示した私案の新たな「自衛権発動の3要件」に基づくものだ。

The government and the LDP have said that the draft, if finalized as a Cabinet decision without any alterations, will enable the nation to properly deal with all eight scenarios cited by the government as examples of cases in which Japan should be able to exercise its collective self-defense right. The cases include this nation’s protection of U.S. vessels in an emergency and sea-lane minesweeping operations.
 政府・自民党は、原案通りなら、米艦防護や機雷除去など、政府が示した8事例は、すべて対処可能だとしている。

We believe the ruling parties should hasten to adjust their difference of opinion, and then reach a consensus without making any major changes to the draft.
この内容を大きく変更することなく、与党合意の調整を急ぐ必要がある。

Komeito is poised to demand “osore-ga aru” be deleted from or altered in the draft, hoping to narrow the latitude to be provided in the event that the self-defense right is exercised.
 公明党は、行使の範囲を狭めるため、「おそれがある」との表現の削除や変更を求める構えだ。

Though some Komeito members do believe our country should be permitted to guard a U.S. vessel carrying Japanese citizens in waters surrounding the nation, many party elements remain cautious about authorizing involvement in international minesweeping activities in such distant locations as the Middle East.
 公明党内には、日本周辺で邦人輸送中の米艦防護などは容認する声があるが、日本から遠く離れた中東での機雷除去などを認めることには慎重論が強い。

Action spoke louder than cash

Japan extended a massive $13 billion in aid for U.S.-led multinational forces in the Persian Gulf War of 1991. To raise funds for that assistance, the government went so far as to increase taxes. However, it should be noted that the rest of the international community highly rated the Maritime Self-Defense Force’s minesweeping operations in the Persian Gulf after the war—not Japan’s financial contribution.
 湾岸戦争の時、日本は増税までして130億ドルという巨額の資金援助を行った。しかし、国際的に高く評価されたのは海上自衛隊の掃海活動の方だった。

If any country conducts minesweeping prior to a ceasefire between warring nations, that country’s action is to be regarded as the use of force. This forced the Japanese government to exercise restraint in joining minesweeping operations in the 1991 conflict. It was not until after a ceasefire was concluded that MSDF minesweepers were sent to the Gulf.
 停戦前の機雷除去は、武力行使とみなされる。この制約のため、海自の掃海艇を派遣できたのは、停戦の成立後となった。

It is of great significance that the lifting of our nation’s self-imposed ban on exercising its collective self-defense right should pave the way for sending minesweepers to troubled waters even before a ceasefire is established between warring parties.
集団的自衛権の行使を容認することによって、停戦前でも機雷を除去できるようにする意義は大きい。

It is vital for a trading nation like Japan to ensure the safety of its sea-lanes.
 貿易立国・日本にとって、海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保は死活的な重要性がある。

This nation should be allowed to decide whether to use the MSDF’s minesweeping abilities during an emergency.
海自の高い掃海能力を活用する選択肢を持つことが大切である。

Some critics have argued that there is only a low probability that Japan may need to send minesweepers. They have also spoken of the technical difficulties in intercepting a ballistic missile flying over Japan to strike the United States. However, we doubt whether there is any point in debating the probability of such a situation erupting as well as the technical aspects in this regard.
 機雷除去が必要になる可能性は低いとか、日本上空を通過する米国向け弾道ミサイルの迎撃は技術的に困難だ、といった主張が一部にある。だが、現時点での蓋然性や技術的問題を論じることに、どれほどの意味があるのか。

The key to success in ensuring national security is to anticipate various critical situations and create a structure for adequately responding to such emergencies.
 様々な事態を想定し、適切に対処できる仕組みを構築しておくことが、安全保障の要諦である。

In fact, mines were planted in the Persian Gulf during the 1991 war. In the recent past, a senior foreign government official hinted at planting mines to blockade straits in the Middle East. If Japan and the United States complete their joint interceptor missile development program within several years, the appropriate procedures to intercept a missile aiming for Guam or elsewhere is a realistic issue that our country must seriously think about.
 湾岸戦争時には実際に機雷が敷設され、近年も、機雷による中東の海峡封鎖を示唆する外国高官の発言があった。迎撃ミサイルの日米共同開発が数年以内に完了すれば、グアムなどに届く弾道ミサイルの迎撃は現実の問題となる。

In changing the government’s constitutional interpretation of the collective self-defense right, it is important to afford the government room to consider all circumstances both at home and abroad and then decide how emergencies will be dealt with at its own discretion. Doing so is essential to enable the SDF to operate effectively in the event of an emergency.
 憲法解釈の変更では、政府に、内外の情勢を総合的に勘案して対処するための裁量の余地を残し、自衛隊の効果的な活動を可能にすることを最重視すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 18, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

原発再稼働の前に―「被害地元」と向き合え

June 18, 2014
EDITORIAL: Abe needs to get priorities right before reactor restarts
原発再稼働の前に―「被害地元」と向き合え

The central government has required all prefectural and municipal entities within a 30-kilometer radius of nuclear power plants to have their own emergency response plans.
This was one of the lessons of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster.
Does it follow then that areas outside the 30-km radius are safe?
大飯原発での事故を想定し、甲状腺の被曝線量が50ミリシーベルト超となる可能性がある地域
 福島での大事故の後、国は原発から30キロ圏内の地域に、万一の事態に備えて防災計画を立てるよう求めている。では30キロ圏外の地域は安全なのか。

That is anything but the case, as indicated by estimates of predicted dispersions of radioactive materials made by local governments around nuclear power plants.
 とてもそうは言えない。原発の周辺自治体が試算した放射性物質拡散予測で、その現実が次々と浮き彫りになっている。

For example, the border of Hyogo Prefecture is at least 40 kilometers from the offline Oi and Takahama nuclear power plants in Fukui Prefecture, which operator Kansai Electric Power Co. intends to restart at an early date.
 例えば兵庫県は、関西電力が早期の再稼働をめざす福井県の大飯、高浜の両原発から最短でも40キロ離れている。

But the Hyogo prefectural government used data on past weather patterns to estimate what levels of radiation thyroid glands would be exposed to in the event of Fukushima-class disasters taking place at both the Oi and Takahama plants. It found that the doses could exceed the international benchmark of 50 millisieverts in seven days, even on Awajishima island, which is 150 kilometers from the nuclear power plants. Individuals exposed to radiation levels of 50 millisieverts or higher are advised to take iodine tablets to protect their thyroid glands from radiation.
 両原発で福島級の事故が起きたと想定し、過去の気象データを基に甲状腺の被曝(ひばく)線量を調べた。すると、150キロ離れた淡路島でも「安定ヨウ素剤の服用が必要」とする国際基準(7日間で50ミリシーベルト)を超える場合があるとわかった。

Depending on wind direction, similar scenarios were also indicated for the cities of Kobe, Amagasaki, Nishinomiya and elsewhere along the Hanshin belt between Osaka and Kobe.
神戸市や尼崎、西宮市などの阪神間でも、風向きによって基準値を大きく上回る可能性が浮かんだ。

Simulations by the Shiga prefectural government found that, in a worst-case scenario, a Fukushima-class disaster at Oi could spread radioactive materials exceeding the international benchmark into the airspace above Lake Biwako, more than 40 kilometers away. Similarly affected areas could include parts of Kyoto and Osaka prefectures.
 滋賀県の試算でも、大飯原発で福島級の事故が起きると、最悪の場合、40キロ以上離れた琵琶湖上空まで基準を超える放射性物質が届くという結果が出た。基準超えの地域は京都、大阪府にも広がっていた。

What do these estimates signify?
 なぜこんなことになるのか。

RISK OF THYROID CANCER
■甲状腺がんのリスク

A major accident at a nuclear power plant releases radioactive substances, which will eventually contaminate surface areas. Under international standards, evacuations and decontamination work would be required in areas where an individual's total body irradiation level exceeds 100 millisieverts in seven days. In the event of a Fukushima-class disaster, the areas requiring evacuation and decontamination work would be roughly within a 30-km radius of the stricken plant.
 原発が大事故を起こすと、大気中に飛び出した放射性物質が広がり、地表も汚染する。福島級の事故の場合、避難や除染を必要とする国際基準(7日間の全身被曝で100ミリシーベルト)を超える地域は、原発からおおむね30キロ圏内とされた。

But winds carry and spread airborne radioactive plumes further away. In areas where radioactive iodine in the atmosphere has not been sufficiently rarefied, thyroid glands are exposed to radiation and the risk of thyroid cancer rises, especially among small children. It is vital to put a system in place to speedily discern the spread of radioactive plumes and determine the right timing for people to take iodine tablets.
 だが放射性物質の集まり「プルーム」は、風任せでさらに外へと流れていく。大気中の放射性ヨウ素が十分に薄まっていないエリアでは、のど元の甲状腺が被曝して、小さな子どもが甲状腺がんになる確率が高くなる。プルームの拡散状況を素早く把握する体制を整え、的確なタイミングで安定ヨウ素剤を飲んでもらう備えが欠かせない。

One other factor that must be taken into consideration is that when it rains along the plume's track, concentrations of cesium and other radioactive materials that have long-term effects will fall to the ground and contaminate the soil. When that happens, temporary measures will not be sufficient.
 さらに考慮せねばならないのは、プルームの通過と降雨が重なれば、セシウムなど長期の影響をもたらす放射性物質が地上に集中的に落ちて、土地を汚染してしまうことだ。そうなれば一時的な対策ではすまない。

In the Fukushima Prefecture village of Iitate, about 40 km from the crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, rain fell just when a radioactive plume reached the community. Before the nuclear disaster, the villagers were in the process of building a self-sustaining farming operation in the belief that everyone could live happily. The village had not benefited financially from the nearby nuclear power plant. But since the disaster, the entire village has remained off-limits to the villagers.
 福島第一原発から約40キロ離れた福島県飯舘村では、プルームが飯舘村の上空に達したとき雨が降った。原発マネーとは縁遠く、地産地消や心の豊かさを目指す村づくりを進めていた。だが事故のせいで、今も全域が避難区域に指定されている。

The Union of Kansai Governments, whose members come from seven prefectures, including Osaka and Kyoto, has called on the central government to issue comprehensive guidelines on measures that should be taken in areas outside the 30-km radius from nuclear power plants, based on studies by local governments.
 関西広域連合は自治体の独自調査の結果をふまえ、30キロ圏外対策の具体的な指針を出すよう国に求めた。

Viable evacuation plans, along with prepared guidelines, need to be in place before issuing the order to evacuate. Otherwise, chaos can result. This was made clear from statements given to the government’s Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations by Tetsuro Fukuyama, a former deputy chief Cabinet secretary who was in charge of the evacuation process during the Fukushima crisis.
備えがなくては避難指示がいかに混乱するかは、明るみに出た「福山調書」でもはっきりした。

Acknowledging the need for such guidelines, the central government states in its nuclear disaster response policy outline that the Nuclear Regulation Authority will consider defining the extent of evacuation zones and other matters. 国も必要性を認め、原子力規制委員会が範囲の設定などを検討すると、原子力災害対策指針に記している。

However, the NRA has yet to embark on this task in earnest, mainly because it is engaged in safety screenings ahead of nuclear power plant restarts.
 だが規制委では今も本格的な検討はされておらず、再稼働に向けて、原発の施設内の審査が着々と進む。

LEGITIMATE DEMAND
■当たり前の主張

With nuclear power generation, there is no such thing as "absolute safety"--no matter how stringent the regulations.  もちろん規制をいくら強めても「絶対に安全」はない。

If any nuclear power plant is to be put into operation, the very least that must be done is to get an accurate grasp of the areas that will be affected in the event of a disaster.
By the same token, residents of those areas need to be informed of the exact nature of the risks they face and the steps that will be taken in the event of a nuclear accident.
原発を動かすなら、事故で被害を受ける地域を把握し、具体的な危険と対策を示して住民の了解を得ることが最低限必要である。

But to assume the central government understands this concept would be asking a lot.
 だが国の覚悟は疑わしい。

Even though municipalities that host nuclear power plants will not be the only ones affected in a nuclear accident, the government's Strategic Energy Plan states that the central government "will strive to obtain the understanding and cooperation of people associated with the municipalities that host nuclear power plants" before restarting offline reactors.
被害を受けるのは立地自治体だけではないのに、エネルギー基本計画には、再稼働の際は「立地自治体等関係者の理解と協力を得るよう取り組む」と記した。

Here, we can see right through the government's intent to press for the resumption of operations by taking advantage of those local governments' dependence on nuclear power plants for their fiscal and employment needs.
財政や雇用を原発に頼る自治体の弱みを見越して再稼働をスルリと進めたい思惑が見える。

After the onset of the Fukushima disaster, Shiga Governor Yukiko Kada came up with the term "higai jimoto" to denote all local governments, not just those which host nuclear power plants, that could be seriously affected by a nuclear accident.
 滋賀県の嘉田由紀子知事は福島での事故後、「被害地元」という考え方を示した。

Kada demanded the central government recognize them all as affected parties and allow them to get involved in the process before restarting nuclear plants.
原発を動かすかどうかは、事故の被害を受ける全ての自治体が地元としてかかわれるようにしてほしいと求めている。

This is a legitimate demand. In reality, however, it is still only the municipal and prefectural governments hosting nuclear power plants that have any real say.
当然の主張だ。だが現実は、立地自治体以外はほとんど口出しできない状況が続いている。

Toshiki Kudo, mayor of Hakodate in Hokkaido, who filed a lawsuit demanding the suspension of construction of the Oma nuclear power plant in neighboring Aomori Prefecture, warned that the same old "safety myth" of nuclear power generation will be perpetuated if the project is allowed to have its way.
 隣の青森県にある大間原発の建設差し止めを求めて提訴した北海道函館市の工藤寿樹市長は、このままではまた「安全神話」になってしまうと警鐘を鳴らす。

"It will be game over for our country if the government stops trying its hardest to win the understanding of the people," Kudo said.
「理解を得るための手間ひまを惜しんだらおしまいだ」

At a recent news conference on Japan's right to collective self-defense, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe reiterated that the government will "protect lives of the Japanese people." If he is genuinely committed to saving people's lives, he obviously needs to look squarely at all local communities that could be seriously affected by a nuclear disaster before he can even begin to argue in favor of restarting idle nuclear reactors.
 日本人の命を守る――。集団的自衛権の行使をめぐる記者会見で、安倍首相は繰り返した。それならば、原発事故の被害地元とも向き合わねばならない。再稼働の議論はそこからだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 18

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月18日 (水)

年金運用改革 リスク見極めて慎重に進めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Pension operation reform must be pushed via careful risk assessment
年金運用改革 リスク見極めて慎重に進めよ

How can pension funds, which sustain so many in their later years, be safely and advantageously operated?
 老後の生活を支える年金資金を、いかに安全かつ有利に運用するか。

Pension fund management system reforms should benefit the people who pay pension premiums.
 年金保険料を負担している国民の利益につながる改革とするべきだ。

The government has incorporated a review of the public pension funds operation system into a draft plan for its new growth strategy. The plan is aimed at improving the return on investment for funds held by the Government Pension Investment Fund and maintaining pension payments at the highest levels possible.
 政府は、新たな成長戦略の素案に、公的年金の資金運用見直しを盛り込んだ。年金積立金管理運用独立行政法人(GPIF)が保有する資産の投資収益を向上させ、できるだけ高い年金給付水準を維持するのが狙いである。

The Government Pension Investment Fund is one of the world’s largest pension funds, with assets totaling about ¥130 trillion. In general terms, 60 percent of the fund is invested in domestic bonds, including Japanese government bonds, and 12 percent in the domestic stock market.
 GPIFは、約130兆円の資産を保有する世界最大級の年金基金だ。運用の基本比率は、国債などの国内債券が60%を占め、国内株式は12%にとどまる。

Investment in government bonds offers the benefits of stability and reliability, but does not offer expectations for huge returns. The government is said to be examining the possibility of increasing the ratio of funds invested in stocks, which are expected to produce higher returns, as well as adding real estate investment trusts as one investment for the fund.
 国債は安定して運用できる利点がある一方、大きな収益は得にくい。より高い収益を見込める株式の運用枠拡大や、不動産投資信託(REIT)を運用対象に加えることなどを検討するという。

Capital flow into stocks and real estate would be expected to support stock prices and businesses, generating in turn a virtuous circle leading to further improvement of investment returns. It is not hard to understand why the government is seeking to disperse and diversify investment targets.
 株式や不動産への資金流入が株価や景気を支え、運用実績のさらなる改善をもたらす「好循環」も期待される。運用先を分散、多様化する方向性は理解できる。

Dismal return ratio

The Government Pension Investment Fund’s average investment returns crawled along at around 2 percent over the past 12 years. Indeed, the fund’s performance compares poorly with pension funds in the United States and Europe, which boast higher return rates.
 GPIFの過去12年間の平均運用収益率は約2%にとどまる。株式運用の比率が高い欧米などの年金基金に比べると、利回りが見劣りしているのは確かである。

According to a government estimate of pension finances, pensions cannot be maintained at targeted levels unless investment yields of 4.2 percent can be achieved.
 政府の年金財政検証によると、将来の給付水準の目標を保てる標準的なケースは、4・2%の運用利回りが前提だ。

Improved long-term return on their investments is also desirable as part of bolstering pension finances. The reallocation of a certain portion of investment from government bonds into stocks and other assets could be a rational judgment to make.
 年金財政の強化という観点からも、長期的な収益率の改善が望まれている。一定の範囲で国債から株式などに運用対象を切り替えるのは、合理的な判断と言える。

But it cannot be forgotten that stock prices carry the risk of sharp declines, depending on business trends.
 ただし、経済動向などによって株価が急落する危険があることも忘れてはならない。

Public pension reserves—the portion of premiums not paid back out as pension payments—are the fund’s “nest egg,” managed to create future pension payments.
 公的年金の積立金は、年金保険料収入のうち給付に充てなかった分を運用し、将来の給付に備えるまさに「虎の子」の資金だ。

If the Government Pension Investment Fund suffers a major loss after significantly increasing the ratio of stock investment to gain immediate profits, it could cause significant cuts to the pensions received by future generations.
 目先の利益を得るため株式比率を極端に増やした結果、年金基金が巨額の損失を出す事態を招けば、将来世代が受け取る年金が大きく減ってしまう恐れがある。

The fund should move carefully with the planned expansion of stock investments, shifting funds in phases and making thorough assessments of the economic situation along the way.
 株式運用の拡大は、経済情勢などを見極めながら、慎重かつ段階的に進めるべきである。

The fund’s investment activities run a risk of distorting the formation of stock prices and confusing stock markets if they are seen as part of government purchases of stocks aimed at short-term price increases.
 GPIFの投資行動が、短期的な株高を目的とした「株価維持政策」と見られれば、株価形成をゆがめ、市場を混乱させる。

To prevent investment decisions from being influenced by political pressure and other inappropriate factors, the independence and transparency of Government Pension Investment Fund must be enhanced. Gathering together highly knowledgeable experts in financial matters and enhancing risk management systems are also vital challenges for pension reform.
 投資判断が政治の圧力などに大きく左右されないよう、GPIFの独立性と透明性を高めることが大事だ。高度な金融知識を持つ人材を集め、リスク管理体制を充実させる取り組みも欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 17, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

イラク情勢緊迫 過激派の攻勢をどう抑えるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
What can be done to stop offensive by extremist Sunni insurgents in Iraq?
イラク情勢緊迫 過激派の攻勢をどう抑えるか

The situation in Iraq has become ever more strained. Rebels led by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), a Sunni extremist group advocating the creation of a new Islamic state, have seized several cities in northern Iraq.
 イラク情勢が緊迫の度を増している。
 「新たなイスラム国家建設」を掲げるスンニ派の過激派組織「イラク・シリアのイスラム国(ISIS)」が、イラク北部の複数の都市を制圧した。

The Iraqi administration of Prime Minister Nouri Maliki is fighting back with air strikes, while recruiting volunteer soldiers from among his Shiite supporters.
 マリキ政権は軍による空爆を行い、支持基盤のシーア派から義勇兵を募って応戦している。

This is indeed an alarming situation that increases the turmoil in the Middle East.
 中東の混乱に拍車をかける、憂慮すべき事態と言えよう。

The ISIS is an Al-Qaida-inspired armed group. Having expanded its influence by riding the tide of Syria’s civil war, the ISIS is said to have grown to about 5,000 fighters. Upon entering another theater of war in Iraq, the group even declared it would eliminate the border with Syria.
 ISISは、国際テロ組織アル・カーイダの流れをくむ武装集団だ。シリア内戦に乗じて勢力を拡大し、推定5000人規模に膨れ上がった。イラクに転戦する際には、シリアとの国境の抹消までも宣言していた。

The United States has announced a $10 million reward for its leader, who is dubbed the second Osama bin Laden.
 指導者は「第2のビンラーディン」とも呼ばれており、米国が1000万ドルの懸賞金をかけて国際指名手配した。

Imposing strict Islam in seized areas, ISIS militants have killed people for refusing to pledge allegiance to the ISIS. This is a horrific situation from a humanitarian viewpoint. The United Nations has rightly condemned the ISIS, saying the executions were carried out immediately without any legal process. As the turmoil has been spreading, oil prices have begun rising on the market.
 ISISは、制圧地域で厳格なイスラム法を適用し、従わない者を殺害している。人道上、極めて問題である。国連が「司法手続きを経ない即決の処刑だ」と非難したのはもっともだ。混乱拡大で、原油価格も上昇し始めた。

Maliki should also be held strictly responsible for having brought about the current situation. He has given preferential treatment to Shiites, who represent the majority of the Iraqi people, in the administration, while persistently driving out their Sunni political opponents.
 マリキ首相にもこうした事態を招いた重い責任がある。首相は、国民の多数を占めるシーア派を政権で優遇し、スンニ派の政敵追い落としに固執した。

Morale deteriorating

Even within the military forces and public security organizations, sectarian conflicts have surfaced, undermining the morale of personnel.
 軍や治安機関の内部でも宗派対立が顕在化し、士気は低下した。

In the areas attacked by the ISIS, officers and soldiers are said to have fled, discarding their uniforms and equipment. These are the prices Maliki is paying for failing to pursue national reconciliation.
ISISが攻め込んだ地域では、将兵らが制服や装備を投げ出して逃亡したという。
 国民融和を怠った首相の統治手法のツケが回った結果である。

It would be difficult for his administration alone to stem the ISIS offensive. For the time being, it is necessary for the international community to support and cooperate with the Maliki administration to avoid further turmoil.
 ISISの攻勢をマリキ政権が単独で食い止めるのは困難だろう。当面は、国際社会がマリキ政権を支え、連携して混乱の拡大を回避する必要がある。

Holding the key to such efforts is how the United States reacts to the situation. U.S. President Barack Obama said he would not rule out any options. Later he sent an aircraft carrier to the Persian Gulf, with possible air strikes in mind. But he remains negative about U.S. intervention in the conflict in Iraq and has already ruled out the possibility of putting U.S. troops on the ground there.
 カギを握るのは米国の対応だ。オバマ大統領は、「あらゆる選択肢を排除しない」と述べ、空爆も念頭にペルシャ湾へ空母を派遣した。一方で、紛争介入への消極姿勢は変わらず、地上軍投入の可能性を早々に排除した。

Obama was elected to the presidency by advocating the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq and completed their withdrawal in 2011.
 オバマ氏は、米軍のイラク撤退を掲げて当選し、2011年に撤収を完了させた。

The deteriorating situation in Iraq raises a question for Obama: Has the United States taken sufficient measures to maintain law and order in Iraq following its withdrawal?
イラク情勢の悪化は、撤収後の治安確保の手当てなどが十分だったのかという問いを大統領に突きつけている。

A key point now is how Iran, a major Shiite country neighboring Iraq with a large influence on the Maliki administration, will act. The country is said to be ready to hold direct talks with the United States over assistance to Iraq, despite the fact that the two countries have broken off ties.
 シーア派大国で、マリキ政権に影響力を持つ隣国イランの出方も焦点だ。イラク支援をめぐり、断交中の米国とも直接協議する方針という。

Other neighboring countries in the Middle East are urged to present a united front against the ISIS by joining international efforts.
中東の周辺国は、この動きに加わり、対ISISで共闘していくことが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 17, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)若者の意識 「どうせ」のその先へ

June 17, 2014
EDITORIAL: Young Japanese need help to outgrow defeatist mentality
(社説)若者の意識 「どうせ」のその先へ

An international survey has offered much reassurance to certain people who are pessimistic about Japan’s younger generations.
Some of these pessimists passionately argue that young Japanese do not take pride in their country because of “self-deprecating views” about Japanese history that have been firmly planted in their minds. Others vociferously claim that the consciousness of social norms among Japanese youth has declined because excessive individualism has prevailed.
 「『自虐史観』を植えつけられて、若者が自国に誇りを持てなくなっている」
 「行き過ぎた個人主義がはびこり規範意識が低下している」

They should feel a little easier now given the results of an online survey, conducted by the Cabinet Office from November to December 2013, covering males and females between the ages of 13 and 29 in Japan, South Korea, the United States, Britain, Germany, France and Sweden.
The survey drew responses from around 1,000 individuals in each country.
The findings were included in this year’s White Paper on Children and Young People that has been approved by the Cabinet.
 こう熱心に主張される向きには、まずは安心して頂きたい。
 閣議決定された今年の「子ども・若者白書」は、日本、韓国、米国、英国、ドイツ、フランス、スウェーデンの計7カ国で、13~29歳の男女約千人ずつを対象に昨年実施したインターネット調査の結果を掲載した。

Seventy percent of the Japanese respondents said they are proud of being their country’s nationals, the fourth-highest ratio following the figures for the United States, Sweden and Britain. In addition, 55 percent of the Japanese respondents said they want to do things that will contribute to their nation, the highest ratio among the seven countries.
 「自国人であることに誇りを持っている」と答えた人の割合は、日本が70%。米国、スウェーデン、英国に次いで高く、「自国のために役立つと思うようなことをしたい」は55%でトップだった。

When asked if they think individuals are free to do anything they want as long as they don’t cause trouble for others, only 42 percent of the Japanese young people said “yes,” a far lower ratio than the average of about 80 percent for the other countries.
一方「他人に迷惑をかけなければ、何をしようと個人の自由だ」は42%。他国平均は約8割なので極端に低い。

Such a survey, of course, cannot reveal all of the views and feelings of young people. But it is still troubling to know that only 46 percent of the Japanese respondents felt content with themselves, compared with more than 70 percent in each of the six other countries.
 調査で若者意識すべてをつかめるわけではないが、気になるのは「自分自身に満足している」と回答した人の割合が日本は46%で最下位だったことだ。他の6カ国は7割を超える。

How should we feel about the unique fact that far fewer young Japanese are content with themselves than those who are proud of their country?
 日本人であることの誇りが、自分自身への満足を大きく上回るという日本だけのこの傾向をさて、どう考えたらいいのか。

The mind-set of children and young people of today offers hints about what is the invisible but prevailing mood in this society. There is no absolutely correct answer to the question. But we are tempted to think there is a strong undercurrent of a defeatist mentality symbolized by the Japanese word “dose” (anyway, in any case or after all) as used in such a sentence as “Dose dame da” (It's no use, anyway).
 いまを生きる子どもや若者の意識からは、目に見えない、この社会の「気分」を感じ取ることができる。正解はない。ただ、基調には「どうせ」が漂っているように思えてならない。

The survey found that just 62 percent of young Japanese had bright hopes for their future. Only 52 percent of the Japanese respondents were willing to tackle important challenges with enthusiasm even when success is not certain, while just 44 percent wanted to get involved in dealing with societal problems to make society better, according to the survey.
And only 30 percent of young Japanese said they think their participation may change even slightly the social phenomena they want improve. Japanese ranked at the bottom for all these questions.
 「自分の将来に明るい希望を持っている」(62%)、「うまくいくかわからないことにも意欲的に取り組む」(52%)、「社会をよりよくするため、社会における問題に関与したい」(44%)、「私の参加により、変えてほしい社会現象が少し変えられるかもしれない」(30%)。すべて日本が最下位だ。

“Dose” is a convenient word. If you don’t have high hopes, you can avoid disappointment. This can be described as a “happy” attitude toward life in this age of low economic growth.
 「どうせ」は便利だ。高望みしなければ、失望せずに済む。低成長時代に適合した、「幸せ」な生き方だとも言える。

If this “dose” mentality spreads, however, many people will view society, which they should shape themselves, as something that cannot be changed.
 だが、「どうせ」が広がると、本来は自分たちの手でかたちづくっていくはずの社会が、変わりようのない所与のものとして受けいれられてしまう。

By playing certain roles in society, people fulfill their desire to be recognized by others and have positive feelings about their lives. A society dominated by the “dose” mind-set probably cannot perform that function well.
 人は社会のなかで役割を担い、そのことを通じて人に認められたいという欲求を満たし、生きている実感を手にできる。「どうせ」な社会はおそらく、その機能を持ち得ないだろう。

The current situation in Japan poses a serious test of the ability of the more-experienced adults to reject this defeatist mentality. They shouldn’t refuse this challenge by saying, “Such a naive approach can make no difference, anyway.”
 「どうせ」なんかじゃない。
 彼らよりも長く生きている「大人」がそれを示せるかどうかが、まずは問われている。「そんなキレイゴトじゃ、どうせ何も変わらないんだよ」で、片付けてしまわずに。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 17

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月17日 (火)

理研改革提言 組織再構築へ力量が問われる

The Yomiuri Shimbun
RIKEN’s capability to rebuild itself being questioned after outside report
理研改革提言 組織再構築へ力量が問われる

An external reform committee of experts set up by RIKEN in connection with the controversy over articles on stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) cells sharply criticized the institute’s distorted merit-based system, which allowed an immature researcher to act recklessly.
 未熟な研究者の暴走を許した、歪ゆがんだ成果主義への指弾である。

In a set of proposals it unveiled last week, the reform committee is even seeking the dismantlement of the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology (CDB), where research irregularities were found.
 STAP細胞問題をめぐり、理化学研究所が設置した外部有識者の改革委員会が提言をまとめた。研究不正の舞台となった理研の発生・再生科学総合研究センターの解体まで求めている。

It urged RIKEN to mete out “extremely strict punishment” to Haruko Obokata, the unit leader who led the STAP cell research, given the graveness of the irregularities she committed, and to replace top CDB officials, including Deputy Director Yoshiki Sasai, who coauthored the STAP articles.
 研究を主導した小保方晴子ユニットリーダーについて「不正行為は重大で、極めて厳しく処分されるべきだ」と理研に注文した。論文共著者の笹井芳樹副センター長ら上層部の更迭も促した。

It was a matter of course for the committee to call on Obokata and other researchers, who fundamentally damaged the credibility of Japan’s scientific research, as well as the CDB, to take responsibility for the fiasco.
 日本の科学研究の信頼性を根底から損なった小保方氏らと、その組織の責任が問われたのは当然と言えよう。

What the committee particularly found problematic was the fact that the CDB leadership hired Obokata without duly confirming her career achievements as well as their failure to adequately supervise her.
 改革委が特に問題視したのは、センター上層部が小保方氏の実績を確認せずに採用し、適切に監督しなかった点だ。

The committee criticized Sasai for giving preferential treatment to Obokata based on expectations that the center would be able to win funding for STAP cell research, in which he saw much potential. Sasai is suspected to have tried to cover up irregularities committed by Obokata upon learning about them by not reporting them to the RIKEN headquarters, the committee said.
 STAP細胞研究に着目した笹井氏が、予算獲得への期待から小保方氏を優遇したと批判した。小保方氏の不正を知った後も理研本部に申告せず、隠蔽工作が疑われるとも指摘している。

Ignoring goal of research

Such actions are tantamount to neglecting the basics of scientific research, which aims to discover truths. The committee, which was initially entrusted to consider ways to prevent the recurrence of such cases, had no choice but to propose the CDB’s disbandment and heavy punishment for those involved.
 真実を追究する科学研究の基本をおろそかにした行為としか言いようがない。元々、再発防止策の検討を求められていた改革委も、関係者の重い処分やセンター解体の提言にまで踏み込まざるを得なかったのだろう。

The CDB, however, is a prominent hub for regenerative medicine. It is true that the center has actively assigned important tasks to young researchers, producing tangible achievements. Many articles authored by young researchers have been published in influential scientific journals.
 ただ、センターは再生医学の国内有数の研究拠点である。若手研究者を積極的に登用し、実績を上げてきたのも事実だ。有力科学誌に掲載された論文は多い。

There are concerns that talented researchers might feel constrained in doing their jobs or seek opportunities abroad at a time when public attention is focused on research irregularities.
 研究不正の問題ばかりが注目される中で、有能な人材が萎縮したり、海外に流出したりする事態が懸念される。

The CDB is currently conducting the world’s first clinical research using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Within this year, it plans to transplant cornea cells produced from iPS cells to a patient with an intractable eye disease.
 センターではiPS細胞(人工多能性幹細胞)を使った世界初の臨床研究が進んでいる。年内には目の難病患者にiPS細胞から作った網膜細胞を移植する。

Regenerative medical research, which Japan wholeheartedly promotes, should never be allowed to stall. For this, RIKEN, as a whole, should urgently introduce necessary measures to address these problems.
 日本が力を入れる再生医療分野の研究を停滞させてはならない。理研を挙げての対策が急務だ。

The governance of the RIKEN headquarters must be made more robust. After the scandal surfaced, RIKEN took a “half-hearted approach to unravel what lies behind the irregularities and the specifics of why such wrongdoings occurred,” the committee said in a sharp criticism of the research body.
 理研本部のガバナンス(組織統治)も強化せねばならない。問題の発覚後も、「不正行為の背景や原因の詳細な解明に及び腰」だったと改革委は非難している。

RIKEN is a representative, large-scale Japanese research body, which annually receives more than ¥80 billion in funds from the state coffer.
 理研は、年800億円を超える国費が投じられている日本を代表する巨大研究機関である。

Saying the management of RIKEN by its president and five directors is hardly sufficient, the committee proposed the establishment of a management council that would be joined by external members as well as a body that would work to prevent research irregularities.
 改革委は、理事長と5人の理事による体制は手薄であり、外部委員が参画する経営会議や、研究不正を防止する組織を新設するよう提案した。

The ball is now in RIKEN’s court to demonstrate how effectively it will rebuild itself.
組織をどう立て直すのか、理研の姿勢が問われる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 16, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

法人税率下げ 20%台を「数年」で実現させよ

反対です!
タイの税金(所得税)はおおむね7%なんですが、日本では20%です。
法人税率を20%台に切り下げるよりも、われわれの所得税を10%まで切り下げて欲しいですね。
国民の購買力を増大させ、景気回復を図るには、法人税率切り下げ政策よりも効果があります。
さらに、即効性も持続性もあります。
自民党政権下ではとうてい無理なのでしょうが。
昔も今も自民党は大企業の味方なんです。
庶民の生活が大幅に改善されることはないでしょう。
外国企業が日本に進出しにくいのは、税金面ではなくって、日本独自の文化や仕事の進め方なんです。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Government should reduce corporate tax to less than 30% in a few years
法人税率下げ 20%台を「数年」で実現させよ

Lowering corporate tax rates to boost businesses’ competitiveness is an effective way to strengthen Japan’s potential for growth. The government should secure new revenue sources to cover the possible decline in tax revenues in the wake of the cuts, and steadily bring about the envisioned corporate tax reduction.
 日本経済の成長基盤を強化するには、企業の競争力を高める法人減税が有効である。減税の財源を確保し、着実に実現を図るべきだ。

In a draft of its basic economic and fiscal reform policies, which are scheduled to be endorsed by the Cabinet toward the end of June, the government has incorporated a plan to reduce the effective corporate tax rate in stages to less than 30 percent over a few years. The tax cuts are to start from fiscal 2015.
 政府は、6月末に閣議決定する「経済財政運営の基本方針」(骨太の方針)の素案に、法人税の実効税率を数年で20%台まで引き下げる方針を盛り込んだ。2015年度から引き下げを始める。

Hopes are that corporate tax cuts will help curb the hollowing-out of the nation’s industry, and attract investment from abroad.
 法人減税は産業空洞化に歯止めをかけ、海外から日本への投資を呼び込む効果が期待される。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has stressed, “Japan’s corporate tax system will change to be growth-oriented.”
 安倍首相は「日本の法人税は成長志向に変わる」と強調した。

Japan’s effective corporate tax rates—consisting of national and local taxes—are quite high compared to those overseas. The rate stands at 35.64 percent, for instance, in Tokyo.
 日本の実効税率は35・64%(東京都)と国際的にみて高い。

The government has yet to clarify what percentage the taxes will eventually be lowered to and in what time frame. However, the fact that the government has officially hammered out the goal of reducing the tax rates to less than 30 percent, similar to those in Europe and other Asian nations, is worthy of praise.
 税率を何年で、どこまで下げるのか明示できなかったとはいえ、欧州やアジア諸国なみの20%台とする目標を、正式に打ち出したことを評価したい。

On the question of how to secure new revenue sources to offset the corporate tax cuts, the government and the ruling coalition parties are scheduled to reach a conclusion in time for tax system reform toward the end of the year.
 減税の財源については、年末の税制改正までに、政府・与党で結論を出すことになった。

The draft says permanent revenue sources should be secured from a variety of resources, including those made possible by the business recovery stemming from the Abenomics economic policy package. While emphasizing the need for stable revenue sources, it suggests that room be left for sources of funding that draw on increases in tax revenue that will result from future economic growth.
 素案は、アベノミクスの効果も踏まえて、恒久財源を確保するとした。安定的な財源の必要性を強調する一方、将来の経済成長による税収増加も財源とみなすことに含みを残した。

Opinions divided on timing

This is because opinions are currently split: Akira Amari, state minister for economic and fiscal policy, and business leaders want early implementation of a significant reduction in corporate taxes, while the Liberal Democratic Party’s Research Commission on the Tax System and the Finance Ministry insist that the envisaged tax cuts must come after permanent revenue sources are secured.
 甘利経済財政相や経済界が大幅な法人税率引き下げの早期実現を求めたのに対し、自民党税制調査会や財務省は恒久財源の確保を減税の前提と主張し、意見が折り合わなかったためである。

It is reasonable for the government to work to make up for drop in tax revenue due to the corporate tax reduction, by looking for as many permanent revenue sources as possible. The government should address the task of broadening the corporate tax base, asking a wide range of businesses to share tax burdens thinly and broadly.
 できるだけ多くの恒久財源を見つけ出し、税収の減少を補う努力をするのは当然だ。幅広い企業に広く薄く負担を求める「課税ベースの拡大」を進めたい。

Of the tax breaks designed to alleviate the burden on designated sectors, those that are deemed to have completed their intended roles and those considered to have little effect should be abolished. Unless the priority in the tax system is shifted away from the protection of existing businesses to nurturing promising industries with high growth potential, it will be difficult to strengthen Japan’s economic growth.
 特定業界の法人税負担を軽減している租税特別措置のうち、すでに役割を終えたものや、効果の薄い項目は廃止すべきだ。税制の軸足を、既存産業の保護から、成長産業の育成へ移さないと、日本の成長力は底上げできまい。

There also is the problem that about 70 percent of businesses operating in this country do not pay corporate taxes.  国内企業の約7割が法人税を支払っていないという問題もある。

Studies should be conducted on the advisability of expanding levies under what is known as the pro forma corporate tax, a taxation formula designed to have even money-losing businesses pay corporate taxes based on the size of the business.
赤字企業でも事業規模などに応じて納税する外形標準課税の拡大も検討課題となろう。

Corporate tax revenues can fluctuate considerably depending on business trends.
 法人税収は景気動向に大きく左右される。

Placing excessive expectations on natural increases in tax revenues is therefore inadvisable, but it can be a viable option to make use of higher-than-expected corporate tax revenues in preparation for corporate tax cuts.
自然増収へ過度に期待するのは禁物だが、上振れ分を減税の先行に活用することは、選択肢になり得る。

Among other effective arrangements to offset tax revenue declines will be redoubled efforts to slash wasteful budgetary appropriations and reform of the social security system, expenditures for which have continued to swell with no signs of leveling off.
 無駄な予算の一層の削減や、歳出の増大に歯止めがかからない社会保障制度の改革も、税収減を補う有効な手立てだろう。

The government and the ruling coalition parties should deepen discussions by comprehensively taking into account ways of expediting the nation’s growth and considering what is desirable for the future of the tax and fiscal systems.
 政府・与党は日本の成長促進や税・財政の在り方などを総合的に勘案し、議論を深めるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 16, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)諫早湾干拓 有明海再生は開門から

June 16, 2014
EDITORIAL: Open floodgates to restore the Ariake Sea
(社説)諫早湾干拓 有明海再生は開門から

The government is being forced to pay 490,000 yen (about $4,900) to plaintiffs per day as a penalty because it is not abiding by a finalized court ruling.
 確定した判決に従わない政府が、罰として1日あたり49万円を原告に支払うことになった。

Needless to say, the fine is coming out of taxpayer money. The unbelievable penalty stems from a 2010 Fukuoka High Court ruling.
 いうまでもなく、国民の税金である。耳を疑うような公金支出のもとになったのは、2010年の福岡高裁判決だった。

In 1997, Nagasaki Prefecture’s Isahaya Bay, located in the western part of the Ariake Sea in the Kyushu region, was closed off from the sea by a wall of floodgates for a government land reclamation project. As a result, a wide area of tidal land disappeared.
 舞台は九州・有明海の西部、長崎県の諫早湾。国の干拓事業で17年前、湾が堤防で閉め切られ、広大な干潟が消えた。

The 2010 court ruling ordered the government to open some of the floodgates within three years to assess the impact the opening will have on the environment in the sea. Though the deadline for the opening came in December 2013, the government has yet to comply.
 判決は、有明海の環境変化を見きわめるため、堤防の排水門を3年以内に開くよう命じた。しかし、政府は昨年12月に期限が来ても開門しなかった。

Subsequently, the plaintiffs, many of whom are engaged in the local fishing industry, filed a petition with a court to require the government to abide by the ruling. As a result, the fine was assessed until the government complied.
 そこで原告の漁業者らは裁判所に申し立てをし、判決に従うよう促す強制金が決まった。

Why does the government refuse to comply? The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries says that the Nagasaki prefectural government and people engaged in farming the reclaimed land are opposed to the opening of the gates.
 なぜ判決に従わないのか。地元の長崎県や干拓地の営農者らが開門に反対しているからだ、と農林水産省はいう。

In November 2013, the Nagasaki District Court issued an injunction that sided with the farmers’ request barring the opening of the floodgates. The farmers also filed a petition to force the government to comply with the court's decision. Their demand that the government be forced to pay 490,000 yen to the plaintiffs per day if it opens the gates was also approved by the court.
 なるほど、営農者らが訴えた開門差し止めは、昨年11月に長崎地裁で認められた。営農者らもその決定が守られるよう申し立て、開門すれば政府が1日49万円を払うことも認められた。

Whether it opens the floodgates or not, the government has to pay a penalty. Saying, “Opening the floodgates or being prohibited from opening the floodgates, we cannot take sides on the two opposing positions,” the government is caught in a dilemma.
 どちらに転んでも強制金。「開門と開門禁止。二つの義務の一方には立てない」と、政府は板挟みを演じている。

However, behind the conflicting court rulings is the government’s stubborn stance.
 だが、そもそも裁判所の判断が割れた背景には、政府のかたくなな姿勢があった。

The government has yet to acknowledge the causal relationship between the closing of the bay and damage to the local fishing industry. The stance worked to the disadvantage of people engaged in fishing in the hearings at the Nagasaki District Court.
 高裁判決が認めた漁業被害と湾閉め切りの因果関係を、政府は今も認めない。それが長崎地裁の審理のなかで漁業者側の不利にはたらいた。

It is futile to spend more time for arguments in courts. It is the time to leave the judicial system for now and turn attention to the situation in the bay.
 これ以上、司法論争に時間を費やすのは不毛である。ここは訴訟合戦から一度離れ、現場に目を向けるべきだ。

In the huge reservoir set up in the closed bay, the water quality has deteriorated, where noxious blue-green algae is being generated in large quantities every year. When the water level in the reservoir rises, the water there is discharged outside the closed bay. As a result, the reservoir has become a source of pollution in the Ariake Sea.
 干潟をつぶしてできた調整池では水質が悪化し、毎年有毒のアオコが大量発生する。水位が上がると湾へ流すため、池が有明海の汚染源になり果てた。

After the bay was closed, benthos, such as lugworms, decreased sharply in the entire Ariake Sea. Some researchers show that the decrease could be one of the causes of the damage to the fisheries industry.
 湾閉め切り後、有明海全域でゴカイなどの底生生物が激減した。これが漁業不振の一因では、と指摘する研究もある。

In 2002, the agriculture ministry opened the floodgates for a short period. Then, the number of benthos increased sharply in less than a month. If seawater is allowed to flow into the reservoir, part of the purification function of the tidal land will be restored. As a result, a way to improve the environment in the reservoir and the Ariake Sea will be gained.
 農水省は02年に短期開門調査をしている。1カ月弱で底生生物は一時的に急増した。池に海水を入れれば、干潟の浄化機能の一部がよみがえり、環境改善のヒントが見えてくるはずだ。

Opponents of opening the gates say that if they are opened, the livelihoods of farmers will be damaged. However, the ministry is showing confidence in measures to prevent adverse effects. If farmers have anxieties over these preventative steps, the ministry will be able to strengthen the measures.
 開門反対派は、開門すれば農業に支障が出る、と恐れる。だが、農水省は対策に自信を示している。不安ならば、さらに対策を強化すればいい。

What we cannot understand is the Nagasaki prefectural government's insistence on continuing to refuse even discussions on opening the floodgates. How much longer will it allow the conflict between local people to continue?
 理解に苦しむのは、開門の話し合いさえ拒み続ける長崎県の対応だ。地域の対立要因をいつまで放置するつもりなのか。

Now is the time for all the people concerned to combine their wisdom toward the restoration of the environment in the Ariake Sea and reconciliation between local people.
 有明海の環境再生と、地元の和解へ向けて関係者全員が真剣に知恵を結集するときだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 15

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月16日 (月)

薬効改竄逮捕 産学のもたれ合いも解明せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Business-academia collusion must be exposed regarding clinical drug trials
薬効改竄逮捕 産学のもたれ合いも解明せよ

The alleged data falsification in the clinical research of a drug has developed into a criminal case. The entire picture of the problem must be clarified to prevent such an irregularity from recurring.
 臨床研究のデータ改竄かいざん問題が、刑事事件に発展した。全容を解明し、再発防止につなげなければならない。

The Tokyo District Public Prosecutors Office’s special investigation squad has arrested a former employee of Novartis Pharma K.K., the Japanese subsidiary of Swiss pharmaceutical giant Novartis AG, on suspicion of violating the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in connection with Diovan, a Novartis drug used to treat high blood pressure.
 東京地検特捜部が、高血圧治療薬「ディオバン」を販売する大手製薬会社「ノバルティスファーマ」の元社員を、薬事法違反容疑で逮捕した。

The man is suspected of having provided falsified data to doctors and researchers at such institutions as Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine to make the drug appear effective in preventing cerebral apoplexy, in a bid to have the data included in their research papers.
 京都府立医大の医師らに、薬が脳卒中の予防に効果があるかのように改竄した虚偽のデータを提供し、論文などに掲載させた疑いが持たれている。

The former Novartis employee has reportedly denied any wrongdoing. The special investigation squad must do everything it can in its investigation to determine exactly how the suspected falsification of the clinical research data occurred as well as the motives behind the irregularities.
 元社員は容疑を否認しているとされる。特捜部は捜査を尽くし、データ改竄の経緯や動機を明らかにすることが求められる。

With annual sales of about ¥100 billion, Diovan has been widely used by the nation’s medical institutions. Novartis has allegedly used the research papers based on the falsified data for advertising purposes—an action that is nothing less than completely undermining the public’s confidence in medicine and a betrayal of the trust of patients who placed their expectations on the drug’s efficacy.
 ディオバンは医療機関で広く使用され、売り上げは年間約1000億円に上る。ノバ社は、不正データに基づく論文を宣伝に利用していた。医薬品の信頼を著しく損なう行為であり、薬効を期待した患者への背信にほかならない。

Investigators must determine whether the corporate entity of Novartis Pharma as a whole was involved in the data falsification.
 会社による組織ぐるみの関与がなかったのか、究明が必要だ。

The former Novartis employee was involved in data analyses during Diovan clinical research at four universities in addition to Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, including Jikei University School of Medicine in Tokyo. Prosecutors say the data were ascertained to have been altered in many cases. We cannot help but wonder why the medical doctors at the universities were unaware of what happened.
 元社員は京都府立医大のほか慈恵医大など4大学の臨床研究でデータ解析に携わり、その多くでデータ操作が判明している。各大学の医師たちは、なぜ不正に気づかなかったのだろうか。

Urgent need for impartiality

Laboratories of those universities have so far received more than ¥1.1 billion in research funding from Novartis Pharma. The possibility is high that the back-scratching relations between universities, who are eager to obtain cash from businesses, and Novartis, out to exploit research results to promote its drug sales, may have formed a hotbed of wrongdoing.
 これらの大学の研究室には、ノバ社からこれまでに計11億円を超える奨学寄付金が提供された。企業から資金を得たい大学と、研究成果を販売促進に役立てたい企業のもたれ合いが、不正の温床となった可能性がある。

Clinical research for such medicines as Diovan should be conducted primarily for the purpose of collecting data conducive to helping patients and their doctors choose an optimum method of treatment. The special investigation squad must get to the bottom of the alleged collusion between the pharmaceutical company and the universities.
 ディオバンのような処方薬の臨床研究は本来、医師や患者が最適な治療を選択するためのデータを集めるのが目的だ。特捜部は、製薬会社と大学の癒着構造にも切り込んでもらいたい。

There has been no end to irregularities in clinical research activities. It has been disclosed, for instance, that Novartis illegally obtained data on participants in the trials of its leukemia drug that were conducted at the University of Tokyo Hospital and elsewhere. The company also failed to report the drug’s side effects to the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry.
 臨床研究を巡る不正は後を絶たない。ノバ社は東京大病院などが実施した白血病治療薬の研究に関与し、患者の個人情報を不正に取得した。副作用についても厚生労働省に報告しなかった。

Pharmaceutical firms and university hospitals should take actions to put an end to such irregularities in the industry.
 製薬会社と大学病院は、自浄作用を高めるべきだ。

The Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, for that matter, has decided that its member firms will not make donations to universities engaged in clinical tests of their products and refrain from accepting requests from universities for undertaking related data analyses.
 日本製薬工業協会は、自社製品の臨床研究を行う大学に対しては、寄付金を提供せず、データ解析を引き受けないことを申し合わせた。

The Science Council of Japan, for its part, has come out with a proposal for establishing a governmental organization tasked with conducting unbiased clinical research on medical products.
日本学術会議は、医薬品の臨床研究を中立的に運営する公的組織の整備を提言している。

The government is currently working out a set of ethical guidelines that will call for universities to preserve their clinical research data for a long period and have the outcomes examined by third parties. It is undoubtedly of great significance to create arrangements truly effective in addressing the task of ensuring that clinical research is conducted properly.
 政府は現在、データの長期保存や第三者による研究のチェックを大学側に求める倫理指針を策定中だ。実効性のある取り組みで、臨床研究の公正性を担保することが肝要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 15, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

改正国民投票法 新たな憲法の各論を深めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
All parties must promote debates with an eye to revising nation’s Constitution
改正国民投票法 新たな憲法の各論を深めたい

We applaud the fact that more than 90 percent of the members of the House of Representatives and House of Councillors supported a bill to revise the national referendum law, a show of wide support that will serve as an important basis for realizing constitutional revisions.
 衆参両院の9割超の賛同を得たことは、憲法改正の実現への重要な基盤になると歓迎したい。

The bill has been passed into law with the approval of eight ruling and opposition parties, including the Liberal Democratic Party, New Komeito, the Democratic Party of Japan and Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party). The only parties that voted against it were the Japanese Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party.
 改正国民投票法が、自民、公明、民主、日本維新の会など与野党8党の賛成で成立した。反対した政党は共産、社民両党だけである。

The revised law stipulates that the minimum voting age in national referendums on constitutional revisions will remain 20 for the time being but will be lowered to 18 four years after the law’s enforcement. It is significant that a legal framework for carrying out national referendums has been established.
 改正法は、憲法改正の国民投票権について、当面は「20歳以上」とし、施行の4年後に「18歳以上」に引き下げると定めたものだ。国民投票を実施するための法制面の環境が整った意義は大きい。

When the national referendum law was established in May 2007 during the first Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, it was mainly supported by the LDP and Komeito but opposed by the DPJ.
 2007年5月に第1次安倍内閣で国民投票法が成立した際は、民主党が反対し、自民、公明の与党などの賛成にとどまった。

In deliberations over the revised legislation, the ruling camp and the DPJ initially clashed over restrictions imposed on campaigning for a national referendum by public servants, but both sides eventually compromised to forge a suprapartisan agreement.
 今回も当初は、公務員の国民投票運動の制限などをめぐり与党と民主党が対立したが、双方が歩み寄って超党派の合意ができた。

A high hurdle must be cleared before revising the Constitution: Amendments must be initiated by the Diet through a concurring vote of two-thirds or more of all the members of each house. Putting their own interests aside, all parties should strive to build a broad consensus.
 憲法改正の発議には、衆参各院の3分の2以上の賛成を要するという高いハードルがある。各党は党利党略を排し、幅広い合意形成を目指してもらいたい。

Revision essential

The nation’s Constitution has not been revised since its establishment in 1946, which makes it a rare case in the world. It has become even more necessary to revise the basic law to enable it to deal adequately and swiftly with various important issues out of consideration for the drastic changes Japan has seen in its economy and society as well as in the international and security environments.
 日本国憲法は1946年の制定以来、一度も改正されていない。世界でも希有けうな存在だ。日本の経済・社会や国際情勢、安全保障環境の劇的な変化を踏まえ、様々な重要課題に迅速かつ適切に対応できるよう、憲法を見直す必要性は一段と高くなっている。

From now on, it is essential to discuss specifics in depth—which articles should be changed and how they should be amended. Major points of deliberations have already been presented during discussions by each chamber’s Commission on the Constitution.
 今後は、どの条文をどう変更するのか、具体論を深めることが大切だ。衆参の憲法審査会の議論で主要な論点は出そろっている。

Many parties have agreed on clarifying the status of the Self-Defense Forces, adding such new rights as environmental rights to the people’s rights and strengthening the prime minister’s authority in emergencies such as major earthquakes.
 自衛隊の位置づけの明確化、環境権といった新しい国民の権利の追加、大震災を含む緊急事態の発生時の首相権限の強化などは、多くの党が賛成している。

Relaxing the requirements to initiate constitutional amendment procedures in the Diet is an urgent task, while reviewing the roles of each chamber of the Diet stipulated in the top law is an important challenge. Further in-depth discussions are essential on issues that divide parties, such as the right to self-defense.
 憲法改正の発議要件の緩和も急ぐ必要がある。衆参両院の役割分担の見直し、自衛権のあり方など、各党の主張が分かれるテーマについても、さらに議論を掘り下げねばならない。

Parties also should decide on the advisability of lowering the minimum voting age in elections in line with the voting age for national referendums, a task assigned to them in an additional clause of the revised law.
 国民投票年齢に合わせた選挙権年齢の引き下げなど、改正法の「宿題」についても、きちんと結論を出すことが求められる。

The ruling and opposition parties have already agreed to set up a working group on the issue and concurred on the need to lower the minimum voting age in elections to 18 within two years. Naturally, it is desirable to make the minimum voting age in elections consistent with that in national referendums.
 与野党は、作業部会を設置し、2年以内に選挙権年齢を「18歳以上」にすることで合意している。選挙と国民投票の最低年齢が一致した方が望ましいのは当然だ。

It is no easy task to lower the age of majority to 18 in the Civil Code as the change’s impact on various aspects of society will be huge. But the age of adulthood is 18 in most nations. There is no reason why Japan cannot revise it in line with the international standard.
 民法の成人年齢を18歳以上に引き下げるのは、社会の各方面への影響が大きく、簡単ではない。だが、世界のほとんどの国は18歳以上だ。日本だけが国際標準に合わせられないはずがない。

It is essential for both ruling and opposition parties to steadily step up debates to bring about this change.
 実現に向けて、与野党は着実に検討を進めることが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 15, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

マンションのリフォームするのにお金が無い 心配いりません

大学を卒業して幸いなことにすぐに就職が内定したので、就職後、すぐにマンション購入を計画しました。
20歳代で念願のマンション自体は購入できたのですが、10年も経過すると、お部屋のリフォームがしたくなるのは当然の成り行きなんです。
リフォームは、決断したら、費用をケチらないで大胆にするのがコツです。
でも、子供が生まれて、子育てには以外にお金がかかります。
リフォームしたいけれども先立つものが不足している。
そんな経験はありませんか?
心配いりません。
東証1部上場企業のオリコ(株式会社オリエントコーポレーション)といえば、ショッピングクレジット・オートローンで日本一を誇る、信用のある会社なんですが、オリコが新商品リフォームリノコ を発売しています。
こちらのローンを使えば、念願のリフォームだって、いますぐに出来ます。
保証人がいらず、ネットですぐに契約できるのが大きな特徴なんです。



『 リフォームリノコ 』Webリフォームローン提供開始



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月15日 (日)

集団的自衛権 中途半端な解釈変更は避けよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Ruling parties must avoid incomplete change in constitutional interpretation
集団的自衛権 中途半端な解釈変更は避けよ

New Komeito has shifted its stance toward approving the limited exercise of the right to collective self-defense, a move that is a step forward. But an incomplete change in the constitutional interpretation regarding the right will certainly not ensure the efficacy of Self-Defense Force activities.
 公明党が、集団的自衛権の行使を一部容認する方向にカジを切った。
 それ自体は一歩前進だが、中途半端な憲法解釈の変更では、実効性ある自衛隊の活動ができない。

Komeito is considering approving the right’s exercise only when “the people’s right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness would be fundamentally undermined,” which echoes the government position announced in 1972.
 公明党は、1972年の政府見解を踏襲し、「国民の生命、自由及び幸福追求の権利が根底から覆される」事態に限って、行使を認める案を検討している。

This line of thinking calls for further narrowing the range of cases in which the right could be exercised, compared with the “limited approval” agenda being pushed by the government and the Liberal Democratic Party. Komeito is studying a plan to approve the right’s exercise only in such cases as defending U.S. ships transporting Japanese nationals.
 政府・自民党の「限定容認論」よりも、さらに行使できるケースを狭める考え方だ。邦人輸送中の米艦防護などに限って可能にすることを想定している。

But that is hardly sufficient, we must say. To ensure the safety of Japan, Komeito should come closer to the government’s current stance.
 だが、これでは不十分である。日本の安全を守るため、公明党はさらに歩み寄るべきだ。

Sticking to the wording of the past government view to restrict the SDF activities would be confusing the nation’s priorities. Komeito should never forget that the purpose of approving the exercise of the right is to enhance deterrence by strengthening the Japan-U.S. alliance and international cooperation.
 過去の見解の表現に固執し、自衛隊の活動を制約するのは本末転倒である。集団的自衛権の行使容認は、日米同盟や国際協調を強化し、抑止力を高めることが目的であることを忘れてなるまい。

Responses such as protecting U.S. military ships carrying Japanese while not guarding ships with no Japanese on board, and avoiding missions to sweep mines or intercept ballistic missiles heading toward the United Sates, would not represent genuine international cooperation. It could even incite U.S. distrust of Japan.
 邦人が乗っている米軍艦船は守るが、乗っていない船は守らない。機雷除去や米国向け弾道ミサイルの迎撃はしない。そんな対応では真の国際協調とは言えず、米国の不信を招きかねない。

It is extremely important to leave room to utilize the Maritime Self-Defense Force, which has strong minesweeping capabilities, to ensure the safety of maritime transportation routes, which are lifelines for Japan. Defending U.S. vessels and mobilizing missile defense during emergencies in areas surrounding Japan is directly linked to the nation’s safety.
 日本の生命線である海上交通路の安全確保に、掃海能力の高い海上自衛隊を活用する余地を残すことは、極めて重要だ。日本周辺有事における米艦防護やミサイル防衛も、日本の安全に直結する。

Can’t just repeat 1972 view

It is worth mentioning that the 1972 government view banned the exercise of the right to collective self-defense. Making the new constitutional interpretation consistent to some extent with past government views is important, but if the government tries to make them match perfectly, exercising the right will become impossible.
 そもそも72年の見解は、集団的自衛権の行使を禁じる内容だ。新たな憲法解釈が、過去の見解と一定の整合性を保つことは大切だが、完全に一致させようとすれば、行使自体ができなくなる。

At the ruling parties’ panel on the right to collective self-defense, panel chairman and LDP Vice President Masahiko Komura has presented his personal proposal for three new conditions for invoking the right to self-defense. His proposal would sanction the use of arms only when there are fears that the rights of the people will be fundamentally undermined.
 集団的自衛権に関する与党協議で、座長の高村正彦自民党副総裁は、新たな自衛権発動の3要件の私案を示した。国民の権利が「根底から覆されるおそれがある」場合などに限って、武力の行使を認める、としている。

Komura cited the 1972 view in consideration of Komeito’s stance, but added “there are fears” to the wording in an apparent attempt to expand the range of cases in which the right can be exercised.
 公明党に配慮して72年の政府見解を引用しながら、「おそれがある」を追加することで、行使の対象を広げる狙いがうかがえる。

We believe the ruling parties should focus on what they can make possible, not what is already possible. The fact that Komeito tried to separately address the issues of defending U.S. ships with no Japanese on board and of minesweeping through the right to individual self-defense and police authority shows its awareness of the necessity of such missions.
 今、重視すべきは、何が可能かではなく、何を可能にすべきかだ。公明党が、邦人が乗っていない米艦防護や機雷除去について、個別的自衛権や警察権で説明しようとしたのは、その必要性を認識していたからではないのか。

We hope the LDP and Komeito will expedite their coordination to seal an accord on the premise that all eight scenarios related to the right to collective self-defense, such as defending U.S. ships, minesweeping and missile defense—which the government has presented to the ruling parties—will be basically allowed to be dealt with through collective self-defense.
 米艦防護、機雷除去、ミサイル防衛など、政府が与党に示した8事例については、基本的にすべて対処可能にすることを前提に、自民、公明両党は、合意の調整を急いでもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 14, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

労働規制緩和 対象職種の範囲は限定的に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Planned labor deregulation must apply to limited types of professions
労働規制緩和 対象職種の範囲は限定的に

Labor deregulation must be aimed at creating an environment in which employees can work efficiently and display their abilities, thereby achieving harmony between work and life.
 効率的に働いて能力を存分に発揮し、仕事と生活の調和を図る。そうした労働環境の実現につなげることが大切だ。

The government has put forth a plan to introduce a new working hours system under which wages are paid according to the results of a person’s work, regardless of the specific number of hours put in. The planned system is aimed at boosting labor productivity as part of the government’s growth strategy.
 政府が、働いた時間に関係なく成果に応じて賃金を払う新たな労働時間制度の導入を打ち出した。成長戦略の一環で、生産性向上が狙いだ。

Regulations would be lifted on working hours so that overtime is not paid no matter how long someone works.
 一方で、新制度では労働時間に関する規制がなくなり、長く働いても残業代が出ない。

The Labor Standards Law sets eight hours a day and 40 hours a week as the legal working hours, making it mandatory for firms to pay extra wages for overtime and holiday work. This regulation does not apply to people in senior management positions.
 労働基準法は「1日8時間、週40時間」を法定労働時間と定め、残業や休日勤務には割増賃金を支払うよう企業に義務づけている。例外として上級管理職には、この規定が適用されていない。

Under the planned system, such exceptional cases would be expanded to cover nonmanagement employees “with an annual income of ¥10 million or more” and who work in “high-level professions.” People who meet the requirement regarding annual income account for no more than 4 percent of the total workforce.
 新制度では、例外を管理職以外に広げ、「少なくとも年収1000万円以上」かつ「高度な専門職」を対象とする。年収要件を満たす労働者は4%に満たない。

In launching the new system, it is reasonable to limit the range of workers to be covered because it will have an enormous impact on how people work.
 働き方に大きな影響を及ぼすだけに、範囲を絞り込んでスタートするのは、妥当だろう。

In jobs requiring planning and creativity, it is true that the number of hours worked does not necessarily coincide with the results produced.
 企画力や発想力が問われる仕事であれば、働く時間と成果が必ずしも一致しないのは確かだ。

Under the current system, those who linger at the office receive better pay than those who work efficiently in a short time. To correct this situation, the envisioned system is designed to sever the link between working hours and wages and encourage efficient ways of working, thereby enhancing productivity. The goals of the new system are understandable.
 短時間で効率的に働く人より、だらだらと会社に長く居る人の方が、待遇面で評価される。そんな実態を変えるため、労働時間と賃金を切り離し、効率的な働き方を促して、生産性を向上させる。新制度の狙いは理解できる。

Labor side fears endless work

But there is also cause for concern.
 だが、懸念もある。

The labor side opposes the new system, arguing that it will encourage longer working hours because management will be freed from the restraint of paying overtime. Employees will likely worry that they will be called on to work endlessly to produce high-quality results.
 労働側は、残業代という経営側にとっての歯止めがなくなることで「長時間労働を助長する」と反発している。高い成果を求められ、際限なく働かされるのではないかという不安も覚えよう。

It is essential to apply the new system to professions in which the scope of employees’ duties is clear and in which employees can decide on their work volume and hours by themselves.
 職務の範囲が明確で、仕事量や働く時間を自分で決められる職種に限定することが重要だ。

Specific professions that could be included in “high-level professions” will be studied by an advisory panel of the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry. Foreign exchange dealers and fund managers are expected to fall in this category.
 「高度な専門職」に該当する具体的な職種については今後、厚生労働省の審議会で検討する。為替ディーラーやファンドマネジャーが想定されている。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe stressed that the system would not be applied to those who do not want it.
 安倍首相は「希望しない人には適用しない」と強調している。

Management is calling for expanding the scope of the new system, but it should not be allowed to gradually widen to cover rank-and-file workers without due study.
 経営側は大幅な対象拡大を要求しているが、なし崩し的に一般労働者にまで広げることが、あってはなるまい。

Administrative oversight must be strengthened to prevent the planned system from being abused, thereby resulting in longer working hours and wage cuts.
 新制度が、長時間労働や賃金カットに悪用されないよう、行政の監視の強化も求められる。

Specialized high-level professions can produce high income, but overwork will harm employees’ mental and physical health. In crafting institutional arrangements for the new system, it is necessary to study such regulations and operational systems as setting ceilings on working hours and days for a fixed period and making it mandatory for workers to take days off and vacations.
 高収入の高度な専門職といえども、働き過ぎは心身の健康を損なう。一定期間の労働時間や労働日数に上限を設ける。休日・休暇を強制的に取らせる。制度設計にあたっては、こうした規制や運用も検討する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 14, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

公明党と憲法―自民にただ屈するのか

June 14, 2014
EDITORIAL: Defense policy talks test New Komeito’s political integrity
公明党と憲法―自民にただ屈するのか

In talks with the ruling Liberal Democratic Party over Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s initiative to allow Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense, junior coalition partner New Komeito is showing signs of accepting the policy switch if certain conditions are met.
 集団的自衛権の与党協議で、公明党が行使容認を前提とした条件闘争に向かっている。

With firm resolution, Abe is pursuing a formal Cabinet endorsement of a change in the government’s traditional interpretation of Article 9 of the Constitution.
 憲法解釈を変える閣議決定に向けた安倍首相の意思は固い。

New Komeito has discarded the option of dissolving its alliance with the LDP in order to protect its political integrity.
New Komeito appears to have given up hope of holding its own against the fierce political pressure from its much bigger ally, and has decided to focus on setting strict conditions for supporting Abe’s initiative.
一方で公明党は、連立離脱を自ら封印した。自民党の攻勢に耐えきれそうもないが、せめて厳しい条件はつけておきたい。そんな思いがうかがえる。

No matter what conditions it may set, however, the fact is that New Komeito will endorse Japan’s exercise of the right to collective self-defense if it strikes a deal with the LDP. Compromising on this vital issue could create serious problems for the future. The party leadership should be aware of the huge political implications of its decision on this issue.
 だが、どんな条件をつけたところで、集団的自衛権を認めることに変わりはない。妥協は将来に禍根を残す。公明党はその重みを肝に銘じるべきだ。

During talks between the two parties on June 13, Masahiko Komura, who represents the LDP side, proposed “three requirements” for Japan’s involvement in collective self-defense operations.
 きのうの与党協議で、自民党の高村正彦座長が、日本が自衛権を発動するための新しい「3要件」の私案を示した。

Komura’s personal proposal would change the first of the three requirements the LDP has suggested, which says that there should be urgent and unjust aggression against Japan.
 いまの3要件のうち、「我が国に対する急迫不正の侵害があること」という第一の要件を、次のように改めるという。

The first requirement as proposed by Komura says: “An armed attack against Japan has started or an armed attack against another country has started and as a result there are concerns that Japan’s existence could be threatened and that the Japanese people’s right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness could be fundamentally violated.”
 「我が国に対する武力攻撃が発生したこと、または他国に対する武力攻撃が発生し、これにより我が国の存立が脅かされ、国民の生命、自由及び幸福追求の権利が根底から覆されるおそれがあること」

This proposal goes far beyond the “limited use” of the right indicated by the LDP. It could end up paving the way for the use of the nation’s right to collective self-defense in a wide range of situations.
 自民党が主張する「限定容認」どころではない。集団的自衛権がかなり広範囲に認められることになりかねない。

The phrase that the people’s right could be “fundamentally violated” has been inserted in response to New Komeito’s argument.
 後段にある、国民の生命などが「根底から覆される」というくだりは、公明党の考えを踏まえて盛り込まれた。

This phrase was originally a part of the government’s 1972 statement, which said Japan is not allowed to exercise its right to collective self-defense. Komura has used an expression that was once used to describe a situation that allows Japan to exercise its right to individual self-defense in a cunning way that is useful for his purpose.
 もともとは「集団的自衛権の行使は許されない」と結論づけた72年の政府見解の一部だ。個別の自衛権を認める前提として使われていた表現を、都合よく援用しているにすぎない。

New Komeito believes that strict observance of the requirement would ensure that Japan’s actual use of the right to collective self-defense will be almost limited to situations in which U.S. warships carrying Japanese citizens for evacuation need protection.
 公明党は、これが厳格に守られれば、集団的自衛権として実際に認められるのは、避難する日本人を乗せた米艦の防護にほぼ限られると見る。

But Komura’s proposal leaves room for a broader interpretation of the rule by containing the term “concerns” with regard to the possibility of the people’s right being “fundamentally violated.”
ただし高村私案は、「根底から覆される」に「おそれ」をつけて、拡大解釈の余地を残している。

New Komeito is opposed to this potential loophole. The party is apparently trying to score at least some political points against the LDP by setting strict conditions.
 この抜け穴に、公明党は反発する。なんとか一矢を報いたいということなのだろう。

Even so, there is no denying that New Komeito, if it accepts the LDP’s proposal, will help the Abe administration to change the government’s constitutional interpretation at will.
 だとしても、政権が意のままに憲法解釈を変えることに手を貸すのは間違いない。

Imagine what could happen if this kind of departure from the rule of law is tolerated.
 そんな「法の支配」からの逸脱が許されれば、どうなるか。

Isao Iijima, special Cabinet adviser, recently indicated the possibility of a change in the government’s interpretation about the constitutional principle of the separation of religion and politics. It was a thinly veiled warning to New Komeito, which is backed by the lay Buddhist organization Soka Gakkai.
 飯島勲内閣官房参与が公明党と創価学会との関係をとらえ、憲法の「政教分離」についての政府見解は変わりうると、におわせた。

Iijima’s remark is tantamount to the declaration that the powers that be might be free to change the official interpretation of not just the war-renouncing Article 9, but any other part of the Constitution that they don’t like.
 時の権力者が気に入らなければ、9条以外の解釈にも手をつけない保証はない。こう自ら明らかにしたようなものだ。

Does New Komeito still intend to go along with the LDP’s attempt to force through an effective amendment to the Constitution?
 公明党は、それでもついて行くというのか。自民党の力ずくの憲法改変に。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 14

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月14日 (土)

W杯開幕 祭典がもたらす熱狂と不満

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Soccer World Cup opens in Brazil amid excitement and discontent
W杯開幕 祭典がもたらす熱狂と不満

The soccer World Cup finals kicked off Thursday in Brazil. We look forward to enjoying the quadrennial celebration of sport where 32 teams put their national pride on the line.
 サッカーのワールドカップ(W杯)ブラジル大会が開幕を迎えた。32チームが、母国の威信をかけて戦う4年に1度の祭典を堪能したい。

The football spectacle is returning to Brazil for the first time in 64 years. The people of Brazil, one of the world’s true soccer powerhouses, are seen holding high expectations for their team to reclaim the FIFA World Cup Trophy, which they’ve claimed five times before.
 ブラジルでW杯が開かれるのは64年ぶりだ。過去5度の優勝を誇るサッカー王国だけに、自国開催の今回、世界一奪還に期待が高まっているだろう。

For Brazil, one of the most prominent emerging economies, the World Cup finals, and the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, are a golden opportunity to demonstrate the country’s energy and power to the world.
 経済新興国の一角を占めるブラジルにとって、W杯は、2年後のリオデジャネイロ夏季五輪とともに、世界に国力をアピールする格好の機会と言える。

In reality, though, preparations for the event have been walking a tightrope over delays in stadium construction.
 ところが、競技場建設が遅れ、開催準備は綱渡りが続いた。

At the same time, discontent among the people has erupted against the government that has laid out huge investments—more than $11 billion (about ¥1.13 trillion)—to host the extravaganza. The disgruntled populace has mounted frequent protests in urban areas, calling for the government to “spend money on medical service and education rather than the World Cup.”
 110億ドル(約1兆1300億円)以上の巨費を投じた政府に対し、国民の不満が噴き出している。都市部でデモが頻発し、民衆は「W杯より、医療や教育にカネを」と訴えている。

The country’s middle-class haven’t been feeling abundance in their lives as the pace of economic growth has slowed and inflation has been persistent, and they have begun asking the government to reexamine its welfare policies.
 インフレが長引き、経済成長が減速する中、生活の豊かさを実感できなくなった中間層が福祉政策などの見直しを求めたものだ。

That some people in Brazil, a country so well known for its avid soccer fans, have raised such objections to hosting the World Cup could come as a great blow to the Brazilian government.
 サッカー好きで知られる国民の一部が、W杯開催に異議を唱えたことは、ブラジル政府にとって大きな痛手だろう。

Safety steps amid protests

During the World Cup finals, which are scheduled to run through July 14, security authorities will reportedly mobilize a total of 177,000 members of the military and police, among others, to prevent radical demonstrators from bearing down on soccer stadiums.
 警備当局は期間中、軍や警察などから計17万7000人を動員し、過激なデモ隊を競技場に近付かせない措置を取るという。

But even the police who are supposed to provide security are threatening to leave their posts to strike during this crucial period, in solidarity with subway employees and other workers. This possibility is a serious concern.
 だが、警備を担う警察官さえも地下鉄職員などと共に、賃上げを求め、大会中のスト実施をちらつかせている。心配な事態だ。

We hope the Brazilian government will take every possible measure to ensure that matches are played without incident, enabling supporters from around the world to enjoy them safely.
 無事に試合が行われ、世界中から集まるサポーターが安全に楽しめるよう、ブラジル政府は万全を期してもらいたい。

Of particular concern is Recife, the northeastern city where Japan’s group stage opener will be played, and an area notorious for an extremely poor record of public safety. Supporters from Japan need to act with caution, and avoid dangerous areas.
 日本のグループリーグ初戦の舞台となるレシフェが、極めて治安の悪い都市であるのも懸念材料だ。日本から渡航するサポーターは、危険地帯には近寄らないなど細心の注意を払う必要がある。

This is the fifth time that Japan has reached the World Cup finals stage. Soccer watchers are eager to see whether the Japanese national team, “Samurai Blue,” will be able to reach the quarterfinals, outdoing their previous best at the round of 16.
 日本代表は、5度目のW杯出場となる。これまでで最高だったベスト16を上回り、8強入りを果たせるかどうかが焦点となろう。

The makeup of the Japanese team has changed greatly and it is no longer a rarity for Japanese players to transfer to foreign teams.
 選手の海外移籍が珍しくなくなった今、日本代表のメンバー構成は大きく変わった。

When Japan made it to the World Cup finals for the first time in 1998 in France, not a single player on the national team was playing with an overseas club. Four years ago, at the time of the World Cup held in South Africa, four Japanese team members were playing internationally.
 初出場だった1998年フランス大会の際、海外のクラブでプレーする日本代表の選手は一人もいなかった。4年前の南アフリカ大会では4人だった。

This time, international players account for 12 of the 23-man squad. But will the players who drive Japan’s domestic J.League and the players from world-class European clubs be able to join hands and surprise the world with outstanding performances? Even from the opposite side of the planet, we’re proud to root for Samurai Blue.
 今回は23人中、12人が海外組だ。欧州の強豪クラブで経験を積んだ選手と、国内のJリーグを支える選手が力を合わせ、世界を驚かせるプレーを見せられるか。地球の反対側から応援したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 13, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

中国の軍事挑発 「有事準備」に警戒が怠れない

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Beware China’s military provocations in its ‘preparation for potential conflict’
中国の軍事挑発 「有事準備」に警戒が怠れない

China has been proceeding with its maritime expansion through force of arms, intensifying its provocative actions toward neighboring countries in an alarming manner. Japan must bolster its vigilance against Beijing in cooperation with other nations concerned.
 力ずくの海洋進出を進める中国が、周辺国に対する挑発行為を激化させている。日本は、関係国と連携し、警戒を強める必要がある。

On Wednesday, two Chinese fighter jets flew extraordinarily close to two Self-Defense Forces planes over international waters in the East China Sea, one coming as close as 30 meters to an SDF aircraft. This was an extremely dangerous act that could have led to an unintended midair collision.
 東シナ海の公海上で11日、中国軍戦闘機が自衛隊機2機に対し、30メートルの距離まで異常接近した。偶発的衝突を招きかねない極めて危険な行為である。

A similar incident took place in late May, over which the Japanese government filed a protest with China. The recurrence of an encounter involving planes, caused by China’s reckless show of force, signifies an even graver situation than before. It is certainly reasonable that Tokyo has lodged a stringent protest with Beijing over the latest incident.
 先月下旬にも同様の事件が発生し、政府は中国に抗議していた。無謀な示威活動が繰り返されたのは、より深刻な事態だ。政府が厳重抗議したのは当然である。

Although China has claimed that the SDF planes approached the Chinese military aircraft, this argument flies in the face of the facts. Beijing is believed to have caused the incidents with the aim of making its unilateral establishment last November of an air defense identification zone over the East China Sea a fait accompli.
 中国は「自衛隊機が中国軍機に近づいた」と主張するが、事実に反する。昨年11月に設定した東シナ海上空の防空識別圏を既成事実化するのが狙いとみられる。

China’s menacing acts have also been continuing in the South China Sea. These attempts to expand Chinese maritime interests through force must not be tolerated.
 中国の威嚇は南シナ海でも続いている。力を背景に海洋権益の拡大を図ることは許されない。

An annual report recently released by the U.S. Defense Department on China’s military strength notes the modernization of its military, saying that China has placed its principal focus on attaining the capability to fight and win in preparation for “potential regional conflicts, including those related to Taiwan...[and] defense of territorial claims in the South China Sea and East China Sea.”
 米国防総省が最近公表した中国の軍事力に関する年次報告書は、軍の近代化について「台湾海峡有事に加え、南シナ海、東シナ海での潜在的な有事への準備に重点が置かれている」と指摘した。

As specific examples of China’s modernization of equipment under the presumption of maritime military clashes, the Pentagon report says China is expected to launch its first domestically built aircraft carrier in the early 2020s, while drastically strengthening its fleets of new lightweight warships.
 海上での軍事衝突を想定した装備近代化の例として、2020年代初頭に中国初の国産空母が就役し、軽量級の新型艦艇が大幅に増強されるとの見通しを示した。

Multilayered ties essential

Amphibious assault landing vessels that China will build around 2020 will be able to be used to attack and seize remote islands, according to the Pentagon report. The commissioning of such vessels will certainly become a cause for concern for Japan and other countries near China.
 20年頃までの建造が見込まれる強襲揚陸艦は、離島の攻撃や占拠にも投入できる。日本をはじめ周辺国には懸念材料となる。

The report has emphasized that China’s air force “is pursuing modernization on a scale unprecedented in its history.” This move is believed to be aimed at achieving Chinese air supremacy over the seas. In addition, China has planned to have unmanned surveillance aircraft cruise over the East China Sea and is in the process of developing unmanned aircraft that would be capable of being armed, the report says.
 報告書は、中国空軍が「史上例のない規模で近代化している」と強調した。洋上の制空権の確保が狙いだろう。無人偵察機を東シナ海で巡航させ、兵器搭載が可能な無人機も開発しているという。

Refuting the Pentagon report, the Chinese government claims the United States has been exaggerating the Chinese military threat.
 中国政府は「中国脅威論を誇張している」と反論した。

If so, however, China must enhance the transparency of its defense budget and equipment, while stopping dangerous acts of provocation toward neighboring countries.
だが、それなら、国防予算や装備の透明性を高めるとともに、周辺国に対する危険な挑発をやめるべきだ。

To enhance regional peace and stability, it is imperative for countries with alliances and friendly ties with Japan and the United States to establish multilayered relations of cooperation in both the military and diplomatic spheres, to strengthen deterrence toward China.
 地域の平和と安定を確保するには、日本や米国を中心に、同盟・友好国が軍事、外交両面で重層的な協力関係を構築し、対中抑止力を高めることが欠かせない。

This nation should first allow the exercise of its right to collective self-defense, to bolster the Japan-U.S. alliance. As shown by a meeting on Wednesday in Tokyo of the foreign and defense ministers of Japan and Australia, it will also be effective for countries with common interests to expand their security cooperation through such efforts as joint development of defense equipment and joint military drills.
 まず集団的自衛権の行使を容認し、日米同盟を強化したい。11日に東京で行われた日豪の外務・防衛閣僚会合のように、利害を共有する国同士が、装備の共同開発、共同訓練など安全保障協力を拡大することも有効だろう。

To keep China’s self-righteous behavior in check, both Japan and the United States should boost their cooperation with members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and European Union countries, thereby playing a leading role in crafting rules to govern the international community and spread the rule of law in international relations.
 中国の独善的行動を牽制けんせいするため、日米両国は、東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)や欧州連合(EU)などと連携して、国際社会のルール作りを主導し、「法の支配」を広める必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 13, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

働き方と賃金―長時間労働は許されぬ

June 13, 2014
EDITORIAL: Overtime should be limited even for employees with fat paychecks
働き方と賃金―長時間労働は許されぬ

Even corporate employees with high annual incomes should not be forced to work to the point of injuring their health. This is a basic principle in labor regulations.
 年収が高いからといって、健康を損なうような長時間労働をさせていいはずがない。それが大原則だ。

The government has decided on outlines of a new pay system that allows companies to delink the wages for certain high-paid employees from the number of hours they put in.
The concept of overtime pay will not be applied to employees covered by the new system. A top corporate executive who is a member of the government’s Industrial Competitiveness Council proposed the system, and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare agreed to the recommendation.
 働いた時間と関係なく賃金を決める制度の新設が決まった。新制度では、残業代という考え方がなくなる。政府の産業競争力会議で民間議員の経営者が提案し、厚生労働省も同意した。

The special remuneration system can be applied only to employees who earn at least 10 million yen ($98,200) a year and whose job responsibilities are clearly defined, according to the outlines. Details of the system will be worked out, possibly by the end of the year, through discussions at the ministry’s council, which comprises representatives of labor and management.
 対象は、最低でも年収1千万円以上で、職務内容がはっきりしている人。労使が参加する審議会で議論し、年内にも具体的な制度を決める。

The current labor law requires companies to know the accurate work hours of all their employees except for senior executives. This rule can certainly be at odds with the work styles of some white-collar professionals with highly specialized skills.
 今の法律では、上級の管理職をのぞくと、労働時間を厳格に把握することが企業に求められている。高い能力を持つホワイトカラーの働き方にそぐわない面があることは確かだ。

But the process of discussions on the proposal at the Industrial Competitiveness Council contains flaws. The panel does not include labor union leaders among its members. And the purpose and effectiveness of the proposal made by the private-sector member have not been clearly explained.
 しかし、議論の過程には疑問が残る。会議に労働界の代表はおらず、民間議員の提案も目的や効果がはっきりしなかった。

Originally, two different ideas were put forward. One was the adopted system to exempt certain high-paid employees from restrictions on working hours. The other proposal, which was eventually dismissed, called for a cap on work hours.
 最初の提案には二つのタイプがあった。導入が決まった「高収入型」と、見送られた「労働時間上限型」だ。

The latter would have made it possible to set an upper limit on work hours through labor-management negotiations. It was cast as a plan to increase employment opportunities for women, the elderly and young people.
But there were concerns that this system would enable companies to set unilaterally maximum work hours and wages for general workers. Later, the scope of this proposal was limited to “candidates for senior management positions.” But concerns remained that the system could be abused by unscrupulous companies that exploit young workers.
 後者は、労使合意で労働時間の上限を決める方式。女性や高齢者、若者の活用がうたわれたが、一般労働者まで会社が一方的に上限や賃金を決めてしまう恐れがあった。後に対象は「幹部候補」に変わったものの、若者を使いつぶすブラック企業に乱用される不安がぬぐえなかった。

The council did the right thing by rejecting the proposal.
見送りは当然だ。

But are there really no problems with the system to scrap overtime pay for employees with fat paychecks?
 では、「高収入型」には問題はないのだろうか。

One benefit of the new system will be clarification of the job responsibilities of the employees covered. However, there is no good reason to buy the claim that the abolition of overtime pay will solve the problem of long work hours. Such employees will be forced to put in long hours if their companies have the power to determine their workloads.
 新制度で、働く人の職務内容が明確化されるのは望ましい。ただ、「残業代をなくせば長時間労働がなくなる」という主張は根拠が薄い。企業側に仕事量を決める権限があるなら、長時間労働を余儀なくされる。

The eligibility for the new payment rule should be limited to workers who have the discretion to determine how much work they do and enough leverage to negotiate with their employers on their working conditions. It is also vital to establish a regulation to compel such employees to have a certain number of days off.
 新制度の対象は、仕事量を決める裁量があり、会社と交渉する力がある労働者に限るべきだ。休日を強制的にとらせるといった規制も欠かせない。

There is still the worrisome possibility that the scope of the system will be gradually expanded. Workers with annual incomes of 10 million yen or more account for less than 4 percent of the nation’s salaried workers, according to an estimate.
But the business community obviously expects this rule to eventually be eased to make more workers eligible for the new payment system.
Sadayuki Sakakibara, chairman of Keidanren (Japan Business Federation), the nation’s most powerful business lobby, has called for an expansion of the system to cover at least around 10 percent of all workers. It is probably necessary to establish the income requirement by law so that it cannot be easily changed.
 いったん制度ができれば、なしくずしに対象が広がる心配も残る。年収1千万円超の勤労者は全体の4%未満とされるが、経団連会長が「全労働者の10%程度は適用を」と発言するなど、経済界には対象拡大の思惑がにじむ。簡単に変更できないよう、年収条件を法律で決めることも必要だろう。

Policymakers also need to pay attention to the new system’s consistency with the current rules. For instance, employees in management positions exempted from overtime pay are currently called “management supervisors,” who are supposed to be senior officials involved in the company’s management.
 今ある制度との整合性も考えてほしい。例えば、残業代がいらない管理職は「管理監督者」と呼ばれ、本来は経営者に近い立場の管理職に限られている。

But many employers abuse this rule to cut labor costs by making many “management positions in name only” and forcing employees in such posts to work long hours without overtime pay. The government should consider abolishing this provision.
ところが、経営側に恣意(しい)的に使われる「名ばかり管理職」の問題が絶えない。廃止を検討していいのではないか。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 13

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月13日 (金)

日本国内で最高の中華料理が食べられます

新チューボーですよ!という番組をご存知でしょうか。
先月5月24日の土曜日、中華料理の名店、結華楼がテレビで紹介されました。
中華料理といえば中国が本場なんですが、日本の中華料理は、たぶん中国の本家のお味を超越していると思います。
中国や台湾で食べる中華料理よりも、東京で食べる中華料理のほうがおいしいなって感じるのは、私一人でしょうか。
で、結華楼HP限定クーポン の限定クーポンのご紹介です。
場所は神楽坂なんですが、お近くの人は是非お立ち寄りください。
限定クーポンで、破格のお値段で本格中華料理が堪能できます。

私のお気に入りはふたつあります。
まずなんといっても「北京烤鴨」(ベイジンカオヤー)なんですが、こちらは北京ダックのことなんです。
クーポン使用ならば、おすすめは、この北京ダックと小龍包(シャオロンパオ)なんです。
特に小龍包(シャオロンパオ)は絶品で天国のお味がいたします。
注意する点がひとつあります。
小龍包(シャオロンパオ)の出来立てには、中に熱いスープがたっぷりと含まれていますので、いきなりがぶりとやるのは控えてください。
熱いスープ、肉汁、豚肉ミンチのハーモニーは、一度食べたら病み付きになること請け合いなんです。







ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ レビューブログからの情報です

| | コメント (0)

英文ビジネスメール作成担当者に選任されたのは35歳のときでした

昭和47年に東京に本社がある大手建設会社に就職しました。
それから10年以上は、国内勤務で英文ビジネスメールとは縁の無い世界でひたすら家族を養うために働いていました。
35歳のときに海外駐在員に抜擢され、最初に赴任したのが東南アジアのビルマだったんです。
当時はビルマと呼ばれていましたし、首都はラングーンと呼ばれていました。
現在ではミヤンマーのヤンゴンということになります。
スーチーさんの自宅近くでバンガローを借りて、そこで1年近く暮らしました。
英文ビジネスメールはたくさん書きましたので、今回、このサイトにめぐり合えたのも何かの縁なのでしょうね。
サイトで英文ビジネスメールの体験記 を募集しているのをみつけましたので、さっそくこの記事を書き終えたら応募してみたいと思います。
35歳から定年退職するまでに発行した英文ビジネスメールの数は数千に及ぶものと推察されます。
英文文法上なんですが、様々な形の赤っ恥、青っ恥をかいた体験がございます。



あなたのシナリオがサンプル英文Eメールに!英文ビジネスメールの体験記大募集!



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

党首討論 民主は平和確保の具体策示せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
DPJ must decide party position, offer concrete ideas for maintaining peace
党首討論 民主は平和確保の具体策示せ

Wednesday saw the first question time for one-on-one debates between Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and other party leaders during the current Diet session, but the discussions ultimately centered on party leaders making one-sided assertions, and the debate failed to develop any real depth. It was certainly regrettable.
 今国会で初めて行われた党首討論は、各党首が一方的に自分の主張を述べる場面が目立ち、議論が今ひとつ深まらなかった。残念である。

With regards to the nation’s right to collective self-defense, a focal issue of the debate, Banri Kaieda, leader of the major opposition Democratic Party of Japan, criticized Abe by saying, “It is unacceptable [for the government] to reject the long-held constitutional interpretation and change it to permit the nation to exercise the right in general.”
 民主党の海江田代表は、焦点の集団的自衛権について「長年の解釈を否定し、行使一般を容認する変更は許されない」と述べ、安倍首相を批判した。

Kaieda also said that if the government wants to allow the right to be exercised, that should be accomplished through a constitutional amendment, rather than by altering the government’s interpretation.
行使を容認するなら、解釈の変更でなく、憲法を改正すべきだとも主張した。

Taking into account the deteriorating security environment, Abe said as rebuttal: “We have an enormous responsibility to protect the lives of the people... It is necessary for Japan to strengthen ties with our allies and to prepare a deterrent force.” Abe said he would ask his Cabinet to approve the constitutional reinterpretation following talks within the ruling coalition.
 安倍首相は、安全保障環境の悪化を踏まえ、「私たちは国民の命を守る大きな責任を担っている。同盟国との関係を強化し、抑止力を利かせる必要がある」と反論した。与党協議を経て、解釈変更を閣議決定する意向も示した。

As Abe pointed out, it is a matter of urgency for the government to permit the nation to exercise its right to collective self-defense and to strengthen the deterrent force of the Japan-U.S. alliance, as China has been building up its military power and North Korea poses a threat to other countries with its nuclear and missile development.
 首相の指摘する通り、中国の軍事力増強や北朝鮮の核・ミサイルの脅威がある中、集団的自衛権の行使を容認し、日米同盟の抑止力を強化することが急務だ。

Since a constitutional amendment would require a great deal of time, changing the government’s interpretation within reason is a realistic approach.
 憲法改正は時間を要する以上、合理的な範囲内で解釈を変更するのは、現実的な対応である。

DPJ disunity

Kaieda made clear that he recognized the need to improve legislation concerning national security, but he did not present any concrete ideas. There are arguments within his party both for and against the exercise of the right, a situation that has hindered the development of a uniform stance for the DPJ.
 海江田氏も、安全保障の法整備の必要性は認めたが、具体策は示さなかった。民主党内では、行使容認を巡って賛否両論があり、統一見解がまとまっていない。

Kaieda is likely concerned that venturing into specifics could spark conflict among the party ranks. Already, some of the party’s more conservative Diet members have called openly for the replacement of Kaieda as party head, and there is a real possibility those calls will grow in the days ahead.
 各論に踏み込めば、党内対立を助長しかねない、との懸念があったのではないか。実際、党内では、保守系議員から海江田氏の交代を求める声が公然と出ている。今後、「海江田おろし」がさらに強まる可能性もある。

Yet this is an important issue of national security. The DPJ must work out a uniform party line, and cannot put off relevant discussion within the party.
 しかし、日本の安全保障に関わる重要問題だ。民主党は、党内議論を先送りせず、早急に党の見解をまとめるべきだ。

Pointing to the approval that Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) and Your Party have expressed for exercising the right to collective self-defense, Abe said, “Even in the face of criticism, it is a politician’s responsibility to face reality and protect the lives of the people.”
 首相は、日本維新の会とみんなの党が既に集団的自衛権の行使容認に賛同していることに言及し、「たとえ批判があっても現実と向き合い、国民の命を守ることが政治家の責任だ」と述べた。

During question time, Ishin no Kai coleader Shintaro Ishihara reiterated his long-held position that Japan must draft an entirely new constitution, saying, “All countries have established their own constitutions and amended them many times.”
 維新の会の石原共同代表は「どの国の憲法も自主的に制定され、何度も改定されている」と述べ、日本も新憲法を制定すべきだとの持論を展開した。

Abe indicated that he believed in working positively toward amending the Constitution, but there was no in-depth debate on the matter between Abe and Ishihara.
 首相は、憲法改正に前向きに取り組む考えを示したが、掘り下げた議論とはならなかった。

Question time has been limited to only a few occasions in recent years, and debate has been limited to just 45 minutes each. As a result, the discussions have turned into battles of speeches between party leaders.
 党首討論はここ数年、開催回数が少ないうえ、1回45分間の時間的制約があるため、各党首の「演説合戦」の様相を見せている。

As a pillar of Diet reform, both the ruling and opposition parties have agreed to hold question time at least once a month, in principle, beginning with the next Diet session. There is also a need to improve the operational aspects of question time, for instance by allowing long debates and making one-on-one debate more substantial.
 与野党は、国会改革の柱として、次の国会から毎月1回の党首討論の開催を原則とすることで合意している。討論時間を延長するなど、運用面を改善し、議論の充実も図らねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 12, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

行政不服審査 改正法で公正・迅速性高めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Revision of administrative complaint system must boost fairness, efficiency
行政不服審査 改正法で公正・迅速性高めたい

We hope the administrative complaint investigation system, in which citizens can ask the central and local governments to terminate or redress administrative actions, will be improved, thereby improving fairness and convenience.
 政府や自治体の処分の取り消しや変更を求める行政不服審査制度を充実させ、公正性や利便性の向上につなげたい。

In the current Diet session, the revised Administrative Complaint Investigation Law was passed with the approval of all parties except the Japanese Communist Party. It marks the first drastic revision of the law since it was enacted in 1962. The Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry aims to enforce the revised law in fiscal 2016.
 改正行政不服審査法が共産党を除く各党の賛成で成立した。1962年の法制定以来、初の抜本改正だ。総務省は2016年度の施行を目指している。

Compared to lawsuits, the system offers the advantage of making it easier and less costly for citizens to seek procedures. In fiscal 2011, about 30,000 public petitions were filed with the central governments, while local governments received about 18,000. The types of grievances covered by the system include social security and tax issues, recognition of work-related accidents, public information disclosure and traffic violations.
 行政不服審査制度は、裁判に比べて簡易で、費用がかからない利点がある。11年度の申立件数は、中央省庁が約3万件、自治体が約1万8000件だった。対象は社会保険、税、労災認定、情報公開、交通違反などと幅広い。

The main focus of the revised law is the introduction of a system to appoint examiners at the section-chief level and other officials who are currently not involved in such administrative matters. This is a logical move to improve neutrality in examining petitions.
 改正の目玉は、行政処分に関係していない課長級職員らを「審理員」に指名し、審査に当たらせる制度を導入した点だ。審査の中立性を高めるには妥当だろう。

At present, officials already involved in dealing with administrative problems are sometimes put in charge of such work. Thus the possibility of the original administrative actions being reviewed has been low, and the fairness of such a system has been questioned.
 現在は、処分に関与した職員が不服審査も担当することがある。これでは処分が変更される可能性は低く、公正性が疑われる。

The central government reconsidered its position and accepted petitioners’ complaints in 10.6 percent of such cases in fiscal 2011, while the same rate among local governments was 2.8 percent. These figures are said to be lower than those of other countries.
 処分が見直された割合を示す認容率は、11年度の場合、政府が10・6%、自治体は2・8%で、諸外国と比べて低いとされる。

3rd-party panel to help out

The revised law adopts a two-step process in conjunction with the administrative complaint investigation system. A third-party panel of experts, known as an administrative complaint investigation council, will be established to judge the propriety of the administration’s examinations of complaints.
 改正法は、有識者による「行政不服審査会」などの第三者機関を設置し、行政による審査結果が妥当かどうかを判断する、二段構えの仕組みも設けた。

However, the revised law stipulates that the third-party panel will not handle complaints if similar ones have already been dismissed many times, as it would be inefficient for the panel to examine every complaint. This is a proper system.
 ただし、既に同様の申し立てが多数棄却されている場合などは対象外とした。第三者機関がすべての案件を審査するのでは非効率だ。適切な仕組みと言える。

The revised law also gives consideration to the usefulness of the administrative complaint investigation system for citizens. The period during which citizens can file complaints with central and local governments has been extended from “within the current 60 days” after the original administrative actions were decided to “within three months.”
 国民の使いやすさにも配慮した。不服申し立てができる期間を、現在の処分後「60日以内」から「3か月以内」に延長する。

The revised law also includes a stipulation that each government should make efforts to set a “standard examination period,” a yardstick for reaching a conclusion on each case.
 結論を出すまでの目安となる「標準審理期間」の設定に各役所が努力するとの規定も設けた。

Complaint cases that have taken more than a year for the central government to examine have accounted for an average of 10 percent of all cases, compared to an average of around 20 percent for local governments. We hope the administration, bearing in mind the establishment of the standard examination period, will speed up the procedures.
 審査が1年を超える例は、ここ数年、政府で平均1割、自治体で2割前後を占めている。「標準審理期間」の設定を踏まえ、行政は審査を迅速化してもらいたい。

There are some problems with the new system that must be resolved before its launch.
 新制度には課題もある。

Some have pointed out worries that officials or superiors involved in administrative actions could unfairly interfere with the duties of the newly appointed examiners. It is important that each government, as a whole, devises a system to ensure the independence of examiners.
 審理員に対し、処分に関与した職員や上司から不当な横やりが入る恐れが指摘されている。役所全体で審理員の独立性を確保する仕組みを考えることが大切だ。

In the mid and long term, it will also be worth discussing a plan to cultivate personnel who can serve as examiners.
 中長期的には、審理員を務める人材を計画的に育成していくことも検討に値しよう。

Small local governments may be concerned that they cannot cope well with the volume of complaint cases with only a few officials.
 小規模な自治体では、少ない職員で審査に十分対応できるのか、という懸念もあろう。

It is important for the ministry to put emphasis on mapping guidelines for the new system, training officials for such purposes, and supporting local governments.
 総務省は、新制度の運用マニュアルの策定や職員の研修などに力を入れ、自治体を支援することが重要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 12, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

党首討論―論争なき抜け殻の府

プロの翻訳家でもこんなミスが^^。
new conference

news conference
(スラチャイ)

June 12, 2014
EDITORIAL: Appalling level of debate mirrors Diet’s growing irrelevance
党首討論―論争なき抜け殻の府

One-on-one debates in the Diet between Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and opposition party leaders on June 11 were depressingly futile, and probably many Japanese voters threw their hands up in disgust.
 こんなことなら、もういらない。きのうの党首討論は、有権者にそう見切られても仕方がない惨憺(さんたん)たるものだった。

The hollowness of the arguments was a stark demonstration of the miserable performance that Diet deliberations have taken during the current session, which winds up June 22.
 その空疎さは、幕を閉じようとしているいまの国会の姿を象徴している。

The debates, the first parliamentary showdowns between party heads in this term, were held amid political wrangling over Abe’s initiative to allow Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense, a weighty issue concerning the Constitution.
 憲法にかかわる集団的自衛権の行使容認が大きな政治テーマとなるさなか、今国会初めての党首対決である。

Banri Kaieda, who heads the Democratic Party of Japan, the largest opposition bloc, tried to score political points and deal Abe a hefty blow. Despite his enthusiasm, Kaieda came up empty-handed.
 野党第1党の党首として、安倍首相に何とか切り込みたい。民主党の海江田代表のそんな意気込みは、空回りに終わったとしかいいようがない。

Kaieda urged Abe to abide by procedures that allow for revisions to the Constitution if he is so desperate for Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense.
 海江田氏は、行使を認めたいのなら、憲法改正に訴えるべきだと首相に迫った。

But Abe clearly was not sincere in his response to the opposition leader’s proposition. He replied with the now familiar refrain, “I have a duty to protect the lives and peaceful existence of the people.” As if putting on a one-man show, the prime minister reiterated this phrase, which he first used in a May new conference to announce his intention to take steps to allow Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense.
 首相はまともに答えない。「私には国民の命、平和な暮らしを守る責任がある」と、先の記者会見以来の決まり文句を独演会のように繰り返した。

Kaieda is in a politically weak position because he has been unable to muster consensus within his party on this issue. There are signs that some party members may initiate a campaign to force him to step down. Abe clearly took advantage of his liability.
 集団的自衛権をどう考えるか、海江田氏は民主党内をまとめられていない。そればかりか、これを機に「海江田おろし」が噴き出しかねない情勢だ。そこを、首相から明らかに見透かされていた。

The prime minister is bent on pushing through his initiative to make a landmark change in the nation’s security policy, at any cost, by stifling criticism both within and outside his Liberal Democratic Party.
 一方の首相は、党内外の批判を押さえ込み、なにがなんでも行使容認に持ち込もうとしている。

From the outset, there was a huge gap between the two party heads in terms of their political clout.
はなから、その勢いには違いがあった。

Shintaro Ishihara, co-leader of the Japan Restoration Party, who debated with Abe after Kaieda, spent most of his allotted 14 minutes offering his views about history.
 海江田氏に続いた日本維新の会の石原共同代表は、14分の持ち時間をほとんど自身の歴史観の披瀝(ひれき)についやした。

Keiichiro Asao, chief of Your Party, did nothing but propose cooperation between his party and the Abe administration on economic policy measures during his five minutes.
みんなの党の浅尾代表は、経済政策での連携を首相に提案して5分の討論を終えた。

The forum for party head debates in the Diet is called the “joint committee to examine the basic policy of the nation.”
 党首討論は「国家基本政策委員会合同審査会」という。

When this program started in 2000, its stated purpose was to provide opportunities for the prime minister and opposition leaders to discuss basic policies from viewpoints that go beyond the pros and cons of individual pieces of legislation.
00年にいまの形で始まった趣旨は、首相と野党党首が個別の法案の賛否を越え、国の基本的な政策について論じ合うというものだった。

By any measure, the debates on June 11 were not worthy of the official name given to these discussions.
 きのうの討論はどうみても、その名に値しない。

Talks between the LDP and its junior coalition partner, New Komeito, have been the main forum for discussions on the issue of collective self-defense until now. New Komeito's stance throughout has been that of an opposition party trying to slow the LDP’s headlong rush to force through the controversial proposal.
 集団的自衛権をめぐる議論の主舞台はすっかり、自民、公明の与党協議に奪われた。

Although the role adopted by New Komeito is not meaningless, the talks between the two political allies are, after all, negotiations between allies. There is obviously a limit to what such talks can achieve.
 その場で公明党は、与党にブレーキをかける野党の役回りを演じている。その役割に意味はあるが、つまるところは仲間内での駆け引きだ。限界があるのは明らかだ。

The ruling camp enjoys an overwhelming majority in the Diet. It conducts debate on key policy issues outside the Diet floor and then adopts the decisions made through the debate as national policies.
 圧倒的な勢力を持つ与党が、議場の外で仮想の与野党論争を繰り広げ、その結論が国の方針として決められていく。

The current situation is turning the Diet into a hollow institution that has lost its ability to have meaningful and constructive debate.
これでは国会は、論争が失われた、ただの抜け殻の府だ。

Will the opposition parties simply sit idly by and allow the ruling coalition to have its own way during the remaining 10 days of the Diet session?
 与党のなすがまま、野党は手をこまねいて終わるのか。会期末まで残り10日間。

The dismal political landscape raises serious questions about the meaning of party politics.
このままでは政党政治の意味にさえ、疑問符がついてしまう。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 12

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月12日 (木)

混合診療拡大へ 患者の利益優先で制度設計を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Patients’ interests must come first under mixed medical care plan
混合診療拡大へ 患者の利益優先で制度設計を

It is important that a planned reform of health-care services should provide patients with greater options, thus giving them swift access to advanced medical services at lower cost.
 患者の選択肢を広げ、先端医療を迅速に、少ない負担で受けられるようにすることが重要だ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has announced a plan to establish a system to offer patients greater access to so-called mixed medical care—that is, a combination of medical treatments covered by health insurance with treatments that are not covered. The system would permit patients to receive both types of medical care at the same time, though this would be limited to scenarios in which patients ask for treatments not covered by insurance after determining that their doctors’ explanations about such medical care are convincing.
 安倍首相が、混合診療の拡大へ向けて、「患者申出療養制度」の創設を表明した。患者が医師の説明を受け、納得した上で申し出た治療法であれば、保険が利く治療との併用を認める制度である。

The prime minister explained the purpose of the new system, saying, “[The government] wants to create a mechanism for implementing flexible measures to ensure patients receive advanced treatment at nearby medical facilities.” We hope Abe will make good on his promise to promptly design a system in which the interests of patients come first.
 首相は「身近な医療機関でも先進医療を受けられる、柔軟に対応していくような仕組みを作りたい」と述べた。その言葉通り、患者の利益を最優先する制度設計を急いでもらいたい。

The mixed medical care plan would enable the simultaneous use of services covered by public health insurance programs and those to which such insurance plans do not apply.
 混合診療は、公的医療保険が適用される医療と対象外の医療を併用するものだ。

Medical services of that nature have been banned, as a general rule, over fears of enabling the spread of treatments whose safety and efficacy are open to doubt.
安全性や有効性が不確かな治療法が広がりかねないとして、原則禁止されてきた。

As circumstances stand today, patients are required to pay all expenses—even for treatments that would otherwise be covered—if they receive mixed medical care. This means, for example, that patients must shoulder exorbitant financial burdens if they choose to receive anticancer drugs that have not yet been approved in this country. Such a situation must be rectified.
 併用した場合には、本来は保険が適用される治療費も全額自己負担となってしまう。国内で未承認の抗がん剤などを使う場合、患者が過大な負担を強いられる現状は、改善しなければならない。

The few exceptions to the ban on mixed medical care include some cutting-edge treatments. This applies to new methods of treatment for which approval for coverage under health insurance has been sought. Requests for the use of such advanced treatments is examined by a planned panel of experts, and approved by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry.
 現在、先進医療の一部では例外的に混合診療が認められている。保険適用を目指す新しい治療法を対象に、専門家会議が審査し、厚生労働省が承認する。

The problem is that limits have been placed on the scope of medical institutions authorized to provide advanced medical care and the range of patients eligible for such treatment. It also takes six to seven months for each request to be examined. Given this, it is impossible to respond to patients’ compelling cases requiring advanced treatment.
 問題は、実施する医療機関や対象患者の範囲が限定され、審査に6~7か月を要している点だ。新たな治療法を求める患者の切実な思いに応えられていない。

Flexibility, but not without risk

The planned new system entails a large increase in the number of medical facilities authorized to offer advanced services. It will also promote cooperation between what are called clinical research core hospitals, designated by the ministry, and medical institutions in each community, so they can seek consultations with doctors at faculties close to their homes.
 新制度では、実施する医療機関を大幅に増やす。厚労省指定の「臨床研究中核病院」と地域の医療機関が連携し、患者が身近な場所で受診できる体制を作る。

The system would also shorten the length of time required for approval of new advanced treatment. For instance, the time to reach a decision on a request for a new method of treatment that has not yet been applied in Japan would be reduced to six weeks, and only two weeks if there is a precedent for its use.
 承認期間も短縮する。国内で初めて行う治療法は6週間、前例があれば2週間で結論を出す。

Requests for the approval of such treatment would be examined by the planned government panel of experts and the core hospitals.
新設される政府の専門家会議と中核病院がそれぞれ審査を担当する。

We believe the government’s involvement in that process will guarantee a certain degree of safety regarding the use of advanced treatment.
 政府がチェックに関わることで一定の安全性が確保されよう。

Meanwhile, there still are some problems to be addressed in this respect. Some patient advocacy groups have expressed apprehension that patients could be treated with new advanced methods whose effectiveness is not yet fully clear. Few patients have good medical knowledge. With this in mind, doctors should take care to provide scrupulous explanations to patients so they can make appropriate decisions about whether to receive advanced care.
 一方で、課題も残る。患者団体からは、効果のあいまいな治療を押しつけられるのではないかとの声も上がっている。患者には医療の専門知識が乏しい。患者が適切に判断できるよう、医師には丁寧な説明が求められる。

Another pertinent issue concerns the application of health insurance to methods of advanced medical care provided under the new system. If the safety and efficacy of such treatment is established, such treatments should be included in the list of insurance-covered medical services.
 新制度の対象となった治療法も、安全性や有効性が確認されれば、保険を適用するのが本来の姿である。

If methods of advanced treatment are only used under the new system for an indefinite time, it means such medical care will be provided outside the health insurance system, naturally forcing patients to pay substantial bills. That would be contrary to their interests.
いつまでも新制度の枠内にとどまり、保険外のまま高額で提供されるようでは、患者の利益に反する。

With all this in mind, it is necessary to create a structure by which records on each method of advanced treatment provided under the new system will be utilized to examine whether the treatment should be covered by health insurance, while also removing treatments from the list of insurance-covered care if their efficacy is not confirmed.
 新制度の治療実績を保険適用の判断に活用し、効果が確認できないものは対象から除外する仕組みを確立することが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 11, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

自民農協改革案 全中の指導体制温存を許すな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
JA-Zenchu structure must not emerge unscathed from LDP reform plan
自民農協改革案 全中の指導体制温存を許すな

How can the JA Group of agricultural cooperatives be drastically overhauled to reenergize Japan’s farming industry? This reform process is about to face a moment of truth.
 日本農業の再生に向けて、農業協同組合(JA)グループの抜本的な改革をどう実現するか。正念場はこれからだ。

The Liberal Democratic Party has completed its agricultural reform plan. The centerpieces of the plan are revamping the leadership of regional agricultural cooperatives, which is currently concentrated in the hands of the Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives (JA-Zenchu), and shifting JA-Zenchu’s structure to a new setup.
 自民党が農業改革案をまとめた。全国農業協同組合中央会(JA全中)を頂点とした地域農協に対する指導体制を改め、全中を新たな組織へと移行させることが柱である。

In response to criticism that the group’s all-encompassing administrative leadership has sapped the motivation of producers, the LDP’s plan would restrict JA-Zenchu’s role to collating the wishes and purposes of agricultural cooperatives, as well as liaising and coordinating among them.
 自民党案は、画一的な経営指導が生産現場の意欲を損なってきたとの批判を受けて、全中の役割を地域農協の意思集約や連絡・調整に限定するとした。

The reforms aim to end JA-Zenchu’s excessive intervention into the affairs of regional cooperatives, and promote the switch to a more “proactive” form of farming that gives greater play to the self-initiative of farmers. We think the direction of the plan makes sense.
 全中による地域農協への過度な介入をやめさせ、自主性を生かした「攻めの農業」への転換を促す改革の方向性は妥当だろう。

The LDP plans to solidify details, such as the group’s new structure after the JA group reviews its organizational makeup, and revise the Agricultural Cooperatives Law and other laws during next year’s ordinary Diet session.
 自民党は具体的な組織の在り方などについては、JAグループ内の検討も踏まえてさらに詰め、来年の通常国会で農協法などの改正を図るとしている。

However, it is disconcerting that essential elements of the reforms remain undecided.
 気がかりなのは、改革の肝心な部分が固まっていないことだ。

Last month, the government’s Regulatory Reform Council proposed that JA-Zenchu be abolished. JA-Zenchu vehemently opposed the idea, stating the move would “lead to the dismantlement of the JA Group.” We cannot escape concerns that the LDP reform plan could be watered down due to such fierce backlash from JA-Zenchu.
 先月、政府の規制改革会議は全中の廃止案を打ち出した。これに対し、全中は「JAグループの解体につながる」と、猛反発した。自民党の改革案が今後、全中の巻き返しによって「骨抜き」にされる懸念は拭えない。

Actions must eclipse titles

One idea being floated was to change JA-Zenchu’s status from a corporate body based on the Agricultural Cooperatives Law to a general incorporated association. But simply changing its status while it retains powerful influence over regional agricultural cooperatives will not improve the effectiveness of the reform.
 全中を農協法に基づく法人から一般社団法人などに移行させる案も浮上しているが、地域農協への強い影響力が温存されれば改革の実効性は上がるまい。

It remains unclear how the LDP will handle JA-Zenchu’s levy system, through which ¥8 billion is collected annually for operating expenses from agricultural cooperatives and other sources nationwide.
 全中が地域農協などから年間80億円の運営費を上納させている賦課金制度の扱いも不透明だ。

We think legal revisions should be made to abolish this collection system for vast sums of money that, along with JA-Zenchu’s extensive administrative authority based on the Agricultural Cooperatives Law, form the base of its power.
 農協法に基づく強い経営指導権とともに、全中の権力基盤となっている多額の集金システムを、法改正で廃止すべきである。

In the reform plan, the LDP said it would “positively consider” converting the group’s National Federation of Agricultural Cooperative Associations (JA Zen-Noh), which runs a shipping and sales network for products grown by farmers, into a stock company.
 自民党案は、農作物の集荷や販売を担う全国農業協同組合連合会(JA全農)の株式会社化を「前向きに検討する」とした。

It is a reasonable objective to support closer ties between JA Zen-Noh and companies through such means as mergers and acquisitions as well as expanding their operations through diversified capital procurement.
 資金調達の多様化による事業拡大や、合併・買収(M&A)の手法も使った企業との連携強化を後押しする狙いは適切だ。

Steadily implementing reforms in areas other than the cooperatives will also be needed. The LDP plan included a call to raise the cap on business investment in agricultural production corporations from “25 percent or less” to “less than 50 percent.”
 農協以外の改革も着実に進める必要がある。自民党案は、農業生産法人に対する企業の出資制限を「25%以下」から「50%未満」に緩和することも盛り込んだ。

About 400,000 hectares of arable farmland in Japan has been abandoned, an area equivalent to all of Shiga Prefecture. We expect the involvement of more companies in agriculture will result in more effective use of farmland and more efficient management of the farming industry.
 国内の耕作放棄地は滋賀県の広さに相当する40万ヘクタールに上る。企業参入による農地の有効利用と、農業経営の効率化に期待したい。

Negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade deal are within grasping distance of a major agreement. The nation cannot afford to put off strengthening the competitiveness of its agricultural sector. Japan must quickly implement agricultural reforms that reward motivated farmers.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉も大詰めの段階で、日本農業の競争力強化は待ったなしである。意欲ある農家が報われる農業改革を急がねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 11, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

集団的自衛権 「容認」閣議決定へ調整を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Ruling parties must accelerate talks toward Cabinet decision on defense
集団的自衛権 「容認」閣議決定へ調整を急げ

Thorough discussions are needed on whether to approve the exercise of the right to collective self-defense because it greatly affects the future security of Japan. The government and ruling parties are responsible for reaching a definite conclusion on the matter when the time comes to do so.
 日本の安全保障を左右する問題だけに、徹底した議論は必要だ。一方で政府・与党は、時期が来れば、きちんと結論を出す責任がある。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has issued a directive to accelerate consultation talks between the Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner New Komeito so that exercise of the collective defense right can be approved by the Cabinet. LDP Vice President Masahiko Komura has asked the government to draft a document to allow the exercise of the collective defense right, taking into consideration a plan for the Cabinet decision to be made before the current ordinary Diet session ends on June 22.
 安倍首相が、集団的自衛権の行使を容認する閣議決定に向け、与党協議を加速するよう指示した。自民党の高村正彦副総裁は、今国会中の決定を視野に入れ、その素案の作成を政府に求めた。

The Abe administration has been patiently carrying out procedures on the matter, including recommendations by an expert panel, consultations between the ruling parties and intensive debate in the Diet. After deciding on a new view of the collective defense right at a Cabinet meeting, the government plans to establish necessary legislative arrangements in the Diet.
 安倍政権は、有識者会議の提言、与党協議、国会での集中審議などの手続きを丁寧に踏んでいる。新たな見解を閣議決定した後、国会で必要な法整備を行う方針だ。

The idea of permitting the minimum necessary exercise of the collective defense right may be a realistic change of the constitutional interpretation on the matter because it has a certain coherence with the conventional, overly restrictive interpretation.
 必要最小限の集団的自衛権に限って行使を認める「限定容認論」は、過度に抑制的だった従来の見解とも一定の整合性が取れる、現実的な解釈変更と言える。

Komeito has argued that it is possible to uphold operations such as the protection of U.S. warships and minesweeping, which can be conducted based on the right to individual self-defense and police power. But that argument is not reasonable for all cases. It is more rational to endorse such operations in line with the idea of approving a limited exercise of the collective defense right.
 米艦防護や機雷除去などは個別的自衛権や警察権で説明できるとする公明党の主張には、一部の例外を除き、無理がある。限定容認論で説明する方が合理的だ。

We urge the LDP and Komeito to steadily pursue their bilateral talks to reach a consensus on the matter.
 与党は、協議を着実に進め、合意をまとめてもらいたい。

Easy compromise questionable

In their consultation talks with Komeito, the government and the LDP have made concessions repeatedly to Komeito in connection with the Self-Defense Forces’ logistic support activities and measures to cope with so-called gray-zone incidents that fall short of a wartime attack.
 政府・自民党は与党協議で、自衛隊の後方支援やグレーゾーン事態の対処について、公明党に譲歩を重ねた。

Easily compromising on some specific items out of the desire to hasten discussions on the focal issue of the collective defense right is questionable.
焦点の集団的自衛権の議論を急ぐあまり、内容面で安易に妥協するのは疑問である。

The government on June 3 presented four conditions—including work in combat zones and providing supplies and services to be used in combat—under which SDF logistic support for multinational forces is banned as it would be considered “integrated with the use of force” by other countries, a condition prohibited by the Constitution. But the government withdrew these criteria three days later.
 政府は後方支援で、憲法の禁じる「武力行使との一体化」の判断基準として、「戦闘現場」「戦闘に直接用いられる物品や役務の支援」などの4要件を提示したが、わずか3日後に撤回した。

Instead, the government presented three criteria on logistic support—no support will be given in combat zones, support will be suspended when combat starts and search and rescue operations for humanitarian purposes will be conducted as exceptions.
 代わりに「戦闘現場では支援しない」「戦闘が始まれば活動を中止」「人道的な捜索・救難は例外とする」の3条件を示した。

The government’s view of logistic support has been too strict. Even the provision of information and supplies for foreign troops in a multinational force has been restricted on the grounds that such activities could be considered “integrated with the use of force.”
 これまでの政府見解は厳格すぎた。他国軍への情報提供や水・食料補給まで、一体化の「恐れがある」との理屈で制限していた。

The four requirements for logistic support, which were also approved by the Cabinet Legislation Bureau, can be seen as a significant step in clarifying the definition of “integrated with the use of force.” The four conditions essentially represent a constitutional judgment, so they should not be changed based on a political judgment. The four constitutional conditions and the three political requirements are supposed to be compatible.
 内閣法制局も同意した4要件は一体化の線引きを明確化する重要な新見解として評価できる。4要件は本来、憲法判断であり、政治的な判断で変更すべきではあるまい。憲法上の4要件と政治的な3条件は両立するはずだ。

New legislative arrangements for gray-zone incidents, such as the seizure of a remote island by an armed group, have been put on the back burner. This is because Komeito, the National Policy Agency and the Japan Coast Guard are wary of SDF roles expanding.
 グレーゾーン事態の武装集団による離島占拠などは、新たな法整備を見送ることになった。自衛隊の役割の拡大に公明党や警察・海上保安庁が慎重なためだ。

Instead, the government reportedly plans to improve the procedures for a Cabinet decision to speed up the issuance of an order to the SDF for maritime safeguarding activities. This can be regarded as a step forward, but giving the SDF greater authorization on the use of arms is indispensable for the SDF to act effectively. The matter must be studied further.
 その代わり、自衛隊の海上警備行動などの発令を迅速化するため閣議決定の手続きの運用を改善するという。それ自体は前進だが、自衛隊の効果的な活動には武器使用権限の拡大が欠かせない。この点もさらに検討すべきだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 10, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

認知症行方不明 関係機関の情報共有が重要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Sharing information on missing elderly people with dementia crucial
認知症行方不明 関係機関の情報共有が重要だ

There is no end to cases of elderly people with dementia going missing. It is crucial that the system used to help identify missing dementia patients functions effectively so they can be reunited with their families quickly.
 認知症が原因で行方不明になる高齢者が後を絶たない。早期に家族の元に戻れるよう、身元特定の仕組みを有効に機能させることが重要だ。

In 2012, police received 9,607 missing-person reports for patients with dementia, and the number rose to 10,322 in 2013. Of them, 258 people were unaccounted for as of the end of April.
 警察に行方不明者として届け出があった認知症の人は、2012年に9607人、13年には1万322人に上った。これらのうち258人が、今年4月末時点で所在不明となっている。

In many cases, elderly people with dementia who went missing were taken into protective custody later by the municipalities and moved into nursing care facilities, ultimately remaining there as they could not be identified.
 無事に保護されながら、身元が分からずに、施設に預かられたままとなるケースが少なくない。

A woman with dementia who had been put into a nursing care facility in Tatebayashi, Gunma Prefecture, was reunited in mid-May with her husband after seven years. Their reunion was made possible thanks to a TV news program featuring her.
 群馬県館林市の介護老人福祉施設に入所していた認知症の女性は5月中旬、7年ぶりに夫と再会した。テレビ番組で取り上げられたのがきっかけだった。

An elderly man with dementia who was living at a home for the elderly in Sayama, Saitama Prefecture, was identified on June 5 by relatives who had seen news reports featuring him late last month and made contact with him. Eighteen years had passed since he went missing and was placed under protective custody.
 埼玉県狭山市の老人ホームで生活していた男性は、報道に接した親族からの連絡で、今月5日に身元が判明した。保護されてから18年も経過していた。

In both cases, the local municipalities and the police exchanged very little information, and no careful checks were made of the National Police Agency’s database after these elderly people were moved into nursing care facilities.
 いずれも、施設に引き取られた後、自治体と警察の情報交換がほとんど行われず、警察庁のデータベースを活用した身元照会も徹底されなかった。

If such people cannot be identified within 24 hours after they are placed under protective custody, the police, in accordance with the Law concerning the Execution of Police Duties, will put them in the care of the municipalities.
 警察は、保護から24時間以内に身元を確認できなければ、警察官職務執行法に基づいて、自治体に対応を引き継ぐ。

No regulations in place

The problem is there are no regulations concerning the sharing of information between these entities after such people are put in the care of local municipalities. It is inevitable for such inappropriate responses to be criticized as ill effects of bureaucratic sectionalism.
問題は、その後の情報共有などについて、何ら規定がないことだろう。縦割りの弊害と批判されても仕方がない。

The NPA has notified the Metropolitan Police Department and other prefectural police headquarters that they should cooperate with local municipal governments even after they have such elderly people placed in the care of the municipalities.
 警察庁は、対応を自治体に引き継いだ後も、連携を図るよう都道府県警に通知した。

Health, Labor and Welfare Minister Norihisa Tamura said at a press conference on Friday, “We have to build a system to match up those who have gone missing and those who are looking for them,” hinting that the ministry will launch discussions with the NPA and other entities. Such efforts must be expedited to make such ideas a reality.
 田村厚生労働相は6日の記者会見で、「行方不明になっている人と、捜している人をマッチングできる仕組みを作らなければならない」と述べ、警察庁などと検討を始める考えを示した。具体化を急ぐ必要がある。

Also needed is a system that considers the characteristics of those with dementia who are unable to identify themselves.
 本人が名乗れない、という認知症の特性に配慮した照会システムも求められる。

With regards to the police’s missing person database, information searches can be made only by name. The NPA has said it will also utilize its database used for criminal investigations, in which searches can be made using various kinds of information, including physical characteristics and personal belongings.
 警察の行方不明者照会のデータベースは、氏名に頼った検索しかできない。警察庁は、身体的特徴や所持品など、多くの項目から検索できる犯罪捜査用のデータベースも用いる方針を示した。

The NPA will also have such information compiled by local municipalities, including photographs, on those placed under their care distributed among prefectural police headquarters and local police stations, so families searching for their missing relatives can examine them at nearby police stations and other places.
 保護した人の写真を添付した自治体作成の資料を警察本部や警察署に配布し、行方不明の人を捜している家族が最寄りの署などで閲覧できるようにもする。

We hope these efforts can help identify missing dementia patients quickly.
 こうした取り組みを早期の身元特定につなげたい。

More and more local municipalities have registered elderly people who are likely to wander away, and have asked local residents via e-mail to cooperate in finding them in case they go missing. Cooperation among local residents, municipalities and police is also essential.
 徘徊はいかいの恐れのある高齢者を事前に登録し、万一の時、市民にメールで捜索協力を呼びかける自治体が増えている。地域住民と自治体、警察の連携も欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 10, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月11日 (水)

自衛権の協議―後世に責任を持てるか

June 11, 2014
EDITORIAL: Ruling coalition talks on collective self-defense are a farce
自衛権の協議―後世に責任を持てるか

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party and junior coalition partner New Komeito held closed-door talks on June 10 on Japan’s right to collective self-defense. During the talks, the LDP proposed showing a draft for Cabinet approval on the issue to New Komeito at the next round of talks on June 13.
The discussions are nothing but a charade, and the parties should just discontinue them.
 密室の芝居がかった協議は、もうやめたらどうだろう。
 集団的自衛権の行使容認をめぐるきのうの与党協議で、自民党は次の協議が予定される13日に、行使容認のための閣議決定の文案を示したいと公明党に提案した。

As expected, New Komeito balked at the LDP’s proposal, arguing it needed time to reach an intraparty consensus.
 公明党は「党内調整に時間がかかる。時間がほしい」と難色を示した。当然だろう。

What conceivable scenarios would necessitate Japan’s participation in collective self-defense? It was only on June 10 that the ruling coalition began discussing in concrete terms the scenarios presented by the government.
 集団的自衛権の行使が必要になるとしたら、どんなケースが考えられるか。政府が示した「事例」をもとに、具体的に意見交換を始めたのはようやくきのうのことだ。

The talks effectively broke down. And yet, the LDP is acting as if Cabinet approval is a foregone conclusion. We are actually surprised that New Komeito did not walk out in a huff.
 結果は物別れといっていい。それなのに、自民党はもう結論の文案を出したいという。公明党が席を蹴らなかったのが不思議なぐらいだ。

The LDP is rushing this whole affair because Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has instructed the party to secure the Cabinet’s approval before the current session of the Diet ends on June 22. But this “deadline” means nothing to the people.
 自民党が急いでいるのは、22日までのいまの国会中に閣議決定ができるように、安倍首相に指示されたからだ。この締め切りは、国民にとっては何の意味もない。

Since Abe’s intentions were crystal clear from the start--to revise the government’s interpretation of the Constitution and enable Japan to exercise its right to collective self-defense--the talks with New Komeito are nothing but a formality by which to force the coalition partner to go along with the LDP. The scenarios presented by the government were just a prop.
 政府の憲法解釈を変え、集団的自衛権の行使を認める――。首相の意思は最初からはっきりしているのだから、与党協議はそれを公明党に認めさせるための舞台に過ぎない。政府が示した事例はその小道具だ。

What is really wrong with this “stage” is that it has been set up behind closed doors. Unlike in the Diet, there are no TV cameras to broadcast and stream online the proceedings, and no minutes are kept.
 ただ、舞台は閉ざされたドアの向こう側にある。ネットやテレビで中継され、議事録が残る国会とは決定的に違う。

Granted, LDP, New Komeito and government representatives brief reporters after the talks each day. But there is no way reporters can find out exactly who said what and get the nuances of the exchanges.
 その日の協議が終われば、自民、公明、政府のそれぞれの担当者から、何十人もの記者団に簡単な説明はある。だが、だれが、何を、どんなニュアンスで話したかは分からない。

The main topic of the LDP-New Komeito talks is whether to effectively scrap war-renouncing Article 9 of the Constitution.
 話し合いの主題は、憲法9条を実質的になくしてしまうかどうかということだ。

If the ruling coalition determines that the article must go in order to protect Japanese citizens, the only way to proceed would be to get approval of two-thirds of lawmakers in both the Upper House and Lower House, and then hold a national referendum, as stipulated in the Constitution.
 日本人を守るためにそれが必要だというなら、衆参両院で3分の2以上の賛成を得たうえで国民投票に問うしかない。

But what is actually taking place in a conference room in the basement of the Lower House members' office building could not be more divorced from the legitimate procedures for constitutional amendment.
 こうした憲法改正手続きと、衆院議員会館の地下の会議室で行われる与党協議。この落差はあまりに大きい。

Moreover, the Abe administration is trying to use a 1972 government view that acknowledges the need to take “necessary self-defense measures” to justify its argument for constitutional reinterpretation and allow Japan to exercise its right to collective self-defense.
 しかも政府は、集団的自衛権を認める憲法解釈の根拠を、9条のもとでの「必要な自衛の措置」を認めた72年の政府見解に求めようとしている。

However, this view also concluded that Japan must not be allowed to exercise its right to collective self-defense. We cannot possibly understand how the Abe administration could draw an entirely opposite conclusion from the 1972 view.
 だが、この見解は「集団的自衛権の行使は許されない」と結論づけている。どこをどうひねれば百八十度違う結論が出てくるのか。

If the government and the LDP go ahead and drastically change Japan’s course in this manner, how will they answer to the next generation?
 こんなやり方で日本の針路を変えてしまって、後の世代に責任が持てるのだろうか。

If New Komeito considers itself a party committed to peace, there is no reason why it has to fall in step with the LDP at this most critical juncture.
 公明党が平和の党を任じるのなら、自民党の振り付けに合わせる必要はあるまい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 11

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月10日 (火)

フランスのパリで日本文化を紹介するビッグイベント、今年で15年目

美研インターナショナルというサークルをご存知でしょうか。
フランス人に日本文化、伝統芸能、日本独自のアートなどを精力的に紹介するグループなんです。
そもそもこのイベントの発生は15年前にさかのぼります。
漫画、アニメが大好きな18歳の三人組がサークルをつくり、フランスのパリで始めた小さなイベントなんですが、それがまさかの大ヒット。
その精神は、漫画、アニメを超越して日本文化そのものの奥ゆかしさを知らしめるイベントへと昇華したんですね。
その大切な役割を一手に担っているのが美研インターナショナルという分けなんです。
昨年の7月に開催された第14回大会は大盛況でした。
ジャパン エキスポ「WABI-SABI 2013」の様子は、断片的な写真集なんですが、日本の文化の息遣いまで聞こえるほどなんです。
WABISABI オフィシャルFacebookアカウント  をチェックしてみませんか。
すばらしい体験がネットでもできること請け合いなんです。








ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ レビューブログからの情報です

| | コメント (0)

ジャイアン出版塾でベストセラー本を出版してみませんか

(株)天才工場という会社が塾生募集中なんです。
天才というからにはどんな分野なのかがとても気になりました。
それは本を出版するお仕事なんです。

おりしも出版業界不況の昨今なんですが、爆発的に売れている新進気鋭の作家だってたくさん存在します。
どうやら出版で大ヒットを飛ばすためには、特別なテクニックがあるみたいなんです。
それを自由にコントロールできる、出版の達人がジャイアン出版塾なんです。

ただいまジャイアン出版塾では1日体験講座の塾生募集集です。
一回の講座はわずか15名の少数生成主義となっています。
気になるお値段なんですが、特別割引価格の5000円で、誰でも早い者勝ちで講座を受けることが出来ます。

メール出版塾登録はリンクのフォームより簡単に出来ます。
必要なのはお名前とメールアドレスのみなので、誰でも簡単に登録することが出来ます。
あなたもジャイアン出版塾でベストセラー本を出版してみませんか。







ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ レビューブログからの情報です

| | コメント (0)

子宮頸がん ワクチン接種の勧奨は慎重に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Health ministry should be cautious in promoting cervical cancer vaccine
子宮頸がん ワクチン接種の勧奨は慎重に

Should the government proactively recommend that girls be vaccinated for cervical cancer? The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry must exercise a careful judgment on this question.
 国が子宮頸けいがんワクチンの接種を積極的に勧めるべきかどうか。厚生労働省には慎重な判断が求められる。

Cervical cancer is caused mainly by viruses transmitted through sexual intercourse. The vaccine is effective against two such viruses that cause 50 to 70 percent of cases of cervical cancer. Japan began using it in 2009.
 子宮頸がんは主に性交渉で感染するウイルスが原因だ。ワクチンは、子宮頸がんの原因の5~7割を占める2種類のウイルスを防ぐ効果がある。国内では2009年に使用が始まった。

In April last year, the health ministry set the age range for this vaccination from girls in the sixth grade of primary school through girls in the first year of high school. The girls are obliged to try to receive the vaccination, but the fee of ¥50,000 per person is subsidized by public funds.
This means all those who wish to be vaccinated can undergo the procedure for free, in principle.
 厚労省は昨年4月に小学6年から高校1年までの女子を定期接種の対象とした。接種を「努力義務」とする一方、約5万円の接種料は公費で補助し、希望者は原則無料で受けられるようになった。

So far, more than 3 million women are estimated to have been inoculated against cervical cancer.
 これまでに推計300万人以上が接種を受けている。

However, a series of side effects have been reported. The number of serious cases, including those involving fainting or convulsions, has exceeded 500. There are also many people who have found it difficult to pursue their daily lives due to chronic pain after vaccination. These facts must be seriously considered.
 ところが、副作用の報告が相次いだ。失神やけいれんなどの重い症例だけでも500件を超える。慢性的な痛みにより、日常生活が困難になった人もいることは、深刻に受け止めねばならない。

Only two months after the vaccination was made routine, the ministry took the unusual step of suspending the program encouraging girls to receive it. At present, the number of girls receiving the vaccine has declined drastically.
 定期接種開始から2か月後に、厚労省は積極勧奨を一時中止する異例の措置を講じた。現在、接種者は大幅に減っている。

More studies needed

A ministry panel of experts studying the side effects presented a opinion in January that the symptoms that occurred after vaccination were not caused by components of the vaccine, believing they were physical and mental reactions triggered by strong pain and anxieties felt at the time of inoculation.
 厚労省の有識者検討会は今年1月、症状はワクチンの成分が原因ではなく、「接種時の強い痛みや不安が引き起こした心身の反応」との見解を示した。

However, the conditions that trigger the side effects are not completely understood. There is no surefire treatment for the symptoms, which naturally makes many people harbor reservations about the vaccination.
 ただ、どういう場合に副作用が起きるのか、完全には分かっていない。治療を受けても、症状は必ずしも改善しない。接種に不安を抱く人が多いのは当然だろう。

The panel is to decide soon whether the ministry should resume actively recommending girls in the age group to receive the vaccine. However, opinions on the issue are divided among members of the ruling coalition parties. We think an environment in which girls can be vaccinated without concern must be created as soon as possible by advancing research on the vaccine, including methods to treat the side effects.
 検討会は近く、積極勧奨を再開するかどうかを決める見通しだ。だが、与党内でも意見が割れている。副作用の治療方法などの研究を進め、安心して接種を受けられる環境整備を急ぐ必要がある。

The original and key aim of a routine vaccination is so-called social defense, to prevent measles, rubella, tuberculosis and other transmittable diseases from spreading.
 そもそも、定期接種は、はしかや風疹、結核などの感染を拡大させないための「社会防衛」を主眼に行われる。

In contrast, the vaccination against cervical cancer aims at so-called personal defense to protect individuals from the risk of cancer. We doubt it has the same nature as vaccines the government should actively recommend to the public get, like the vaccines against infectious diseases.
 これに対し、子宮頸がんワクチンの接種は、がんの危険から自らを守る「個人防衛」が目的だ。他の感染症のワクチンのように、政府が積極的に勧奨すべきものとは性格が異なるのではないか。

Also, ¥30 billion in public money is spent every year on the routine vaccination but it still cannot completely prevent cervical cancer.
 定期接種には年間300億円の公費が投じられるが、子宮頸がんを完全に防ぐことはできない。

We think it is more important for women to have regular checkups for cervical cancer. If it is found at an early stage, the cancer could be cured by surgery, such as removal of the diseased section. The ministry recommends that women aged 20 and older be tested for cervical cancer once every two years, but only 30 percent of women in that age group are tested in Japan, a rate far lower that that in the United States and some European countries.
 重要なのは定期的に検診を受けることだ。早期に発見できれば、患部切除などの手術で治癒する。厚労省は20歳以上の女性に2年に1度の検診を推奨しているが、日本の受診率は約3割にとどまり、欧米と比べて極めて低い。

The ministry must try to offer more information on the positive and negative effects of the vaccine, and improve the current system to check for cervical cancer.
 ワクチンの効果とリスクの情報提供に努め、検診体制の充実を図ることが、厚労省の課題だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 8, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

シリア大統領選 圧勝でも強権は免罪されない

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Assad’s landslide reelection will never exonerate guilt of iron-fist atrocities
シリア大統領選 圧勝でも強権は免罪されない

After apparently being driven into a desperate situation for a while by opponents of his regime, a dictator whose oppression of his own people led to a civil war seems to be regaining control of his nation.
 自国民を弾圧して内戦を招き、一時は反体制派に追い込まれたように見えた独裁者が、息を吹き返してきたと言える。

In Syria, where a civil war has lasted for nearly three years, a presidential election was held on Tuesday, resulting in President Bashar Assad—who had been strongly pressured by the United States and European countries to step down—winning a third term in office by securing 88.7 percent of the votes cast.
 3年近く内戦下にあるシリアで大統領選が行われ、米欧から退陣を求められていたアサド氏が88・7%という高い得票率で3選を果たした。

With the fall of the city of Homs last month in the war-ravaged country’s central region, which had been a key stronghold of the insurgents, the civil war has been evolving conspicuously to the advantage of the Assad regime. The number of fatalities has surpassed 160,000. The war so far has prompted about 2.77 million people to flee Syria’s borders and internally displaced more than 6.5 million.
 内戦は、反体制派の要塞・中部ホムスが陥落し、今や、政権側の優位が固まっている。死者は推定16万人を超える。国外に脱出した難民は約277万人、国内避難民は650万人以上とされる。

Many of those people were unable to cast ballots in the election, and the rebel groups could not vote.
 こうした人々の多くは投票できず、反体制派は締め出された。

The United States denounced the presidential election as making a “farce” of democracy, while a declaration of the latest summit of the Group of Seven industrially advanced countries in Brussels called the poll a “fake election.” Assad’s reelection to a third seven-year term through a government-set election in the middle of a protracted uprising against his rule will never be considered legitimate.
 米国は「民主主義の猿まねだ」と糾弾し、先進7か国(G7)も首脳宣言で「偽りの選挙」と非難した。戦時下の「官製選挙」によるアサド氏3選に正統性が認められないのは当然である。

Behind the failure of the scenario envisaged by the United States and Europe—the ousting of Assad and the democratization of Syria—lies fundamental changes in the shape of the civil war.
 米欧が描いてきた「アサド退陣」と「民主化」のシナリオが破綻した背景には、内戦の構図の根本的な変質がある。

Opposing forces split

Rebel groups against the Assad regime were initially made up of forces seeking the country’s democratization. Because the mainstay of antigovernment moderates supported by the United States and Europe was based outside Syria, however, domestic support for them was weak. In addition, they were plagued by internal strife to the point that they eventually split, resulting in a loss of public trust.
 反体制派は当初、国内の民主化勢力で構成されていた。だが、米欧が支持する穏健派の主力は、拠点が国外にあり、国内の支持が弱かった。内部抗争を繰り返した末、分裂し、国民の信頼も失った。

Taking advantage of the adverse situation, a massive influx began from abroad of extremist Islamic armed forces, including terrorist groups linked to Al-Qaida, who have become a major force in the fight against the Assad regime. The democratic cause has thus been cast aside.
 その混乱に乗じるように、「反米・反欧」を掲げるアル・カーイダ系テロ組織など、外国のイスラム過激派武装勢力が流入し、アサド政権と戦闘する主体となった。民主化の大義は失われた。

In the eyes of the United States and Europe, Islamic extremists are enemies in the fight against terrorism, and their existence is considered even more dangerous than that of the Assad regime.
 米欧にすれば、イスラム過激派は「テロとの戦い」の対象で、アサド政権以上に危険な存在だ。

Should the Assad regime be toppled, the Islamic extremists would emerge victorious, a situation that would not only threaten the security of Israel but also would inevitably destabilize the entire Middle East.
 仮にアサド政権が倒れれば、イスラム過激派の台頭を許し、イスラエルの安全保障が脅かされるばかりか、中東全体が不安定化するのは避けられない。

Having failed to find a reasonable alternative to the Assad regime, the United States and Europe have no choice but to effectively give the Assad regime a tacit nod in hopes that it will gain the upper hand over the rebels. Expediency on the part of the United States and Europe can hardly be denied.
 アサド政権の受け皿作りに失敗した米欧は、現体制を交代させる有効な手段を失い、アサド政権が内戦で優位に立つのを事実上、黙認してきた。「ご都合主義」の側面も否定できない。

Peace talks with the U.N.-Arab League Joint Special Representative on the Syrian crisis as the go-between have ended without result.
 ブラヒミ国連・アラブ連盟共同特別代表の仲介による和平交渉も空中分解してしまった。

Though the destruction of more than 90 percent of Syria’s stockpile of chemical weapons on the basis of a U.S.-Russia agreement was a positive outcome, the destruction of those weapons was made under the assumption that the Assad regime would remain in power.
 米露間の合意に基づく化学兵器の廃棄作業の9割以上が完了したことは、一つの成果ではあるが、この作業自体、アサド政権の存続を前提にしたものだった。

The destruction of chemical weapons, of course, can never be a reason to exonerate the Assad regime for what it has done. The international community must continue to keep a vigilant eye on future moves by the iron-fisted dictator, who must be held responsible for the massive casualties in the civil war.
 無論、化学兵器の廃棄によってアサド政権を免罪することはできない。国際社会は、内戦の大きな犠牲の責任を負うべき強権的な独裁者の行動に、引き続き厳しく目を光らせる必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 8, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月 9日 (月)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「昔は昔、今は今」 /東京

April 27, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: That was then and this is now
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「昔は昔、今は今」 /東京

When the Olympics last came to Tokyo in 1964, Japan was in the midst of its postwar growth boom. The young parents of those hopeful times have, however, become the seniors of today; the "elder care" generation, so to speak.
 前回の東京五輪の頃、高度成長時代のまっただ中に家庭を築いた人たちが、いまいっせいに“介護される年代”を迎えている。

Members of that generation, joining the workforce as Japanese society basked in its growing wealth, took to their jobs with a vigorous, proactive attitude, building tightknit nuclear families as they went. Their lifestyles began to reflect the benefits of economic success as well, with new cars appearing in driveways and pianos in living rooms. Parents also found they had the time and money to enhance their children's education, and it was in this era that the term "kyoiku mama" (education mom) -- mothers who pushed their children to succeed academically -- was coined.
 その多くは核家族、どんどん成長する社会で前向きに仕事に取り組み、自動車やピアノを買うなどして生活を豊かにしてきた。子どもの教育にもお金や手間がかけられるようになり「教育ママ」という言葉が生まれたのもその世代あたりからだ。

Age has imposed its various frailties on this energetic generation, dementia not least among them. Their children, of course, understand intellectually that their parents are getting old, and that dementia may lay siege to once nimble minds. Still, they find it hard if not impossible to accept this in their own "always energetic" mothers and fathers. One patient of mine, a woman in her 50s caring for a mother with dementia, admitted to me, "I could do something to her, become a 'care abuser,' if things keep on like this.
 そんな人たちも高齢期になればからだも弱くなれば、認知症になることもある。頭ではわかっているのだが、長い間「いつも元気なパパとママ」を見てきた子どもたちは、その事実がどうしても受け入れられない。認知症の母親の介護をする50代の娘が「このままでは“介護虐待”をしそうです」と相談に来たことがあった。

"In my neighborhood, my mother was known as an amazing 'education mom,'" the woman continued. "Now, she has to ask me everything, even what season it is. When I was a little girl, one of her favourite phrases was, 'Try looking it up yourself.' Remembering that now, when my mother depends on me for everything like a little child, I just can't find it within myself to be kind to her. I yell at her without noticing, and sometimes I find myself ready to hit her. I scare myself."
 「近所でも評判の教育ママだった母親が、いまでは季節もわからなくなってなんでも私にきいてくるのです。子ども時代は『自分で調べなさい』が口グセの母でした。それを思い出すと、いま幼児のように私に頼ってくる母親にどうしてもやさしくできません。つい声を荒らげてしまったり手が出そうになってしまうこともあって、自分でもおそろしい」

The problem isn't that the woman hates caring for her mother. Rather, she is deeply saddened and disturbed that her once super-human mom has changed so drastically. These feelings are transformed into anger, into thoughtless verbal attacks and the temptation to do violence.
 介護がイヤなわけではない。ただ、あんなにしっかりしてスーパーマンのようだった親が昔とはさまがわりしてしまった姿を見ると、なんともいえず悲しくなる。それが次第に怒りにかわり、心ない暴言や暴力につながることがあるのだ。

I have had a number of patients in the same boat, and they always tell me something like, "I can't forget how hardworking my parents were and how good life was at home when I was young." That image of strong and loving parents persists in the minds of their children, even if these parents are now in a very different stage of life. That was then and this is now, as the old expression goes. It's quite frankly odd to pine for the days when "mom and dad could do anything." By the same token, there's also no need to wall up memories of better times because remembering them makes us sad.
 そういう人たちに私はいつも「その昔、念願のマイホームで頑張っていた両親や楽しかった家庭の思い出は消えたわけではない」と話す。それがあくまで両親のメインの姿で、いまはそのときとは別のステージで生きている。あのときはあのとき、今は今。「昔はなんでもできたのに」と比べるのもおかしいし「昔を思い出すと悲しくなるから」と記憶を封印する必要もない。

Watching our parents come to need nursing care is no fun, but we must set that aside. Instead, remember the good times. Perhaps they took you to Expo Osaka 1970, and the whole family had a blast. Maybe your mother was dressed to the nines for the big outing, and oh was she a sight to behold. If we find ourselves thinking, "Yeah, but look at her now," keep that talismanic phrase "that was then and this is now" firmly in mind. Resist the comparison.
 目の前の介護が必要な親のことはさておいて、「家族で大阪万博に行ったわねえ。あのときはみんな生き生きしていて本当に楽しかった。ママも私も精いっぱいおしゃれしてたっけ」と心おきなく昔の楽しかった思い出に浸ったってよいのだ。「それなのに今は」と考えそうになったら、「昔は昔、今は今」というフレーズをおまじないのように唱えてみよう。

Very importantly, when it comes to caring for parents with dementia, we cannot do everything on our own. Make full use of elder care services, and don't be afraid to ask friends for help from time to time. Believe me when I say that the psychological burden must be shared.
そして介護の問題はひとりで背負わず、介護サービスをフル活用したり友人に頼ったり。とにかくシェアの精神が大切、ということもつけ加えておきたい。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年04月22日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:はたらけどはたらけど /東京

May 04, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: The downside of performance-based pay
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:はたらけどはたらけど /東京

I think many people believe that "The more I work, the easier off my life will be," but that may not hold true in Japan in the future.
 「たくさん働けば、その分生活もラクになるはず」。こう信じてがんばっている人も多いと思うが、これからの時代はそうもいかなくなるかもしれない。

A plan by the government's committee on industrial competition suggested the idea of remuneration that is not tied to the amount of time worked by employees, but to their productiveness. The plan includes not paying overtime wages to employees who don't produce results. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe responded positively, saying he wanted the committee to "consider a new wage system befitting a work style that is evaluated not by time but by results."
 政府の産業競争力会議が提出したプランには、会社勤めの人の「働く時間」と「賃金」とが直接結びつかない新しい制度の導入が盛り込まれていたのだ。その中には賃金はあくまで仕事の成果で決まり、いくら働いても成果を上げられなければ残業代は出ない、といった仕組みも含まれていた。安倍晋三首相もこの提案を受けて「時間ではなく成果で評価される働き方にふさわしい、新たな労働時間制度の仕組みを検討してほしい」と前向きな発言をしたといわれる。

The plan is of course still just a proposition, and the new system would be "applied based on agreements between employers and employees and the choice of employees," so a law that would suddenly eliminate overtime wages won't be getting passed right away. However, there are already people expressing their concerns that corporations could get their employees, including young ones, to agree to this system and then demand unattainably high results of them, forcing them into nonpaid overtime.
 もちろん、まだ提案の段階であり、「労使の合意と本人の希望選択をもとに適用され」とあるので「会社員の残業代はすべてゼロ」という法律がただちにできるわけではない。ただ、早くも「会社側が若手社員にまでこの制度を選択させ、達成が不可能な高い成果を要求し、報酬につながらない残業を延々とさせることになりかねない」といった懸念の声が上がっている。

I am wary of the idea of performance-based pay. There was a time when Japanese corporations were ditching the system of pay and promotion by seniority for systems dependent on results. At first, it might seem like a chance for a pay raise or promotion, but the new system led to heavy competition within companies and their departments and resulted in a spike of employees falling ill from stress. There were people who became depressed after they worked hard but failed to achieve results due to poor timing or other factors and were given bad performance reviews. I suspect only a few employees were able to thrive from the introduction of performance-based pay.
 私は「成果に応じて」という考え方自体がくせものだと思う。以前、日本の会社が年功序列制度を捨てて「就業年数や年齢に関係なく成果に応じた報酬や地位を与える」という成果主義を導入した時期があった。一見、収入アップや昇進のチャンスに思えるが、同じ会社や部署内でも激しい競争を強いられることになり、結果的にストレスから心身をこわす社員が激増した。努力したのにタイミングなどの問題で成果を上げられず、無残に低い評価をつけられ、うつ病になる人もいた。成果主義の導入で生き生きと活躍できた社員は、ごくわずかだったのではないか。

I am not opposed to a person who achieved results getting a good performance review, and I do think it is wrong for a person who just lazes around to get overtime pay. But, I think that it is only right that people who work hard get paid for that time. If that changes, then I think there will be more people who are confused, hurt, or more seriously, become unable to get by or become unable to work.
 私だって、結果を出した人が高い評価を受けることには反対ではないし、何もせずにダラダラしているのに残業代が支払われるのはおかしいとも思う。ただ、たとえすぐに成果につながらなくても、がんばって働いた人にはその時間分、賃金が支払われるのはやはり当然なのではないか、と思うのだ。その仕組みまで変わってしまったら、戸惑う人、傷つく人、そして何より生活ができなくなる人や働けなくなる人がさらに増えるのではないだろうか。

The poet Takuboku Ishikawa wrote, "I work and work, but still my life does not become easier, and I stare at my hands." I only pray that Japan does not become full of people in such a situation.
 石川啄木は「はたらけどはたらけど猶(なお)わが生活楽にならざりじっと手を見る」と詠んだが、そういう人が世の中にあふれる日がやって来ないように、と祈るばかりだ。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年04月29日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:断たれた人生の連続性 /東京

May 11, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: A life without continuity
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:断たれた人生の連続性 /東京

Recently, a common news item has been weighing heavily on me -- that of elderly people found wandering around who can't even say their name or address and are placed under the care of the authorities.
 先日からとても気になっているのが、「警察に保護されて名前や住所が言えず、施設などに入所する高齢者」の問題だ。

On April 22, the Mainichi Shimbun reported that in around six years since fiscal 2008 there have been at least 546 such people taken into emergency custody by municipal governments. Among them are those who have remained unidentified and continue to go by the names they were assigned.
4月22日の本紙にも、自治体が介護施設に暫定入所させ「緊急一時保護」の対象となった人が、2008年度からの約6年間に少なくとも546人いたという調査結果が載っていた。中には、その後もずっと身元不明のまま、仮の名前がつけられている人もいるという。

Where did these people come from? If they were living with their families or in care facilities one would expect there would be missing persons' reports filed on them. Did some misunderstanding prevent those reports being created? Or were these people living by themselves until one day, having left to go shopping or to take a walk, they forgot the way home and even their address? Whatever the cause, these people have had the continuity of their lives broken.
 その人たちはどこから来たのだろう。家族と住んだり施設に入所したりしていれば行方不明者届が出されるはずだが、何かの行き違いで出されていないのだろうか。あるいは、それまでは何とかひとり暮らしをしていたのが、ある日、買い物か散歩に出てついに帰路や自宅の住所を忘れてしまったのだろうか。いずれにしても、その人たちの人生の連続性は、そこでぷっつりと断たれてしまう。

Everyone has, from the time they were children, set and worked toward goals in the future like playing in a sports match, graduating from university and getting a job, raising children or paying off a mortgage. And sometimes we reflect on our pasts, at the timeline that runs through our life, feeling satisfaction or perhaps some regret.
 子どもの頃から誰もが、「来年は野球の試合に出たい」「あと2年で大学卒業して社会人だ」「子どもが成人するまではがんばるぞ」「住宅ローン完済までついに10年を切った」などと先々に目標を定め、それに向かって努力してきた。そして、ときどきは後ろを振り返り、自分の人生を貫く一本の道に目をやって、満足感を味わったりちょっぴり後悔したりする。

As we age and our memories fade, we can give each other support. At a class reunion, we might be reminded by a former classmate that, for example, we were good at swimming, something we may have completely forgotten about. We can feel safer imagining how later, even as we grow into our elderly years and deal with dementia or other diseases, we can count on family and friends to fill in our memory gaps.
 年齢を重ね、だんだん記憶力が怪しくなってきてからは、集団でそれを支えあうことができる。クラス会で「おまえは昔、水泳が得意だったよな」と友人に言われ、自分ではすっかり忘れていたのに「あー、そうそう」と思い出すことはよくある。さらに高齢になり認知症などの病にかかっても、家族や友人が記憶を肩代わりしてくれて「お父さんは本当に仕事人間だったね」などと言ってくれると想像したら、なんとなく安心できる気がする。

However, people who have forgotten their names and homes and have been taken in by police have no such support, and their lives have lost their continuity with their pasts.
しかし、名前も住まいも忘れ、保護されて暮らす人たちの人生の連続性は、誰にも支えてもらえない。

Previously, there would have been people in the community -- people at the local temple, at the school where our children or grandchildren went, at the senior's club where we indulged in hobbies -- to say they remember us and guide us back home should we get lost.
 ご近所。檀家(だんか)になっているお寺。子どもや孫を通わせた学校。趣味で通っていた老人クラブ。かつてなら、地域に誰か「あなたのことを知ってるよ」という人がいたように思う。たとえ迷子になっても、「あなたはあの家の人じゃない」と教えてもらうこともできた。

In today's society, however, we are instead told by everyone, "I don't know you." It would be tragic if these unidentified people taken in by local governments pass away without knowing who they are and where they came from.
それが今では、誰にも「あなたなんて知らないよ」と言われてしまう。保護されている高齢者が「どこからやって来た誰なのか」がわからずに一生を終えるとしたら、それはあまりにも悲しいことではないだろうか。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年05月06日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:論文も「シェアする」時代? /東京

May 18, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Is this the age of 'sharing' report papers?
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:論文も「シェアする」時代? /東京

After the recent news of suspected plagiarism being found in a STAP cell research paper, I took up the issue of plagiarism in my university class. I imagine this issue is being discussed at universities around the nation now.
 大学の授業でいわゆる「コピペ」、他人の文章を自分のリポートなどに無断で丸写しする問題を取り上げた。STAP細胞の論文にそれと思われる箇所があったことがきっかけとなり、いま全国の大学で「コピペ問題」が語られていると思う。

The students of course say they think that, in general, plagiarism is wrong. They give reasons like "because it won't allow you to develop your own thinking skills" and "because it's a violation of copyright." However, it is interesting that as the discussion continues, inevitably someone will suggest that plagiarism isn't such a bad thing.
 学生たちももちろん「基本的にはコピペはしてはいけない」と言い、理由を問うと「自分で考える力がつかないから」「著作権侵害だから」などと話す。しかし、あれこれ議論するうちに「よく考えるとコピペはそれほど悪くないのでは」といった意見も必ず出てくるのが興味深い。

"For parts where it will end up almost the same no matter who writes it, it seems alright to use what someone else has written to save time," they say, or "when you completely agree with something else, it seems OK to copy it to show your agreement with it." When I heard one student say, "It's nicer to let someone read a well-written piece than a poor piece I wrote myself," I laughed and almost found myself agreeing.
 「誰が考えても同じような文章になるような箇所は、時間節約のため前の人が考えたものを使ってもよいのでは」「完全にその考えに共感している場合、“私も同じです”という意味でのコピペならありではないか」という具合だ。「自分で書いた下手な文章を読ませるより、コピペでちゃんとしたものを読んでもらうほうが親切」という意見には思わず噴き出しながら「なるほど」と納得しそうになってしまった。

Today's university students have been using the Internet since they were little. Out in cyberspace is limitless information and knowledge, and much of it is free. In this state of affairs, people no longer care so much from where such information originates. Or maybe a better way to put it is that people feel that the information out there on the Internet "belongs to everyone." Young people often call their posting of photos or other things online "sharing," and perhaps they believe that knowledge and information is something to be "shared" in the same way.
 いまの大学生の多くは、物心ついた頃からインターネットに触れてきた。そこには無数の情報や知識があふれており、多くが無料で提供されている。そうなると、もはやそれが誰のオリジナルなのかには、あまり関心がなくなる。というより、「このネット空間の情報や知識はみんなのもの」という感覚なのだろう。よく若い人は自分が撮った写真などをネットで公開して見てもらうことを「シェアする」と言うが、まさに情報や知識もシェアされるものと思っているのかもしれない。

In the future, if a student who copied a paper were to say, "I didn't plagiarize. Professor, don't you know that the assembled information on the Internet is called 'collective knowledge?' I just borrowed from that collective knowledge," what could I say to them to convince them they were wrong? It would be even more of a headache if the original source of the information had said something like, "Everyone please share this!"
 今後、誰かのリポートや論文を丸写しして「コピペしたんじゃないですよ。ネット上にある知識の集積を“集合知”というのを先生は知らないんですか? 私はその集合知をシェアしただけです」などと言い張る学生が出てきたら、どうやって「それはいけないこと」とわかってもらったらよいのだろう。はじめに書いた側も「どんどんみなさんでシェアしてください」などと言い出したら、事態はさらにやっかいになる。

As a psychiatrist, I could say, "If you are always copying others, you will lose your sense of who you are," but what should I say as a university teacher? What an odd thing to be thinking about this May. Well, for now I think I will just say, "Even if it's poorly written, it is important to think by yourself when you speak, and when you create your reports."
 精神科医としては「コピペばかりしていると自分は何かという大切な感覚がなくなる」などと言えるが、大学の教員としてはどう言うべきか。おかしなことで悩む5月となった。しかし、いまの時点ではやっぱりこう言っておこう。「たとえ稚拙でもいい。自分の頭でしっかり考えて発言したり、リポートを仕上げたりすることが大切だよ」

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年05月13日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「好意の返報性」に注意 /東京

May 25, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Be careful of the desire to 'give back'
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「好意の返報性」に注意 /東京

One aspect of people's psychology is that of giving back. To explain it simply, it is the feeling that one should return the favor when someone is nice to them. It is an important aspect of our psychology that adds to our lives.
 人間の心理のひとつに「好意の返報性」がある。わかりやすく言うと「親切にしてもらったら、お返しをしなければ」という気持ちだ。旅行に出たときに「お世話になった人におみやげを買っていこう」という気になるなど、「好意の返報性」は生活にうるおいを与える大切なものだ。

However, there are times when these feelings are abused. Take an example where a person who has long been kind to their neighbor one day invites them to go to a seminar. The neighbor thinks, "I don't want to go, but I should pay back this person's kindness once in a while," and agrees, but the destination turns out to be a sales fair of high-priced items, and the neighbor ends up being pressured to buy something they didn't even want.
 しかし、時にはこれを悪用する人もいる。たとえば日ごろから近所の人たちに親切にしておいて、ある時「今度、ためになるセミナーがあるんだけど、ぜひ行きましょうよ」と誘う。ふだんお世話になっている人は「行きたくないけれど、たまにはお返しをしなければ」という気持ちになり出かけて行く。すると連れて行かれた先は高額な商品の販売会で、ほしくもないものを買わされてしまったりする。

In this way, especially in Japan, duty and friendship have long been highly valued and I believe there are many people who feel that even if it takes somewhat of a sacrifice on their part, they have to return favors.
とくに日本では昔から「義理と人情」が重んじられており、「世話になったら多少無理をしてでも返さねば」と思う人が多いのではないだろうか。

Come the evening of May 15, there was an attempt to appeal to this sense of "giving back" through words and illustrations at a press conference by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. The premier used an attack on United Nations peacekeeping forces from another country, and the Japanese Self-Defense Forces' response to this, as an example of a scenario that should be considered by the nation. Alongside an illustrative panel, he said, "Even if we received a request for help from another country's forces that are working with us to build peace, Japan's Self-Defense Forces would have to abandon them. This is the reality."
 15日夕、安倍晋三首相が行った記者会見では、私たちのこの「好意の返報性」に訴えかけるような言葉やイラストが用いられていた。首相は、今後実現を検討すべき具体的な例のひとつとして、国連平和維持活動(PKO)の他国部隊が武装勢力に襲われた際の自衛隊による「駆け付け警護」を挙げ、パネルを使いながらこう説明した。「一緒に平和構築のために汗を流している他国の部隊から救助してもらいたいと連絡を受けても、日本の自衛隊は彼らを見捨てるしかない。これが現実なのです」

Many people, hearing that and looking at the illustration of smiling peacekeepers, probably thought, "We should indeed help these people if they are in trouble, since they are helping the Japanese in the area. If we have to change the current interpretation of the Constitution a little for that, there is no problem."
 そう言われ、笑顔のPKO要員が描かれたイラストを見せられたら、私たちの多くはこう思うのではないか。「たしかに現地で日本人もお世話になるこんな人たちがピンチに陥ったら、助けてあげるべきだ。そのためにはいまの憲法の解釈を少し変える必要があるならそれは当然だろう」

This is a perfect example of the psychology of wanting to give back. I see people using this way of thinking in other justifications on the exercise of the right to collective self-defense, saying that if the United States military that is protecting Japan were to come under attack, it would then be Japan's turn to help.
 これこそまさに「好意の返報性」だ。ほかでもこの集団的自衛権の行使の問題では「日本を守ってくれるアメリカ軍が攻撃を受けたら、今度は日本が助けるのはあたりまえ」など、この心理で考えようとする人が目につく。

However, is it really OK to decide important matters about our national security with the kind of "pay back favors" thinking used in regular everyday life? We mustn't allow the kindness of the people who looked at that panel and thought, "We should help these nice young people if they are attacked" to lead us to war.
しかし、本当に「お世話になったからお返しする」というあまりに日常的な感覚で、国の安全保障という重要な方針を決めてしまってよいのだろうか。パネルのイラストを見て「こんなさわやかな若者が襲われたら、守ってあげなきゃ」と考える人たちのやさしさが戦争への道につながってしまった、などということだけはあってはならない。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年05月20日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:薬のない人生、いつ? /東京

June 01, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Addiction as a disease
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:薬のない人生、いつ? /東京

Another Japanese celebrity has been arrested over drugs. This time, it's one half of a pop duo, collared for possession of an illegal stimulant. Whether he admits to the allegations or not, he may suffer withdrawal from his illicit substance of choice.
 また人気者が違法な薬物を使用していたのか。男性デュオの一人が覚せい剤取締法違反で逮捕された。今後、容疑を認めたとしても、急に薬物を中止したことによる離脱症状と呼ばれる苦しみが待っているかもしれない。

So, why do celebrities and artists who have so many fans carelessly resort to illegal drugs? I often hear that celebrities are under great pressure, not knowing when they are going to lose their fame, but ordinary people live under pressure, too. Do they arrogantly think that celebrities are entitled to indulge in a world unavailable to regular people just because they are famous? If they actually think like that, these stars must have rotten hearts no matter how wealthy they may be.
 それにしても、なぜ多くのファンを持つアーティストや芸能人が安易に違法な薬物に手を出してしまうのか。「人気を失うかもしれないというプレッシャーに耐えかねて」といった話をよく聞くが、ストレスを背負って生きているのは一般の人も同じだ。人気者ゆえに「自分にはほかの人には味わえない世界を知る権利がある」と錯覚してしまうのだろうか。だとしたら、いくらお金はあっても心は貧しかったということになる。

It's not as simple as, "I quit," once a person becomes addicted to drugs. Addiction is a disease, one that cannot be overcome with simple determination. It changes one's personality. Addicts tend to become angry and less tolerant.
 さて、いったん薬物に依存した状態になると、「もうやめます」と言っても、からだも心も手を切るのは、そう簡単ではない。薬物依存はすでに「病気」であり、決意だけでは断ち切れない。キレやすい、がまんがきかない、など性格変化という症状もあるからだ。

It doesn't matter whether the addiction is to drugs or alcohol; addicts do not just get better as soon as they stop taking the substance in question.
 薬物にしてもアルコールにしても、依存症は「やめてさえいれば完治する」というものではない。

Nonprofit organization Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Center (DARC) founder Tsuneo Kondo says in a book he co-authored with well-known TV producer Dave Spector, "Even if a person (with alcoholism) refrains from drinking for 20 years, once he drinks, he is right back to his worst days and needs to start (the rehabilitation process) all over again. This is why the addiction is called a 'disease that will never be cured.'"
薬物依存のリハビリ施設「ダルク」の創始者である近藤恒夫氏は、デーブ・スペクター氏との対談集「ニッポンの(薬物)依存」の中で、こう語っている。「20年やめていてもまた飲んじゃったら、20年前からスタートじゃない。最後の悪いところからスタートする。最悪のところからいつもスタートする。そこのところが治らない病気と言われているんですね」

Kondo believes that addicts cannot fully recover unless they find new ways to live without addictive substances. The organization does not just keep the patients away from alcohol or drugs, but has them participate in various activities such as playing sports, working on farms and having discussion with other patients at meetings twice a day. Patients are asked to lead a completely different life from the time they had addiction problems. This is the kind of commitment needed to rehabilitate from the disease.
 「ダルク」では依存症者をただ薬物から遠ざけるだけではなく、「薬を使わない新しい生き方」を実践できなければ回復はできないとの考えのもと、仲間とのミーティングを1日2回、それに加えてスポーツや畑仕事などを毎日行ってもらう。とにかく、これまでとは別の新しい人生を歩んでもらうのだ。それくらいの覚悟がないと病としての依存症からの回復は見込めない。「また人気者に戻りたい」というのは病気を自覚していない甘えから来る発言だと思う。

Many celebrities who face arrest over illegal drug use say they want to return to their work and to pleasing their fans as soon as possible. But if they continue in the same profession, they cannot truly start a new life.
 アーティストや芸能人の多くは、違法薬物で逮捕されると「一日も早く元の仕事に戻りたい。ファンに恩返ししたい」と言う。しかし、これまでと同じ仕事を続ける限り、本当の意味で「新しい生活」に踏み出すことはできないのではないか。

I wonder how the singer will plot out his new, drug-free way of life.
 逮捕されたアーティストはどうやって「薬のない人生」を実践していくつもりなのか。今後を見守りたい。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年05月27日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:おとなに疑問抱く瞬間 /東京

June 08, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Kids' moment of doubt about adults' supremacy
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:おとなに疑問抱く瞬間 /東京

I was recently asked for a magazine interview on my memories of school lunches. When I was little, I was a big fan of lunches served at my school, and I even wrote about my love for school lunches in an article. The magazine editor apparently saw the article and asked me to talk more about it.
 ある雑誌から「給食の思い出」という取材を受けた。実は私は子どもの頃、学校給食が大好きで、そのことを原稿に書いたこともある。それを見た編集者から「もっとくわしく語ってください」と依頼があったのだ。

"Which menu was your favorite?" "How many times in a week did you ask for seconds?" While the magazine writer asked me these questions, I was taking a walk down memory lane and remembering lunchtime in my elementary and junior high school years.
 「どんなメニューが好きだったのですか」「おかわりは週に何回くらい」などと質問を受けながら、小中学時代の給食のことをあれこれ思い出した。

While I was a big school lunch person, some of my classmates did not like the meal served at school. Some students avoided certain items such as carrots and milk, while one classmate said she would not eat anything that was a stew or soup.
 私は給食が好きだったのだが、クラスには「給食が苦手」という同級生もいた。牛乳やにんじんなど決まった食材がダメという子も「とにかく汁ものが全部きらい」という子もいたように思う。

Some teachers made a rule to eat everything that was served for lunch and made students sit until they finished their food.
 担任の先生によっては「給食を残すのは許さない」という決まりを作り、昼休み時間が終わるまで席について食べるように強制している人もいた。

I think it was in my second year in junior high school that one of my classmates threw out food she just could not eat from a window. While classmates pretended that they did not see anything, the teacher found out what she had done. The teacher in a rage told all students in the classroom that we were all responsible for what happened. The teacher then told each of us to write a letter of apology after school.
たしか中学2年のときのことだったと思うのだが、どうしてもある食材が食べられない同級生が先生の目を盗んでそれを窓から投げ捨てた。まわりの子は見て見ぬふりをしたのだが、不幸なことに先生に見つかり、「捨てた人も見逃した人も、いや、みんなの連帯責任だ」と激怒して「授業が終わった後、みんなに居残って反省文を書いてもらいます」と言った。

Being teenagers, we decided to ignore what the teacher had told us. The teacher left the classroom saying, "Bring your letters to me in the faculty room when you finish." But nobody began writing or even held a pencil. Instead, we talked about how it was OK not to finish the lunch. "There are some foods I don't like, too," some students would say.
 いま考えても理不尽な話だが、10代半ばの私たちはなんだかやたらに気持ちが高揚し、「反省文なんて書くのはやめようよ」と全員で決めた。そして、先生が「じゃ、反省文を書いた人から職員室に持ってきて」と言い残して出て行った後も、誰ひとり鉛筆を取ろうとせず、「給食を残したっていいじゃない」「私もきらいなおかずがあるよ」などとさかんにおしゃべり。

Needless to say, we made the teacher even angrier by not writing the letters, but eventually the teacher told us to go home.
もちろんその後、先生にはさらに怒られたが、結局、「もうわかった。帰りなさい」と帰宅許可を勝ち取った。

I wonder what we were fighting against in that classroom. Until then, we thought that what teachers tell us was right and we needed to listen to them, but when the teacher told us all to stay after school and write letters of apology, we probably thought, "That's not fair." That may have been the first time I questioned a teacher's instructions. And when we realized that not everything adults say is right and sometimes it's OK to disobey, we were kind of excited.
 あのとき私たちは、いったい何と戦ったんだろう、とふと考えた。それまでは「先生の言うことは正しい」と思って素直に言うことをきいていたのが「全員居残り」と指示されて「それは違うんじゃない?」とはじめて疑問を抱いた。そして、「そうだ、おとなの言うことにも間違いはあるかもしれないんだ。全部に従わなくたっていいんだ」と気づき、みんなで確認したのだ。それは妙に気持ちがたかぶる経験だった。

Do children these days experience that moment when they realize that adults are not always right? While it may be problematic to be too rebellious, I secretly hope they do go through moments when they doubt the legitimacy of adults.
 最近の子どもたちにも「おとなはいつも正しいわけじゃない!」と目覚める瞬間があるのだろうか。あまりに反抗的になるのも問題だが、私としてはひそかに「おとなに疑問を抱く瞬間、あればいいのにな」と思うのだ。

(Answers by Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年06月03日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

リフォームシミュレーターというのを発見しました(お部屋のリフォーム見積もり)

マンションなどの集合住宅に長いこと暮らしていると、どうしてもお部屋に飽きが来てしまうものですね。
私もそのうちの一人なんです。
そんなときには、例えば、お部屋の壁紙を張り替えると、お部屋が見違えるように魅力的なものになります。
ついでに床のクロスなんかも張り替えれば、まるで新築住宅を購入したときの気分となります。

それから、使い古したキッチンだけは、この際、新しくてモダンなデザインのものにリフォームしたいところですね。
まだまだあります。
お風呂をリフォームして、入浴スペースを広くするというようなアイデアも素敵なんです。

実際我が家では団地の1階に住んでいたのですが、風呂釜を壁の外側に出す方式にして、一回り大きな浴槽にリフォームした経験があります。
その快適さは体験したものにしかわかりません。

さて、リノコというサイトなんですが、このサイトでリフォームのシミュレーションが出来ます。
簡単な条件を入力するだけで、パソコン上で瞬時にリフォーム代金の見積もりが取れるんです。
複数の条件でも、簡単に見積もりが出来るのがとても魅力的なんです。



業界初『リフォームリノコ』が見積りシュミレーション機能をスタート




ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月 8日 (日)

厚木男児放置死 関係機関の連携で再発を防げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Teamwork among related organizations essential to prevent child abuse deaths
厚木男児放置死 関係機関の連携で再発を防げ

It was a horrifying incident.
 あまりに痛ましい事件である。

The body of a boy reduced to a skeleton was discovered in an apartment in Atsugi, Kanagawa Prefecture, late last month. His 36-year-old father has been arrested on suspicion of abandoning the child and causing his death.
 神奈川県厚木市のアパートで、幼い男児の白骨遺体が見つかり、36歳の父親が保護責任者遺棄致死容疑で逮捕された。

The father is suspected of having killed his then 5-year-old son about seven years ago by leaving him alone in the apartment without adequate food and water.
 食事や水を十分に与えず放置し、約7年前に当時5歳の男児を死亡させた疑いがある。

Over a period of about two months leading up to the boy’s death, the father went to the apartment only once or twice a week and was reportedly aware that the boy “would die from prostration in due course.” This is nothing less than a despicable act. Even after the boy’s death, the suspect continued to pay rent for the apartment so “the body would not be found.”
 父親は、男児が死亡する前の約2か月間は、週1、2回しか帰宅せず、「いずれ衰弱して死ぬ」と認識していたという。無責任と言うほかない。死亡後も「死体が見つからないように」と、アパートの家賃を払い続けていた。

Was it not possible to prevent the boy’s death? It has been revealed that the organizations concerned mishandled the situation as they overlooked various danger signals in connection with the case.
 男児の死亡は防げなかったのか。いくつものシグナルを見過ごした関係機関の不手際も、浮かび上がってきている。

When he was 3, the boy was discovered wandering along a road barefoot before dawn and was taken into protective custody temporarily at the Atsugi child center. The following day, the boy was handed over to his mother. But members of these organizations did not visit the boy’s home after that and they tried in vain to confirm the whereabouts of the boy several years later.
 男児は3歳の時、未明に裸足はだしで路上にいるところを住民に発見され、厚木児童相談所が「迷子」として一時保護した。翌日、母親に引き渡した後、家庭訪問を行わず、数年後に男児の所在をつかもうとしたが、できなかった。

The Atsugi municipal government and the city’s Board of Education were also aware that the boy did not undergo medical examinations as a baby and infant and had not entered primary school.
 厚木市と市教育委員会は、男児が乳幼児健診を受けていないことや、小学校に入学していないことを把握していた。

Information-sharing vital

However, these organizations had not shared such information until recently and did not carry out a thorough investigation to confirm the boy’s safety. Therefore, they cannot escape criticism for lacking awareness of possible consequences. It was natural for Health, Labor and Welfare Minister Norihisa Tamura and Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Minister Hakubun Shimomura to emphasize the need for “bolstering cooperation among the organizations concerned.”
 ところが、これらの機関は最近まで情報を共有せず、安否確認を徹底しなかった。危機感が欠如していたとの批判は免れまい。田村厚生労働相と下村文部科学相が「関係機関の連携強化」を表明したのは、当然である。

The Atsugi case is one of a series of nationwide incidents in which unaccounted-for infants died after being abused.
 所在不明児の虐待死事件が、全国で相次いで発覚している。

In Tondabayashi, Osaka Prefecture, a boy was discovered missing in April 2012, when he would have been 9. His relatives said they buried his body when he was 5 months old. In Yokohama, it came to light in April last year that a 6-year-old girl who did not attend primary school had died after being abused.
 大阪府富田林市で2012年4月、9歳になっているはずの男児が行方不明であることが分かり、親族が生後5か月時に遺体を埋めたと供述した。横浜市でも昨年4月、学校に通っていなかった6歳女児の虐待死が明るみに出た。

According to a Yomiuri Shimbun survey conducted last November, babies and infants whose whereabouts were unknown came to more than 4,000 nationwide.
 読売新聞が昨年11月に実施した調査によると、自治体が所在を確認できない乳幼児は全国で4000人を超える。

The health ministry called on local governments in April to conduct a fact-finding survey regarding unaccounted-for children aged under 18. The ministry will review safety-confirmation methods and look into problematic points. We hope the ministry will work out effective measures to prevent such tragedies.
 厚労省は4月、18歳未満の所在不明の子供について実態調査を行うよう自治体に求めた。安否確認の方法や問題点も検証する。悲劇を繰り返さぬよう、有効な対策を打ち出してもらいたい。

To prevent child abuse, it is essential to establish a system that would make it possible to discover parents who are anxious over, or have difficulties with, child-rearing at an early stage and provide them with adequate assistance. Some municipalities are attempting to set up a system under which administrative offices for child-rearing will be integrated to keep an eye on parents and their children from the time of pregnancy.
 虐待防止には、育児に不安や困難を抱える親を早期に発見し、適切な支援につなぐ体制が重要だ。子育て施策の窓口を一本化し、妊娠期から親子を見守る仕組み作りに取り組む自治体もある。

As for single-parent households, there is an assistance system under which they are entitled to have their children enter day care centers on a priority basis and child-care helpers are sent to them on a temporary basis. Local governments must strive to make such a system more widely known.
 ひとり親家庭には、保育所の優先入所やヘルパーの一時派遣などの支援制度もある。自治体は、その周知にも努めるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 7, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

マイナス金利 デフレ阻止に動いた欧州中銀

The Yomiuri Shimbun
ECB adoption of negative deposit rate bold measure to prevent deflation
マイナス金利 デフレ阻止に動いた欧州中銀

The European Central Bank has introduced a bold monetary easing policy with a strong will to prevent the European economy from falling into deflation.
 デフレへの転落を阻止したいという強い決意の表れだろう。
 欧州中央銀行(ECB)が大胆な金融緩和策を打ち出した。

The ECB has decided to cut its annual policy rate to a record low 0.15 percent and lower the overnight deposit rate, which is applied to funds commercial banks park at the central bank, to minus 0.1 percent from zero percent. This makes the ECB the first major central bank in the world to adopt a negative bank deposit rate.
 政策金利を過去最低の年0・15%とし、民間銀行がECBに預金する際に適用する金利は、0%からマイナス0・1%に下げる。主要な中央銀行でマイナス金利を採用するのは初めてだ。

A negative deposit rate means that commercial banks have to pay interest at this rate, which is like a handling fee, to place funds at the central bank. The measure is expected to stimulate the European economy by encouraging commercial banks to cut back on parking excessive funds at the ECB and instead use the money to finance companies.
 マイナス金利になると、ECBに資金を預けた銀行は「手数料」のように金利を払うことになる。銀行がECBに預けている余剰資金を企業融資に回し、景気を刺激する効果が期待されている。

It also aims to lower interest rate levels in general and redress the strong euro.
 金利水準全体を引き下げ、ユーロ高を是正する狙いもあろう。

The ECB is also to implement a measure to provide low-interest funds to commercial banks for up to four years. It is commendable that the central bank is trying to use every measure at hand to avoid deflation.
 ECBは低利資金を最長4年、民間銀行に供給する措置なども実施する。デフレの回避へ政策を総動員する姿勢は評価できる。

The European economy remains stagnant, though it has overcome the financial and debt crises of Greece and a few other countries.
 欧州経済は、ギリシャなどの金融・債務危機を乗り切ったものの、停滞状態が続く。

The effects of the low growth rate and the strong euro have kept increase rates of commodity prices in the eurozone at less than 1 percent for eight straight months, far lower than the target of near 2 percent.
 低成長とユーロ高の影響で、ユーロ圏の消費者物価上昇率は、「2%近く」としている物価目標を大きく下回り、8か月連続で1%を切っている。

Avoiding a 2nd Japan

If the situation is left unaddressed, the eurozone will become a second Japan, which suffered from a strong yen and depression under deflation for many years. Such concerns are likely to have pushed the ECB to adopt the unconventional monetary easing measure.
 このままでは、長期にわたり円高とデフレ不況に苦しんだ日本の二の舞いになりかねない。そうした危機感が、ECBに異例の緩和策を決断させた理由だろう。

Now attention is focused on whether the latest measure will achieve its intended effects. Not a few economists say the ECB’s policy rate is already close to zero and a further rate reduction will have only a limited effect.
 今後の焦点は、今回の政策が、期待通りの効果を上げるかどうかである。
 ECBの政策金利は、すでにゼロに近く、利下げの効き目は限定的とする見方も少なくない。

It is also said that the introduction of a negative deposit rate will increase the burden on commercial banks and worsen their finances, leading to a minimization of new loans and higher lending rates.
 マイナス金利の導入については、民間銀行の負担が増し、銀行の財務悪化による融資の抑制や、貸出金利上昇などにつながりかねないとの指摘もある。

Finance Minister Taro Aso said he plans to wait to see the outcome of the move. “I still can’t say whether the results will be good or bad,” he said.
 麻生財務相は、「いい結果になるか、悪い結果になるか分からない」と述べ、影響を見極めていく考えを示した。

Some market observers say the ECB will eventually have to resort to full-fledged quantitative monetary-easing measures like the Japanese and U.S. central banks, which have purchased a huge amount of government bonds.
 市場ではECBがいずれ、国債を大量に購入している日本や米国のように、本格的な量的金融緩和策に踏み切らざるを得なくなるとの観測も浮上している。

However, there are many challenges for the ECB to overcome before implementing tangible measures, including deciding what proportion of government bonds would best be held by the central bank—which is responsible for the financial policy of the 18 eurozone countries—in purchasing them from member governments.
 だが、18か国のユーロ圏で金融政策を担っているECBが、各国の国債をどのような比率で購入すればいいのかなど、具体化に向けた難題は少なくない。

The future of the Japanese economy is looking brighter, while the United States, which has recovered its economic growth, is reducing quantitative monetary easing.
 日本経済は明るさを増し、成長の回復した米国は量的金融緩和の縮小を進めている。

The ECB’s policy management capabilities are now being tested on how the growth of the eurozone economy can be recovered to help achieve the stabilization of the global economy.
 世界経済の安定に向けて、欧州の成長をどう回復するか。ECBの政策運営が問われる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 7, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)STAP騒動 理研は再発防ぐ対応を

June 07, 2014
EDITORIAL: Riken needs more convincing steps to prevent research misconduct
(社説)STAP騒動 理研は再発防ぐ対応を

Once hailed as a great discovery that could require biology textbooks to be rewritten, a study on a new method of creating stem cells has returned to a sea of hypotheses where countless ideas are bobbing up and down.
 生物学の教科書を書き換える大発見かと思われた新万能細胞「STAP(スタップ)細胞」は、再び無数のアイデアが浮き沈みする仮説の海に戻ることになった。

Haruko Obokata, a biologist at the Riken Center for Developmental Biology, and all the other key authors of the main article on the newly created cells have agreed to retract the research, published in January in the journal Nature.
 理化学研究所の小保方(おぼかた)晴子氏をはじめとする主要著者全員が、論文の撤回に同意した。

The high-profile manner in which the claim of discovering STAP cells, for stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency, was announced drew much public attention to the research. As it has turned out, however, the study has no solid scientific basis. The research should be retracted.
 派手な展開で世間の耳目を集めたが、結果的には、根拠薄弱なものでしかなかった。撤回は当然であろう。

This is a sad coda to the STAP story. But the process leading to the denouement has rather indicated the health of the Japanese scientific community.
 残念な結末ではあるが、その経過を振り返ると、科学界としては健全さを示したといえる。

Like the immune system that reacts to threatening substances, the scientific community has demonstrated an ability to detect and remove a flawed study.
 からだの免疫反応のように、欠陥のある研究発表を見抜き、排除する機能が働いたからだ。

The community is not a clean room. The community has to deal with a considerable number of false, or even fraudulent, claims of “new discoveries.”
 科学界は無菌室ではない。不完全な「発見の証明」も少なからず入り込む。

But science has achieved credibility by establishing an effective system in which claims made by researchers are examined and assessed by others for verification.
だが、その客観性を第三者が調べ、異物であれば取り除く自浄作用を働かせて科学は信頼を得てきた。

After serious questions were raised about the STAP study, many researchers exchanged opinions, mainly via the Internet, and helped make a quick collective verdict. The process even raised hopes for a new approach to making effective use of the “collective wisdom” of scientists.
 今回、ネットなどを通じて多くの研究者が意見を交わし、迅速に結論を出した過程は、科学者の「集合知」を生かす新たな可能性さえ感じさせた。

In contrast, the way Riken handled the questions raised about the study has cast serious doubts on its loyalty to the basic principles of science. The research institute’s response to the problems that have come to light in connection with the study has been grossly insufficient.
 ひるがえって当の理研には、科学に対する忠実さの意識がどれほどあるのか疑わしい。これまでの対応は全く不十分だ。

That’s simply because Riken has failed to make serious efforts to identify the factors behind this misconduct and work out effective remedial measures.
 ひとえに、なぜ、この不正が起きたのかの調査が乏しく、今後の改善策も見えないからだ。

As things stand now, the STAP saga will end up being a simple research scandal and make no contribution to the scientific community.
このままではただの醜聞に終わり、科学界に何の貢献も残さないことになる。

Riken’s internal investigation committee focused its examination of the study on six of the many alleged irregularities and found two of them to represent misconduct. The in-house panel of experts didn’t make any further probe into the case.
 理研の調査委員会は、今回の論文をめぐる多くの疑義を6項目に絞って調べ、2項目を不正と認定して調査を終えた。

The panel’s mission was to swiftly determine whether research misconduct was committed. Its work failed to glean any important lesson that can be useful to prevent a recurrence. It didn’t try to find out background causes of the misconduct or the reasons for the co-authors’ failure to detect problems with the study in the process of compiling the articles.
 短期間に不正の有無だけを調べることが目的で、不正がなされた背景や論文作成過程で見逃された事情など、再発防止に役立つ教訓は導き出していない。

The inadequacy of the investigation was bitterly criticized both by the committee of outside experts for reform of Riken and at a meeting to explain the probe’s results to Riken researchers.
 調査の不徹底ぶりは、外部有識者による理研改革委員会でも、理研内部の説明会でも、強く批判されている。

A wide range of problems concerning the entire organization have come to the fore, including the ways Riken deals with personnel affairs and research projects.
 問題点は、理研の人事や研究の扱いなど組織全般に及ぶ。

When Obokata was hired by the institute, for instance, no letter of recommendation was submitted, even though its employment rules require two such letters.
小保方氏の採用の際、2通必要な推薦状が1通もなかった。

While related patent applications were made very quickly, few open discussions on the content of the study were held during the process of producing the articles.
関連特許の出願は極めて速かった一方、論文作成での開かれた議論はほとんどなかった。

Special treatment in employment runs against the common sense of the scientific community, which places great importance on equality and objectivity.
 特別扱いは、平等性や客観性を重んじる科学界の常識とは異なる。

In its single-minded pursuit of high-profile achievements, Riken, one of the nation’s leading centers of scientific research, appears to have lost the crucial power of self-purification that the scientific community has developed over time.
日本の科学研究の一大拠点である理研で、華々しい成果を急ぐあまり、科学界そのものが伝統的に培ってきた自浄作用を損なってはいないか。

Even if it needs to continue work to replicate the STAP research results, Riken should put higher priority on efforts to learn vital lessons from the episode and develop convincing measures for preventing a recurrence. That’s the only way to restore confidence in Riken and its researchers.
 仮説の段階に戻ったSTAP細胞の再現実験は続けるにしても、今回の教訓を導き、納得ゆく再発防止策を立てることがより重要だ。それしか理研と研究者の信頼を取り戻す道はない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 6

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月 7日 (土)

福島原発汚染水 「凍土壁」だけでは解決しない

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Radioactive water issue cannot be resolved by ice wall project alone
福島原発汚染水 「凍土壁」だけでは解決しない

Tokyo Electric Power Co. has launched the construction of ice walls, a project aimed at curbing the buildup of radioactive water at its crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の汚染水抑制を目指す「凍土遮水壁」の設置工事が始まった。

Halting the increase of contaminated water is the major task for the moment to end the crisis at the plant. Therefore, the project must be steadily promoted.
 汚染水の増加を食い止めることは、事故収束作業の当面の重要課題だ。着実に前へ進めねばならない。

Pipes to circulate liquid coolants will be buried over a 1.5-kilometer perimeter around the plant’s Nos. 1 to 4 reactor buildings, thereby freezing the soil to a depth of 30 meters below ground to construct ice walls. The government and TEPCO expect the envisaged ice walls to help prevent groundwater from flowing into the reactor buildings, which has caused an increase of contaminated water at the plant.
 1~4号機建屋の周囲1・5キロに冷却材を通す管を埋め込み、地下30メートルまで凍らせて土の壁を築く。政府と東電は、汚染水増加の原因となる建屋への地下水流入を防げると期待している。

Many essential pipes and electrical cables are installed underground around the reactor buildings. If such equipment is accidentally damaged, it could impair the cooling functions of the reactors.
 建屋周辺の地下には、重要な配管や電気ケーブルが数多く埋設されている。これらを誤って傷つければ、原子炉を冷却する機能が損なわれかねない。

Given the high radiation levels at the construction site, it is necessary to minimize workers’ radiation exposure. Due care must be taken in carrying out the work.
 現場は放射線レベルが高く、作業員の被曝ひばくを最小限にとどめる必要もある。作業には細心の注意を払ってもらいたい。

Installation will cost ¥32 billion. The government will bear the cost as a research and development project. Power consumption equivalent to that of 13,000 ordinary households, running more than ¥1 billion annually in simple calculation, will be needed to keep the underground walls frozen.
 凍土壁の設置には、320億円を要する。研究開発事業の名目で政府が費用を負担する。冷却のために消費する電力は、一般家庭の1万3000世帯分、単純計算で年間10億円以上かかる。

Such massive spending aside, the question is whether the ice walls will ensure that groundwater will not flow into the reactor buildings.
 問題は、これだけの巨費を投じた工事で、建屋への地下水流入を確実に抑えられるかだ。

Ice walls have been used as a temporary method of halting the flow of groundwater when tunnels are constructed. The installation of ice walls on the currently planned scale is unprecedented in Japan.
 凍土壁は、トンネル工事の際に地下水を封じ込める臨時の工法として用いられてきた。今回のような規模は国内で例がない。

Fears of subsidence

There are fears that if the soil is not frozen evenly, it could cause subsidence. Experts have warned that if the ice walls melt due to problems with cooling functions, there could be a widespread danger of radioactive water flowing outside the reactor buildings.
 均一に凍らないと、地盤沈下が起きる恐れがある。冷却機能の故障で凍土壁が解けてしまうと、汚染水が建屋から周囲に広がる危険性も指摘されている。

There is no reason to place overly high expectations on the ice walls.
 凍土壁への過度の期待は禁物ということだろう。

Considering the fact that there has been constant trouble with the countermeasures taken so far to deal with radioactive water, it is essential to carry out several measures in parallel.
 これまでの汚染水対策がトラブル続きだったことを踏まえると、複数の対策を同時並行で進めていくことが肝要である。

The amount of contaminated water has increased by 300-400 tons a day. Storage tanks built on the plant’s premises already number about 900, leaving no choice but to assign many workers to maintenance and surveillance duties.
 汚染水は、1日に300~400トンずつ増えている。敷地内の貯蔵タンクはすでに約900基に上り、その保守、監視などに多数の人員を割かざるを得ない。

This hinders work to repair the crippled reactors, which must be given top priority to end the crisis at the plant. This must be taken seriously.
 事故収束へ向けて最優先すべき原子炉の補修作業にも支障が生じている。深刻な状況だ。

Sooner or later, there will be no more sites available for the construction of storage tanks at the plant.
 タンクを設置する場所も早晩、なくなるだろう。

It is vital to reduce the amount of rainwater infiltrating the soil as one of the countermeasures. The decision was made to pave the plant’s site, but little progress has been made due to a delay in land leveling.
 対策の一つとして、地下水の元になる雨水の土壌浸透を減らすことが重要だ。敷地を舗装することが決まっているが、整地に手間取り、ほとんど進んでいない。

Experts have also pointed out the need to purify contaminated water before discharging it into the ocean. But the Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) introduced for that purpose has continued to malfunction. It is necessary to achieve stable operation of the ALPS as soon as possible and launch a full-scale study into measures for discharging decontaminated water into the ocean, while seeking to win the support of the local governments and residents concerned.
 汚染水を浄化してから海に放出する必要性も、専門家から指摘されている。だが、浄化装置「ALPS」は故障続きだ。安定稼働を急ぎ、地元の理解を得ながら海洋放出の検討を本格化させたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 6, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

G7首脳宣言 国際法秩序の維持へ結束せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
G-7 declaration rightly points out need for keeping intl rules intact
G7首脳宣言 国際法秩序の維持へ結束せよ

Acts in direct violation of the international community’s established rules should never be tolerated. It is highly commendable that major powers have put forth an unequivocal message expressing that conviction.
 国際社会のルール違反は容認しない。そんな明確なメッセージを発信したことは評価できる。

Brussels hosted a summit meeting of the Group of Seven industrially advanced countries on Wednesday and Thursday.
 先進7か国(G7)がブリュッセルで首脳会議を開いた。

At the close of the summit, the group issued the Brussels G-7 Summit Declaration, condemning Russia for “continuing violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity” of Ukraine through the annexation in March of Ukraine’s Crimea region.
クリミア半島を編入し、ウクライナの主権と領土の一体性を侵害しているロシアを非難する首脳宣言を発表した。

Russia has been maneuvering to make its annexation of Crimea, an act in violation of international law, a fait accompli, while continuing to destabilize the eastern regions of Ukraine. It is more than reasonable that the G-7 major industrialized countries moved to criticize Russia in the declaration.
 ロシアは、国際法違反のクリミア編入の既成事実化や、ウクライナ東部の不安定化を図っている。G7が批判したのは当然だ。

The Brussels declaration of the G-7 leaders expresses their commitment to supporting the reborn country of Ukraine. While urging Russia toward constructive dialogue with the Ukrainian government, the declaration intones the possibility of G-7 nations imposing further economic sanctions on Russia, depending on the actions Russia takes from this point on.
 首脳宣言は、新生ウクライナを支援する方針を表明した。ロシアに対し、ウクライナ政府との対話を促す一方、今後の対応次第では追加制裁を行う余地も残した。

To bring this conflict to a resolution, it is crucial for the G-7 countries to be firmly united in dealing with Russia and to adopt a two-pronged approach of dialogue and pressure.
 この問題の解決には、G7が一致団結し、「対話と圧力」の両様の姿勢で臨むことが大切だ。

Although the declaration stops short of naming any specific country, it states that the G-7 leaders “are deeply concerned” over the current state of affairs in the East and South China seas, where China has been following a policy of strong-arm maritime advances. The declaration is explicit over the importance of securing the freedom of navigation and overflight in accordance with international law, stating, “We oppose any unilateral attempt by any party... through the use of intimidation, coercion or force.”
 宣言は、名指しは避けながらも、中国が強引な海洋進出を進める東・南シナ海の現状に「懸念」を表明した。国際法に基づく航行・飛行の自由を確保する重要性に言及し、「力による一方的な試みに反対する」とも明記している。

G-7 still important

At the summit, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe linked the issue of China’s maritime assertiveness to that of Russia’s annexation of Crimea, stressing, “We mustn’t allow attempts to change the status quo by force in any part of the world.” It is very significant that the prime minister’s view is shared by all of the G-7 leaders.
 安倍首相は首脳会議で、中国の海洋進出とロシアのクリミア編入を関連づけ、「世界のどこでも力を背景とする現状変更を許してはならない」と訴えた。その認識をG7が共有した意義は大きい。

The need to push China away from its current heavy-handed diplomatic postures is a challenge that must be taken up jointly by the international community. All countries concerned should work in close cooperation, centering on the G-7 major nations in tackling this challenge.
 中国に強権的な外交姿勢の転換を促すことは今や、国際社会の共通の課題だ。G7を中心に、関係国の足並みをそろえたい。

The G-7 also strongly condemned North Korea at the meeting for continuing its nuclear weaponry and missile development programs. The declaration further urges Pyongyang to address its human rights violations immediately, including the abduction of Japanese nationals.
 G7は、北朝鮮の核・ミサイル開発を強く非難した。日本人拉致問題を含む人権侵害について、北朝鮮の速やかな対応も求めた。

Japan must firmly maintain its stance of seeking a comprehensive solution to the abduction problem and Pyongyang’s nuclear and missile development programs, while continuing to strengthen the country’s cooperation with the international community in resolving these issues.
 日本は、拉致と、核・ミサイル問題の包括的な解決を目指す方針を堅持し、国際社会との連携を強めなければならない。

This summit meeting was limited to the leaders of G-7 countries, excluding Russia.
 今回の首脳会議は、ロシアを排除した、G7で開かれた。

In 1997, following the Cold War’s end, Russia was officially admitted to the group, which thereby expanded to become the Group of Eight forum of major countries. The schism between the G-7 and Russia, however, has gradually widened over differences concerning Georgia, Syria and other issues. This has led to Russian President Vladimir Putin adopting an increasingly confrontational stance toward the United States in recent years.
 G7は、東西冷戦終結後の1997年にロシアが正式参加し、主要8か国(G8)に拡大した。だが、グルジア、シリア問題などでG7とロシアの溝は徐々に広がり、プーチン大統領は近年、米国との対決姿勢を強めていた。

Because of the rise of China, India and other emerging economies, the relative influence of the G-7 has been waning. The broader Group of 20 comprising 19 major countries and a region, however, remains largely incapable of reaching meaningful agreements because the members tend to be excessively assertive of their own interests.
 中国、インドなど新興国の台頭でG7の相対的な影響力は低下しているが、主要20か国・地域(G20)は、各国の自己主張が目立ち、意味のある合意が難しい。

The present and future role of the G-7 countries, which hold in common the values of freedom and democracy, remains large. Their dialogues with Russia going forward are essential to the stability of the international community.
 自由や民主主義などの価値観を共有するG7の役割は依然、大きい。この先、ロシアとの対話も国際社会の安定に欠かせない。

The G-7 is at a historic turning point as an organization, and the way that it addresses the Ukrainian crisis and issues with China is likely to be a major touchstone.
 ウクライナ情勢と中国の問題への対処が、転換期を迎えたG7の試金石となろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 6, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

吉田調書―国民の財産を隠すな

June 06, 2014
EDITORIAL: Fukushima interviews public assets that need to be disclosed
吉田調書―国民の財産を隠すな

Since the government is supposed to be working for the good of the people, important information it has gathered is a valuable asset that belongs to each and every one of us.
 政府は誰のために活動しているのか。国民のためであろう。政府が集めた情報は、国民の財産である。

After the nuclear catastrophe at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in 2011, a government investigative committee interviewed 772 people to try and identify what happened and why. They included Masao Yoshida, who was the manager of the stricken Fukushima plant. Yoshida died of esophageal cancer in 2013.
 福島第一原発の事故後、政府の事故調査・検証委員会は当時の吉田昌郎所長(故人)をはじめ772人もの関係者から聴取をした。

Since the Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations ended its short-lived probe into the disaster, the government has kept the valuable records of those interviews secret. It has not even disclosed the names of those interviewed.
なのに政府事故調が短期間で活動を終えた後、政府は貴重な証言を死蔵し、聴取対象者も開示していない。

Let us make this argument again: The government should immediately disclose, as much as possible, the records of testimonies about the accident.
 改めて主張する。
 政府は証言類をただちに最大限、公開すべきだ。

On June 5, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said, “If the government obtains agreements for disclosure (from those interviewed), it will disclose the records within necessary limits based on the stipulations of the information disclosure law.” He then set about learning about the intentions of the interviewees.
 菅官房長官はきのう「本人の同意が得られたものは必要な範囲で開示したい」と述べ、関係者の意思確認を指示した。

But the administration remains unwilling to disclose the testimonies by Yoshida on the grounds that he asked for nondisclosure of the records in a written statement submitted to the committee. This is by no means a convincing argument.
 しかし、吉田氏の聴取結果書(吉田調書)は非開示の方針を崩していない。「本人が上申書で非開示を求めている」との理由だが、納得できない。

Yoshida was in charge of front-line operations at the crippled plant. He should have given his detailed accounts of the accident in an appropriate public forum, such as in testimony before the Diet. But he was struck down by cancer and died before he could do so.
 吉田氏は現場責任者である。本来なら国会など公の場で自ら詳しく証言すべきところ、病気と死去でかなわなかった。

Now, the document of his testimonies is one of the most valuable public assets. According to the document, at the outset of the interviews, a member of the government’s investigation panel informed Yoshida of the possibility that records of his statements could be made public. Yoshida answered, “I’m OK (with that).”
 今となっては、吉田調書は最も貴重な国民の財産だ。吉田氏自ら聴取の冒頭で「ほぼそのままの形で公にされる可能性がある」と説明され、「結構でございます」と答えている。

In a written statement he later submitted to the committee, Yoshida voiced concerns about possible lapses in memory. But facts can be clarified by checking his remarks against those of others. Yoshida also spoke candidly about his assessments of other people involved. But this would not cause any problems if proper rules for disclosing the records are established. These concerns do not provide a good justification for keeping all the records enveloped in secrecy.
 後に事故調に提出した上申書で吉田氏は記憶違いを心配しているが、他の証言などと照らせば明らかになる。他者の評価などを率直に語っている点も、調書の開示ルールを作れば済み、全体を非公開とする理由にはならない。

The document of Yoshida’s interviews, a copy of which has been obtained by The Asahi Shimbun, shows that the inquiry panel’s analysis of the accident was not satisfactory. The panel’s final report referred to Yoshida’s comments from the viewpoint of whether Tokyo Electric Power Co., the operator of the Fukushima plant, was considering the evacuation of all its employees from the plant. But the report ignored Yoshida’s claim that even TEPCO employees responsible for supervising workers on the front-line temporarily took refuge in the Fukushima No. 2 nuclear power plant, located more than 10 kilometers from the No. 1 plant, in defiance of his instructions and orders.
 朝日新聞が入手した吉田調書をみると、事故調の分析は不十分とわかる。最終報告書は「東京電力が全員撤退を考えていたかどうか」との観点から証言に触れているが、所長の指示・命令が守られず、現場で指揮に当たる職員まで10キロ以上離れた福島第二原発に一時退避したという指摘は無視された。

What actually happened during the nuclear crisis? What kind of judgments did people involved make and how did they act or fail to act?
 当時、何が起きていたのか。関係者がどう判断し、どう動いたのか、動かなかったのか。

The investigation committee admitted that its probe had not even come close to revealing the whole picture of the accident and emphatically called for a continued inquiry. The government’s decision to effectively call off the investigation prematurely upset public expectations.
 そもそも事故調は全容解明にはほど遠いことを認め、調査継続を強く求めていた。政府による事実上の調査打ち切りは、国民の期待に反している。

Many of the lawmakers in the Democratic Party of Japan who responded to the disaster as members of the Cabinet and other government offices have voiced their willingness to consent to the disclosure of the records of their own interviews.
 閣僚などの立場で事故の対応にあたった民主党関係者の多くも「自らの調書を公開していい」と表明している。

The government should urge the interviewed witnesses to consent to the disclosure of their statements by stressing the importance of making them public. In particular, the remarks made by people who were deeply involved in responses to the nuclear crisis must be made public.
 政府は証言者の意思確認で公開の意義を強調し、積極的に同意を求めるべきだ。特に事故対応に深くかかわった人は公開が原則でなければならない。

Making such remarks available to all of us would contribute greatly to the efforts for making in-depth analyses of the harrowing disaster from various viewpoints.
 証言類を幅広く公開することで、悲惨な事故が改めて多角的に分析されるはずだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 6

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月 6日 (金)

徹底的な経費削減が破格の買取価格を実現しました オーディオ買取

クラッシック音楽ファンの中には、いまだにアナログのレコードを楽しんでいる人たちが意外と多いんです。
私もつい最近まで、LPレコードで大好きなバッハから、ビートルズまで、幅広い音楽を楽しんでいました。
レコード針が奏でる音の世界は、ひときわ、私のような古い世代の心を掻き立てるのですね。
粗大ごみとして処分するには、あまりにももったいない一品なんです。
あなたのご家庭に眠っている、懐かしいステレオセットなんですが、オーディオ買取 で高額買取してくれます。
高額買取には秘密がありました。
ひとつは主力としてネットをつかうこと。
そして、もうひとつが徹底した経費節減対策なんです。
それで信じられないような高額で引き取ってもらえるのです。
ステレオの処分ならばオーディオ買取 をおすすめいたします。



オーディオ高額買取専門サイト『オーディオマート.com』が新規オープン!オーディオ買取ならお任せください!



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

エヌシーアイの企業向けファイル共有サービスZETA Cloud Private が提供開始されます

こんな技術が実現できたのには秘密があります。
それはデータの暗号化システムの充実なんです。
エヌシーアイが中心となって、企業向けのファイル共有サービスをクラウド上に提供できました。
クラウド技術を駆使したファイル共有サービスはとても便利なものなのですが、セキュリティーが命なんです。
それを可能にしたのがファイルフォース株式会社の暗号化技術なんですね。
つまり、この先進の企業向けファイル共有サービスZETA Cloud Private は、エヌシーアイとファイルフォースの共同開発により生まれたと申して差し支えありません。
私が個人的に注目している技術が含まれています。
電子会議なんですが、全国各地の特定の場所に集合しなくとも、電子会議で用が足せます。
これからの企業は電子会議を戦略に取り入れて、ますます躍進すること、請け合いなんです。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

榊原経団連発足 政権との関係改善進めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Keidanren must improve ties with political circles under new leadership
榊原経団連発足 政権との関係改善進めたい

Can the new leader of the Japan Business Federation (Keidanren), a body whose influence on the world of politics has declined, rebuild the organization and help lead the nation’s economic revitalization? The head of the business lobby faces massive challenges.
 影響力の低下した経団連を立て直し、日本経済再生の先頭に立てるか。財界トップが直面する課題は大きい。

Sadayuki Sakakibara, chairman of Toray Industries, Inc., has taken the post of the new Keidanren chairman.
 経団連の新しい会長に東レ会長の榊原定征氏が就任した。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe expressed support for Keidanren in an address at a regular general meeting, saying, “[The government] will make efforts in cooperation with the private sector to realize reform and economic growth.” In addition, Sakakibara said at a press conference, “Politics and economics work in combination like two wheels of a vehicle.”
 安倍首相は経団連の定時総会で「官民一体で改革と成長の実現に取り組みたい」と、エールを送った。榊原氏も記者会見で「政治と経済は車の両輪だ」と語った。

The relationship between Keidanren and the Abe administration took a turn for the worse during the term of former Keidanren Chairman Hiromasa Yonekura. With a change in the post, we welcome a situation that would set the stage for the promotion of growth strategy through cooperation between the government and the private sector.
 経団連と安倍政権の関係は、米倉弘昌前会長時代に冷え込んだ。トップ交代を機に、官民が連携して成長戦略を推進する環境が整ってきたことを歓迎したい。

Though Toray is smaller than previous companies that have produced Keidanren chairmen, Sakakibara has the advantage of experience as a member of a government advisory panel, the Industrial Competitiveness Council, and a connection to the Abe administration.
 東レは、経団連会長を輩出してきた企業に比べれば小粒だが、榊原氏には、政府の産業競争力会議の民間議員を務め、安倍政権とのパイプを持つ強みがある。

At his inaugural press conference, Sakakibara asserted that Japan’s effective corporate tax rate, which is higher than that of other major countries, should be lowered to less than 30 percent in three years. We understand that he hopes to increase the competitiveness of Japanese firms.
 榊原氏は早速、諸外国より高い法人税の実効税率を、3年で20%台に引き下げるべきだと主張した。日本企業の競争力を高めたいとの考えは理解できる。

However, it would be a problem if companies consequently tried to accumulate the benefits of tax reduction as internal reserves. We hope Sakakibara will set out a concrete course showing how to link the benefits of tax reduction with investment leading to growth.
 ただ、「減税の果実」を企業が内部留保としてため込むばかりでは困る。成長につながる投資にどう結びつけていくか、榊原氏は具体的な道筋を示してほしい。

From tax cut to pay hike

As the consumption tax rate was just raised in April, there is deep-rooted criticism that corporate tax reduction means preferential treatment for companies. Keidanren needs to contribute to the realization of a virtuous cycle whereby household income increases due to pay hikes at firms with positive earnings and expanded consumption boosts business performance.
 4月に消費税率が引き上げられたばかりで、法人税減税には「企業優遇」との批判が根強い。好業績企業の賃上げで家計の所得が増え、消費拡大が業績をさらに押し上げる「好循環経済」の実現に経団連も貢献する必要がある。

Keidanren should strongly urge companies to make the benefit of pay hikes spread to more workers.
 賃上げの恩恵が多くの労働者に広がるよう、経団連は企業への働きかけを強めるべきだ。

As the service sector has been growing, Keidanren, whose main members come from the manufacturing industry, has been pressed to reform itself. Meanwhile, the Japan Association of New Economy, which largely comprises information technology-related firms, has been making its own policy proposals.
 サービス産業の比重が高まり、製造業が主要メンバーの経団連は変革を迫られている。情報技術(IT)企業が中心の新経済連盟も独自に政策提言している。

We hope Keidanren will take broad account of companies’ needs and ask the government to realize policies that contribute to the nation’s economic growth.
 経団連が幅広い企業のニーズを吸い上げ、日本経済の成長に資する政策の実現を政府に求めていくことを期待したい。

As Keidanren has withdrawn its involvement in political donations, the business lobby’s influence on the political world has weakened compared to the past.
 政治献金への関与から手を引いた経団連は、以前より政界に対する発言力が弱まっている。

Last year, for the first time in four years, Keidanren resumed its policy assessments of political parties, to be used as a yardstick by member companies to make decisions about political donations. But only ruling parties have been the target of such assessments, and the organization stopped using a five-level rating system that graded policies in each category on a scale of A to E. As a measurement tool used to make decisions on whom member firms will donate to, such a system may be inadequate.
 昨年には、傘下企業が政治献金先を決める目安となる「政策評価」を4年ぶりに再開したが、与党だけを評価し、政策分野ごとに評点をつけるランク付けも見送った。企業が献金先を判断する指標としては不十分だろう。

It is still of great importance that companies participate in politics by making lawful political donations while abiding by the rules.
 企業がルールを守ったクリーンな献金を通じて、政治に参加する意義は依然として大きい。

Keidanren must improve and expand its system of assessing political parties’ policies to create better criteria on which decisions on political donations can be made.
 企業献金のよき判断材料となるよう、経団連は政策評価の充実を図るべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 5, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

年金財政検証 将来世代守る改革につなげよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Reform needed to maintain proper pensions for future generations
年金財政検証 将来世代守る改革につなげよ

Public pension system reform must be implemented steadily so that the system, which will support people’s lives after retirement, is passed on to future generations.
 老後の支えとなる年金制度を将来世代に引き継ぐため、改革を着実に実行せねばならない。

The government has released a report which examined the fiscal conditions of the public pension system. The examination is made once every five years to check the soundness of fiscal conditions, taking trends in population and economy into account.
 政府が公的年金の財政検証の結果を公表した。5年に1度、人口や経済の動向を踏まえ、年金財政の健全性をチェックするものだ。

With the decline in the working population that supports the pension system alongside a rapid increase in the elderly population receiving pension benefits, younger generations are expected to receive lower pension benefit levels.
 少子高齢化で年金の給付水準は低下していく。

According to the findings, the so-called pension replacement rate—the ratio of benefits received by average retiree households to the average after-tax income of the working population—is expected to decline from 62.7 percent in fiscal 2014 to 50.6 percent in fiscal 2043.
検証結果では、現役世代の平均収入に対する標準世帯の受給額の比率(所得代替率)は、2014年度の62・7%が43年度には50・6%まで下がる。

Under this estimate, the system would barely be able to maintain its benefit levels at 50 percent or more of the average income of the working population, levels which the government had advocated with pension system reforms in 2004.
 04年の年金改正で政府が掲げた「50%超」という約束は何とかクリアする。

Yet, under estimates that assume a birthrate decline and little increase in the entry of women and elderly people to the workforce, the rates are expected to fall to below the 50 percent mark. It can be said that the latest findings have confirmed the importance of taking measures to deal with the declining birthrate and boost employment.
ただ、出生率低下や女性・高齢者の就業率の低迷を見込んだ試算では50%を割り込む。少子化対策や雇用政策の重要性が改めて確認されたと言えよう。

In the latest report, three types of special estimates were made assuming changes to the system, including an extended period of subscription to the basic pension program. Given that all three estimates have proved effective in the improvement of fiscal conditions, it is desirable for the revision to be realized as early as possible.
 今回の検証では、基礎年金の加入期間延長などの制度改正を想定した3種類の特別試算も示した。いずれも財政改善の効果があり、早期の実現が望まれる。

What is needed most urgently now is a review of the system by which pension benefits are curbed.
 中でも急がれるのが、給付抑制を図る仕組みの見直しである。

The current system pays pension benefits to the elderly within the scope of the pension program’s income—with its tax burdens and reserve funds taken into account—while setting an upper limit to pension contributions made by the working population.
 今の制度は、現役世代が払う保険料に上限を設け、収入の範囲内で高齢者に給付する方式だ。

Activate the ‘slide’

To maintain a balance between income and expenditure, the program applies the so-called macroeconomic slide mechanism, which enables an automatic curbing of pension benefits in line with the declining number of births and the graying population.
収支のバランスを取るため、少子高齢化の進展に応じて自動的に給付水準を下げる「マクロ経済スライド」を採用している。

The problem with the current system is that there is a rule limiting the application of the mechanism during times of low economic growth and deflation with declining prices and wages. The rule is designed to fend off possible opposition from the elderly by not curbing benefits during such periods.
 問題は、物価や賃金の下落時や低成長時には適用を制限するルールを設けていることだ。年金の減額を避けて高齢者の反発をかわす狙いがある。

If little progress is made in curbing benefits to the elderly today, allowing benefits to remain high, younger generations are likely to receive lower benefit levels. A full implementation of the macroeconomic slide mechanism is therefore necessary to retain appropriate levels of benefit for future generations.
 今の高齢者の給付水準引き下げが進まず、年金額が高止まりしたままでは、将来世代の取り分が減ってしまう。マクロ経済スライドを完全実施し、将来世代の年金を守るべきだ。

The special estimates also indicate the levels for those who delay the age at which they begin receiving their benefits, together with a five-year extension in the period of making contributions to the basic pension plan.
 特別試算では、基礎年金の加入期間の5年延長と併せて、受給開始年齢を遅らせる選択をした人の年金水準も示した。

For those who would contribute to the program for an extended period, the amount of benefits can be increased. And by making it more convenient for people to opt into the system of delaying the pension roll-out age to later than 65, their benefits can be increased. In other words, staying in the workforce as long as possible while receiving the benefits as late as possible means an increase in benefit levels.
 保険料を長く納めて年金額を増やす道を広げる。さらに、受給開始を65歳より遅くすると加算される制度を使いやすくする。できるだけ長く働き、遅く受給すれば、年金水準は高まるわけだ。

But considering the vast variations in health and economic strength among elderly citizens, they are certain to voice strong opposition against a uniform raise in the qualifying age of benefits. An optional system is deemed realistic, at least for the time being.
 高齢者は健康状態や経済力の個人差が大きく、受給年齢の一律引き上げには反発が強い。当面は選択制が現実的な手法だろう。

Securing job opportunities for the elderly is a prerequisite for them to take such options as contributing to the pension program for an extended period or deferring receipt of benefits.
 前提となるのは、高齢者の雇用の確保である。

As the working population declines, having elderly people stay in the workforce to support the overall economy is also important for the nation’s growth strategy. Both the government and businesses need to make efforts to improve working environments for the elderly.
労働力人口が減少し、高齢者にも働いて経済の支え手になってもらうことは、成長戦略としても重要だ。政府と企業は、高齢者が働きやすい環境の整備に努める必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 5, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

自衛隊の支援―戦闘と紙一重の危うさ

June 05, 2014
EDITORIAL: Move to expand SDF role in U.N. missions raises fresh concerns
自衛隊の支援―戦闘と紙一重の危うさ

The Abe administration has made a radical and worrisome new proposal concerning the scope of the Self-Defense Forces’ support to U.N.-authorized military operations by multinational forces.
The proposal, presented June 3 in talks between the ruling Liberal Democratic Party and its junior coalition partner, New Komeito, would drastically change the government’s traditional policy concerning the issue.
The envisioned new rules regulating the SDF’s cooperation with military operations sanctioned by a U.N. resolution would scrap the geographical restriction on the SDF’s activities based on the concept of “noncombat zone.” This concept was introduced in 2004 for the deployment of SDF troops to Iraq to support recovery efforts following the U.S.-led war.
 国連決議に基づく多国籍軍の活動を、自衛隊がどこまで支援するのか。
 安倍政権が、これまでの政府の姿勢を大きく転換させる新たな案を自民、公明の与党協議会に示した。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has proposed to make it possible for the SDF to provide medical and logistics support to foreign troops operating in combat zones. For instance, the SDF would be able to provide water, fuel and transportation to foreign troops and treat injured soldiers, according to the administration’s plan.
 イラクの復興支援の際にとられた「非戦闘地域」という線引きはやめ、「戦闘地域」であっても水や燃料の補給、他国の兵の輸送、負傷者の治療といった後方支援をするという。

Such SDF activities would concern “collective security” under the U.N. framework, which is a different notion from Japan’s right to collective self-defense.
 集団的自衛権とは異なる国連の「集団安全保障」にかかわる活動だ。

There is perhaps room for debate on Japan’s international cooperation in such situations. But Abe’s proposal is too radical a departure from the government’s traditional position and would decisively change the SDF’s role.
国際協力について議論する余地はあろう。とはいえ、従来とはあまりにかけ離れた提案であり、自衛隊の役割が決定的に変わることになる。

The administration says it will maintain the position that Article 9 of the Constitution bans the SDF from providing any support that is integrated with the exercise of force by other countries.
 政府は、他国による武力行使と一体化するような支援は憲法9条によって禁じられているとの考えは維持。

Four criteria would be introduced to define this situation. They include that the recipient of the SDF’s support is currently involved in a state of hostilities and that the items the SDF provides are used directly in the battle. However, the SDF’s support would be considered as integrated with the use of force by other countries only when the situation fits all four criteria, according to the administration’s proposal. The SDF would be allowed to provide support if any of the four criteria are not fulfilled.
そのうえで「一体化」にあたるのは▽支援先が戦闘中▽提供する物品が戦闘に直接使われるなど、四つの条件をすべて満たした場合に限った。ひとつでも欠ければ支援できるようにするという。

Even under the new rules, the SDF would not be able to provide ammunition directly to foreign forces in action. But the SDF would be allowed to provide most other forms of support to foreign troops even in combat areas.
 これに従えば、戦闘中の他国軍に弾薬を直接補給することはできないものの、そのほかは戦闘地域であってもたいていの支援ができるようになる。

From the viewpoint of the enemy forces, the rule that the SDF can only provide rear-area support that is not integrated with the exercise of force by other countries would be simply meaningless.
 ただし、敵軍にしてみれば、武力行使と一体化しない後方支援という線引きに意味はない。

As the scope of SDF operations would be expanded to areas that are very close to the front lines of battle, the probability of SDF personnel getting involved in combat would increase markedly.
自衛隊の活動範囲が前線に限りなく近づくことで、自衛隊員が戦闘に巻き込まれる可能性は格段に高くなる。

Critics of the restriction on SDF operations based on the concept of “integration” argue this idea, adopted only by Japan, has imposed unreasonable restraints on the SDF’s activities overseas.
 一体化論に対しては、「日本にしかない概念で、自衛隊の活動をいたずらに制約してきた」との批判がある。

As long as the Japanese Constitution includes Article 9 as it is, however, there should inevitably be certain restraints on the SDF’s activities.
だが、私たちが9条をもつ以上、自衛隊の活動に一定の制約が生じるのはあたりまえだ。

The government’s proposal would narrow down to extremes the scope of the concept of backup logistic support integrated with the use of force by other countries. It could effectively hollow out the war-renouncing Article 9.
 政府の案は、一体化の範囲を極限まで狭めるものだ。このままでは、9条の意味が失われかねない。

Another disturbing possibility is that Japan could be pressured by the United States into supporting its military operations in conflicts such as its war with Iraq, which was launched by the Bush administration without any clear sanction by the United Nations.
 さらに心配なのは、明確な国連決議がないままブッシュ政権が突き進んだイラク戦争のような紛争にまで、米国の求めるままに支援を強いられないかという点だ。

Given all these concerns, it is not surprising that New Komeito was taken aback by the sudden proposal by the Abe administration and expressed skepticism.
 これらを考えあわせれば、突然の提案に公明党が驚き、難色を示したのは当然だ。

The proposal needs to be debated in a cautious manner.
慎重に議論を進める必要がある。

In a news conference in May, Abe stressed that the protection of people’s lives and security remain the focus of his administration’s discussions over key security policy issues.
 安倍首相は先月の記者会見で、一連の安全保障政策の検討では「私たちの命と平和な暮らしを守る」と強調した。

But the series of proposals his government has put forward, including the expansion of the scope of SDF operations to eliminate mines in the Persian Gulf and to widen support to multilateral forces, appears to be only drifting away from the guiding principle.
 ペルシャ湾での機雷除去や多国籍軍への支援拡大。次々と繰り出される政府の提案は、そこからかけ離れていくばかりではないか。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 5

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月 5日 (木)

天安門25年―改革になぜ踏み出せぬ

June 04, 2014
EDITORIAL: 25 years after Tiananmen, China must heed calls for democracy
天安門25年―改革になぜ踏み出せぬ

"Remember June 4" is a slogan that is banned in China. But in Hong Kong, Tokyo and other cities around the world, Chinese citizens and their supporters are chanting this mantra.
 6月4日を忘れるな。
 中国で許されぬスローガンを、今年も香港、東京、世界各地で掲げる中国人とその友人がいる。

On June 4 exactly 25 years ago, China's Communist Party regime ordered the military to suppress pro-democracy students who had gathered in Beijing's Tiananmen Square.
 民主化を求める学生を中国共産党政権が武力で封じた天安門事件から、25年が過ぎた。

We must never forget this date because the students' demands were absolutely spot on. Another reason is that Beijing is set on erasing the Tiananmen Square bloodbath from history.
 なぜ忘れてはならないのか。彼らが提示した民主化の方向性は正しいからであり、政権が事件を歴史から消そうとしているからである。

Around the time of the crackdown, socialist countries around the world were undergoing painful restructuring of their systems. But the Chinese regime of the time survived the transition, and later spearheaded the country's rapid economic rise.
 あのころ社会主義圏の国々は次々に変革を余儀なくされた。その中で中国の政権はもちこたえ、急速な経済成長を遂げた。

Probably emboldened by this, President Xi Jinping said in a speech during his visit to Europe in April, "Constitutional monarchy, imperial restoration, parliamentarism, a multiparty system and a presidential system, we considered them, tried them, but none worked," adding, "Finally, China took on the path of socialism."
 その自信ゆえか、習近平(シーチンピン)国家主席は4月の訪欧時こう講演した。「立憲君主制、帝政復活、議会制、多党制、大統領制、みな試したがうまくいかない。最後に中国が選んだのが社会主義の道だ」。

But this assertion is nothing more than a simplistic perception of history from the Communist standpoint.
しかしこれは、共産党の観点から歴史を単純化した議論にすぎない。

Now that China has abandoned a planned economy to allow market forces to rule, Xi's brand of socialism comes down to a system that does not tolerate any criticism against single-party rule by the Chinese Communist Party. The ranks of the oppressed do not consist only of political activists and intellectuals. All over China, ordinary citizens are unable to speak out against administrative and judicial corruption involving senior party members.
 計画経済を捨て去った今、習氏のいう社会主義とは、共産党の一党支配への批判を許さぬ体制を意味する。弾圧されているのは活動家や知識人だけではない。各地で、党の幹部が絡んだ行政や司法の不正に庶民が声を上げられずにいる。

But Wang Dan, a leader of the democracy movement who played a prominent role in the Tiananmen Square protest, points out that, as a result of the bloody crackdown, Beijing can no longer ignore the public's awareness for human rights. According to a provision written into the Constitution in 2004, the state "respects and guarantees human rights."
 それでも事件の主役の一人、王丹氏は、「人権」の意識を権力が無視できなくなったという成果を指摘する。04年には憲法に「国家は、人権を尊重し保障する」と書き込まれた。

Former Premier Wen Jiabao used to reiterate that Beijing would gradually expand the public's participation in politics and seek to promote individual freedoms through education.
 前首相の温家宝氏は、政治参加を徐々に広げ、教育によって個人の自由と発展を重視することを度々表明していた。

But the direction seems to have been reversed since Xi came to power. Beijing certainly did not act "normal" when it began clamping down rigorously on activists and their supporters prior to June 4, and even applied pressure on foreign media.
 習政権になってから、それが逆流しているようにみえる。6月4日を前に、活動家らの拘束を徹底し、外国メディアにも圧力をかけてきたのは異常だ。

Over the last 25 years, citizens groups have kept alive their resolve to change politics. The popularization of the Internet has promoted solidarity among citizens, enabling them to keep speaking out despite censorship and oppression. And in urban areas, citizens movements are being organized against factory construction and other issues.
 政治を変えようという意思はこの25年、民間で受け継がれてきた。ネットの普及は市民の連帯を促し、監視や弾圧に屈せず発言を続ける人々がいる。都市部での工場立地反対など、市民運動も芽生えている。

Steadily and surely, the ranks of politically and socially aware Chinese citizens are growing. It has been argued that the intellectual level of the public is still too low for democracy and that democracy is not the right system for China. But such arguments are no longer tenable.
 社会にかかわり、政治を考える人びとの層は着実に厚みを増している。国民の水準が低いとか、国情に合わないといった、民主化尚早論は通用しない。

The Xi regime must heed the voices of the people seeking freedom. It is simply wrong to send people to jail for just criticizing the regime.
 自由を求める民の声に、習政権は耳を傾けねばならない。権力批判の発言だけで投獄するのは正義に反する。

Beijing must allow free speech and accept the people's right to form associations to encourage healthy dissent. By skipping such phases of gradual democratization, China will never become a stable nation.
 言論と結社の自由を認め、健全な批判ができる幅を広げる。そんな民主化の段階的な発展なくして、国の安定はない。

The shouted demands of students of 25 years ago are even more legitimate today. They must never be forgotten.
 四半世紀前の学生らの叫びは今なお価値を増している。決して忘れるわけにはいかない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 4

| | コメント (0)

天安門事件25年 政治改革に背を向ける習政権

The Yomiuri Shimbun
25 years after Tiananmen Square, Xi turns his back on political reform
天安門事件25年 政治改革に背を向ける習政権

Wednesday marks the 25th anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen incident, an armed crackdown on student-led pro-democracy protests by the Chinese Communist Party.
 中国共産党が、民主化を求める学生らのデモを武力鎮圧した1989年の天安門事件から、4日で25年になる。

The incident—which claimed the lives of several hundred people—was labeled a “counterrevolutionary riot” by the Communist Party, which not only imposed media restrictions but also exhaustively suppressed any subsequent attempts to reevaluate the incident.
 少なくとも数百人が死亡した天安門事件を、共産党は「反革命暴乱」と断じ、報道を規制しただけでなく、その後も事件の再評価を求める動きを徹底的に封じ込めてきた。

In the run-up to the key anniversary commemorating a quarter century since the incident, the administration of Chinese President Xi Jinping tightened controls further over such activities as paying tribute to the victims who perished in the armed crackdown.
 四半世紀の節目を前に、習近平政権も、犠牲者の追悼活動などへの締め付けを強めている。

In May, authorities detained five people including a lawyer for participating in a study session about the incident. They also detained journalists and others for investigation and are continuously obstructing information-gathering activities by foreign reporters—a situation we must say is alarming.
 5月には、事件に関する研究会に参加した弁護士ら5人を拘束した。ジャーナリストなどを摘発し、外国人記者への取材妨害も続けているのは、ゆゆしき事態だ。

China is also thoroughly monitoring and imposing ever-tightening restrictions over information on the Internet about the events that took place on June 4, 1989. It is apparently alarmed by the notion that the spread of talks about the incident through assemblies and on the Internet could stoke a new wave of antigovernment movements.
 インターネット上の事件に関する情報もつぶさに監視し、取り締まりを強化している。
 天安門事件の話題が集会やネットで広がれば、新たな反政府運動の火種になりかねないと警戒しているのではないか。

China achieved rapid economic growth by introducing a bold market economy, on the back of hopes that the distribution of “fruits of development” to the people would prevent the public from becoming alienated.
 中国は市場経済を大胆に取り入れて、急速な経済成長を実現した。「発展の果実」を国民に分け与えることで、民心の離反を防ぐ効果を期待した。

On the political front, the nation has placed priority on the stable maintenance of the Communist Party’s monolithic rule through its repression of pro-democracy movements.
 政治面では民主化運動を弾圧し、共産党独裁体制の安定を図ることを最優先してきた。

Inconvenient history

The Communist Party has forbidden educational institutions from teaching the Tiananmen incident, which is essentially a cover-up of an “inconvenient history” by authorities.
 共産党は天安門事件について、学校教育などでも取り上げてこなかった。権力による「不都合な歴史」の隠蔽と言えよう。

That the Chinese leadership has boosted its mainly anti-Japanese patriotic propaganda and education since the incident is aimed at appealing to nationalistic sentiments, thereby upholding the administration’s power to bring people together under its leadership.
 事件後、「反日」を柱とする愛国主義の宣伝・教育を強化してきたことも、民族感情に訴え、政権の求心力を保つ狙いだろう。

But public dissatisfaction has been running high after various problems that include economic disparity, corruption and environmental destruction were brought to the fore on the back of China’s economic development. Confrontations with ethnic minorities, such as the Uygur, continue to intensify more than ever before.
 だが、経済的な発展の裏で経済格差や腐敗、環境破壊など様々な問題が顕在化し、国民の不満は強まっている。ウイグル族など少数民族との対立は、激しさを増すばかりである。

In a speech he delivered in April, Xi declared China would never copy political systems from other nations, in what was taken to mean that he believes China does not need democracy—thereby reaffirming his intention to retain monolithic party rule.
 習国家主席は4月の演説で、「他国の政治制度をまねることはない」と明言した。民主的な制度は不要であり、一党独裁を維持するとの意思表示と見られる。

If he turns his back on political reform and disregards the rule of law, the Xi administration’s confrontations with the public will intensify further. The spread of group protests, which reportedly number about 200,000 a year, show that China’s high-handed governing style is approaching its own limitations.
 習政権が政治改革や法治主義に背を向け続ければ、国民との対立がより先鋭化しよう。
 年間約20万件とも言われる集団抗議行動の広がりは、これまでの強権的な統治手法が、限界に近づいていることを示している。

China is also escalating its showdowns with its neighbors in the East and South China seas. It is feared that the country may take even more hegemonic approaches in dealing with other countries in an attempt to skirt criticism from its people.
 中国は最近、東・南シナ海で周辺国との対立を激化させている。国民の批判をかわすため、これまで以上に覇権的な対外姿勢を強める恐れがある。

The Japanese government should take concerted efforts with the United States and Southeast Asian nations to maintain vigilance over China’s aggressive actions.
 日本政府は米国や東南アジア諸国と連携し、中国の威圧的な行動への警戒を怠ってはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 4, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

与党安保協議 自衛隊の後方支援を拡充せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
SDF ability to provide logistic support to multinational forces must be boosted
与党安保協議 自衛隊の後方支援を拡充せよ

The government should expand the Self-Defense Forces’ ability to provide logistical support to multinational forces. To achieve this purpose, the extent of the Constitution’s ban on actions regarded as integral to the use of force should be minimized.
 憲法が禁じる「武力行使との一体化」の制約を極力限定し、多国籍軍などに対する自衛隊の後方支援を拡充すべきだ。

On Tuesday, the government proposed to the ruling party panel new criteria for the SDF’s support to multinational forces formed on the basis of a U.N. Security Council resolution in such fields as resupplying, transportation and medical treatment.
 政府が安全保障法制整備の与党協議会に、自衛隊が行える補給・輸送・医療支援などの新たな判断基準を示した。

According to the criteria shown to the panel concerning the development of a legal system for security, the SDF’s support operations will be regarded as integral to the use of force—and thus banned by the Constitution—only when they meet all four conditions, which include providing goods and services for direct use in military actions and if the place where the SDF provide support is located in a combat zone.
 「提供する物品や役務が戦闘行為に直接用いられる」「支援する場所が戦闘現場にある」など4条件をすべて満たす場合のみ、「武力行使との一体化」に相当し、禁止されると判断するという。

Under the criteria, SDF will be allowed to provide food, water and medical treatment even if the support is conducted in a combat zone, as the services will not be directly used for military actions. Thus the ban will be limited to activities such as providing arms and ammunition to foreign troops engaged in combat.
 戦闘地域でも、食料や水の提供、医療は戦闘に直接用いられないため、可能になる。禁止の対象は、戦闘中の他国部隊への武器・弾薬の提供などに限定される。

We highly evaluate the new criteria as it would significantly expand areas and activities the SDF will be able to conduct regarding support activities, which will lead to the reinforcement of the Japan-U.S. alliance and Japan’s international cooperation activities.
 新基準は、自衛隊が支援可能な地域や内容を大幅に拡大し、日米同盟や国際協調の強化につながると、高く評価できる。

The idea of banning actions integral to the use of force can only be found in Japan. Even providing medical treatment to an injured foreign soldier could be regarded as a violation to the Constitution as the action would be equivalent to “recovering military capability”—a ludicrous claim.
 そもそも「武力行使と一体化する行為を禁じる」という考え方は日本独自の概念だ。負傷した他国の兵士の治療は、戦力の再生産になるため憲法違反の恐れがある、という理屈が常識外れだった。

Strange logic

We would also like to propose banishing the idea that the SDF’s operations must be limited to noncombat zones—another claim only accepted in Japan.
 自衛隊の活動は「非戦闘地域」に限られるといった、国内でしか通用しない概念も廃止したい。

Due to the ban on activities integral to the use of force, the SDF’s support activities have suffered from various restraints, as seen in such activities as refueling multinational vessels offshore in the Indian Ocean and an airlift mission in Iraq that transported personnel and goods.
 インド洋での多国籍軍艦船への給油、イラクでの人員・物資の空輸などの活動は、一体化の禁止により様々な制約を受けてきた。

The ruling parties have not reached an agreement on the issue. New Komeito has been cautious, saying it would drastically shift the government’s policy. However, to enable Japan to beef up its international cooperation activities, such as providing support to U.S. forces should a contingency break out in areas near Japan, the ruling parties should hold talks toward adopting the new criteria.
 公明党は、「従来の方針の大転換になる」と慎重な姿勢を示し、合意には至っていない。だが、周辺有事の際の対米軍支援を含め、充実した国際協力を可能にするため、与党は、新基準を採用する方向で意見集約すべきだろう。

Meanwhile, the government has also revealed a new way of thinking on the issue of whether to allow SDF troops engaged in U.N. peacekeeping operations to rescue foreign troops and civilians under attack in distant places.
 国連平和維持活動(PKO)参加中の自衛隊が、離れた場所にいる他国部隊や民間人を助ける「駆けつけ警護」についても、政府は新たな考え方を示した。

According to the new thinking, under a precondition that a foreign government recognized by the Japanese government maintains power in an area where the SDF are dispatched, using weapons against an armed group, excluding that of a government, would not be a problem as it would not constitute the use of force against “a nation or a group equivalent to a nation.”
 日本が承認した外国政府が当該地域で権力を維持していれば、その政府以外の武装集団に自衛隊が武器を使っても、「国や国に準ずる組織」への武力行使には当たらず、問題はないとしている。

Under the status quo, foreign troops can protect the SDF, but the SDF are unable to protect foreign troops. This abnormal situation should be changed. To realize Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s concept of “a proactive contribution to peace,” it is urgent for the ruling parties to enable SDF forces to rescue foreign troops and civilians during peacekeeping operations.
 自衛隊は他国軍に守ってもらっても、他国軍は守れない。そんないびつな現状を改善する必要性は高い。安倍政権の「積極的平和主義」の具体化へ、駆けつけ警護を可能にすることが急務である。

The LDP-Komeito discussions on national security have taken place only once in a week for about an hour, but the ruling parties have agreed to increase the discussion time. We want to remind them that discussing issues that influence the basis of the nation’s security policy is an important duty of the ruling parties. We ask them to also improve the quality of the discussions and reflect the conclusion to the revision of the Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation Guidelines scheduled at the year-end.
 与党は、週1回、1時間程度だった協議時間を増やすことで合意した。安全保障政策の根幹にかかわる議論を重ねることは、与党の責務だ。議論の質も高め、年末の日米防衛協力の指針改定に結論を反映させてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 4, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)被爆者の援護 国は争いに終止符を

June 03, 2014
EDITORIAL: Time to make peace with hibakusha A-bomb survivors
(社説)被爆者の援護 国は争いに終止符を

The 69th anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is looming. The long-running legal battles between hibakusha survivors of the 1945 attacks and the government should be settled as soon as possible. It is the government that should take the initiative.
 広島、長崎への原爆投下からまもなく69年。被害者と国との争いを一刻も早く終わらせたい。動くべきは国である。

The number of A-bomb survivors who have a hibakusha certificate book issued by the government is expected to fall below 200,000 this year. In recent years, the figure has been declining at an annual rate of more than 8,000. It now stands at around half of its peak in the 1980s.
 国の被爆者健康手帳を持つ人が今年、20万人を割り込む見通しだ。最近は年8千人超のペースで減り、ピークだった80年代のほぼ半分になった。

What should be noted here is that people with the certificate book don’t constitute all the victims of the A-bombings or their aftermath. Some people have not applied for the hibakusha book out of concerns that their families may suffer discrimination because of their radiation-related diseases.
Quite a few others have been denied the certificate book on grounds there is no witness who can testify to the truth of their claims of suffering exposure.
 注意したいのは、手帳を持つ人が原爆被害者のすべてではないということだ。家族への偏見を恐れて手帳を取らない人や、被爆体験を裏付ける証人が見つからずに手帳を取れない人も少なくない。

There are people who received high doses of radiation as a result of the “black rain” that fell on suburbs in Hiroshima after the attack. In Nagasaki, many people were exposed to radiation even though they were not in the designated atomic-bombed area. These people have also demanded the same level of aid as that received by the holders of the hibakusha book, but the government has so far rejected their demands.
 広島郊外で「黒い雨」を浴びた人や長崎周辺の国の指定地域外にいた「被爆体験者」も、手帳所持者と同等の援護を訴えているが、国は拒んだままだ。

Over the past 11 years, A-bomb survivors who have the book have filed a series of lawsuits against the government in an effort to change the system by which hibakusha are judged as suffering from radiation-related illnesses. In most of these suits, the courts have handed down rulings in favor of the plaintiffs. It is rare for the government to suffer such a series of defeats in administrative cases.
 手帳を持つ被爆者たちも11年前から原爆症認定をめぐる裁判を相次いで起こした。行政訴訟では異例なことに、国はほとんど負けた。

In December 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare partially revised its criteria for recognition of atomic bomb diseases. Still, since then, three related court rulings have gone against the government.
厚生労働省は昨年12月、認定基準を一部改めたが、その後もすでに3回、国側敗訴の判決が出ている。

Let us think afresh as to what is the greatest wish of A-bomb survivors.
 もう一度考えてみたい。原爆に遭った人たちが、最も願っていることはなんだろうか。

The Japan Confederation of A- and H-Bomb Sufferers Organizations, which was established in 1956, is dedicated to the cause of preventing further and future suffering from nuclear weapons. The two key goals of the organization have been the elimination of nuclear arms and support for hibakusha.
 1956年に結成された日本原水爆被害者団体協議会は、核兵器による被害を再び繰り返さないことを目標とし、核兵器廃絶と被爆者援護を運動の二つの柱にしてきた。

The lawsuits concerning official recognition of illnesses caused by A-bomb radiation tend to be seen as attempts to obtain greater support. But that’s not the only purpose.
 原爆症認定訴訟は「援護を手厚く」という要求とみられがちだが、それだけではない。

Hibakusha have urged the Japanese government, which started the war, to recognize correctly the damage caused by the atomic bombings and pay appropriate compensation to the victims because they believe these actions should be a first step in the effort to prevent a recurrence of the tragedy.
 被爆者は、戦争を起こした日本政府が原爆被害の実態を正しく認め、被害者に償うことが、悲劇を繰り返さないための第一歩になる、と訴えてきた。

But the health ministry has limited the eligibility for the government’s hibakusha relief program mostly to people suffering from the effects of exposure to radiation. As for people who are believed to have been exposed to relatively low levels of radiation, the ministry is reluctant to recognize them as A-bomb disease sufferers even if they are showing related symptoms. The ministry has refused to change its stance despite a string of court rulings that criticized its position on the issue as inconsistent with the spirit of the atomic bomb survivor relief law.
 だが厚労省は、救済対象を放射線による健康被害にほぼ限定した。浴びた線量が低いとみられる人たちが病気になっても、原爆症となかなか認めない。こうした線引きが被爆者援護法の趣旨に反するという司法判断が続いても、姿勢を改めようとしない。

Is the government waiting for these people to die? We urge the administration headed by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to respond sincerely to the question asked by angry hibakusha. The administration should acknowledge the government’s responsibility and take steps to end the legal battles. A radical revision to the criteria for recognition of A-bomb diseases would be a good place to start.
 「死に絶えるのを待っているのか」という被爆者らの憤りの声に安倍政権は向き合ってほしい。国の責任を認め、争いに幕を引くべきだ。まずは認定基準の抜本改定である。

The inhuman nature of nuclear weapons is attracting serious attention from the international community. If hibakusha, who are living witnesses to the inhuman nature of nuclear arms, and the government of the country that has experienced nuclear attacks can work together harmoniously, such cooperation would contribute greatly to the efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons.
 国際社会では核兵器の非人道性が注目されている。非人道性を身をもって知る被爆者と、被爆国がわだかまりなく共に歩めれば、核兵器廃絶に向け、このうえない力になるはずだ。

Abe is expected to visit the two cities this summer once again. Boilerplate speeches and superficial conversations will be meaningless. Abe needs to pay serious attention to the true wishes of hibakusha and take action immediately in response to their voices.
 安倍首相はこの夏も被爆地を訪れることになろう。通り一遍の対話では意味がない。被爆者らの真の願いに耳を傾け、ただちに行動をとってもらいたい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 3

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月 4日 (水)

日産センチュリー証券の新商品、逆転スプレッドが気になりました

定年退職後なんですが、しばらくのあいだ銀行の定期預金に預けていました。
ところが銀行から届けられる毎月のステートメントをみて、びっくり仰天なんです。
3000万円以上預けているのに金利がまったくつかないんです。

あせった私は、利殖を画策しました。
ひとつは株式投資です。
そしてもうひとつがFX投資なんです。
どちらも簡単に儲けられるような代物ではありませんでした。

FX投資なんですが、こちらで儲けるための秘訣は、やはりスプレッドの低さではないでしょうか。
スプレッドとは、FX投資会社に支払う手数料のようなものなんですが、ネットで取引すると、それがさらに安く抑えられるんですね。

気になる言葉を発見して興奮しています。
それは、日産センチュリー証券の新商品、逆転スプレッドなんです。
通常ドル円の取引にかかるスプレッドは0.3銭~0.8銭なんですが、逆転スプレッドではなんとマイナス1.6銭~0銭となっています。
通常支払うべきスプレッドが、もらえる仕組みではないのかと興奮しています。
さっそく詳細の検討に入ります。



“USD/JPY”スプレッド大幅縮小祭り 開催決定!
~マイナス1.6銭~0.0銭の逆転スプレッドも出現!!~



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

情報化社会の橋渡しをするのがConnect サービスなんです

世の中、クラウド技術を駆使した情報化社会に突入したと申し上げて差し支えありません。
フェイスブックなどのSNSサービスの台頭には目を見張るものがあります。
このようなめまぐるしいネット環境の進化の過程で誕生したのがConnect というサービスなんです。
いったいどんなクラウド技術サービスが受けられるのでしょうか。

無料で始められるスタンダードプランと、一人一カ月わずか200円で始められるビジネスプランの2種類が用意されています。
この新しいかたちのクラウドサービスは、用途がきわめて広範囲にわたります。

例えば、ソーシャルネットワーキング機能、タイムライン機能、コミュニティ機能、コミュニティ内検索機能、コメント機能、イイネ機能、プロフィール機能、ファイル一覧機能、ランキング機能、お知らせ機能、メール通知機能等々数え切れない機能が凝縮されているのですが、使い手にやさしいつくりとなっているんです。
私のような高齢者でもサクサクと使えます。
これからの情報社会でトップに躍り出ようとする人たちには、とくにお勧めなんです。



ビートコミュニケーション、インターン生との交流を目的とした社内SNS『Connect』をソフィアへ導入



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

リベンジポルノ 画像の拡散をどう防止するか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can spread of sexually explicit photos leaked in revenge be prevented?
リベンジポルノ 画像の拡散をどう防止するか

There is no end to the damage caused by those who leak sexually explicit images or videos of their former lovers on the Internet to vent their anger on being rejected by them.
 ふられた腹いせに、相手の裸の写真や動画をインターネット上に流出させる――。「リベンジポルノ」による被害が後を絶たない。

It is a pressing matter to build a system to reduce such damage to the minimum, in addition to detecting perpetrators of such acts.
 加害者の摘発に加え、被害を最小限に抑える仕組み作りが喫緊の課題だ。

According to a private organization dealing with such issues on the Internet, the number of consultations sought by victims topped 170 cases for the six months ending in March, showing a more than twentyfold increase over the corresponding period last year. This is indeed a serious situation.
 ネット上のトラブル相談を受け付ける民間団体によると、被害相談は、今年3月までの半年間で170件を超えた。前年の同期間の20倍以上という急増ぶりで、深刻な状況にある。

There has also been a succession of perpetrators prosecuted in criminal cases. A man charged with defamation for posting a naked photo of his ex-girlfriend on the Internet was sent to prison by the Nagoya District Court. Another man was arrested on suspicion of intimidation as he allegedly pressured his former girlfriend to continue their relationship by threatening that he would distribute sexually explicit photos of her on the Internet.
 立件されるケースも相次いでいる。元交際相手の裸の写真をサイトに投稿したとして名誉毀損(きそん)罪に問われた男に、名古屋地裁は実刑を命じた。写真をばらまくと脅して女性に交際継続を迫った男は、脅迫容疑で逮捕された。

The leakage of sexually explicit images by former lovers in retaliation for their rejection may also be due to a lowered sense of guilt over the leakage of such photos on the Internet, as uploading images has become easy for anyone, thanks to the popularity of cell phones and smartphones.
 リベンジポルノの広がりは、携帯電話やスマートフォンの普及で、撮影・送信が容易になり、流出行為への罪悪感が希薄になっていることも背景にあろう。

Nevertheless, leaking sexually explicit images do constitute a crime.
 だが、これは、れっきとした犯罪である。

Perpetrators can also be charged with violating the law concerning exposure of indecent images and the law banning child prostitution and child pornography.
わいせつ図画陳列罪、児童買春・児童ポルノ禁止法違反にも問われ得る。

Dishonoring others by exposing information of a personal, sexual nature can also constitute a sexual assault. The police must thoroughly crack down on such despicable acts.
性的な情報をさらして相手を辱めるのは、性暴力でもある。警察は、卑劣な行為を徹底して取り締まるべきだ。

Deleting images

The problem, however, lies with the difficulty in deleting those images from the Internet once they are uploaded.
 問題は、画像がネット上にいったん流出すると、抹消するのが困難なことだ。

It is hard to fathom the agony and anxiety of those victims who cannot prevent their images from being seen. If such images are posted on the Internet, they can be spread in an instant.
延々と画像をさらされ続ける被害者の苦痛や不安は計り知れない。転載が繰り返されれば、瞬く間に拡散してしまう。

The key to preventing the spread of these images is to find a way to quickly delete them once they are posted.
 掲載後、いかに早く削除するかがカギとなる。

The Provider Liability Limitation Law carries a stipulation concerning the deletion of such information from the Internet.
 プロバイダー責任法には削除に関する規定がある。

A service provider who is asked to delete information posted must contact the original poster. If the poster does not respond within seven days, the provider can delete the information without facing any civil liability for doing so.
掲載情報の削除要請を受けたサイト管理者は、発信者に連絡し、7日間を過ぎても反論がなければ、削除しても民事上の責任は問われない。

Yet this stipulation does not make it mandatory for the provider to delete such information, leaving it up to the provider to decide whether to do so. There are more than a few cases in which such images are posted on other sites before they are deleted by the provider.
 ただ、この規定は削除を義務付けてはおらず、要請に応じるかどうかは、管理者側の自主的な判断に任されている。要請に応じたとしても、削除するまでの間に画像が他のサイトへ転載されてしまう例も少なくない。

The Liberal Democratic Party is discussing ways to give redress to victims, with a view to revising the provider law. We hope the relevant rules will be improved so such images can be promptly deleted from the Internet.
 自民党は、被害者の救済策について、法改正も視野に検討を進めている。迅速な削除を可能にするルールの整備に期待したい。

Preventive enlightenment is also important. About 80 percent of those who seek advice and consultations are females in their teens. Noticeable are those cases in which females become victims by having sent such photos to their boyfriends after being asked to. Some females probably complied with such requests out of fear that they might be disliked by their boyfriends for rejecting such requests.
 予防啓発も重要である。被害相談の約8割が10代の女性からだ。交際相手に頼まれるまま画像を送り、被害に遭う事例が目立つ。「断ったら嫌われる」と、要求に応じてしまった女性もいる。

It is necessary to let youths know both at home and at school about the dangers of readily offering such images to others.
 画像を安易に提供する危険性を、家庭や学校でしっかりと教える必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 3, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

成長と財政再建 やはりデフレ脱却が最優先だ

> ただ、円安による輸入価格の高騰などによる「悪い物価上昇」の側面もある。 あほか! 阿部と黒田のリフレ政索でこうなっただけじゃないのか。 少子高齢化でデフレ傾向は自然の流れなんです。 わざわざ円の価値を貶める必要はない。 (スラチャイ) The Yomiuri Shimbun Bringing deflation to end essential for revitalization of national economy 成長と財政再建 やはりデフレ脱却が最優先だ Realization of sustainable economic growth and a sound fiscal balance is indispensable for full-scale revitalization of the national economy.  持続的な経済成長と財政健全化の実現は、日本経済の本格的な再生に欠かせない。 To end the vicious circle of low growth and fiscal deterioration, the government and the Bank of Japan must accelerate efforts to pull Japan out of deflation.  低成長と財政悪化の悪循環を断ち切るため、政府と日銀はデフレからの脱却を急ぐべきだ。 The Fiscal System Council, an advisory panel to the finance minister, has put together a report on fiscal reconstruction.  財政制度等審議会が財政再建に向けた報告書をまとめた。 The report will be reflected in a basic policy framework for economic and fiscal policy management, which will be worked out by the government late this month.  政府が6月下旬に策定する「経済財政運営の基本方針(骨太の方針)」に反映される。 Taking into consideration the critical fiscal conditions under which government borrowings have exceeded ¥1 quadrillion, the report clearly says the government’s target for turning the fiscal balance into the black “should not be postponed.”  報告書は、国の借金が1000兆円を超える危機的な財政状況を踏まえ、2020年度に財政収支を黒字化する政府目標の「先送りは許されない」と明記した。 Nevertheless, there is a bumpy road ahead to achieve the target.  とはいえ、目標到達への道のりは、かなり険しい。 According to a tentative calculation by the Cabinet Office, fiscal 2020 will likely see a deficit of ¥12 trillion even if high economic growth rate is achieved, thus making it impossible for state finances to move into the black in that year.  内閣府の試算では、高い経済成長率を見込んだケースでも、20年度の財政収支は12兆円の赤字となり、黒字化できない見通しだ。 The primary cause for this is that the increase in social security spending will continue unabated due to the declining birthrate and aging population. Drastic overhaul of spending for such social security programs as pension payments and medical services will become unavoidable in the future.  主因は、少子高齢化の進行で社会保障費の増大に歯止めがかからないことである。今後、年金や医療など社会保障分野の大胆な歳出改革が不可欠となろう。 Need for spending cuts The report proposed measures to restrain fiscal spending, including reviewing national health insurance drug prices every year instead of the current every two years and setting ceilings for total medical expenses on a regional basis. The government must study these reform proposals seriously.  財政審報告は、2年ごとの薬価見直しを毎年実施することや、地域ごとの医療費総額の目標設定など、歳出抑制策を提言した。政府はこれらの改革案について、真剣に検討すべきだ。 If fiscal reserves run short, it will become difficult for the government to take adequate economic measures in line with business fluctuations.  財政の余力が乏しくなると、景気の変動に応じて十分な経済対策を講じることも難しくなる。 It must also be remembered that the protracted deflation has reduced tax revenues, exacerbating fiscal deterioration.  長引くデフレが税収を低迷させ、財政悪化に追い打ちをかけた教訓も忘れてはならない。 The nominal gross domestic product for fiscal 2013—which ended in March 2014—totaled ¥480 trillion, almost the same level as two decades before. This reflects the fact that deflationary forces prevented expansion of the economy, the source of tax revenue.  13年度の名目国内総生産(GDP)は、20年前とほぼ同じ480兆円にとどまった。物価が下がり続けるデフレのため、税収のベースとなる経済規模が拡大していないことを示している。 It is encouraging to see such steps to escape from deflation as drastic monetary easing and flexible fiscal measures, which were carried out by the Abe administration as part of its Abenomics economic policy, have proved successful.  安倍政権の経済政策「アベノミクス」による大胆な金融緩和と機動的な財政出動が奏功し、デフレ脱却への足がかりをつかみつつあるのは心強い。 But there also have been unfavorable price increases brought about by such factors as steep import price hikes caused by the weaker yen.  ただ、円安による輸入価格の高騰などによる「悪い物価上昇」の側面もある。 Achieving economic recovery through self-sustaining growth led by the private sector is the prerequisite for ending deflation. Efforts must be accelerated to realize a virtuous economic circle in which corporate profits will be used to raise wages while rising consumption and slow price increases will enhance corporate performance further.  民間需要の主導する自律的な成長の回復が、デフレ脱却の「必要条件」となる。企業の利益が賃金の上昇に回り、消費拡大と緩やかな物価上昇がさらに企業業績を押し上げる「好循環経済」の実現を急がねばならない。 Pushing through drastic deregulation, the government should actively support companies that take on new business challenges.  大胆な規制緩和を断行し、新たなビジネスに挑戦する会社を積極的に後押しすべきだ。 The government is being tested as to whether its new growth strategy will contain viable measures.  政府の新たな成長戦略が、実効性のある中身となるかどうかが、試金石となろう。 (From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 3, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月 3日 (火)

エジプト選挙 治安回復を迫られる新大統領

The Yomiuri Shimbun 6:46 pm, June 02, 2014
New Egyptian president must restore public order, rebuild economy
エジプト選挙 治安回復を迫られる新大統領

Egypt will soon usher in another president hailing from the country’s military. President-elect Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi must act urgently to ensure the return of public order and the reconstruction of the economy that the Egyptian people have longed for.
 エジプトで再び軍出身の大統領が誕生する。国民の求める治安回復と経済再建が急務である。

In last week’s presidential election, former Defense Minister Sissi secured an overwhelming victory over his rival candidate.
 エジプトで大統領選が行われ、国軍を率いてきたアブドルファタハ・シシ前国防相が、対立候補に大差を付けて勝利を確実にした。

Sissi led a de-facto military coup last July, removing President Mohammed Morsi from power, then establishing a provisional government to take control of the nation.
 シシ氏は昨年7月、事実上の軍事クーデターを主導した。モルシ大統領を解任し、暫定政府を樹立して、実権を握った。

The provisional government has cracked down harshly on protests and clashes between protesters, thereby preventing further deterioration of public order. As a result, earnings from the country’s mainstay industry of tourism have recovered to a certain extent. It has also used a huge portion of the country’s budget to improve the nation’s infrastructure.
 暫定政府は、抗議デモやデモ隊同士の衝突を厳しく取り締まり、治安の悪化に歯止めをかけた。その結果、低迷していた主要産業の観光の収益は、ある程度回復した。巨額の予算をつぎ込んで、社会基盤整備にも取り組んでいる。

The election results reflect the public’s favorable appraisal of Sissi’s performance.
 選挙では、シシ氏のそうした実績が評価されたとみられる。

The Egyptian people, despite having toppled the government of President Hosni Mubarak, also a former military commander, in the Arab Spring popular revolt, apparently have no choice but to rely on the military to end the country’s prolonged turmoil.
 「アラブの春」と呼ばれる民衆の蜂起によって、軍出身のムバラク大統領を倒したエジプト国民だが、混乱収拾を軍に頼らざるを得ないのが現状なのだろう。

The biggest challenge the new administration will face is dealing with the Muslim Brotherhood, an Islamic group that provided the deposed Morsi’s primary base of support.
 新政権の最大の課題は、解任されたモルシ氏の支持母体だったイスラム主義組織「ムスリム同胞団」と、どう向き合うかである。

Brotherhood looms large

The provisional government has designated the Muslim Brotherhood an illegitimate terrorist organization and arrested more than 20,000 members as terrorist suspects. Morsi himself is still being detained on suspicion of issuing orders to fire on antigovernment demonstrators during his term as president.
 暫定政府下で、同胞団はテロ組織として非合法化され、当局はテロ容疑などで2万人以上を逮捕した。モルシ氏も、大統領在任中に反政府デモ隊へ発砲を命じた罪を問われて拘束されたままだ。

But the Brotherhood still enjoys strong support from certain quarters of Egyptian society. The dip in voter turnout for this election to 44 percent is believed to be the result of a boycott by the Brotherhood.
 だが、同胞団は依然、エジプト社会の一部から根強い支持を受けている。大統領選挙の投票率が、前回を下回る推定44%にとどまったのは、同胞団が選挙をボイコットしたためとみられる。

Merely repressing the Brotherhood is unlikely to bring about social stability. There are strong concerns that some segments of the organization could radicalize, further spreading terrorist attacks.
 同胞団を一方的に弾圧するだけでは、社会の安定は望めまい。同胞団の一部が過激化して、テロが一層広がることが懸念される。

Sissi is also under pressure to reconstruct Egypt’s diplomatic relations with other countries.
 シシ氏には、外交関係の立て直しも求められる。

As a part of Muslim Brotherhood policy, the Morsi administration supported Syrian rebels as well as Hamas, the Islamist organization that controls the Gaza Strip in Palestine.
 モルシ前政権は、同胞団の方針に沿って、シリア反体制派や、パレスチナ自治区ガザのイスラム主義組織ハマスを支援した。

As a consequence of these positions, Egypt’s relations with the government of Syrian President Bashar Assad and the Israeli government have deteriorated, diminishing the country’s diplomatic clout as a mediator within the region.
 その結果、エジプトは、シリアのアサド政権やイスラエル政府との関係が悪化し、地域の仲介役としての影響力が低下した。

If Sissi can restore the nation’s previous diplomatic position as a moderate Arab state that values maintaining good relations with the United States, the country will act as a force to help stabilize the Middle East.
 シシ氏が、米国との関係を重視するアラブの穏健派というエジプトのかつての外交姿勢を取り戻せば、中東の安定化に役立つ。

The United States and European nations have high expectations for Sissi’s diplomatic policies. Washington manifested those hopes this spring, when it partially resumed military assistance to Egypt that it had frozen after Morsi’s removal. Sissi’s election will also be a good opportunity for Japan to look closely at whether to normalize its own support programs for the nation, which have been stalled for some time.
 米国や欧州も、シシ氏の外交政策に期待している。米国が、モルシ氏解任後に凍結したエジプトへの軍事援助を今春に一部再開したのは、その表れである。日本にとっても、滞っていた支援の正常化を検討する機会となろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 2, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

日米韓防衛会談 対「北」で情報協力を強化せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 6:48 pm, June 02, 2014
Japan, U.S., South Korea must boost intelligence sharing over Pyongyang
日米韓防衛会談 対「北」で情報協力を強化せよ

To deal effectively with North Korea, which has repeatedly carried out nuclear tests and test-fired missiles, Japan, the United States and South Korea should strengthen trilateral cooperation in the military intelligence field.
 核実験やミサイル発射を繰り返す北朝鮮に効果的に対処するため、日米韓3か国は情報分野の協力を強めるべきだ。

On Saturday, Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera had talks with U.S. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel and South Korean Defense Minister Kim Kwan Jin in Singapore. A joint statement was issued at the close of the meeting.
 小野寺防衛相、ヘーゲル米国防長官、韓国の金寛鎮国防相がシンガポールで会談し、共同声明を発表した。

The statement reaffirmed the three countries’ policy of cooperating closely with the international community to deal with security threats from North Korea. Also incorporated in the statement was an agreement to hold talks on creating a new trilateral cooperative framework to share relevant intelligence regarding missile defense arrangements.
 声明は、北朝鮮の安全保障上の脅威に対して、日米韓が国際社会と緊密に協力する方針を再確認した。ミサイル防衛に関して、3か国の新たな情報共有の枠組み作りを協議することも盛り込んだ。

Information obtained from a South Korean Aegis-equipped destroyer and through other means immediately after North Korea launches a missile would certainly be highly beneficial for both Japan and the United States. South Korea also would find it advantageous to receive information from Japan and the United States about tracking a North Korean missile when it analyzes Pyongyang’s missile capability.
 日米にとって、北朝鮮のミサイル発射直後に韓国のイージス艦などから得る情報は有益だ。韓国にも、ミサイルを追尾する日米の情報は、北朝鮮のミサイル能力を分析するうえで重要である。

Intelligence-sharing arrangements concerning North Korea among the three sides should be steadily expanded.
 北朝鮮に関する情報共有を着実に拡大することが求められる。

In the talks between the defense chiefs, Onodera explained Pyongyang’s recent commitment to reinvestigate the fate of Japanese citizens who were abducted by North Korean agents in the 1970s and early 1980s. He was also quoted as telling his U.S. and South Korean counterparts that Japan considered it important to “resolve [North Korea’s] abduction issue as well as the nuclear and missile development programs” in a comprehensive manner.
 小野寺防衛相は、北朝鮮が拉致被害者の再調査を約束したことについて説明した。「拉致、核、ミサイルをすべて解決することが重要だ」と述べ、問題を包括的に解決する必要性も強調した。

Washington and Seoul are concerned that ties between Tokyo and Pyongyang may make headway while leaving the nuclear and missile problems unaddressed. It was only natural that to dispel such concerns, Onodera insisted that Japan would cooperate in addressing other problems involving North Korea.
 米韓両国には、核・ミサイル問題を置き去りに日朝関係が進展することへの懸念がある。防衛相が国際協調を重視する姿勢を示し、懸念払拭に努めたのは当然だ。

The problem, however, is that the relations between Japan and South Korea have remained sour for a long period.
 憂慮されるのは、日韓関係の停滞が長期化していることだ。

Wary of military role

A face-to-face meeting between the defense ministers of Japan and South Korea was not held this time. South Korea remains wary of signing the General Security of Military Information Agreement, a treaty aimed at sharing military intelligence between the two countries.
 日韓防衛相会談は今回も見送られた。懸案の軍事情報包括保護協定(GSOMIA)締結にも、韓国が慎重姿勢を崩さなかった。

Hagel stressed at the meeting that military and political issues must be considered separately, and he prodded Japan and South Korea to push ahead with boosting bilateral defense cooperation. Kim, however, noted that Tokyo-Seoul defense cooperation was difficult because of bilateral history problems and public antipathy toward Japan in South Korea.
 ヘーゲル長官は、「軍事と政治は分けて考えることが重要だ」として、日韓の防衛協力を前進させるよう促した。金国防相は、「歴史や国民感情で難しい面がある」と語るにとどめた。

The differences in views are extremely wide regarding such problems as the so-called comfort women issue and perception gaps between the two countries concerning wartime history. The failure to make progress in cooperating on security is bound to seriously affect both sides.
 いわゆる従軍慰安婦や歴史認識などの問題を巡り、日韓の隔たりは依然、大きい。だが、安全保障面の連携が進まないままでは、双方にとって損失となる。

In March this year, Japan, the United States and South Korea had a tripartite summit meeting through the offices of the United States, while a trilateral meeting of officials in charge of defense and diplomatic affairs took place in April. On the strength of the cooperative relationship that was affirmed in the latest defense chiefs’ meeting, ties should improve between Japan and South Korea.
 日米韓3か国は今年3月、米国の仲介で首脳会談を開き、4月には防衛・外務当局の協議を行った。今回の防衛相会談を含め、3か国の協力関係をテコに、日韓関係の改善を目指したい。

Onodera referred in the meeting to the Japanese government’s current task of reinterpreting the nation’s Constitution in connection with the right to collective self-defense. He explained that the constitutional interpretation, if altered, would never lead to Japanese forces entering any other country’s territory without prior agreement.
 小野寺防衛相は会談で、集団的自衛権の憲法解釈見直しの作業に関連し、解釈を変更しても、日本は他国領域にその国の同意なしで入らないことなどを説明した。

In South Korea, there seems to be deep-rooted concern regarding the expansion of Japan’s military role. But there are a number of instances where this concern is derived from a misunderstanding or distortion of the facts. Japan must try to win the understanding of other countries by making detailed explanations to address these concerns at every possible opportunity.
 韓国には、日本が軍事的役割を拡大することへの警戒感が根強いが、誤解や曲解が少なくない。日本は今後も、様々な機会を通じて丁寧な説明を続け、関係国の理解を広げることが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 2, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)給食と牛乳 望ましい食事とは何か

June 02, 2014
EDITORIAL: Removal of milk from school lunches sparks debate over dietary habits
(社説)給食と牛乳 望ましい食事とは何か

Milk doesn’t go well with Japanese cuisine, called “washoku,” does it? This simple question has provoked a heated controversy over school lunch menus.
 和食に牛乳は合わないのでは――そんな素朴な問いかけが、思わぬ反響を呼んでいる。

Sanjo, a city in Niigata Prefecture known as a rice production area, has decided to stop serving milk in its school lunches for four months from December this year on a trial basis. The decision represents a departure from a national tradition. School meals in this country almost always are served with milk.
 米どころで知られる新潟県の三条市が、学校給食につきものだった牛乳を試験的に停止すると決めた。

Sanjo’s decision was a response to complaints by parents that milk doesn’t fit in well with the washoku meals featuring mainly locally produced rice and vegetables that had begun to be offered at schools in the city.
地元の米や野菜を使った和食中心の給食を提供し始めたところ、保護者らから「牛乳と合わない」の声が出たことがきっかけだった。

The menu for one day in May, for example, consisted of Japanese royal ferns and bamboo shoots boiled slowly in soy broth, a trout that has been sprinkled with salt and broiled, white rice steamed with red adzuki beans, plus green peas and clear soup with steamed egg custard.
 例えば、5月のある日の献立はこんなふうだ。ぜんまいと筍(たけのこ)の煮しめ、マスの塩焼き、豆入り赤飯、卵豆腐入りすまし汁。

Even such traditional Japanese-style meals are always served with milk at school.
こんな昔ながらの和食にも、必ず牛乳がつく。

This is a tradition that started soon after the end of World War II when powdered skim milk began to be served at schools nationwide. Since then, milk has been an essential part of school lunches in this country.
学校給食では、戦後始まった脱脂粉乳の提供以来、当たり前の風景だ。

Sanjo’s move, which has been seen as a rebel against convention, has brought on spirited debates over the pros and cons in discussion forums on the Internet and in TV talk shows.
 それだけに、常識を覆す試みとしてネットやテレビなどで賛否両論がうずまいた。

Proponents say Japanese-style meals should be served with miso soup and green tea. But critics argue that this is a matter of personal preference.
 「やはり和食にはみそ汁、お茶」と賛同する声の一方で、個人の好みの問題だと反発の声が上がる。

Some people voice nutritional concerns that the elimination of milk from school lunch menus could result in calcium deficiency among children in their growth periods. But others contend that milk doesn’t suit the physical makeup of Japanese.
栄養面でも「成長期の子がカルシウム不足になる」と懸念する人がいれば、「そもそも牛乳は日本人の体質に合わない」と主張する人もいる。

Lurking behind this milk controversy, it seems, are the anxiety and doubts that Japanese people are feeling about their dietary habits despite the abundance of food in this country.
 背景には、豊富な食事情の裏で、人々が抱える不安や迷いがひそんでいるのではないか。

The history of school lunches in Japan dates to the Meiji Era (1868-1912). Originally, they were intended for students from poor families who were unable to bring their own lunches to school.
 日本初の学校給食は、弁当を持参できない貧しい生徒のため、明治時代に始まった。

A typical menu was made up of rice balls, grilled fish and pickles. Such frugal meals were common among Japanese households in those days.
おにぎりに焼き魚、漬物。家庭でもこんな素朴な献立が当たり前だった。

As the Japanese economy started growing rapidly after the war, triggering the massive migration of the rural population to urban areas, the nation’s culinary tradition began to fade amid a plethora of foodstuffs of all kinds, from high-end items to junk food. Since that era, a growing number of Japanese have become confused by a flood of information for fine food lovers and health conscious consumers.
それが高度成長期に入り人々が都会に集中し始めると、高級品からジャンクフードまであらゆる食べ物があふれる一方で、食の伝統は細り、グルメ情報や健康情報に振り回されて右往左往する人が増えはじめた。

The situation appears to have increased public expectations for school lunches, which have a good nutritional balance.
 だからこそ、栄養バランスが取れた学校給食に対する期待が高いのだろう。

Let us stop to think what desirable meals mean in the first place.
 立ち止まって考えたい。望ましい食事とはいったい何か。

The news that washoku was added to UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage list in December 2013 is still fresh in our memory.
 ユネスコの無形文化遺産に「和食」が登録されたことは記憶に新しい。

That means Japanese culinary culture, which makes the most of fresh food in season grown in a favorable natural environment, has been internationally recognized as healthy and delicious.
豊かな風土で育まれた季節の素材を生かした食文化が、ヘルシーでおいしいと世界的な評価を受けた。

The key question is not whether milk goes well with Japanese food. Milk is an efficient source of calcium that has contributed significantly to the physical development of Japanese children as it has been served with school lunches.
 肝心なのは牛乳の是非論ではなかろう。牛乳は効率の良いカルシウム源で、給食を通じて子の成長に寄与してきた。

But food is not a supplement. Another major cause of the calcium deficiency among Japanese is the decline of the traditional diet, which contains fish or sesame.
だが食品はサプリメントではない。日本人のカルシウム不足は、魚やゴマなどを取る伝統的な食生活が失われたことも大きい。

To make up for the elimination of milk from school lunches, Sanjo is tweaking other elements of the menu, such as the amount of rice and the contents of dishes accompanying the rice, to ensure the meals contain all the necessary nutrients.
 牛乳をなくした分、米の量やおかずの内容を工夫して、米どころらしい献立で必要な栄養を満たす。

We are willing to see how the city’s attempt to develop a well-balanced menu that reflects its reputation as a major rice production area will pan out.
そんな三条市の試みに、素直に注目したい。

That’s because truly luxurious meals may be something we are quite familiar with.
本当にぜいたくな食事とは、実は私たちの身近なところにあるのかもしれないのだから。

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 1

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月 2日 (月)

秘密監視機関 国会は関与への責任自覚せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:41 pm, June 01, 2014
Diet must be aware of responsibility in overseeing law on state secrets
秘密監視機関 国会は関与への責任自覚せよ

The Diet must play pivotal roles in accomplishing the two tasks of protecting state secrets concerning security and respecting the people’s right to know.
 安全保障にかかわる機密情報の保全と、国民の「知る権利」を両立させるため、国会が担う役割は極めて重い。

The Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito have submitted a bill to revise the Diet Law to establish a permanent panel in each chamber to oversee the government’s application of the law on protecting specially designated state secrets. The two parties aim to have the Diet pass the bill during the current session by obtaining support from Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party), Your Party and others.
 自民、公明両党は、特定秘密保護法の運用状況を監視する「情報監視審査会」を衆参両院に常設する国会法改正案を国会に提出した。日本維新の会、みんなの党などの賛成を得て、今国会中の成立を目指している。

The panels, tentatively called information oversight boards, will each comprise eight members. According to the bill, the members will receive reports and explanations from the government on how the law is being applied and will be able to demand to see state secrets if necessary. If a panel finds problems in the government’s classification and declassification of state secrets, it can issue an advisory to improve the process.
 衆参の情報監視審査会は、委員各8人で構成する。政府から秘密保護法の運用状況の報告・説明を受け、必要に応じて政府に秘密の提出を要求できる。秘密の指定や解除などに問題があると判断すれば、運用の改善も勧告できる。

The bill is worthwhile because Diet oversight on the protection of state secrets—based on its right to investigate state affairs—would help prevent bureaucrats to a certain extent from casually and arbitrarily deciding to classify and declassify information. Staffing the panels with eight members each is reasonable as the larger the panel’s scale, the higher the risk of leaks.
 国会の国政調査権に基づく政府の秘密保護状況の監視は、官僚による安易で恣意しい的な秘密の指定・解除に対する一定の抑止力になると評価できる。委員が多すぎると秘密漏洩ろうえいの危険性が高まる。8人は妥当な規模だろう。

Some people fault some provisions in the bill. For example, the government will be able to reject a panel’s request for secret information when “there is a fear that [doing so] will pose considerable impediments to security.” In addition, the panels’ advisories to improve the government’s handling of state secrets have no legal teeth.
 政府は「安全保障に著しい支障を及ぼす恐れがある場合」は秘密の提供を拒否できる。審査会の改善勧告には強制力がない。こうした点を問題視する向きもある。

Other countries’ secrets

But in some instances, the government receives confidential information from other countries on the condition that it will not disclose it to a third party. The bill stipulates that the government must clearly state reasons for rejecting a panel’s request to provide state secrets. The stipulations in the bill to revise the Diet Law is largely adequate in light of the separation of the executive, legislative and judicial powers.
 だが、第三者への不開示を条件に他国から秘密を提供されることもある。国会への提供を拒む場合は、理由の明示が義務づけられる。三権分立の観点からも、改正案の規定はおおむね適切だ。

It is imperative to make annual reports from the government substantive and explanations provided to the panels from the heads of administrative entities worthwhile. If the panels are merely briefed on such matters as the number of designations of secrets, the panels will simply become rubber-stamp bodies for the administrative branch.
 重要なのは、政府からの年次報告や、行政機関の長からの説明の聴取を充実させることだ。秘密指定の件数などの報告を受けるだけなら、審査会は、行政の「追認機関」に陥ってしまう。

It has been feared that bureaucrats will be reluctant to talk to media organizations as they will become constrained by or overreact to stipulations in the law on protecting specially designated state secrets, which will come into force in December.
 12月に秘密保護法が施行されると、官僚が萎縮・過剰反応し、報道機関の取材に前向きに応じなくなる恐れが指摘されている。

We hope the panels will oversee the government’s applications of the law by fully considering the importance of the freedom of the press.
 審査会は、報道の自由の重要性も十分に踏まえて、政府の秘密保護法の運用を監視してほしい。

In the mid- to long term, it is indispensable to train secretariat employees of the panels to a certain level of expertise in handling these tasks.
 こうした一連の役割を果たすには、審査会の事務局職員に専門性のある人材を育成することが中長期的に欠かせない。

Although they will be subject to criminal and Diet punishment if they leak secret information, panel members will not be subject to penal punishments for remarks they make in the Diet, because of Article 51 of the Constitution stipulating that Diet members “shall not be held liable outside the House for speeches, debates or votes cast inside the House.”
 審査会委員も、秘密を漏らせば、刑事罰や国会の懲罰の対象となるが、国会内の発言は「院外で責任を問われない」との憲法51条の規定により刑事罰は免責される。

Needless to say, lawmakers should not abuse this prerogative. They must be aware of their responsibility as a party in the system to protect state secrets and act accordingly.
 国会議員がこの特権を悪用してはならないのは、言うまでもない。秘密保護制度に関与する責任を自覚して行動すべきだ。

Specially designated secrets will be declassified after a certain period and subject to verification by the later generations. The Diet should take it to heart that the roles it plays will be evaluated in the future.
 特定秘密は、一定期間後に公開され、後世の検証を受ける。国会もまた、どんな役割を果たしたかについて、将来、評価されることを忘れないでもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 1, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

首相アジア演説 積極平和主義の実行が重要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:44 pm, June 01, 2014
Abe’s Singapore address stresses need for ‘proactive contribution to peace’
首相アジア演説 積極平和主義の実行が重要だ

To ensure freedom of navigation and overflights in Asia and the maintenance of the rule of law in the region, Japan must pursue to the fullest a policy of engagement and international contribution. How the country addresses the challenge will be a key touchstone to Japan’s “proactive contribution to peace” being upheld by the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
 アジアにおける航行・飛行の自由や法の支配を実現するため、日本は、最大限の関与と貢献をすべきだ。安倍政権の「積極的平和主義」の重要な試金石となろう。

On Friday, Abe delivered a keynote address titled “Peace and prosperity in Asia, forevermore” at the Asia Security Summit being held in Singapore.
 安倍首相が、シンガポールで開催中のアジア安全保障会議で、「アジアの平和と繁栄よ永遠なれ」と題して基調講演を行った。

In the speech, he emphasized the importance of peaceful solutions to international disputes based on international law and not dependent on the use or threat of force. Abe also expressed his support for the idea of upgrading the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to a legally binding code of conduct.
 力や威圧に頼らない、国際法に基づく紛争の平和的解決の重要性を強調した。中国と東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)の南シナ海行動宣言を拘束力のある行動規範に格上げすることも支持した。

Abe’s reference to the declaration was made in light of the current confrontation between China and Vietnam concerning the sovereignty over the Paracel Islands in the South China Sea.
 南シナ海・パラセル(西沙)諸島の領有権を巡る中国とベトナムの対立を念頭に置いた主張だ。

China has unilaterally started oil-drilling operations in disputed waters near the islands, and caused a Vietnamese fishing boat to sink in a collision with a Chinese fishing vessel.
 中国は一方的に石油掘削を開始したばかりか、漁船の衝突によりベトナム漁船を沈没させた。

These are in the same vein as Beijing’s efforts to consolidate changes to the status quo through such means as the unilateral establishment in November 2013 of an air defense identification zone and having two Chinese fighter jets fly extraordinarily close to two Self-Defense Forces planes on May 24.
 東シナ海に防空識別圏を設定したうえ、戦闘機を自衛隊機に異常接近させ、既成事実化を図ろうとする手法と同様のものだ。

To stem China’s attempts to “change the status quo through force,” it is imperative for this country to work closely with the United States and ASEAN member countries to tenaciously push China into restraining its behavior.
 中国の「力による現状変更」の試みを阻止するためには、日本は、米国やASEAN各国と緊密に連携し、中国に粘り強く自制を促すことが欠かせない。

Expand multilateral framework

In the keynote address, Abe unveiled a proposal for reinvigorating the East Asia Summit in which 18 countries—including Japan, the United States and China—have taken part, while calling for the creation of a permanent organization aimed at studying methods of multilayered collaboration between the EAS, the ASEAN Regional Forum and defense ministerial meetings in Asia.
 首相は講演で、日米中など18か国が参加する東アジア首脳会議(EAS)の活性化や、EASとASEAN地域フォーラム(ARF)、アジア国防相会議との重層的な連携を検討するための常設組織の設置を提案した。

For the purpose of crafting a set of international rules for regional security and pressing China to abide by the rules, Abe’s aim of beefing up the framework for multilateral consultations of the region, including China, should be deemed reasonable.
 地域の安全保障の国際ルールを策定し、中国に順守を迫るため、中国を含む多国間協議の枠組みを強化する狙いは適切だろう。

The country should continue its diplomatic efforts to obtain understanding from countries concerned through a series of talks to realize Abe’s proposals toward an ARF meeting scheduled for this summer and an EAS meeting scheduled for autumn.
 今夏のARFや今秋のEASに向けて、首相提案を具体化するため、関係国との協議を重ねて理解を求める外交努力を続けたい。

It is also important to help boost the maritime security capabilities of Southeast Asian countries.
 東南アジア各国の海上保安能力を高めることも大切である。

Abe, for that matter, expressed in the keynote speech Japan’s readiness to provide Vietnam with coast guard patrol ships, in addition to making a similar pledge to Indonesia and the Philippines.
 首相は、インドネシア、フィリピンに続き、ベトナムにも巡視船を供与する意向を表明した。

The prime minister also indicated Japan’s plans to enhance defense equipment cooperation with ASEAN members through arms exports for such purposes as search and rescue operations, warning and surveillance, and transport on the basis of the three principles on transfer of defense equipment and technology that the government adopted in April.
 4月に決定した防衛装備移転3原則に基づき、救難、警戒監視、輸送などを目的とする武器輸出を通じてASEAN各国との装備協力を進める考えも示した。

Extending support for ASEAN in the field of security to make contributions to peace in Asia will surely be conducive to helping ensure Japan’s own peace and security. Achieving a “proactive contribution to peace” is of key significance.
 安全保障分野でASEANを支援し、アジアの平和に貢献することは、日本自身の平和と安全の確保に役立つ。「積極的平和主義」を具体化することが重要だ。

It is also of great importance for Japan to heighten the effectiveness of supporting ASEAN through cooperation with the United States, rather than acting single-handedly. In addition, efforts are needed to expand the country’s assistance to ASEAN not only in material terms such as the provision of patrol boats, but also nonmaterial aspects such as helping to train and nurture coast guard service personnel.
 日本単独でなく、米国とも協力し、ASEAN支援の効果を高めることが大切だ。巡視船供与などハード面に限らず、沿岸警備隊員の研修・育成などソフト面の支援を拡充することも求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 1, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年6月 1日 (日)

法科大学院離れ 養成機能の立て直しが急務だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:05 pm, May 30, 2014
Law school reform urgently needed, essential for profession’s future
法科大学院離れ 養成機能の立て直しが急務だ

The lack of interest in attending law school continues unabated.
 法科大学院離れに歯止めがかからない。

The number of applicants for such schools this spring was just 11,450, one-sixth of the peak figure achieved in 2004. If the law school system—the centerpiece of judicial system reform—is to be maintained, its reorganization is urgent.
 今春の志願者は過去最低の1万1450人にとどまり、ピークだった2004年の6分の1にまで減っている。
 司法制度改革の目玉である法科大学院制度を維持するのなら、立て直しが急務である。

By contrast, the number of applicants for the preliminary test, which gives people a way to qualify to take the national bar exam without attending law school, has been increasing. There were 12,622 such applicants this year, exceeding the number of law school applicants for the first time.
 対照的に、志願者が増えているのが、法科大学院を経ずに司法試験の受験資格を得られる予備試験だ。今年の志願者は1万2622人となり、初めて法科大学院志願者を上回った。

The number of people who pass the bar exam each year after taking the preliminary test route is just above 100 people, still a minority among the total of about 2,000 successful candidates per year. However, if the number of people who reach the bar through this route continues to increase unchecked, it may rock the system meant to foster the legal profession primarily through law schools.
 予備試験経由で司法試験に合格するのは年100人超で、約2000人の合格者全体から見れば少数派だ。だが、このまま、予備試験ルートが肥大化すれば、法科大学院を中核とする法曹養成制度が揺らぎかねない。

The preliminary test was established originally as an exceptional measure to create a route by which those unable to attend law school for financial reasons could attempt the bar exam.
 予備試験は本来、経済的事情で法科大学院に通えない人にも、司法試験に挑戦する道を開くための「例外的制度」だ。

But recent years have seen the preliminary test used as a shortcut to avoid spending the time and money to study at law school. There are also many cases in which students who are attending law school take the preliminary tests.
 ところが、最近は、法科大学院で学ぶ時間と費用を節約するための「近道」として、予備試験を利用するケースが目立つ。法科大学院に在籍しながら、予備試験を受ける学生も多い。

Clearly, the current situation runs counter to what was originally intended for the preliminary test system.
 現状が予備試験の趣旨に反しているのは明らかだ。

Schools not doing their job

The primary cause of this situation lies in the fact that law schools have failed to perform their function of nurturing the legal profession.
 こうした状況を生み出した最大の原因は、法科大学院が自らに課せられた養成機能をきちんと果たしていないことにある。

Of the total successful candidates in last year’s bar examination, law school graduates accounted for 26 percent—a level that has remained persistently low. If the pass rate is so low even after a financial investment of ¥800,000 to ¥1.5 million each year to attend law school for two or three years, it is no wonder students shy away from applying to law school.
 昨年の司法試験における法科大学院修了生の合格率は26%で、低水準のままだ。2~3年の歳月をかけ、年間80万~150万円の学費を払っても、司法試験に合格する確率が低いのなら、学生が敬遠するのは無理もない。

Launched in 2004, law schools aim to foster work-ready legal professionals. Therefore, their curricula emphasize practical business skills, and essentially exclude preparation for the bar exam. The result is low pass rates. It could be said that law schools fail to fulfill the original purpose for their establishment.
 04年にスタートした法科大学院は、即戦力の法律家を育てるのが目的だ。実務重視のカリキュラムが組まれ、司法試験の受験対策は基本的に行わない。その結果として、合格率が低迷し、理念倒れに陥っていると言えよう。

It is, of course, necessary to cultivate practical business capabilities. But, first and foremost, it is essential to help students acquire the abilities needed to pass the bar exam. Reconsideration of curricula is essential in this regard.
 実務能力の養成はもちろん必要だが、まずは、司法試験を突破できるような実力を学生に身に付けさせることが大切だ。カリキュラムの見直しが不可欠である。

Law schools, which initially numbered as many as 74, must be reduced selectively.
 当初、74校が乱立した法科大学院の淘汰とうたも進めねばならない。

The Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry plans to rank law schools according to their pass rates for bar examinations and provide subsidies in proportion to this rank. An increasing number of law schools will be forced to either withdraw or face abolition or consolidation.
 文部科学省は、司法試験合格率などに応じて、法科大学院をランク分けし、補助金を傾斜配分する方針だ。撤退や統廃合を迫られる大学院が増えるだろう。

The crucial point is to improve law schools and make them institutions that can attract and nurture competent students.
 重要なのは、法科大学院のレベルを向上させ、優秀な人材が集まる養成機関にすることだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 30, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

維新の会分裂 野党再編は政策本位で進めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:07 pm, May 30, 2014
Split of Ishin no Kai must lead to policy-based opposition realignment
維新の会分裂 野党再編は政策本位で進めよ

Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party)—the party that has so far been at the core of the so-called third force in the Diet—will soon be split in two.
 第3極勢力の中核だった日本維新の会が分裂する。

Given the deepening intraparty schism over how it should address the challenge of realigning the opposition camp and handle basic policy affairs, the breakup of Ishin no Kai should be seen as a natural consequence of the course of things.
野党再編の進め方や基本政策で足並みが乱れてきた以上、当然の帰結と言えよう。

In a meeting on Wednesday, party coleaders Shintaro Ishihara and Toru Hashimoto agreed to split Ishin no Kai. Following the breakup, Ishin no Kai members will likely form new parties that separately center around Ishihara and Hashimoto.
 維新の会の石原慎太郎、橋下徹両共同代表が会談し、維新の会を「分党」することで一致した。石原、橋下両氏を中心に、それぞれ新たな政党を作ると見られる。

What triggered the split was the issue of a party merger—an idea initiated by Hashimoto—with minor opposition party Yui no To.
 分裂の引き金は、橋下氏が主導する結いの党との合流問題だ。

Ishihara demanded that an agreement on the “creation of a new Constitution truly based on the will of the people” be explicitly incorporated into a policy platform that would be adopted in the merger of the two parties. Yui no To leader Kenji Eda, however, opposed Ishihara’s demand, which Eda pointed out could hamper moves for rallying a broad range of opposition forces. The two parties’ merger consultations therefore reached a stalemate.
 石原氏は、結いとの政策合意に「自主憲法制定」の明記を求めたが、結いの江田代表は、幅広い野党結集の妨げとなると反対した。協議は行き詰まっていた。

In a news conference after the talks with Hashimoto, Ishihara said he felt a “major, unbridgeable gap” regarding how to handle such key issues as constitutional revision and the nation’s right to collective self-defense. As Hashimoto has made the merger with Yui no To a top priority, the split of Ishin no Kai was inevitable.
 石原氏は記者会見で、憲法や集団的自衛権の扱いに関し、結いと「大きな齟齬そごを感じた」と語った。橋下氏が結いとの合流を優先したため、分裂はやむを得ない。

Ishin no Kai was founded in September 2012 by Hashimoto and his associates. It subsequently merged with Taiyo no To (The Sunrise Party) led by Ishihara. After the merger, the party gained notable headway with Ishihara and Hashimoto as a prominent duo in the House of Representatives election in December 2012, but it fared poorly in last year’s House of Councillors election.
 維新の会は2012年9月、橋下氏らが結成し、その後、石原氏率いる旧太陽の党が合流した。両氏を二枚看板に12年12月の衆院選では躍進したが、昨年の参院選は振るわなかった。

Past conflicts

While Ishihara is in favor of forging ahead with nuclear power generation, Hashimoto and his followers have been steadfast in pursuing a policy of “reducing to zero” the nation’s reliance on nuclear power. There were often “east-west conflicts” over energy policies and other major issues between backers of Osaka-based Hashimoto and those supporting Ishihara and his mostly Tokyo-based allies.
 石原氏は原発を推進する立場なのに対し、橋下氏らは「原発ゼロ」を持論としている。党内では、エネルギー政策などを巡る「東西対立」が絶えなかった。

The recent breakup can be said to be the price for a political marriage of convenience that placed priority on electoral tactics while disregarding policy differences.
 今回の分裂は、政策の違いに目をつむり、選挙戦術を優先して合流したツケが回ったと言える。

Moves to realign the opposition parties appear likely to accelerate. Both Hashimoto and Eda have said they will jointly launch a new party as early as July to waste no time in preparing for unified local elections in spring 2015.
 今後は、野党再編が加速しよう。橋下、江田両氏は7月にも新党を作り、来春の統一地方選に向けた準備を急ぎたいとしている。

Hashimoto has been stressing the necessity of marshaling opposition parties to join forces against the Liberal Democratic Party. He is poised to call for part of the Democratic Party of Japan and Your Party members to join his envisaged new party.
 橋下氏は、自民党に対抗するため、野党結集の必要性を強調する。民主党やみんなの党の一部にも新党参加を呼び掛ける構えだ。

The DPJ, for its part, is said to be unable to sit on the fence regarding the unfolding situation. In the largest opposition party, there have been voices calling for the resignation of Banri Kaieda as party head due to his lack of leadership. The split of Ishin no Kai may lend an impetus to antileadership moves within the DPJ.
 民主党も、傍観してはいられまい。党内では、海江田代表は指導力に欠けるとして、辞任を求める声が出ている。維新の分裂が、民主党内の反執行部の動きを後押しする可能性もある。

Meanwhile, Ishihara is set to seek constitutional revision, with an eye on eventually working in tandem with the LDP. He is also expected to probe for opportunities to cooperate with Your Party, whose security policy is similar to Ishihara’s.
 一方、石原氏は、将来の自民党との連携を視野に、憲法改正の実現を目指す意向だ。安全保障の考え方が近いみんなの党との協力も模索すると見られる。

In making efforts to realign the opposition camp, it is of key importance to ensure that political ideals and key policies are shared among the parties involved.
 肝心なのは、野党再編を進める際に、政治理念や政策を共有することだ。

Even after its split, Ishin no Kai should never be neglectful of its role as a “responsible opposition party,” or a party in opposition that is prepared to extend cooperation to the ruling camp on policies that are considered appropriate.
維新の会は分裂後も、合致する政策については政権と協力する「責任野党」の立場を忘れるべきではあるまい。

In the Diet, the David and Goliath scenario has remained unchanged, with the LDP dominating since the upper house election in summer 2013.
 昨夏の参院選以降、自民党だけが突出した「1強多弱」の状況が続く。

The opposition parties have failed to ramp up their presence.
野党は存在感を示せていない。

The opposition camp must play its role of maintaining tension in the political arena by adequately pointing out problematic issues with policies being steered by the government and the ruling parties.
政府・与党の政策の問題点を指摘し、政治に緊張感を持たせる役割を果たさねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 30, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

内閣人事局発足 官僚機構を活性化できるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:20 pm, May 31, 2014
Can new government office revitalize bureaucratic machine?
内閣人事局発足 官僚機構を活性化できるか

A newly established government office will be tested as to whether it can reinvigorate the bureaucratic system through the strategic handling of personnel matters to help the government carry out important policies.
 戦略的な人事を通じて官僚機構を活性化し、重要政策を推進できるかどうかが問われる。

The Cabinet Bureau of Personnel Affairs has been established to unify the management of the appointment of senior central government officials. Created in line with the law on reform of the national civil service system that was enacted in April, the bureau was inaugurated Friday with a staff of about 170, comprising mainly officials temporarily assigned from the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry.
 中央省庁の幹部人事を一元管理する内閣人事局が発足した。4月成立の国家公務員制度改革関連法に基づくもので、総務省からの出向者を中心に約170人の体制だ。

It was standard practice in the past for government ministries and agencies to compile individual appointment plans for their high-ranking posts, from the director general of each bureau on up. Those plans were then approved by the Prime Minister’s Office.
 幹部人事は従来、各府省が局長級以上の人事案を作り、首相官邸の承認を得ていた。

From now on, however, the Cabinet Bureau of Personnel Affairs will draw up a list of candidates for about 600 senior positions, including division chief and deputy vice minister levels. Relevant cabinet ministers will discuss the list with the prime minister and chief cabinet secretary to make the final decisions.
今後は、内閣人事局が部長・審議官級を含む約600ポストの候補者を選抜したうえ、各閣僚が首相・官房長官と協議して人事を最終決定する。

Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary Katsunobu Kato will double as the inaugural head of the new bureau, a move believed to be aimed at strengthening the government’s leadership in handling personnel matters for bureaucrats.
 初代局長は自民党衆院議員の加藤勝信官房副長官が兼ねる。政治主導人事を強める狙いだろう。

It is imperative for the government to have the right people in the right positions by making fair judgments based on ability and merit while eliminating personal favoritism.
 政府は、情実を排し、能力・実績主義に基づき、公正かつ適材適所の人事を行うことが大切だ。

The touchstone of the new system will be bureaucratic appointments scheduled for this summer.
 新制度の試金石となるのが、今夏の幹部人事である。

It is imperative to rejuvenate personnel exchanges between government ministries and agencies, rectify the vertically segmented administrative system and actively tap talented persons, thereby changing bureaucratic ways of thinking.
 府省間の人事交流を活発化し、縦割り行政を是正するとともに、民間企業の人材を積極活用し、官僚の意識改革を促したい。

Care must be taken to enhance the government’s ability to implement policy, by gathering competent bureaucrats from beyond the barriers of government offices in departments in charge of important policies.
 重要政策を担当する部署に、府省の垣根を越えて優秀な官僚を集め、政府の政策遂行力を高めなければならない。

Female appointments

The appointment of women bu-reaucrats is another focal point.
 女性の活用も焦点となる。

Placing great importance on women’s potential, the Abe Cabinet has been installing female bureaucrats in senior positions in government offices since last year. A senior female bureaucrat of the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has also been appointed to a key post in the Cabinet Bureau of Personnel Affairs.
 安倍内閣は、女性の潜在力を重視し、昨年以降、各府省幹部に積極的に起用している。内閣人事局の担当審議官にも、厚生労働省の女性官僚を充てた。

The government plans to put forth a policy of raising the percentage of female bureaucrats in key government posts from the current 3 percent to 30 percent by 2020. To achieve this, it is indispensable to provide an environment in which work and child-rearing are compatible. We hope Tomomi Inada, state minister in charge of the civil service system, will promote reform from a woman’s perspective.
 幹部に占める女性の割合を今の3%から2020年までに30%に引き上げる方針も掲げる。実現には仕事と子育てを両立できる環境整備が欠かせない。国家公務員制度担当の稲田行政改革相は、女性の視点で改革を進めてほしい。

The Cabinet Bureau of Personnel Affairs will work out a government program to foster career-track young bureaucrats as candidates for key posts in the future. The bureau will also take charge of part of the conventional functions of the National Personnel Authority, such as appointments, holding recruitment exams and clerical work for seminars.
 内閣人事局は、将来の幹部候補の若手官僚を育成する政府全体の計画を策定する。任用、採用試験、研修の事務など、従来の人事院の機能の一部も担う。

Senior central government officials must prioritize national interests over the interests of their own offices while quickly coping with changes in domestic and international affairs. Government personnel must be nurtured from a medium- to long-term perspective.
 中央省庁の幹部には、社会や国際情勢の変化に機敏に対応し、省益より国益を優先することが求められる。中長期的に人材を育成していく必要がある。

Through an ordinance, the government has established a system to hear the views of a third party about appointing members of the private sector when the Cabinet Bureau of Personnel Affairs draws up candidate lists for high-ranking posts. This is probably an appropriate step to ensure fairness in deciding on appointments.
 政府は、内閣人事局が適格性を審査して幹部候補者の名簿を作る際、民間人の登用については第三者の意見を聞く仕組みを政令で定めた。人事の公正性を確保するには妥当だろう。

The authority to decide the quota of government officials at each rank of salary has been transferred from the National Personnel Authority to the newly established bureau. However, the National Personnel Authority is allowed to continue a certain level of involvement. Adjustments must be made to prevent dual administration.
 給与ランク別の定員である「級別定数」の決定権限は人事院から内閣人事局に移管されたが、人事院も一定の関与を続けることが認められている。二重行政にならないよう、調整してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 31, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

拉致再調査 北朝鮮は誠実に約束を果たせ

The Yomiuri Shimbun 7:21 pm, May 31, 2014
Govt must ensure North Korea follows through on promises
拉致再調査 北朝鮮は誠実に約束を果たせ

North Korea has promised to once more fully investigate the fate of Japanese nationals abducted by its agents, as well as suspected abductees—an opportunity Japan must seize to resolve this long-standing issue.
 北朝鮮が拉致被害者の安否などについて全面的な再調査を約束した。この機会を逃さず、長年の懸案の解決につなげなければなるまい。

The agreement, based on Japan-North Korea talks in Stockholm held from Monday to Wednesday, clearly states that Pyongyang will conduct reinvestigations “comprehensively and fully.” In addition to the 12 abduction victims who have not returned to Japan, North Korea agreed to have the reinvestigations also cover about 470 Japanese designated as suspected abductees.
 26~28日の日朝協議に基づく合意文書は、再調査について「包括的かつ全面的に実施する」と明記した。未帰国の拉致被害者12人に加え、拉致の疑いのある特定失踪者約470人も対象に含めた。

According to the written agreement, North Korea will establish a special investigative committee with the authority to probe all entities in the nation and report its findings to Japan, as needed. “If Japanese are found alive, North Korea will report to Japan and then allow them to return home,” it states.
 北朝鮮が、国内の全機関を調査できる権限を持つ「特別調査委員会」を設置し、調査状況を日本側に随時報告する。「日本人の生存者が発見された場合、日本側に伝え、帰国させる」としている。

“We were finally able to open the door...for negotiations to rescue abduction victims,” Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said. Meanwhile, North Korea is apparently hoping to secure economic assistance from Japan by withdrawing its previous stance that the abduction issues have been resolved.
 安倍首相は「拉致被害者救出の交渉の扉を開くことができた」と強調した。北朝鮮が「拉致問題は解決済み」とする従来の主張を撤回したのは、日本から経済支援などを引き出す思惑からだろう。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga has indicated that the government will urge North Korea to release the results of the reinvestigations within one year.
 菅官房長官は、再調査について1年以内にも結果を公表するよう求める考えを示している。

In the past, however, ashes that Pyongyang returned, claiming they belonged to abductee Megumi Yokota, were later proved to belong to a different person through analysis by Japanese experts. To prevent Pyongyang from repeating such a disingenuous action, it is essential for the Foreign Ministry and police authorities to work hand-in-hand to monitor what North Korea is doing and offer their guidance on what steps North Korea should take.
 ただ、北朝鮮は横田めぐみさんの「遺骨」を返還し、日本側の鑑定で別人のものと判明した前例がある。こうした不誠実な対応を許さぬよう、外務省や警察当局が協力し、北朝鮮の調査状況を監視して注文を付けることが重要だ。

When North Korea restarts the probes, the Japanese government will partially lift its unilateral sanctions, including a ban on the entry of North Korean-registered ships. Also, Tokyo will consider providing humanitarian aid at an “appropriate time,” according to the agreement.
 再調査の開始時に、日本側は北朝鮮に対する独自制裁を一部解除する。北朝鮮籍船舶の日本への入港禁止措置などが対象だ。さらに「適切な時期」に北朝鮮への人道支援を検討するとしている。

Some question easing

Some people in Japan have questioned whether it was wise to agree to lift some sanctions in return for only the reinvestigations. But it is true that North Korea’s concessions would have been difficult to obtain without a promise to ease sanctions.
 再調査だけで、制裁の一部を解除することに、日本国内では疑問の声もある。だが、制裁解除の約束なしでは北朝鮮の譲歩を引き出すのが難しかったのも事実だ。

The government should see what specific developments are being made in connection with the reinvestigations before gradually and carefully lifting the sanctions. Humanitarian assistance should be given only when major results are achieved.
 政府は、具体的な進展を見極めつつ、慎重かつ段階的に制裁を緩める必要がある。人道支援は、重大な成果を前提とすべきだ。

North Korea expressed concern over the public auction of the building and land where the pro-Pyongyang General Association of Korean Residents in Japan, or Chongryon, has been headquartered and asked Japan to take steps that would benefit the association. The Japanese government did not comply with the request, a matter of course given that the problem lies with Chongryon, which failed to repay a massive loan.
 北朝鮮は、朝鮮総連中央本部の土地・建物の競売に懸念を示し、善処を求めていた。だが、この問題は、朝鮮総連が巨額融資を返済しなかったことが原因だ。政府が応じなかったのは当然である。

North Korea apparently aims to escape its international isolation by initiating moves to improve ties with Japan. Pyongyang has seen its relations with Beijing chill further in recent months, and its talks with Washington and Seoul have been suspended for some time.
 北朝鮮が日本との関係改善に動いたのは、国際的な孤立を打開する狙いもある。中国との関係は冷え込み、米国や韓国との協議も最近は途絶えている。

It is important that Japan does not relent in its efforts with the United States and South Korea to put pressure on North Korea and that it maintains cooperative ties with the two nations by closely sharing information with them.
 大切なのは、日本が北朝鮮包囲網の足並みを乱さないことだ。米韓両国と緊密に情報共有し、協調体制を維持せねばならない。

North Korea has continued its military provocations with its nuclear and missile development. Japan should uphold its policy of seeking a comprehensive solution that settles not only abduction issues, but also the nuclear and missile problem.
 北朝鮮は核やミサイルで軍事的挑発を続けている。日本は、拉致と核・ミサイル問題を包括的に解決する方針を堅持すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 31, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)憲法と国民 決定権は私たちにある

May 31, 2014
EDITORIAL: Abe not empowered to change Constitution any way he likes
(社説)憲法と国民 決定権は私たちにある

While debate is raging over the proposal to allow Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense by reinterpreting the Constitution, the bill to revise the national referendum law, which defines the procedure for constitutional amendments, is set to pass the Diet and become law during the current session.
 集団的自衛権にからんで憲法論議が盛んになるなか、憲法改正手続きを定めた国民投票法の改正案が、いまの国会で成立する見通しだ。

The bill sets the voting age for constitutional referendums, something which had not been clear, at 20 and lowers it to 18 four years after the revision comes into effect.
 これまではっきりしていなかった投票権年齢を20歳とし、4年後に18歳に引き下げる。

Some important issues, including the proposal to lower the legal adult age, have been left unsettled. But the revision to the law will at least fill the hole in the legal procedure for the Diet to ask the public to vote for or against a proposed amendment to the Constitution.
成人年齢の引き下げをはじめ先送りされた論点も多いが、これで国会が憲法改正案を国民に問うための法的手続きがととのうことになる。

Sixty-seven years have passed since the postwar Constitution came into force. Traditionally, debates over constitutional issues have pitted people seeking to rewrite the supreme law against those committed to keeping it unchanged. But the revision will open up a new era for constitutional debates.
 日本国憲法が施行されて67年。いわゆる改憲派と護憲派を軸になされてきた論争は、これまでとは違った局面に入っていかざるを得ない。

The current legislative situation rules out the possibility that the Diet will immediately initiate any amendment to a specific article of the Constitution through a concurring vote of a two-third majority of all the members of each house and submit it to the people for ratification at a special referendum.
 ただちに衆参両院で3分の2の賛成を得て条文ごとの改憲案が発議され、国民投票にかけられる状況にはない。

Even so, both the proponents of constitutional amendments and the opponents of such proposals will have to make their respective cases under the pressure of a new situation in which amendments are actually possible.
だとしても、改憲は現実にあり得るという緊張感のなかで、双方が主張を展開することを迫られる。

The Constitution has played an extremely significant role in the postwar development of Japan. The constitutional principles of popular sovereignty, respect for basic human rights and pacifism have functioned as the basic foundation of society. These are values we should keep upholding.
 憲法が戦後日本の発展に果たしてきた役割は極めて大きい。国民主権や基本的人権の尊重、平和主義の原理は、社会を支える基本構造として機能してきた。今後とも堅持していくべき価値である。

There is no need, however, to regard all 103 articles of the Constitution as completely untouchable.
 一方、103条のすべてに指一本触れてはならぬと考える必要はない。

There are many constitutional issues that are open to debate. The legislative gridlock due to a so-called twisted Diet with the Upper House under opposition control underscored the need to reconsider the relationship between the two houses, for instance. Another key issue is the division of roles between the central and local governments.
 ねじれ国会であらわになった衆参両院の関係をどう見直すか。政府と自治体の役割分担はどうあるべきか。議論の余地は大いにある。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is advocating a revision to Article 96, which stipulates the procedure for constitutional amendments, as well as a change in the government interpretation of the war-renouncing Article 9 to make it possible for Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense.
 安倍首相は改憲手続きを定めた96条改正や9条の解釈変更を唱える。

But these proposals are attempts to tackle key constitutional issues in a not-so-above-board manner by taking advantage of the wide gap between calls for rewriting the Constitution entirely and total opposition to any amendment. We cannot support Abe’s constitutional initiatives.
それは「全面改正せよ」「一切認められない」という二元論的な対立のすき間をついて出てきた「からめ手」だ。認めることはできない。

During deliberations on Japan’s right to collective self-defense at both houses of the Diet, Abe expressed his strong desire to change the government’s interpretation of the Constitution with regard to the issue in order to pave the way for Self-Defense Forces operations for the protection of U.S. warships and the elimination of mines in the Persian Gulf.
 集団的自衛権をめぐる今週の衆参両院の審議で、安倍首相は憲法解釈を変え、自衛隊による米艦防護やペルシャ湾での機雷除去に道を開くことに強い意欲を示した。

In answering related questions at the Diet, Abe repeatedly stressed that the initiative is for the protection of the people’s lives and security.
 首相は答弁で「国民の命や平和な暮らしを守る」と繰り返し強調した。

His remarks clearly showed his enthusiasm for the security policy initiative. But that has made it even harder to understand why he is not trying to propose to the public a revision to the Constitution to realize his idea.
熱意はわかったが、だったらなおさら、なぜそのための憲法改正案を国民に問おうとしないのだろうか。

Let us remember the basic principles of constitutional government.
 立憲政治の原則を、もう一度確認したい。

We entrust the government we have elected to enact and revise laws and enforce them appropriately. But we don’t give the government a carte blanche to change the Constitution in any way it likes.
 私たちは選挙で信認した政権に、法の制定や改廃、その適切な執行を託している。だが、憲法に関しては白紙委任をしているわけではない。

Only the people have the right to make the final decision on any change to the Constitution, which is secured by the requirement of a national referendum for a constitutional amendment.
 憲法についての最終決定権者は国民であり、それを担保するのが国民投票だ。

No government, no matter how much public support it enjoys, should be allowed trample on this cardinal principle.
それをないがしろにするのは、どんなに多数の支持を得た政権であっても、許されることではない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, May 31

| | コメント (0)

(社説)南シナ海対立 憂慮される中国の行動

May 30, 2014
EDITORIAL: China should stop its aggressive behavior in South China Sea
(社説)南シナ海対立 憂慮される中国の行動

Nearly a month has passed since a Chinese state-owned enterprise started drilling for oil in waters close to the Paracel Islands in the South China Sea.
 中国の国有企業が南シナ海の西沙(パラセル)諸島近くで、石油の掘削を始めてから間もなく1カ月になる。

China National Offshore Oil Corp. is showing no signs of ceasing the operation of the oil rig, and China has dispatched a large fleet of government vessels to the area to intimidate Vietnam.
 中国側は作業をやめる気配を見せず、公船を多数投じてベトナムを威嚇している。

It is natural that China’s strong-arm actions are stirring criticism from the international community. China should give some serious thought to how it should behave as a responsible major power.
 力ずくのやり方に国際的に非難が高まるのは当然だろう。中国は責任ある大国にふさわしい振る舞いを考えるべきだ。

On May 3, China informed Vietnam of its plan to start oil drilling in the disputed waters off Vietnam. Since then, Chinese and Vietnamese ships have been in a dangerous face-off in the area around the oil rig, with tensions further heightened by some collisions.
 中国側が掘削開始をベトナムに通告したのは5月3日だった。その後、両国の船舶の衝突やにらみ合いが続いている。

The rig had finished the first phase of its drilling operation and had been moved to another nearby location. It is reported that the operation will continue until mid-August. China, which effectively controls the Paracel Islands, claims there is no problem with the oil drilling in waters close to these islands.
But this argument is clearly unacceptable to Vietnam, which regards the area as part of its exclusive economic zone.
 掘削は場所を移して第2段階の作業に入り、8月中旬まで続けるという。西沙を実効支配する中国としては「近海」だから問題はないと主張するが、「自国の排他的経済水域内」とするベトナムは納得できまい。

News reports about the confrontation between Chinese and Vietnamese vessels have described how the situation is fraught with tension. Which side is taking a more aggressive attitude?
The two countries have given widely different accounts of what has been happening. The Chinese patrol boats not only outnumber their Vietnamese counterparts but are also far larger and better equipped. There have also been reports about the deployment of Chinese warships to the area.
 現場からは緊迫した様子が報じられている。強硬なのはどちらか、主張は食い違うが、巡視船は中国のほうがはるかに大きく、装備が整い、数も多い。中国軍の艦船の動きも伝えられる。

There is no doubt that China is much more responsible for the escalation of tension.
事態を悪化させている責任の所在は、中国側のほうが重いのは明らかだ。

Both Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga expressed concerns about the deteriorating situation and made remarks critical of China’s behavior.
 安倍首相や菅官房長官は相次いで憂慮を示した。

A Chinese Foreign Ministry official countered, saying their remarks were not based on facts. “They want to fish in the troubled waters and achieve their ulterior motives,” the official said.
これに対し中国外務省の報道官は「事実を顧みず、火事場泥棒を狙い、下心のあるもの」と反論した。

Although many bitter diplomatic disputes exist between Japan and China, such language was too violent for a person who officially represents the Chinese government to the rest of the world. It is only natural that the government of Japan, China’s neighbor, should urge Beijing to avoid heightening tension in Asia.
 日中間に多くの外交問題があるにしても、中国政府を対外的に代表する発言としては乱暴にすぎる。アジアの緊張を高めないよう、隣国の日本政府が意思表示するのはもっともだ。

Even more worrisome are remarks recently made by Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Liu Zhenmin about the country’s interests in the South China Sea. According to news reports, Liu said, “Being the lifeline for China, the South China Sea is far more important to China than to other countries.”
 さらに気になるのは、劉振民外務次官による発言だ。報道によれば、「南シナ海は中国の海上生命線で、中国にとっての重要性は他国をはるかに上回る」と述べている。

All countries have equal rights to safe and free navigation in the South China Sea. China’s claim that it has priority rights over other countries will never be convincing.
 南シナ海の安全と航行の自由は、どの国にも等しく大切だ。自国だけに優先権があるかのような主張は説得力をもたない。

China has been inconsistent in its territorial disputes in the South China Sea. It has adopted a hard-line stance on some occasions and made attempts at rapprochement at other times.
 中国はこれまで、南シナ海問題では強く出たり、周囲との融和を探ってみたり、態度が揺れてきた。

It seems a group of hard-liners and a group of moderates exist within the current administration of President Xi Jinping. And the former appears to be gaining greater political clout.
いまの習近平(シーチンピン)政権内にも対外強硬派と協調派があり、前者の発言力が徐々に増しているようにみえる。

In a meeting to discuss its foreign policy toward neighboring countries last autumn, the Chinese government pledged to seek a good-neighbor and friendship diplomacy based on cooperation for mutual benefits. Beijing had earlier agreed with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to work out a code of conduct for activities within the South China Sea.
 中国政府は昨秋、周辺国との外交を話し合う会議で「善隣友好、互恵協力」を打ち出した。それ以前には、東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)との間で南シナ海の行動規範づくりにも合意している。

China should return to the commitment to peaceful coexistence it demonstrated in these moves. That would serve China’s own national interests.
 そうした平和共存をめざす基本姿勢に立ち返るべきだ。それがひいては、中国の国益にもかなう。

China cannot earn the respect of any other country by trying to push through its own claims in an oppressive attitude.
威圧で主張を押し通そうとする姿は、どの国からも尊敬されない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, May 30

| | コメント (0)

« 2014年5月 | トップページ | 2014年7月 »