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2014年6月12日 (木)

集団的自衛権 「容認」閣議決定へ調整を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Ruling parties must accelerate talks toward Cabinet decision on defense
集団的自衛権 「容認」閣議決定へ調整を急げ

Thorough discussions are needed on whether to approve the exercise of the right to collective self-defense because it greatly affects the future security of Japan. The government and ruling parties are responsible for reaching a definite conclusion on the matter when the time comes to do so.
 日本の安全保障を左右する問題だけに、徹底した議論は必要だ。一方で政府・与党は、時期が来れば、きちんと結論を出す責任がある。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has issued a directive to accelerate consultation talks between the Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner New Komeito so that exercise of the collective defense right can be approved by the Cabinet. LDP Vice President Masahiko Komura has asked the government to draft a document to allow the exercise of the collective defense right, taking into consideration a plan for the Cabinet decision to be made before the current ordinary Diet session ends on June 22.
 安倍首相が、集団的自衛権の行使を容認する閣議決定に向け、与党協議を加速するよう指示した。自民党の高村正彦副総裁は、今国会中の決定を視野に入れ、その素案の作成を政府に求めた。

The Abe administration has been patiently carrying out procedures on the matter, including recommendations by an expert panel, consultations between the ruling parties and intensive debate in the Diet. After deciding on a new view of the collective defense right at a Cabinet meeting, the government plans to establish necessary legislative arrangements in the Diet.
 安倍政権は、有識者会議の提言、与党協議、国会での集中審議などの手続きを丁寧に踏んでいる。新たな見解を閣議決定した後、国会で必要な法整備を行う方針だ。

The idea of permitting the minimum necessary exercise of the collective defense right may be a realistic change of the constitutional interpretation on the matter because it has a certain coherence with the conventional, overly restrictive interpretation.
 必要最小限の集団的自衛権に限って行使を認める「限定容認論」は、過度に抑制的だった従来の見解とも一定の整合性が取れる、現実的な解釈変更と言える。

Komeito has argued that it is possible to uphold operations such as the protection of U.S. warships and minesweeping, which can be conducted based on the right to individual self-defense and police power. But that argument is not reasonable for all cases. It is more rational to endorse such operations in line with the idea of approving a limited exercise of the collective defense right.
 米艦防護や機雷除去などは個別的自衛権や警察権で説明できるとする公明党の主張には、一部の例外を除き、無理がある。限定容認論で説明する方が合理的だ。

We urge the LDP and Komeito to steadily pursue their bilateral talks to reach a consensus on the matter.
 与党は、協議を着実に進め、合意をまとめてもらいたい。

Easy compromise questionable

In their consultation talks with Komeito, the government and the LDP have made concessions repeatedly to Komeito in connection with the Self-Defense Forces’ logistic support activities and measures to cope with so-called gray-zone incidents that fall short of a wartime attack.
 政府・自民党は与党協議で、自衛隊の後方支援やグレーゾーン事態の対処について、公明党に譲歩を重ねた。

Easily compromising on some specific items out of the desire to hasten discussions on the focal issue of the collective defense right is questionable.
焦点の集団的自衛権の議論を急ぐあまり、内容面で安易に妥協するのは疑問である。

The government on June 3 presented four conditions—including work in combat zones and providing supplies and services to be used in combat—under which SDF logistic support for multinational forces is banned as it would be considered “integrated with the use of force” by other countries, a condition prohibited by the Constitution. But the government withdrew these criteria three days later.
 政府は後方支援で、憲法の禁じる「武力行使との一体化」の判断基準として、「戦闘現場」「戦闘に直接用いられる物品や役務の支援」などの4要件を提示したが、わずか3日後に撤回した。

Instead, the government presented three criteria on logistic support—no support will be given in combat zones, support will be suspended when combat starts and search and rescue operations for humanitarian purposes will be conducted as exceptions.
 代わりに「戦闘現場では支援しない」「戦闘が始まれば活動を中止」「人道的な捜索・救難は例外とする」の3条件を示した。

The government’s view of logistic support has been too strict. Even the provision of information and supplies for foreign troops in a multinational force has been restricted on the grounds that such activities could be considered “integrated with the use of force.”
 これまでの政府見解は厳格すぎた。他国軍への情報提供や水・食料補給まで、一体化の「恐れがある」との理屈で制限していた。

The four requirements for logistic support, which were also approved by the Cabinet Legislation Bureau, can be seen as a significant step in clarifying the definition of “integrated with the use of force.” The four conditions essentially represent a constitutional judgment, so they should not be changed based on a political judgment. The four constitutional conditions and the three political requirements are supposed to be compatible.
 内閣法制局も同意した4要件は一体化の線引きを明確化する重要な新見解として評価できる。4要件は本来、憲法判断であり、政治的な判断で変更すべきではあるまい。憲法上の4要件と政治的な3条件は両立するはずだ。

New legislative arrangements for gray-zone incidents, such as the seizure of a remote island by an armed group, have been put on the back burner. This is because Komeito, the National Policy Agency and the Japan Coast Guard are wary of SDF roles expanding.
 グレーゾーン事態の武装集団による離島占拠などは、新たな法整備を見送ることになった。自衛隊の役割の拡大に公明党や警察・海上保安庁が慎重なためだ。

Instead, the government reportedly plans to improve the procedures for a Cabinet decision to speed up the issuance of an order to the SDF for maritime safeguarding activities. This can be regarded as a step forward, but giving the SDF greater authorization on the use of arms is indispensable for the SDF to act effectively. The matter must be studied further.
 その代わり、自衛隊の海上警備行動などの発令を迅速化するため閣議決定の手続きの運用を改善するという。それ自体は前進だが、自衛隊の効果的な活動には武器使用権限の拡大が欠かせない。この点もさらに検討すべきだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 10, 2014)

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