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2014年6月19日 (木)

集団的自衛権 機雷除去も可能にすべきだ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Collective self-defense right should enable minesweeping
集団的自衛権 機雷除去も可能にすべきだ

The ruling parties are reaching the final stage of their talks over our nation’s right to collective self-defense. It is necessary to avoid narrowing, without much thought, the latitude to be afforded to this country if it is permitted to exercise the self-defense right.
 集団的自衛権に関する与党協議が大詰めを迎えている。自衛権行使の範囲を安易に狭めることは避けるべきだ。

The government has presented to the Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner New Komeito a draft version of a constitutional reinterpretation regarding the exercise of the collective self-defense right, with a view to finalizing the new stance on the right as a Cabinet decision.
 政府が、集団的自衛権行使の新たな憲法解釈の閣議決定原案を与党に提示した。

The draft would permit the nation to exercise its collective self-defense right, though this would be limited to some cases, including the one described by such a phrase as “osore-ga aru,” or “there is a fear that...” The case in question is “if there is a fear that the people’s lives, liberty and property, and their right to the pursuit of happiness, could be profoundly violated.”
 原案は、「国民の生命、自由及び幸福追求の権利が根底から覆されるおそれがある」場合などに限定し、集団的自衛権行使を容認している。

The draft was based on “three new conditions for exercising the right to self-defense,” a set of rules on that action proposed by LDP Vice President Masahiko Komura as a personal opinion.
高村正彦自民党副総裁が示した私案の新たな「自衛権発動の3要件」に基づくものだ。

The government and the LDP have said that the draft, if finalized as a Cabinet decision without any alterations, will enable the nation to properly deal with all eight scenarios cited by the government as examples of cases in which Japan should be able to exercise its collective self-defense right. The cases include this nation’s protection of U.S. vessels in an emergency and sea-lane minesweeping operations.
 政府・自民党は、原案通りなら、米艦防護や機雷除去など、政府が示した8事例は、すべて対処可能だとしている。

We believe the ruling parties should hasten to adjust their difference of opinion, and then reach a consensus without making any major changes to the draft.
この内容を大きく変更することなく、与党合意の調整を急ぐ必要がある。

Komeito is poised to demand “osore-ga aru” be deleted from or altered in the draft, hoping to narrow the latitude to be provided in the event that the self-defense right is exercised.
 公明党は、行使の範囲を狭めるため、「おそれがある」との表現の削除や変更を求める構えだ。

Though some Komeito members do believe our country should be permitted to guard a U.S. vessel carrying Japanese citizens in waters surrounding the nation, many party elements remain cautious about authorizing involvement in international minesweeping activities in such distant locations as the Middle East.
 公明党内には、日本周辺で邦人輸送中の米艦防護などは容認する声があるが、日本から遠く離れた中東での機雷除去などを認めることには慎重論が強い。

Action spoke louder than cash

Japan extended a massive $13 billion in aid for U.S.-led multinational forces in the Persian Gulf War of 1991. To raise funds for that assistance, the government went so far as to increase taxes. However, it should be noted that the rest of the international community highly rated the Maritime Self-Defense Force’s minesweeping operations in the Persian Gulf after the war—not Japan’s financial contribution.
 湾岸戦争の時、日本は増税までして130億ドルという巨額の資金援助を行った。しかし、国際的に高く評価されたのは海上自衛隊の掃海活動の方だった。

If any country conducts minesweeping prior to a ceasefire between warring nations, that country’s action is to be regarded as the use of force. This forced the Japanese government to exercise restraint in joining minesweeping operations in the 1991 conflict. It was not until after a ceasefire was concluded that MSDF minesweepers were sent to the Gulf.
 停戦前の機雷除去は、武力行使とみなされる。この制約のため、海自の掃海艇を派遣できたのは、停戦の成立後となった。

It is of great significance that the lifting of our nation’s self-imposed ban on exercising its collective self-defense right should pave the way for sending minesweepers to troubled waters even before a ceasefire is established between warring parties.
集団的自衛権の行使を容認することによって、停戦前でも機雷を除去できるようにする意義は大きい。

It is vital for a trading nation like Japan to ensure the safety of its sea-lanes.
 貿易立国・日本にとって、海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保は死活的な重要性がある。

This nation should be allowed to decide whether to use the MSDF’s minesweeping abilities during an emergency.
海自の高い掃海能力を活用する選択肢を持つことが大切である。

Some critics have argued that there is only a low probability that Japan may need to send minesweepers. They have also spoken of the technical difficulties in intercepting a ballistic missile flying over Japan to strike the United States. However, we doubt whether there is any point in debating the probability of such a situation erupting as well as the technical aspects in this regard.
 機雷除去が必要になる可能性は低いとか、日本上空を通過する米国向け弾道ミサイルの迎撃は技術的に困難だ、といった主張が一部にある。だが、現時点での蓋然性や技術的問題を論じることに、どれほどの意味があるのか。

The key to success in ensuring national security is to anticipate various critical situations and create a structure for adequately responding to such emergencies.
 様々な事態を想定し、適切に対処できる仕組みを構築しておくことが、安全保障の要諦である。

In fact, mines were planted in the Persian Gulf during the 1991 war. In the recent past, a senior foreign government official hinted at planting mines to blockade straits in the Middle East. If Japan and the United States complete their joint interceptor missile development program within several years, the appropriate procedures to intercept a missile aiming for Guam or elsewhere is a realistic issue that our country must seriously think about.
 湾岸戦争時には実際に機雷が敷設され、近年も、機雷による中東の海峡封鎖を示唆する外国高官の発言があった。迎撃ミサイルの日米共同開発が数年以内に完了すれば、グアムなどに届く弾道ミサイルの迎撃は現実の問題となる。

In changing the government’s constitutional interpretation of the collective self-defense right, it is important to afford the government room to consider all circumstances both at home and abroad and then decide how emergencies will be dealt with at its own discretion. Doing so is essential to enable the SDF to operate effectively in the event of an emergency.
 憲法解釈の変更では、政府に、内外の情勢を総合的に勘案して対処するための裁量の余地を残し、自衛隊の効果的な活動を可能にすることを最重視すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 18, 2014)

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