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2014年7月31日 (木)

軽減税率 家計と活字文化を支えたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Consumption tax hike should not hurt household budgets, reading culture
軽減税率 家計と活字文化を支えたい

A planned increase in the consumption tax rate must not weigh too heavily on ordinary household budgets, which would lead to an economic slowdown.
 消費増税が家計に過大な負担となり、景気を失速させてはならない。

We believe if the tax rate is raised to 10 percent in October 2015, as initially planned, a lower rate should be applied to daily necessities, such as food products and newspapers.
 2015年10月に消費税率を10%へ引き上げる場合には、食料品や新聞など必需品の税率を低く抑える軽減税率を導入すべきだ。

A council, comprising members of the Liberal Democratic Party and its junior coalition partner, New Komeito, is hearing the opinions of close to 50 organizations, including various industrial associations, regarding the pros and cons of adopting a lower rate.
 自民、公明両党の与党税制協議会は軽減税率への賛否に関し、各種業界など50近い団体からのヒアリングを進めている。

The Japan Newspapers Publishers and Editors Association told the council that a consumption tax rate increase to 10 percent should be accompanied by a measure to lower the rate to 5 percent for newspapers, books and other essential commodities.
 このうち日本新聞協会は、消費税率を10%に引き上げると同時に、新聞や書籍などに5%の軽減税率を適用するよう求めた。

In its reasoning, the association told the LDP-Komeito panel, “Newspapers are not mere consumer items but public goods that can form the basis of people’s knowledge.” The association emphasized the need to “protect an environment in which low-income earners, residents of provincial areas and any other person can enjoy equality in affording to purchase [newspapers].”
 その理由として、「新聞は単なる消費財ではなく、国民の知識の根幹をなす公的な財であり、低所得者や地方居住者も等しく購読できる環境を守る必要がある」などと説明した。

Newspapers are tasked with reporting on a wide range of news while also conveying a diversity of opinions to the public. Therefore, newspapers can be described as an essential tool for nurturing a cultural climate for reading printed matter and preserving a cornerstone of a democratic society.
 新聞は、広範なニュースや多様な意見を国民に提供する。活字文化の発展と民主主義社会の基盤を守る、重要な必需品と言える。

During the hearings, consumers and some organizations said they supported a proposal to adopt a consumption tax rate lower than 10 percent for daily necessities.
 ヒアリングでは、消費者団体などからも、軽減税率の導入を支持する声が上がった。

The National Liaison Committee of Consumers’ Organizations urged the ruling parties to implement measures aimed at easing the financial burdens to be shouldered by consumers when the tax rate is increased, including a lower rate for food products. “Though the economy is said to be recovering, consumers are finding it difficult to truly feel” a return to prosperity, the committee told the council.
 全国消費者団体連絡会は、「景気は回復基調にあるというが、消費者の実感は厳しい」と指摘し、食料品に対する軽減税率など、負担軽減策の実施を要望した。

This opinion was echoed by the Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives, which told the panel it would be desirable to introduce a lower rate for farm products and processed goods.
 全国農業協同組合中央会も、農産品とその加工品も含め軽減税率の適用が望ましいとした。

Objections to lower rate

Meanwhile, the Japan Business Federation and many distributor associations raised objections to the adoption of a lower tax rate, citing an anticipated increase in business procedures that will accrue from the introduction of a mitigated tax rate.
 一方、経団連や流通業界団体の多くが、企業の事務負担増などを理由に導入反対を表明した。

These organizations defended their stance in saying it would be difficult to form a consensus regarding what kind of item should be covered in a lower tax rate. They said the problem would be further complicated in keeping accounts and paying taxes if there is more than one consumption tax rate.
 どの品目に軽減税率を適用するかの「線引き」が難しいうえに、複数の消費税率が混在すると、帳簿の作成や納税の手間が煩雑になると訴えた。

There is no doubt that the introduction of more than one tax rate will entail an increase in pertinent business procedures. In most European nations, however, lower rates have long been applied to food, newspapers and other daily necessities under their value-added tax systems, equivalent to our nation’s consumption tax.
 事務手続きが増すのは確かだが、欧州のほとんどの国では長年にわたり、日本の消費税にあたる付加価値税で、食料品や新聞に軽減税率を適用している。

We hope the government and private-sector organizations will study precedents overseas and then join hands to work out efficient procedures for consumption tax-related payments.
 海外の先行事例に学び、効率的な納税事務の在り方について、官民で知恵を絞ってもらいたい。

To ensure that the tax rate hike from 5 percent to 8 percent in April worked smoothly, the government decided to pay low-income earners benefits. However, there will be a limit to what one-time benefits can achieve in underpinning consumer spending.
 政府は今年4月に消費税率を5%から8%としたのにあわせて、低所得者への給付金支給を決めたが、1回限りの給付では消費下支えの効果は限られよう。

We believe the introduction of a lower rate for daily necessities will lessen the impact of the tax hike on consumers, while also reducing the risk of a slump in consumption. Whenever consumers buy daily necessities, they may actually feel they are benefiting from such a tax plan.
 消費者の負担感を和らげ、消費低迷のリスクを抑えるには、買い物のたびに恩恵を実感できる軽減税率の方が効果的である。

The Finance Ministry has released an estimate regarding a loss of revenue to be accrued from a lower tax rate set on a certain category of commodities. If a reduction of one percentage point is applied to “all beverages and food products” at the time of the tax rate hike to 10 percent next year, it will likely result in a loss of ¥660 billion annually, according to the ministry.
 財務省は「全ての飲食料品」の税率を1%軽減すると、消費税収は年6600億円減るとの試算を示している。

Caution should be exercised in determining what kinds of items should be eligible for a lower tax rate, with due consideration given to a balance between the need to secure revenues for the social security system and to ease the burden on household finances.
社会保障の財源確保と家計負担のバランスを考え、対象品目を慎重に検討すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 30, 2014)

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衆院選制度改革 有識者答申に拘束力が必要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Opinions of expert panel on electoral reform must have binding power
衆院選制度改革 有識者答申に拘束力が必要だ

As long as they have decided to entrust discussions on electoral system reform to experts, political parties must vow to accept the discussion result, no matter how it develops.
 有識者に選挙制度改革の検討を委ねる以上、各党は、検討結果をそのまま受け入れることを約束すべきだろう。

On Tuesday, 15 members of the committee to discuss the electoral system of the House of Representatives were announced. The committee is an advisory body to lower house speaker Bunmei Ibuki.
 伊吹衆院議長の諮問機関である衆院選挙制度調査会の委員が発表された。

Members include university professors, representatives of the press and a prefectural governor. Takeshi Sasaki, former president of the University of Tokyo, is expected to assume the role of chairman. The panel’s first meeting is scheduled in early September.
 大学教授や首長、報道関係者ら15人で、座長には佐々木毅・元東大学長が就任する見通しだ。9月上旬に初会合を開くという。

It was in March that the ruling and opposition parties agreed to establish the expert panel. It is unbelievable that it will have taken half a year just to get to the first meeting. Discussions at the panel should be conducted in an expeditious manner.
 与野党は3月に有識者会議の設置で合意した。初会合まで半年も要するのは、あまりに遅い。今後の議論を加速する必要がある。

One concern is the ambiguity on how the committee’s report on the issue will be treated.
 懸念されるのは、調査会の答申の扱いが明確でないことだ。

In June, the ruling and opposition parties agreed to “respect” the report.
 与野党は6月に、答申を「尊重する」ことで合意している。

However, Liberal Democratic Party Secretary General Shigeru Ishiba made a suggestive remark, saying, “The authority of the Diet could be questioned if the [committee’s] report instantly becomes a bill.” The remark can be interpreted as implying the possibility of modifying the bill depending on the contents of the report.
 ただ、自民党の石破幹事長は、答申について「自動的に法案にするとなると、議会の権能は何かとなる」と語った。答申の内容次第では、一部を修正する可能性を示唆したとも受け取れる発言だ。

We want to remind both the ruling and opposition parties of the fact that they have failed to come up with a reform plan on the electoral system despite spending more than a year on discussions. We urge them to reconfirm that the report will have binding power.
 与野党は、1年以上も議論しながら、改革策をまとめられなかった経緯を忘れてはなるまい。各党は、答申が拘束力を持つことを改めて確認しなければならない。

The panel will discuss three issues: rectifying the disparity in the value of votes, reducing the number of Diet seats, and changing the electoral system for both houses of the Diet. It will decide the timing of submitting a report, considering the remaining length of the terms of the incumbent lower house members, which expire in December 2016.
 調査会は、「1票の格差」是正や定数削減、衆参両院の選挙制度のあり方を検討する。答申時期は、2016年12月までの衆院議員の任期を考慮して決めるという。

Put priority on issues

There is not much time remaining considering the time it takes to prepare a bill after the submission of the report, followed by Diet deliberations and publicization of the bill. It is important for the panel to separate the reform plans that need to be implemented before the next lower house election from those that have to be addressed on a long-term basis, and discuss them individually.
 答申後の法案作成作業や審議、周知期間を考えれば、残された時間は長くない。調査会は、次期衆院選から適用する改革と、長期的に取り組む課題を仕分けして、議論することが大切である。

The most urgent task is dealing with the vote-value disparity problem.
 喫緊の課題は格差是正だ。

The Supreme Court has ruled that the 2012 lower house election, which had a maximum vote-value gap of 2.43-to-1, was “in a state of unconstitutionality.”
 最高裁は、格差が最大2・43倍だった12年衆院選小選挙区を「違憲状態」と判断している。

The maximum vote disparity was temporarily reduced to less than 2-to-1 after the Public Offices Election Law was revised last year to cut lower house seats by five in single-seat constituencies. However, under the latest simulation, the vote disparity rose again to exceed the 2-to-1 line.
 昨年成立した改正公職選挙法による小選挙区定数の「0増5減」により、いったん格差は2倍未満に抑えられたが、最近の試算では、再び2倍を超えている。

The law for the establishment of the council on rezoning electoral districts of the lower house sets a basic principle that the maximum vote disparity should not exceed 2-to-1. We urge the expert panel to come up with a plan to further rectify vote-value disparities.
 衆院選挙区画定審議会設置法は2倍未満を基本と定めており、さらなる是正策を講じるべきだ。

In reforming the electoral system, it is essential to appreciate the importance of avoiding the fragmentation of political parties and pursuing a stable political environment. To do so, the most realistic approach for reforming the electoral system will be to maintain the overall framework of the current system of combining the single-seat constituency system with proportional representation—at least for the time being—and rectify vote-value disparity under the framework.
 選挙制度改革では、多党化を避け、安定した政治を実現するという視点が欠かせない。そのためには、当面、現行の小選挙区比例代表並立制の大枠を維持しながら、格差是正を図るのが現実的な選択肢となるだろう。

Amid discussions between the ruling and opposition parties over electoral system reform, parties have raced to reveal their plans to drastically cut the number of Diet seats. We presume that the moves are aimed at impressing the public that they are willing to impose burdens on themselves, following the consumption tax hike in April—a fishy act of trying to appease voters.
 与野党協議では、各党が競うように大幅な定数削減を主張した。消費増税に伴い、議員も身を切る姿勢をアピールしようとする発想は、大衆迎合と言えよう。

In conclusion, trimming Diet seats should be decoupled from electoral system reform.
 定数削減は、今回の選挙制度改革とは切り離すべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 30, 2014)

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(社説)子どもの貧困 ひとり親世帯を救おう

July 30, 2014
EDITORIAL: Labor reforms for single mothers needed to alleviate child poverty
(社説)子どもの貧困 ひとり親世帯を救おう

The government needs to first tackle the here-and-now problems of poverty if any improvements are to be made in the situation.
 事態を打開するため、まずは今そこにある貧困の解消に力を注いでほしい。

Japan’s child poverty rate hit a record high of 16.3 percent in 2012. This translates into one in six children living in households with incomes lower than half of the average.
 子どもの貧困率が、過去最悪の16・3%(2012年)に達した。子どもの6人に1人が、平均的な所得の半分を下回る世帯に暮らしている。

The rate is among the worst in the developed world. In addition, Japan has been unable to curb the rise for nearly 30 years.
 この数字は、先進国の中では最悪クラスだ。しかも、この30年近く、率の悪化に歯止めがかからずにいる。

The government is working on establishing guidelines to combat child poverty, but the question is what to put in the guidelines.
 政府は「子どもの貧困」対策の大綱づくりを進めている。そこに何を盛り込むか。

A panel of experts recommends a broad range of measures, with special emphasis on providing education-related support.
 有識者による検討会の提言には多岐にわたる対策が並んだ。とくに、教育支援策が充実している。

Education, which gives youngsters the skills to be self-supportive, is a vital tool for severing the cycle of poverty from generation to generation.
 教育は子どもに自立できる力をつける。親から子への貧困の連鎖を断つために大切だ。

But to save children who are struggling in poverty now, the poverty of their parents or guardians needs to be addressed first. And the gravest cases are single-parent families--especially single-mother families--half of which live below the poverty line.
 ただ、今すでに貧困にあえぐ子を救うには、まず保護者の貧困を改善する必要がある。深刻なのは貧困率が5割に及ぶひとり親世帯、とくに母子家庭だ。

About 80 percent of single mothers are working, but their average annual income is a measly 1.8 million yen ($17,600). About 10 percent of single mothers live on welfare. The root of the problems faced by these women lies deep; working does not get them out of poverty.
 母子世帯の母の8割は働いているが、仕事による年収は平均で180万円にすぎない。生活保護を受けているのは1割ほどだ。働いても貧しさを抜け出せないところに根深さがある。

One major factor that keeps them in poverty is that half of these women are working unstable, part-time jobs. One bold step the government could consider to correct this situation would be to subsidize companies that hire low-income single mothers for full-time positions.
 大きな要因は、不安定な非正規雇用が半数に及ぶことだ。たとえば、収入の低いシングルマザーを正規で雇い入れた企業には助成をする、といった思い切った手を打てないか。

Basically, the problems stem from the nation’s employment structure. Unless efforts are made to enable part-time workers to switch to full-time jobs, the poor will always remain poor. And the working conditions of part-time workers need to be improved, too.
 根本的には、雇用の構造から生じている問題だ。非正規雇用を正規にかえていく努力をしなければ、貧困に苦しむ人はなくならない。非正規の待遇改善も必要だ。

During a meeting of the experts panel, a demand was made for bigger child-support checks for low-income single-parent families. The demand came from such families themselves and their supporters. This should rate a high priority.
 検討会では「収入の低いひとり親家庭に支給される児童扶養手当を増額してほしい」との声が、当事者や支援者から上がった。優先順位は高いだろう。

The elimination of poverty is a long-term challenge. This is obvious from the fact that Japan has been unable to curb its child poverty rate for decades. Obviously, the government must not think its work is done once it establishes the guidelines for combating child poverty.
 貧困の根絶には息の長い取り組みが要る。それは貧困率に長年歯止めがかからなかったことからも明らかだ。大綱を作って終わりにしてはならない。

In fact, to ensure that the efficacy of the recommended measures is closely examined down the road, the guidelines should spell out numerical targets for lowering the poverty rate and raising the rates of youngsters advancing to higher education and finding jobs afer graduation.
 政策の効果を検証できるように、大綱には貧困率や進学率、就職率などを改善する数値目標を定めておくべきだ。

Private organizations around the nation provide teaching and food aid to children from poor families, and they are proving quite helpful. But the reality is that such organizations are struggling financially and must rely heavily on the goodwill of their dedicated members.
 生活の苦しい家庭の子どもに学習や食事を支援する民間組織は各地にあり、効果をあげている。ただ、どこもメンバーの献身的な努力に支えられているのが実情で、運営は厳しい。

At the meeting of the experts panel, a proposal was made to create a fund, sponsored by both the public and private sectors, to finance the activities of those goodwill organizations.
 検討会では、こうした活動の支援にも使える官民基金の創設が提案された。

We certainly support such a fund, as it is the responsibility of society at large to raise the next generation. We believe in individual citizens providing whatever help they can, not only to their own children and grandchildren.
わが子や孫だけでなく、よその子にも出来る範囲で手をさしのべる。社会で子どもを育てるために、そういう仕組みがあっていい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 30

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2014年7月30日 (水)

危険ドラッグ 摘発の徹底で流通を阻止せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Distribution of dangerous drugs must be stemmed by thorough detection
危険ドラッグ 摘発の徹底で流通を阻止せよ

The control of illegal drugs must be tightened further, by seizing this occasion of the reclassification of the drugs.
 名称変更を機に、違法なドラッグの規制をさらに強めたい。

“Quasi-legal drugs,” whose abusers have caused a succession of incidents and accidents recently, have been renamed “dangerous drugs.”
 乱用者による事件・事故が相次ぐ「脱法ドラッグ」の名称が「危険ドラッグ」に改められた。

The designation “quasi-legal” may encourage people to casually use the drugs because they think they are not breaking the law. Based on this concern, the National Police Agency and the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry publicly solicited suggestions for a new designation for the drugs.
 「脱法」では、法規制が及ばないとの誤ったメッセージを与えかねず、安易な使用を誘発する恐れがある。そうした判断から、警察庁と厚生労働省が公募した。

We can understand that the government intended to emphasize the danger of taking these drugs. But doubt remains as to whether the new name can sufficiently convey the message that the drugs may contain illegal substances. The government needs to make both the danger and the illegality of taking these drugs widely known.
 危険性を強調しようという狙いはわかるが、違法性が十分に伝わる名称なのか、という疑問は残る。政府は、危険性と違法性をともに周知する必要がある。

An estimated 400,000 people around the country have used these dangerous drugs.
 危険ドラッグに手を出したことのある人は、全国で40万人に上るとされる。

When the health ministry investigated these cases, more than 40 percent of the users showed symptoms of hallucinations and delusions, whereas similar symptoms were seen among 30 percent of the stimulant drug users investigated. And nearly 60 percent of abusers of dangerous drugs also showed signs of dependency.
厚労省が乱用者を対象に調査したところ、4割以上に幻覚や妄想の症状が出ていた。覚醒剤の3割を上回っている。依存症状が生じた人も6割近かった。

It is apparent that these dangerous drugs are extremely harmful to the body. There has been a sharp rise in the number of cases in which people with acute poisoning after taking the drugs were taken to hospitals by ambulance.
 極めて有害であることは明らかである。急性中毒症状で救急搬送されるケースも急増している。

It is reasonable that the government has compiled emergency measures to prevent the spread of these dangerous drugs.
 蔓延まんえんを阻止するため、政府が緊急対策をまとめたのは当然だ。

The central pillars of the measures include cooperation between police and regional welfare bureaus in making general, on-site investigations into sales outlets of these drugs, said to be operating at about 250 spots in the nation. To correct the situation in which people can obtain dangerous drugs easily, it is essential to tighten control on sales outlets.
 警察や地方厚生局が連携し、約250か所とされる販売店への一斉立ち入り検査を行うことなどが対策の柱だ。危険薬物を容易に入手できる状況を改めるには、販売店の規制強化が欠かせない。

Control of sales crucial

Based on the lesson that the arrests of sellers of dangerous drugs were usually one step behind the problem, the government, in the emergency measures, is authorized to control those dangerous drugs as “unapproved drug products,” sales of which are banned by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, even before they are defined as designated illegal drugs.
 摘発が後手に回った教訓から、緊急対策では、違法な指定薬物に分類される前でも、薬事法で販売を禁じる「無承認医薬品」として取り締まることも打ち出した。

With regard to those products that are suspected to contain such designated drugs, the government can order, under the measures, the sellers of the products to analyze the drug’s components and suspend sales until the analysis results become known. Violators of the order will be punished.
 指定薬物を含む疑いのある商品については、販売業者に成分検査を命じ、結果が出るまで販売を停止させる。命令に従わなければ、業者に罰則を科す。

We hope the government will reinforce its surveillance of those business operators who are shifting their sales method to mobile sales from vehicles and orders via the Internet.
 移動販売やインターネットを介した注文販売に移行しつつある業者の監視を強めてほしい。

It is also important to grasp the real state of affairs of illegal manufacturing of drugs and their sales channels. Factories manufacturing such drugs have been discovered in Okinawa and Ishikawa prefectures. Substances used for the drugs are suspected to have been imported from China. Strengthening the checking systems at customs offices will be necessary to prevent such substances from being brought into Japan.
 密造・販売ルートの実態把握も重要だ。沖縄、石川両県では製造工場が摘発された。原料の薬物は中国から輸入された疑いがある。日本への流入を水際で阻止するため、税関でのチェック体制を強化する必要があろう。

Some local governments are regulating, with their own ordinances, drugs that are not defined as illegal under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law but may cause harm to the body.
 薬事法上は違法とされていない商品であっても、身体に危害を及ぼす恐れがあれば、条例で独自に規制している自治体もある。

The Wakayama prefectural government has made such drugs subject to monitoring and control even if they are labeled as incense or aroma products and makes it mandatory for the sales outlet to notify the prefectural government of their sales. The Osaka prefectural government has included in its ordinance a provision authorizing an on-site investigation of sales shops by police officers. The Tokyo metropolitan government also plans to revise its ordinance to establish a similar provision.
 和歌山県は、お香やアロマと表示した商品でも監視製品に指定し、扱う店に届け出を義務付けている。大阪府は、警察官の店舗への立ち入り調査権限を条例に盛り込んだ。東京都も条例を改正し、同様の規定を設ける方針だ。

Local governments should assume a large role in supplementing the efforts made by the central government.
 政府の取り組みを補完する上で、自治体の役割は大きい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 29, 2014)

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国家公務員削減 人員再配置にメリハリが要る

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Reallocation of govt employees should be promoted flexibly
国家公務員削減 人員再配置にメリハリが要る

It is essential to strengthen the government’s policy-implementing capabilities by slimming down its organization and strategically reallocating its employees.
 組織のスリム化と同時に、戦略的な人員再配置で政府の政策遂行能力を高めることが肝要だ。

The government has adopted a new policy at a Cabinet meeting on the organization of national government employees and the management of fixed numbers of personnel.
 政府は、国家公務員の機構・定員管理の新たな方針を閣議決定した。

The policy calls for reallocating or reducing at least 10 percent of around 300,000 employees in general administrative work, excluding the members of the Self-Defense Forces, over a five-year period starting in fiscal 2015. The target figure is the same as that set for fiscal 2010 to 2014.
 2015年度から5年間で、自衛官などを除く一般行政職の定員約30万人の「10%以上」を配置転換・削減する。この目標は、10~14年度と同じである。

The Cabinet Bureau of Personnel Affairs, which was established in May, has set target numbers for reallocating and reducing personnel for all government ministries and agencies. Based on these targets, personnel will be reallocated to increase the number of officials at offices suffering from manpower shortages, including the Disaster Reconstruction Agency, the Japan Coast Guard, customs and immigration offices and quarantine stations.
 5月に新設された内閣人事局が府省ごとの配転・削減目標数を設定した。これを「原資」に、震災復興や海上保安、税関・出入国管理・検疫など、職員が不足している部門に再配分し、増員する。

Reconstruction from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami disaster has not met the expectations of people affected. The Japan Coast Guard has had difficulty in deploying personnel to protect Japan from such threats as repeated intrusions of Chinese government vessels into the Japanese territorial waters around the Senkaku Islands.
 震災復興は依然、被災者の期待と比べて遅れている。尖閣諸島周辺での中国公船の領海侵入などで、海上保安庁は人員のやり繰りが厳しい状況が続く。

It is reasonable to reallocate personnel flexibly by reducing the number of officials at government agencies with diminished administrative importance and increasing personnel for those with greater need.
 重要性が薄れた部署を縮小し、行政需要が高い部署を増強して、メリハリをつけるのは妥当だ。

Conventionally, the government relocates or reduces personnel mainly in local branches of the central government offices. In the fiscal 2007-10 period, the government ignored the boundaries of bureaucratic sectionalism by transferring a great number of officials in charge of statistics and food management at the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry to offices dealing with prisons and regional taxation bureaus.
 政府は従来、国の出先機関を中心に配転・削減を進めてきた。07~10年度には、農林水産省の農林統計や食糧管理部門などの職員を省の垣根を越え、刑務所や国税局などに大量に異動させている。

Target hard to attain

Given the current progress in reallocating and reducing the number of government officials, attaining the goal of “10 percent in five years” appears to be increasingly difficult.
 だが、配転・削減が一定程度進んだため、「5年で10%」の目標達成は難しくなりつつある。

For this reason, the government has come up with a policy of having individual government ministries and agencies reexamine their clerical work requirements at their own initiative to promote abolition and consolidation of offices and transfer clerical work to local governments and the private sector. To encourage ministries and agencies to streamline their work, the government makes it clear they would be able to transfer superfluous officials to other sections of their own offices.
 このため、政府は、各府省が自主的に事務内容を見直し、組織の統廃合、事務の地方・民間移管を進める方針を示した。府省側の合理化意欲を引き出すため、節約した定員を府省内の別の部署に再配置要求できることも明記した。

Nevertheless, the government offices’ streamlining efforts have been strongly criticized as being halfhearted compared with those made by the private sector.
 それでも民間に比べ、役所の合理化は甘いとの指摘は根強い。

The Cabinet Bureau of Personnel Affairs wants to realize efficient personnel cuts by utilizing information and communication technology. In cooperation with the Administrative Management Bureau of the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry, it is indispensable to strictly examine the streamlining programs of individual government ministries and agencies.
 内閣人事局は、情報通信技術(ICT)を活用した効率化によって、人員削減につなげたい考えだ。総務省行政管理局とも連携し、各府省の合理化計画を厳しく点検することが欠かせない。

Since fiscal 2006, the government has achieved a net personnel reduction of 1,000 to 2,000 annually, excluding personnel transferred to independent administrative institutions. Such efforts must be continued.
 政府は06年度以降、独立行政法人などへの移行分を除き、毎年1000~2000人の国家公務員を純減してきた。こうした削減努力は継続する必要がある。

The Democratic Party of Japan-led government cut back on the hiring of national government employees by 30 percent to 40 percent in fiscal 2011-12 in line with the party’s campaign pledge for the 2009 general election to reduce “overall personnel costs by 20 percent.” That administration decided to reduce the hiring of new recruits by more than 50 percent in fiscal 2013, a target that faced a barrage of public criticism.
 民主党政権は、衆院選政権公約で国家公務員の「総人件費の2割削減」を掲げ、11、12年度の新規採用を3~4割削減した。13年度も5割以上減らす方針を決め、国民の批判を浴びた。

Extreme restraint on hiring, which is aimed at winning favor with the public, would not only distort the personnel composition of ministries and agencies but also narrow the door of opportunity for new university graduates facing difficulty in finding jobs and lead to talented people showing no interest in becoming government employees.
 「人気取り」目当ての極端な採用抑制は、各府省の人事構成をいびつにするうえ、就職難の新卒学生への門戸を狭め、優秀な人材の公務員離れを助長する。

Recruitment of public servants must be promoted strategically from a mid- and long-term perspective.
 公務員の採用は、中長期的観点から戦略的に進めるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 29, 2014)

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(社説)ミサイル発射 日朝協議でも説得を

July 29, 2014
EDITORIAL: Japan must tell North Korea that its provocations are pointless
(社説)ミサイル発射 日朝協議でも説得を

North Korea has kept up a series of provocative missile launches this year. In its latest test, apparently a political gesture, North Korea fired a short-range ballistic missile into the Sea of Japan off its eastern coast on July 26.
 北朝鮮がミサイルやロケット砲の発射実験を繰り返している。先週末も日本海に向けて短距離ミサイルを1発撃った。

North Korea's history of reckless tests of nuclear weapons and missiles caused the U.N. Security Council to tighten international sanctions against the secretive regime.
 北朝鮮は、これまでも核やミサイルの無謀な実験を重ね、国連安全保障理事会から制裁を強められてきた。

Even a short-range missile test is enough to antagonize the international community and deepen Pyongyang's diplomatic isolation. It's time that North Korea came to grips with the absurdity of its actions.
 短距離であってもミサイル発射は国際社会への挑戦であり、自国の孤立を深みに追い込む。その愚かさを悟るべきだ。

Politically, North Korea appears to be trying to exert pressure on the government of South Korean President Park Geun-hye.
 発射の政治的なねらいは、まず韓国の朴槿恵(パククネ)政権を意識したものとみられる。

The Park administration has been beset by a string of serious accidents, crimes and scandals at home, and North Korea seems intent on gaining the upper hand ahead of talks it must have with South Korea sooner or later.
 事件事故や不祥事など国内事情で苦境に立つ朴大統領を圧迫し、いずれ始まる南北協議を有利なかたちで始めたい、とみるのが妥当だろう。

The Park administration has pledged to make efforts to improve the North-South relationship but maintained a hard-line stance toward Pyongyang. This policy has not gone down well in North Korea and blighted prospects for dialogue between the two countries.
 朴政権は対北関係の改善を掲げてはいるが、実際には強硬姿勢を崩していない。そのため、北朝鮮は反発を強めており、対話は軌道に乗っていない。

North Korea has shown that its missiles can reach any part of South Korea. In the meantime, it has announced its intention to send athletes and cheerleaders to the Asian Games in September. The multisport event is slated to be held in South Korea's northwestern city of Incheon.
 北朝鮮は韓国を射程に収めるミサイルを撃ち続ける半面、9月に韓国・仁川で始まるスポーツ行事、アジア大会への選手や応援団の派遣を表明した。

The North has said a “peaceful environment” needs to be created for its participation, implying that it wants scheduled joint military exercises involving the United States and South Korea in August to be called off. The North Korean regime is trying to put pressure on the Park administration by using both a hard and a soft approach.
 だが、そのためには「平和的な環境が整えられるべきだ」とも訴える。来月予定される米韓合同軍事演習の中止を暗に求めるなど、硬軟織り交ぜて朴政権を揺さぶっている。

As it is pursues this diplomatic strategy, North Korea may be seeking to make tactical use of its talks with Japan over Pyongyang’s past abductions of Japanese citizens and other issues.
 そうした対外戦術をめぐらすなかで北朝鮮は、日本人拉致問題などをめぐる日朝協議も利用しようとしている恐れがある。

Pyongyang’s recent missile tests should be considered also as a tactical move to achieve certain diplomatic objectives concerning relations among Tokyo, Washington and Seoul.
 最近のミサイルの発射にも、日米韓をにらんだ思惑がにじんでいるとみるべきだろう。

The Japanese government lodged a protest against the missile tests, but intends to continue holding talks with the North after concluding that they did not pose any immediate threat to Japanese territory or the general population.
But the North’s actions have different security implications for South Korea.
 日本政府は発射に抗議しつつも、日朝協議は続ける意向だ。「ただちに日本の領土や国民に重要な影響をおよぼさない」などとの理由だが、そうした影響評価は韓国とは当然ずれる。

That is why both the United States and South Korea are casting a wary eye on Japan’s plan to continue talks with Pyongyang. At the same time, they have expressed their understanding of Tokyo’s motive.
 日本の協議継続の姿勢に米韓が理解を示しながらも、不安なまなざしを向けるゆえんだ。

The relationship between Japan and South Korea remains deeply strained mainly over differences in their views about history-related issues and a territorial dispute. If the two countries fail to put up a united front in dealing with North Korea, they risk playing right into Pyongyang’s hands.
 ただでさえ歴史認識などで関係が悪い日韓が、北朝鮮政策でも足並みを乱せば、それこそ北朝鮮の思うつぼだろう。

Viewed from another angle, it can be said that Japan is currently the only country that is able to engage in direct, head-on diplomatic talks with the secluded regime in Pyongyang. In the bilateral talks on trying to resolve the abduction issue, Tokyo should keep urging Pyongyang to stop provocative acts like missile launches.
 見方をかえれば、北朝鮮と今、正面から向き合えるパイプを持つのは日本だけだ。拉致問題と並行して、直接対話でミサイルなどの挑発行動をやめるよう求め続けるべきである。

There is speculation that North Korea's foreign minister, Ri Su Yong, will attend a meeting of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations in Myanmar next month. The conference may offer a rare opportunity for Japan to communicate with a high-level official of North Korea.
 来月にミャンマーである東南アジア諸国連合の会合には、北朝鮮の李洙ヨン(リスヨン)外相が出席する可能性が取りざたされる。北朝鮮の高いレベルと意思を交わす機会になるかもしれない。

Japan needs to use its official talks with North Korea wisely in its tenacious efforts to make the regime realize that military provocation is not in its best interest.
 日本は政府間協議の継続をてこに、軍事挑発は北朝鮮のためにならないことをねばり強く説く必要がある。

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 29

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2014年7月29日 (火)

裁判員判決破棄 量刑の公平性重視した最高裁

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Supreme Court places importance on fairness in meting out sentences
裁判員判決破棄 量刑の公平性重視した最高裁

The Supreme Court’s recent ruling in a child abuse case clearly indicated its position that precedents must be duly taken into consideration when deciding on the severity of punishment for the accused.
 被告の刑を決めるにあたり、過去の裁判例をきちんと考慮すべきだという最高裁の姿勢を明確に示した判決である。

The top court drastically reduced the punishment meted out to two parents charged with inflicting bodily injury resulting in the death of their physically abused 20-month-old daughter.
 最高裁が、1歳8か月の娘を虐待死させたとして、傷害致死罪に問われた両親の刑を大幅に軽減した。

The original ruling—decided with lay judges participating—ordered prison terms of 15 years for the parents, five years longer than the prosecution had demanded. This was subsequently upheld by the Osaka High Court.
 検察側求刑の1・5倍の懲役15年を言い渡した裁判員裁判の1審と、それを支持した2審の判決を破棄し、父親を懲役10年、直接的には暴力を振るわなかった母親は懲役8年とした。

The two courts’ decisions, however, were rejected by the Supreme Court, which instead handed down a 10-year prison term for the father and an eight-year sentence for the mother, who did not directly use violence against her daughter.
 懲役15年の刑は、著しく均衡を欠き、重すぎるとの判断だ。

According to the top court, the 15-year prison terms were extremely unbalanced and too severe, and it changed for the first time a ruling made in a trial in which lay judges took part. “Even if the decision was made in a trial with lay judges, it must be equitable to those of other trials,” the ruling said.
 量刑不当を理由に、最高裁が裁判員裁判の結論を見直すのは初めてである。判決は、「裁判員裁判といえども、他の裁判の結果との公平性を保たなければならない」と指摘した。

If the severity of punishment in similar cases differs, it could adversely affect the public’s trust in the judiciary. It is understandable for the court of last resort to act as a check to emphasize fairness in assessing the culpability of suspects.
 同種事件の判決で、刑の重さが極端に異なれば、国民の司法に対する信頼が揺らぎかねない。最高裁が最終審としてのチェック機能を果たす立場から、量刑の公平性を重視したのは理解できる。

In the first trial at the Osaka District Court, professional and lay judges acknowledged the case revolved around the parents’ habitual abuse of their child and concluded that child abuse—one of the biggest social issues—should be dealt with by meting out punishments more rigorous than before.
 1審・大阪地裁の裁判員裁判は、両親の常習的な虐待が事件の背景にあったと認定し、大きな社会問題となっている児童虐待には、今まで以上に厳しい刑で臨むべきだと結論づけた。

Convincing grounds needed

The top court, however, stressed that “courts need to present convincing grounds when imposing heavier punishments than conventionally handed down.” This means the Osaka District Court’s ruling had not offered sufficient grounds for meting out such sentences.
 これに対し、最高裁は「従来の傾向から踏み出す重い刑を科す場合、説得力のある根拠を示す必要がある」と強調した。1審判決では、根拠についての言及が不十分だったということだ。

The top court’s ruling also called for professional and lay judges to consider the severity of sentences based on accumulated data on punishments—an instruction that will have a major impact on lay judge trials in future.
 最高裁は今回、蓄積された量刑データを目安として、裁判官と裁判員が被告の刑を検討するよう求めた。今後の裁判員裁判に大きな影響を与えるだろう。

However, it should be noted that the purpose of the lay judge system is to reflect the people’s perspectives and social common sense in criminal trials, which previously had been solely handled by legal experts.
 ただ、裁判員制度の趣旨は、法律の専門家だけが担ってきた刑事裁判に、国民の視点や社会常識を反映させることにある。

If judges always have to decide on the severity of punishments based on precedent, the introduction of the lay judge system will lose its meaning.
 先例ばかりにとらわれて、刑を決めていては、制度導入の意義が失われかねない。

It was predicted all along that the system’s introduction would result in certain deviations in the severity of sentences.
 そもそも、裁判員制度の導入で、量刑にある程度の幅が出ることは、想定されていた。

Generally heavier punishments have been handed down for sex offenders at lay judge trials, compared to those decided by professional judges alone. This is a manifestation of citizens’ abhorrence of despicable crimes.
 実際、性犯罪事件に関しては、裁判官裁判の時代と比較して、全般的に重い刑が言い渡される傾向が見られる。卑劣な犯罪を憎む市民感覚の表れと言える。

It is important to factor in ordinary people’s feelings in court decisions, while maintaining fairness in punishments.
 重要なのは、刑の公平性を維持しつつ、市民感覚を判決に生かしていくことである。

Professional judges should spare no efforts in explaining to lay judges how important it is to reach a judgment without basing decisions excessively on intuition and sympathy. They should then try to seek appropriate conclusions in trials.
 裁判官には、直感や情に偏った判断を排すことの大切さを裁判員に丁寧に説明し、適切な結論を探る努力が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 28, 2014)

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防衛装備の輸出 新3原則を効果的に適用せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Boost defense equipment exports in line with 3 new principles
防衛装備の輸出 新3原則を効果的に適用せよ

Encouraging cooperation in the development of defense equipment with the United States, European nations and other counties to enhance Japan’s security is a matter of great importance.
 米欧各国などとの防衛装備協力を拡充し、日本の安全保障に役立てることが重要である。

The government’s National Security Council has formally given the go-ahead to exporting to the United States components for the target detection and tracking systems of the Patriot Advanced Capability-2 (PAC-2), an older model of the PAC ground-to-air missile interceptor system.
 政府の国家安全保障会議(NSC)は、旧型地対空誘導弾パトリオットミサイル2(PAC2)の目標探知・追尾装置の部品について、米国への輸出を許可した。

The NSC has also granted permission for the onward export of finished missile defense products using those components from the United States to countries such as Qatar. The NSC’s decision came after it decided that the United States’ systems for governing weapons exports and other relevant arrangements should be considered adequate.
 米国が、この部品を使った完成品をカタールなどに輸出することも認めた。米国の輸出管理体制などが適切だと判断したためだ。

This is the first time the NSC has granted such permission on the basis of the three new principles on the transfer of defense equipment and technology, which were adopted through Cabinet approval in April. The new three-point rules stipulate that permission for defense equipment exports will be granted only after strict screening to determine whether the transfer meets specific requirements, including being consistent with Japan’s contribution to world peace and cooperation with the international community.
 4月に閣議決定された防衛装備移転3原則に基づく初の許可だ。新3原則は、平和貢献・国際協力目的などの装備輸出を厳格な審査を条件に認めると定めている。

The production of these missile components has ceased in the United States, and as a result the United States sought for Japan to export them. The NSC decision is definitely beneficial both to Japan and the United States, and it can safely be said that the new three-point defense equipment and technology export principles played a significant role in making this sort of smooth defense equipment cooperation possible.
 この部品は米国での製造が終了しており、米国は日本の輸出を求めていた。日米双方に有益であり、こうした円滑な装備協力を可能にした新3原則の意義は大きい。

The NSC also endorsed a joint research project with Britain to combine a British-made missile system with Japanese target detection technology. The government envisions the product of the joint Japan-Britain research being mounted on the next-generation F-35 fighters, which will be the mainstay of the Air Self-Defense Force.
 NSCは、英国製ミサイルに日本の目標探知技術を組み合わせる共同研究を開始することも承認した。将来的に、航空自衛隊の次期主力戦闘機「F35」に搭載することも視野に入れている。

This is Japan’s second joint development project for defense equipment with Britain, following an agreement in July last year to work on a chemical protection suit. These projects must proceed smoothly toward realization of their goals.
 英国との共同研究は、昨年7月に合意した化学防護服に続き、2例目である。具体化に向けて、着実に進めていくべきだ。

Forging new partnerships

The NSC has disclosed an outline of its deliberation process concerning Patriot-2 component transfers to the United States. There is no question that government efforts to ensure the disclosure of information in such matters are indispensable to enhance transparency.
 NSCは今回、審議の概要を公表した。情報公開に努め、透明性を高めることが欠かせない。

In recent years, such projects for the joint development and production of defense equipment have moved forward mainly between the United States and European nations. Japan’s participation in this type of project will certainly be conducive to maintaining and upgrading the country’s defense technology, and at the same time help to rein in development expenditures. This country should take advantage of as many opportunities as possible to be part of such joint development schemes.
 近年、米欧を中心に、防衛装備品の共同開発・生産の動きが活発化している。日本がこれに加わることは、防衛技術を維持・向上させるとともに、開発費の抑制にもつながる。積極的に参加する機会を見つけたい。

The government is set to promote joint defense equipment development projects not with only the United States and Britain but with Australia as well. Japan and Australia have reached an agreement to jointly engage in research in the near future involving the hydrodynamics of sea vessels, centering around Japanese technologies for submarine construction. Japan and France are also considering joint development of defense equipment, including autonomous underwater vehicles.
 日本は米英に加え、豪州とも防衛装備品の共同開発を進める方針だ。当面、日本の潜水艦技術を念頭に、船舶の流体力学分野を研究する。日仏は、無人潜水機などの開発協力を検討している。

At the same time, consultations are under way with India on the advisability of exporting the Maritime Self-Defense Force’s US-2 search-and-rescue amphibian planes to the country. Security cooperation between Japan and India is of key importance in ensuring the safety of key sea lanes for the transport of crude oil and other energy sources to this country. Efforts to export defense equipment from Japan to India should also be promoted.
 インドとは、海上自衛隊の救難飛行艇「US2」の輸出に向けて協議している。原油などを運ぶ海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全を確保するうえで、日印の安保協力は重要である。防衛装備の輸出にも力を入れるべきだ。

However, it is crucial in these undertakings to scrutinize with utmost care which kinds of joint study and development projects can be considered beneficial for both Japan and its partner nations.The government must work in tandem with the private sector to strategically address the task of collecting and analyzing relevant intelligence.
 大切なのは、どんな装備・技術の共同研究や開発を進めれば、双方のプラスになるかをしっかりと見極めることだ。政府は、民間とも連携し、情報収集・分析に戦略的に取り組む必要がある。

The Defense Ministry is poised to create in fiscal 2015 a “defense equipment agency” in charge of tasks ranging from research and development of defense equipment to procurement of defense systems in an integrated manner. In establishing the planned agency, the ministry should place great import on ensuring a high cost-benefit efficiency in its operations.
 防衛省は来年度に、装備品の研究開発から購入までを一元的に扱う「防衛装備庁」の新設を目指している。業務の効率性を高める観点を重視せねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 28, 2014)

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(社説)オスプレイ移転 選挙目当てで済ますな

July 26, 2014
EDITORIAL: Osprey redeployment plan should be more than a vote-grabbing ploy
(社説)オスプレイ移転 選挙目当てで済ますな

The Abe administration has revealed a plan to temporarily redeploy a fleet of MV-22 Osprey aircraft from the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in the city of Ginowan, Okinawa Prefecture, to Saga Airport, a commercial facility.
 安倍政権が、米軍普天間飛行場(沖縄県宜野湾市)に配備中の新型輸送機オスプレイを、佐賀空港(佐賀市)に移転させる計画を明らかにした。

In Okinawa, U.S. military bases were built when the southern island prefecture was under U.S. administration. During this period, the United States transferred many of its military facilities on Japan’s mainland to Okinawa. Forty-two years after Okinawa was returned to Japan, the prefecture, which accounts for only 0.6 percent of Japan’s total land area, is home to 74 percent of the U.S. military facilities in the nation.
 沖縄では米軍統治下、強制的に基地がつくられ、本土の基地が移ってきた。復帰42年の今も、全国土の0・6%の沖縄に米軍基地の74%が集中する。

Additional burdens should not be imposed on the people in Okinawa, who have long been suffering from accidents and noise of military aircraft and crimes and accidents involving U.S. servicemen.
 軍用機の事故や騒音、米軍兵士らによる事件、事故に脅かされ続ける沖縄県民に、これ以上過重な負担は強いられない。

So far, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's government has been claiming that moving the Futenma airbase to another location within the prefecture is the only realistic option for dealing with the risks posed by the base, currently located in the middle of a crowded city. In making its case, the administration has cited geographical and other factors.
 これまで政権は、地理的な条件などを理由に、沖縄県内への移設を唯一の選択肢としてきた。\

It is significant that the administration has indicated the possibility of moving functions of the base outside the prefecture, albeit temporarily.
一時的とはいえ、県外への移転も可能だという認識を自ら示した意味は重い。

But the announced plan has raised many questions.
 しかし、今回の計画には数々の疑問が浮かぶ。

First, the fact that a gubernatorial election will be held in Okinawa in November raises the suspicion that the move is politically motivated.
 まず背後に、11月の沖縄県知事選対策という政権の意向が透けて見える。

It is expected that incumbent Hirokazu Nakaima, who has accepted the government’s proposal to relocate the Futenma base to another place in the prefecture, will face a tough challenge by Takeshi Onaga, the mayor of Naha, the prefecture’s capital, who is opposed to the proposal.
 知事選では、普天間飛行場の県内移設を容認する現職の仲井真弘多(なかいまひろかず)氏と、反対する那覇市長、翁長雄志(おながたけし)氏の立候補が見込まれる。

If Nakaima, who has decided to play ball with the central government on the Futenma issue, fails to be re-elected, the Abe administration’s plan to relocate the base to the Henoko district in Nago, a less crowded city in Okinawa, could fall through.
 容認派の仲井真氏が敗れれば、政府が進める名護市辺野古への県内移設は頓挫しかねない。県民の反発を和らげるために、政権は基地負担軽減を必死でアピールしている。

In order to placate Okinawans resentful over the heavy U.S. military presence, the administration is making desperate efforts to underscore its commitment to reducing their burden.
 空中給油機15機の普天間から岩国基地(山口県)への移駐や、都道府県を対象にした米軍再編交付金の浮上も、知事選を見据えた動きの一環だろう。

Other related proposals that have emerged include redeploying 15 airborne refueling aircraft from the Futenma base to the Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni in Yamaguchi Prefecture and providing state subsidies to prefectures that have agreed to accept U.S. military facilities for base realignment. These ideas also appear to be part of the government’s efforts to bolster Nakaima’s chances in the November poll.
 空中給油機15機の普天間から岩国基地(山口県)への移駐や、都道府県を対象にした米軍再編交付金の浮上も、知事選を見据えた動きの一環だろう。

The plan to transfer Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft from Futenma to Saga, however, won’t really reduce the burden borne by Okinawa. The fleet will return to Okinawa when the new base has been built in Henoko.
 一方、今回の計画は沖縄の負担軽減につながるものではない。辺野古に基地が完成すれば、オスプレイは沖縄に舞い戻ってしまう。

The Ground Self-Defense Force has been considering the deployment of 17 Ospreys to Saga Airport, starting in 2015. The temporary redeployment plan is a stopgap measure taking advantage of the GSDF’s plan.
 もともと陸上自衛隊は、2015年から17機のオスプレイを佐賀空港に配備する検討をしていた。今回の移転案は、そのプランに便乗した、その場しのぎの計画と言わざるをえない。

There is no guarantee that the GSDF will be able to deploy such a fleet of the aircraft to Saga Airport. Before the construction of the airport, the Saga prefectural government reached an agreement with local fishermen’s cooperatives on the prevention of related pollution. The pact states that the prefectural government has no intention of sharing Saga Airport with the SDF.
 佐賀空港建設前、県が地元漁協と交わした公害防止協定の関連文書で、空港を自衛隊と共同使用しないとしており、陸自の計画も簡単に進む保証はない。

Moreover, there remain serious safety concerns about the Osprey, which has a troubled history of accidents. There are also concerns about low-frequency noise pollution. Many local residents around Saga Airport have reacted angrily to the redeployment plan.
 事故を繰り返したオスプレイの安全性への疑問も、消えていない。低周波騒音も心配され、住民の反発は根強い。

Another big hurdle for this idea is the U.S. military’s unwillingness to move the Futenma airbase off Okinawa. Does the Japanese government have any workable plan to persuade the U.S. forces to accept the redeployment?
 さらに、これまで県外移設に強い難色を示してきた米軍に対し、説得できる見通しを日本政府は持ち合わせているのか。

If the administration is serious about easing Okinawa’s burden of being host to so many U.S. military bases, it should scrap the plan to build a new base in Henoko.
 政権が本気で沖縄の負担軽減に取り組むのなら、辺野古に新たな基地はいらない。

If its proposal to transfer Ospreys from Futenma to Saga is not a vote-grabbing ploy, the Abe administration should declare that the redeployment will be a first step toward relocating the Futenma base outside Okinawa and then start serious negotiations with Saga Prefecture and the United States.
選挙向けのパフォーマンスで終わらせないよう、計画を県外移設への一歩と表明し、佐賀県や米国との真剣な交渉に臨むべきだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 26

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(社説)再エネと地域 「主権」育てる好機に

EDITORIAL: Renewable energy promotion a good opportunity to nurture local ‘sovereignty’
(社説)再エネと地域 「主権」育てる好機に

A recent survey jointly conducted by The Asahi Shimbun and Hitotsubashi University has found that 80 percent of municipalities throughout the country that responded to the questionnaire are willing to promote renewable energies for regional development.
 朝日新聞と一橋大学が共同で実施したアンケートで、回答した全国の自治体の8割が再生可能エネルギーの推進に意欲的で、地域振興に役立てようとしていることがわかった。

More than three years have passed since the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant. During the period, the local governments have been “deepening” their efforts from moves to review power sources to attempts to reconstruct their areas by themselves.
 福島第一原発の事故から3年以上。発電の方法を見直す動きから、地域を自分たちの手で再構築する試みへと深化しつつある様子がうかがえる。

For example, some municipalities are using the revenue earned from the sale of electricity to electric power companies to operate welfare facilities. Others are increasing local employment by setting up companies to maintain power generation facilities. The number of power plants established by collecting funds from citizens and others in their local areas apparently exceeds 500.
 例えば、電力会社に電気を売って得た収益を福祉施設の運営に回したり、発電設備を維持し保守する会社をつくって雇用創出につなげたり。地域で資金を募って設立する市民共同型の発電所も増え、500を超える勢いだ。

If electricity sales are liberalized in the future, consumers will be able to choose their electric power company or sources of the electricity when they purchase it. To prepare for such a time, some producers in the agricultural, fishery or forestry industries are considering selling electricity directly to consumers in distant areas along with their products.
 いずれ電力が自由化されれば、電力会社や電源を選んで電気を買えるようになる。そんな将来をにらんで、農業や漁業、林業の生産者が遠隔地の消費者とつながり、直売する地場産品の中に、電気も組み込もうという構想も生まれている。

There are also some moves that go beyond conventional economic activities.
 経済活動の枠組みには収まりきらない動きも現れている。

In Minami-Soma, Fukushima Prefecture, which was affected by the accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, an organization is operating not only a solar power plant but also a vegetable farm using electricity from the plant. In addition, it is offering learning opportunities to children in those facilities.
 原発被災地となった福島県南相馬市では、太陽光発電所とそこでできた電力を使った植物工場を運営しながら、子どもたちが体験学習できる場がある。

The organization’s representative director, Eiju Hangai, is a former director of Tokyo Electric Power Co., operator of the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant. Minami-Soma is his hometown. Reflecting on the nuclear accident, he started the project. His purpose is to nurture people who think and act for themselves through learning of the mechanism of electricity and how to use it.
 代表理事の半谷栄寿さんは地元出身で東京電力の元役員。事故の反省から事業を起こした。目標とするのは電気の仕組みや活用法の学習を通じて「自分で考え行動する」人材を育てることだという。

So far, the development of electricity sources has tended to separate “people who generate electricity” from “those who use it.” In particular, nuclear power has been generated for urban areas where large amounts of electricity are consumed. Places that can serve as good locations to host nuclear power plants have been limited. Therefore, municipalities that can receive benefits from those plants have also been limited.
 これまでの電源開発は「つくる人」と「使う人」が分かれがちだった。とりわけ原発は、大量に電力を消費する都会向けにつくられてきた。立地条件も限られ、恩恵を受ける「地元」も一部にとどまった。

As for regional development, local governments have so far asked big companies to set up factories in their areas or implemented public works projects with subsidies. One of the typical cases was to ask for construction of nuclear power plants.
 地域振興にしても、これまでは大企業を誘致したり補助金でハコモノをつくったりという他力本願型。その面でも原発誘致は典型だった。

Renewable energies have a technical problem from the standpoint of a stable electricity supply. The feed-in-tariff system, in which electric power companies have to buy electricity from renewable energy producers at fixed prices, also has a defect because consumers have to pay higher electricity rates unless costs to develop electricity sources decline.
 確かに、安定的な電力供給という面では、再生可能エネルギーに技術的な課題は残る。固定価格での買い取り制度も、電源の開発費用が下がらないと料金負担が大きくなる欠点がある。

In spite of that, renewable energies that can be obtained easily in local areas will become catalysts to nurture “sovereignty” in those areas by changing the traditional way of thinking.
 それでも、地域に普通にある資源をいかす再生可能エネルギーは、従来の発想を転換させて、地域に「主権」を育むきっかけになる。

If municipalities promote renewable energy projects, they will face various problems and differences of opinions among residents. How will they overcome those difficulties and obtain understanding from them? It will be testing sites for “small democracies.”
 自分たちで事業を進めれば難題や意見の相違にもぶつかる。どう乗り越え、いかに納得するか。小さな民主主義の実践が積み重なる。

A growing number of people are thinking about energies from the context of their areas and lives. We want to support such a move.
 自分たちの町や生活と関連づけてエネルギーをとらえる機運を歓迎したい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 27

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2014年7月28日 (月)

新しい形の投資、クラウドバンク

これもアベノミクスによる金融商品の自由化ではないでしょうか。
まったく新しい形の投資、クラウドバンクを発見しました。
HPの資料が充実しており、膨大なので、ざっと斜め読みを試みました。

クラウドバンクは投資商品なので、必ずしも元本が保証されるものではありません。
多少のリスクは覚悟して望むべきではないでしょうか。
FX投資などよりは、かなり安全だと読みました。
予想利率なんですが、5%という比較的低い目標値が設定されています。
投資商品では、一般的に利率があがればあがるほどリスクは増大します。

投資先なんですが、どうやら日本の中小企業に対するファンドが主体みたいです。
これは阿部首相も、これから力を入れることを明言しているので、かなり期待できます。
投資先でちょっと変わったものを発見しました。
こちらはカンボジア向けの投資なんですが、マイクロファイナンス(小規模金融)と呼ばれています。
貧しい人々に小口の融資を提供することで、彼らが貧困から脱出し、自立することを目指しています。
こちらの予想利率も5%です。
私はこちらにしようかと考えています。
一口1万円から募集しています。



融資型クラウドファンディング「クラウドバンク」がオープンから7ヶ月で応募金額8億円を突破!目標利回り7.0%、夏のボーナスキャンペーン開催中!



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

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ガザ流血拡大 本格停戦への道筋を探りたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Concessions needed on both sides to secure durable Gaza ceasefire
ガザ流血拡大 本格停戦への道筋を探りたい

The United States, European countries and the United Nations should act in concert with Middle East nations capable of exercising influence over the warring parties to bring about a long-lasting cessation to ongoing hostilities.
 米国や欧州、国連は、紛争当事者に影響力を持つ中東諸国と連携し、本格的な停戦への道筋をつけてもらいたい。

The shedding of blood has been escalating in the conflict between Hamas, the militant Islamic group that dominates the Gaza Strip, which is part of the Palestine autonomous territories, and Israel. Although both sides temporarily reached a brief ceasefire in the fighting, there are no immediate prospects at all for an end to the conflict.
 パレスチナ自治区ガザを実効支配するイスラム主義組織ハマスとイスラエルの軍事衝突で流血が拡大している。両者は一時的には停戦したが、事態が収拾する見通しは立っていない。

In addition to air strikes, Israeli troops have launched a ground offensive in Gaza. This operation is aimed at finding and destroying Hamas’ large number of underground tunnels crisscrossing the Gaza border. This is because the tunnel network has been exploited for firing rockets and across-the-border assaults by Hamas militants against Israel.
 イスラエル軍は、空爆に加えてガザへの地上侵攻に踏み切った。ガザに張り巡らされた多数の地下トンネルの全面的な破壊を目標としている。トンネル網が、イスラエルへのロケット弾の発射や越境攻撃に利用されているためだ。

As many tunnels have been constructed beneath residential and other civilian facilities, a large number of civilians have been killed. This is a matter of grave concern. The number of people who have been killed on both sides since Israel began its offensive on July 8 has reportedly passed 1,000.
 トンネルは、住宅や民間施設の地下にもあるため、多くの民間人の犠牲者を生んでいる。ゆゆしき事態である。双方の死者は計1000人を超えたという。

The United Nations has strongly condemned the Israeli offensive in which hospitals, schools and evacuation facilities have been attacked, as well as the despicable means Hamas has of employing civilians as human shields in the conflict, as both possibly “amounting to war crimes.”
 国連は、病院や学校、退避施設も対象とするイスラエル軍の攻撃と、民間人を「人間の盾」に使うハマスの卑劣な手段を「戦争犯罪となり得る」と強く非難した。

Israel, which has a firepower overwhelmingly superior to that of Hamas, justifies its offensive as “exercising our right of self-defense.” This is hardly reasonable. At the very least, Israel must avoid attacking civilian facilities. Hamas, for its part, must promptly stop responses that treat human life lightly.
 火力で圧倒的に勝るイスラエルが自国の攻撃を「自衛権の行使」などと正当化する説明には、無理がある。少なくとも、民間施設に対する攻撃は回避すべきだ。ハマスも、人命を軽んじる対応を早急にやめる必要がある。

More efforts essential

Such figures as U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki Moon have continued to mediate the situation. On top of their efforts, cooperation not only from the two Arab countries with diplomatic relations with Israel—Egypt and Jordan—but also from countries with influence over Hamas, such as Qatar and Turkey, is indispensable for resolving the crisis.
 ケリー米国務長官や国連の潘基文事務総長が、仲介外交を続けている。イスラエルと国交のあるエジプトやヨルダンに加え、ハマスに影響力を持つカタールやトルコなどの協力が欠かせない。

With many regions in the Middle East being thrown into turmoil because of the civil wars in Syria and Iraq, countries in the environs of Israel and the Gaza Strip have been unable to unite in halting the Gaza conflict. The influence of Egypt’s President Abdel Fattah-Sissi, who has regarded Hamas with hostility for years, is considered limited.
 シリアやイラクの内戦などで中東各地が混乱する中、周辺の関係国が結束できずにいる。ハマスを長年敵視してきたエジプトのシシ大統領の影響力も限定的だ。

Prior to the latest 12-hour humanitarian truce, Kerry came out with a proposal for a seven-day lull in fighting so consultations could be held to realize a full-fledged accord on a prolonged ceasefire.
 ケリー長官は、戦闘を1週間停止し、その間に本格停戦に向けた協議を行うとの案を提示した。

Both Israel and Hamas turned down the proposal, but the United States and other countries concerned should persevere. They should tenaciously consider ways to work out a plan acceptable to both Israel and Hamas.
 イスラエルとハマスは提案を拒否したが、米欧や関係国はあきらめず、双方が受け入れ可能な案を粘り強く探ってほしい。

To put a full-scale truce in place, concessions on both sides are essential, with a guarantee of Israel’s security on one hand and steps to help rebuild Gaza, a chronically impoverished region because of a seven-year-long economic blockade by Israel, on the other. The impasse can never be resolved by military power alone.
 本格停戦には、イスラエルに対する安全の保証や、7年に及ぶ経済封鎖で慢性的な困窮状態に置かれたガザの再建に向けた、双方の歩み寄りが欠かせない。軍事力だけでは問題は解決しない。

The fact that Israel and Hamas reached an accord on the truce from a humanitarian viewpoint is praiseworthy, even though it is only for 12 hours. The pause in fighting makes it possible for Gaza residents, including those who have been wounded, to evacuate to safer areas and stock up on such supplies as food and medicine.
 イスラエルとハマスが、12時間の時限的措置とはいえ、人道的観点から戦闘を中断したことは評価できる。これにより、負傷者を含むガザ住民の避難や、食料や医薬品などの搬入が可能になった。

Although there is little room for optimism over what lies ahead, the mutual concessions Israel and Hamas demonstrated this time should be made the first step toward a breakthrough for resolving the Gaza crisis.
 停戦工作の前途は楽観できないが、今回の歩み寄りを問題解決への一歩としなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 27, 2014)

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概算要求基準 特別枠を「抜け道」に使うな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Special fund should not be used as loophole in budget allocations
概算要求基準 特別枠を「抜け道」に使うな

Budgetary requests from each government ministry for fiscal 2015 need to be strictly assessed. This is essential for setting funding priorities in the next fiscal budget as a means of achieving two seemingly mutually exclusive goals pursued by the government: realizing economic growth and restoring health to the national finances.
 経済成長と財政健全化を両立するメリハリのきいた予算とするため、要求段階から厳しく精査する必要があろう。

The government has set guidelines for budget allocation requests for fiscal 2015, which will provide an overall framework for the next budget. A major feature of the appropriation criteria is a special ¥4 trillion fund. The fund is designed to preferentially finance key policies and projects devised by the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, including those aimed at halting a population decrease and revitalizing communities outside major cities.
 政府が2015年度予算の大枠となる概算要求基準を決めた。人口減対策や地方活性化など、安倍政権の重要課題に予算を重点配分するため、4兆円の特別枠を設けるのが柱である。

The budget appropriation guidelines also include a planned 10 percent cut in so-called discretionary expenses, including spending for public works projects. Funding in this category stood at about ¥15 trillion under the fiscal 2014 budget. The reduction is intended to come up with money for the special fund in the next budget.
 特別枠の財源として、公共事業費などの「裁量的経費」を14年度予算の約15兆円から1割削減する方針も盛り込んだ。

It is reasonable for the government to adjust its policy on budgetary allocations so it can promote policies of higher priority.
 優先度の高い政策を推進するため、予算の配分を変えていく狙いは理解できる。

However, questions must be raised about the advisability of making each government office’s budget requests eligible for allocations from the special fund only if the allocations are aimed at funding projects related to the government’s basic economic and fiscal policies or considered essential for the pursuit of its growth strategy.
 ただ、特別枠に要求できる予算の範囲を、政府の「骨太の方針」や成長戦略で掲げた諸課題に関係する事業としたのは疑問だ。

This policy regarding the special fund could permit each ministry to demand appropriations for a wide range of projects, including diplomatic and national defense-related activities.
 これでは、外交や防衛なども含めた幅広い分野の事業が要求の対象となり得る。

The government is also expected to come under even greater pressure for expenditures related to the development of regional communities, as it prepares for unified local elections next spring.
 来春の統一地方選をにらみ、地域振興に関連した歳出圧力も一段と高まろう。

Fund leaves room for abuse

There is concern that the Cabinet Office and other government ministries may take advantage of the “loophole” created by the special fund to demand allocations for their projects. This could cause a flood of requests by each government office that only cite the pursuit of the growth strategy, for example.
 特別枠を「抜け道」にして、成長戦略などにかこつけた要求が各府省から殺到する懸念がある。

We believe the government’s Council on Economic and Fiscal Policy should have narrowed the scope of projects eligible for allocations from the special fund. In doing so, the council would have been playing its primary role of issuing directives regarding our nation’s fiscal management.
 財政運営の司令塔である経済財政諮問会議が本来の役割を果たし、対象を具体的に絞り込むべきだったのではないか。

At a meeting of the council, Abe emphasized that his administration would do all it could to make sure “priorities are set” in the next fiscal budget.
 安倍首相は諮問会議で、来年度予算について「メリハリのついた予算とするよう政府を挙げて取り組んでいく」と強調した。

We hope the prime minister, who chairs the council, will play a leadership role in preventing each ministry from being allowed to request allocations for nonessential and nonurgent projects.
 諮問会議の議長である首相は、「不要不急」の事業の要求が横行しないよう、各府省に指導力を発揮してもらいたい。

The focus of efforts by the government to screen budgetary requests will be whether it will be able to strictly curtail expenses for social security services, the largest item of spending under each fiscal budget.
 焦点は、最大の歳出項目である社会保障費の抑制を徹底できるかどうかである。

Next fiscal year will see a natural increase in expenditures of close to ¥1 trillion for social security services due to the graying of society and other factors. The latest guidelines for budgetary requests include a plan to strictly screen allocation requests related to social security.
 高齢化などによる社会保障予算の「自然増」は、来年度も1兆円近い。概算要求基準はこれを厳しく精査する方針を明記した。

Steady progress needs to be made in reforming the social security systems. Measures to cut budgetary spending to this end will include promoting the use of inexpensive generic drugs and considering an increase in the age of eligibility for pension payments.
 予算節約の努力を通じ、割安な後発医薬品の利用促進や、年金支給開始年齢の引き上げの検討など、社会保障制度改革を着実に進展させる必要がある。

The government has said it will try to achieve primary balance at both the national and local government levels by the end of fiscal 2020. Currently, the national and local governments are registering a combined fiscal deficit of ¥30 trillion now.
 政府は、現在30兆円と巨額の赤字である国と地方の基礎的財政収支を、20年度までに黒字化する目標を掲げている。

According to a government estimate, the national and local governments would be left with ¥11 trillion in fiscal deficits each year even if the consumption tax rate was raised to 10 percent, as planned, and 2 percent annual economic growth in real terms was realized.
 だが、政府試算によると消費税率を予定通り10%に引き上げ、実質2%の経済成長を見込んでも、11兆円の赤字が残るという。

The lack of a solid base in the nation’s finances means the government will be unable to adopt flexible economic policies. This will make it difficult to return the economy to the path of full revitalization. Given this, the next fiscal budget must serve as an initial step in efforts to pave the way for fiscal reconstruction.
 財政基盤が脆ぜい弱じゃくでは、機動的な経済政策を行えず、日本経済の本格再生も望めまい。来年度予算を財政再建に道筋をつける第一歩としなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 27, 2014)

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2014年7月27日 (日)

熱中症予防 夜でも暑ければ冷房を使おう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
To prevent deadly heatstroke, don’t hesitate to use air conditioner at night
熱中症予防 夜でも暑ければ冷房を使おう

Heat waves have been hitting various parts of the country almost daily. As the number of heatstroke victims rises sharply at this time of the year, when people have not yet adjusted to the sweltering temperatures, it is vital to take precautions.
 各地で連日、猛暑が続いている。体が暑さに慣れないこの時期は、熱中症が急増する。予防を心がけたい。

Heatstroke occurs when the body loses water and salt due to prolonged exposure to high temperatures, and consequently becomes unable to regulate its temperature.
 熱中症は、高温の中で体内の水分や塩分が失われ、体温の調節機能が働かなくなることによって起こる。

Recent years have seen an increase in the number of days with a high temperature of 35 C or above, and in the number of nights with a low temperature of 25 C or above. The death toll from heatstroke has soared accordingly.
 近年、最高気温が35度以上の猛暑日や、夜間の最低気温が25度以上の熱帯夜が増えている。それとともに、熱中症による死亡者は増加傾向にある。

It is necessary to make a midsummer rule of such preventive measures as frequently consuming water and salt, refraining from going out during hours when temperatures are highest, and wearing a hat outdoors.
 水分や塩分をこまめに取る。暑い時間帯の外出を控える。屋外では帽子をかぶる――。こうした予防策を真夏の習慣にしたい。

Heatstroke most often affects the elderly. Of 58,729 heatstroke victims who were transported by ambulance last year, 47 percent were aged 65 or older. As the elderly tend to be less sensitive to changes in skin temperature, they may not notice heat or sweat, thereby allowing heat to accumulate inside the body.
 熱中症はお年寄りに多い。昨年、熱中症で救急搬送された5万8729人のうち、47%が65歳以上だった。高齢者は皮膚の温度センサーが鈍くなっている。暑さを感じず、汗をかきにくいため、体内に熱がたまりやすい。

According to data compiled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner’s Office, 90 percent of heatstroke fatalities occurred indoors. Air conditioners were not used in 86 percent of the cases, and most victims were senior citizens.
 東京都監察医務院の統計では、熱中症による死亡例の9割は室内で起きている。そのうち、冷房を使っていなかったケースは86%に上り、大半が高齢者だった。

The Nerima Ward office of Tokyo distributes devices to measure heatstroke risk, which gauge temperature and humidity, to elderly households. A buzzer sounds when the danger of heatstroke rises.
 東京都練馬区は、高齢世帯を対象に、気温と湿度を測定する熱中症計を配布している。危険が高まるとブザーが鳴る仕組みだ。

Some municipalities use such facilities as libraries and community centers as “heat-averting spots.” Community-based measures must be taken to protect the elderly living alone.
 図書館や公民館などの施設を「避暑スポット」として活用している自治体もある。独り暮らしのお年寄りを守るためにも、地域ぐるみの取り組みが求められる。

Extra care vital for kids

What is often overlooked is that more than a few heatstroke cases take place while victims are asleep. About 30 percent of those who have died from heatstroke developed symptoms at night. Therefore, it is necessary to use an air conditioner even at night, setting the temperature at about 28 C.
 見過ごしがちなのは、就寝時の熱中症が少なくないことだ。死亡した人の約3割は夜間に発症している。室温を28度前後に保つよう、夜でも冷房を使いたい。

Extra care must be taken to protect babies and infants, who have not fully developed the ability to adapt to changes in temperature.
 体温の調節機能が発達していない乳幼児も、要注意である。

Small children, whose physical stature is much smaller than that of adults, can suffer exposure to the extreme heat released by roads paved with asphalt. The temperature is usually measured at a height of 1.5 meters above the ground surface, while the temperature for small children can be 3 to 4 C higher than the measurement at that height.
 大人より身長が低い幼児は、アスファルトからの照り返しを強く受ける。気温は通常、地面から150センチの高さで測定するが、幼児の周りの気温は、それより3~4度も高いとされる。

Parents and guardians must take such steps as making children wear well-ventilated clothing and drink water frequently. If children are sweating so much that their faces turn red, it is necessary to make them rest in the shade.
 涼しい服装を心がけ、こまめに水を飲ませるなど、大人が気を配らねばならない。顔が赤く、汗をひどくかいている場合は、日陰で休ませる必要がある。

At school, heatstroke tends to occur during the activities of sports clubs. It is essential to take a break every 30 minutes. If such symptoms as dizziness, leg cramps, headaches and nausea appear, immediately cooling down the body is recommended.
 学校では、運動部の活動中に発症しやすい。30分に1度は、休憩が欠かせない。立ちくらみや、こむら返り、頭痛や吐き気の症状が出たら、すぐに体を冷やそう。

With the progress of global warming, the number of people transported to hospitals due to heatstroke is expected to double by the end of the century. It is imperative to take such long-term measures as promoting afforestation and street tree-planting projects to alleviate the impact of the heat island phenomenon.
 地球温暖化により、熱中症で病院に搬送される人は、今世紀末には2倍になるとも予測される。緑地や街路樹の整備など、ヒートアイランド現象を和らげる長期的な対策も重要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 26, 2014)

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朴・舛添会談 国民の心を遠ざけたのは誰か

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Who caused alienation in hearts of Japanese, South Korean people?
朴・舛添会談 国民の心を遠ざけたのは誰か

It was regrettable to see South Korean President Park Geun-hye continue her anti-Japan position of unilaterally criticizing this nation when she met Tokyo Gov.
 歴史問題で一方的に日本を非難する反日姿勢に変化がなかったことは、残念である。

Yoichi Masuzoe for talks in Seoul on Friday.
 韓国の朴槿恵大統領がソウルで、東京都の舛添要一知事と会談した。

Park stressed that the deterioration in Japan-South Korean relations stemmed from the “words and acts of some politicians,” and added that it was necessary for the two nations to share a correct perception of history if they want their relationship to develop. These comments are a repetition of her pet opinion critical of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s historical perception.
 朴氏は、日韓関係の悪化について「一部政治家の言動」が原因だと強調した。関係発展には「正しい歴史認識」の共有が必要だとも語った。安倍首相の歴史観を批判する持論を繰り返したものだ。

Park also indicated that she would put top priority on solving the issue of so-called comfort women, which she said was “a matter related to universal human rights.”
 朴氏は、いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題について「普遍的な人権に関する問題だ」と述べ、その解決を最優先する考えも示した。

Ahead of Masuzoe’s talks with Park, Abe asked him to convey a message to the president. The message said, “The door for dialogue is always open,” indicating his desire to hold a bilateral summit meeting. Park’s comments, however, can be taken to show her continued determination to make the settlement of the comfort women issue and other issues a precondition for meeting with Abe.
 今回の会談に先立ち、安倍首相は「対話のドアは常に開いている」と日韓首脳会談を望むメッセージを舛添氏に託していた。だが、朴氏の発言は、慰安婦問題の解決などを首脳会談の前提条件とし続けたものと受け止められよう。

Park did hail an exchange project under consideration between Tokyo and Seoul and supported a plan for parties concerned to cooperate in hosting the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, and the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.
 朴氏は、東京・ソウルの自治体交流構想を評価し、東京と平昌の日韓双方の五輪開催に向けて関係者が協力することも支持した。

But such exchanges will inevitably be limited under this abnormal situation, in which Park has been refusing to meet Abe ever since she was inaugurated nearly 1½ years ago.
 しかし、朴氏が就任後、1年半近くも首脳会談を拒否している異常な状況下では、こうした交流にも限界があるだろう。

Park part of the problem

“It’s regrettable that a difficult political situation seems to be alienating [Japanese and South Korean] people’s hearts from each other,” Park said during her talk with Masuzoe. We found it odd for her to speak as if she were not a party to this problem.
 朴氏が会談で、「政治的に困難な状況になり、(日韓の)国民の心まで遠くなっていくようで残念に思う」と人ごとのように語ったことには違和感を覚える。

Her backbiting diplomacy of criticizing Japan in front of foreign dignitaries has provoked ire in Japan. What does she think about her own responsibility for this?
 他国要人の前で日本を批判する朴氏の「告げ口外交」は、日本で強い反発を招いている。自らの責任をどう考えているのか。

After the March summit meeting among Japan, the United States and South Korea, which was mediated by U.S. President Barack Obama, Tokyo and Seoul started talks by foreign affairs officials at the director general level.
 オバマ米大統領の仲介による3月の日米韓首脳会談を受けて、日韓の局長級協議が始まった。

The South Korean officials are seeking concessions from their Japanese counterparts over the comfort women issue, while the Japanese side took up the issue of lawsuits filed by South Koreans conscripted to work in factories in Japan during World War II. No progress has been made in their talks.
 韓国側は、慰安婦問題で日本の譲歩を求め、日本側は、韓国人元徴用工の訴訟問題などを取り上げたが、議論は進んでいない。

Early this month, a Seoul hotel abruptly refused to provide a venue for an event commemorating the inauguration of Japan’s Self-Defense Forces, in response to a flood of protests it received after an influential South Korean newspaper blasted the event.
 今月上旬には、ソウルのホテルが突然、自衛隊創設記念行事の開催を拒否する事態が起きた。韓国有力紙が行事を批判したのがきっかけで、ホテルに抗議が殺到したためだという。

This was a result of Park spreading anti-Japanese sentiment throughout South Korean society.
 朴氏が韓国社会に反日ムードを蔓延まんえんさせた結果だろう。

What should not be overlooked is her stance of joining forces with China’s leadership over historical issues. During her talks with Chinese President Xi Jinping, Park and Xi jointly expressed alarm over recent progress in Japan-North Korean talks.
 看過できないのは、朴氏が歴史問題などで、中国との共闘姿勢を見せていることだ。習近平国家主席との会談では、最近の日本と北朝鮮の協議進展を警戒する点でも、足並みをそろえた。

In addition to North Korean issues, there are many issues that require cooperation between Japan and South Korea, including the conclusion of a bilateral economic partnership agreement and the implementation of measures to deal with air pollution from China. We wonder if Park believes no efforts are necessary to break the impasse over bilateral relations.
 日韓が連携すべき課題は、対北朝鮮政策のほか、日韓自由貿易協定、中国からの大気汚染対策など、数多い。朴氏はこのまま、日韓関係停滞の打開策を探らなくてもいいと考えているのだろうか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 26, 2014)

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2014年7月26日 (土)

(社説)旅客機撃墜 ロシアに究明の責任

EDITORIAL: Russia must clarify cause of Malaysia Airlines jet crash
(社説)旅客機撃墜 ロシアに究明の責任
July 23, 2014

No attack against a commercial airliner can ever be condoned. When one occurs, the international community has a

duty to thoroughly investigate to help keep the skies safe.
 旅客機への攻撃は断じて許されない。世界の空の安全を保障するためにも、国際社会は原因を徹底追究すべきである。

On July 21, the U.N. Security Council unanimously passed a resolution condemning the July 17 downing of Malaysia

Airlines flight MH17 in eastern Ukraine.
 ウクライナ東部でマレーシア航空機が撃墜された事件をめぐり、国連安全保障理事会が非難の決議をした。

The resolution also demanded that armed groups in control of the region

provide international investigators with "unfettered access" to the crash site.
 国際調査団による無制限の立ち入りを現地の武装勢力が認めるよう要求している。

This unanimous vote was at least an improvement over the Security Council's pattern in recent years, which was to

split into the United States-Europe camp and the Russia-China camp.
 近年の安保理は米欧対ロシア・中国のかたちで分裂することが多かったが、今回は一致した国際世論を明示できた。せめてもの前進

といえる。

Russia, a permanent Security Council member at the heart of global suspicions surrounding the airliner's crash, had

no choice this time but to approve the resolution. Russia now owes it to the world to answer questions and volunteer

to investigate the tragedy to get to the bottom of it.
 疑惑の渦中にある常任理事国のロシアも賛成せざるを得なかった。ならば、積極的に疑問に答え、自ら検証に踏み出して、真実を明

らかにすべきだ。

But investigations are going anything but smoothly. There are strong suspicions that pro-Russian armed groups that

control the region were involved in downing the airliner. But even in the aftermath of this terrible tragedy, these

separatist militants have shown an appalling disregard for the norms of proper behavior.
 事件の調査は難航している。現場の一帯を支配する親ロシア派の武装勢力が撃墜にかかわった疑いが濃厚だが、これほどの悲劇を

へてもなお彼らは無法な行動が目立つ。

Right after the crash, they sabotaged the Special Monitoring Mission of the Organization for Security and Co-

operation in Europe by removing plane debris and bodies from the crash site.
 発生直後、欧州安保協力機構(OSCE)の監視団を妨げたり、遺体や残骸の一部などを勝手に運び出したりした。

Although the separatists finally handed over some bodies and the plane's black boxes on July 22, they may have

already destroyed or concealed vital evidence.
 ようやくきのう、墜落機の飛行情報を収めたブラックボックスの引き渡しなどに応じたが、これまで証拠隠滅とみられかねない動きを続け

てきた。

Their actions have fanned the ire of the international community and stoked anger at Russia, which is believed to be

backing them.
 そうした振る舞いがかき立てる国際社会の怒りは、武装勢力だけでなく、その背後にいるロシアにも向けられている。

President Vladimir Putin should take the situation gravely.
 その現実をプーチン大統領は重く受けとめてもらいたい。

The U.S. government is leaning toward the belief that the airliner was shot down by the separatists. Washington has

stated that the missile used for the attack had been brought from Russia.
 米政府は、撃墜は武装勢力によるとの見方を強め、ミサイルはロシアから運ばれていたと明言している。その疑いを強める情報は相次

いでいる。

Pieces of information are being presented that strengthen Washington's allegations. The materials being disclosed,

none of which are frivolous, include communication records in which the separatists are heard to confirm the attack

immediately after the plane went down, and photos claiming to be those of the missile vehicle in question being

transported to Russian territory after it launched a missile.
 事件直後に武装勢力が撃墜を確認したとされる会話の交信記録や、事件に使われたあとのミサイルがロシア領に運ばれるところとさ

れる写真など、いずれも注目に値するものだ。

The Russian Defense Ministry is hinting at the possibility that Ukraine was responsible for the attack, but there is no

watertight evidence to corroborate the claim.
 ロシア国防省は逆にウクライナ側が撃墜した可能性を示唆しているが、その疑いを抱かせるような具体的情報は乏しい。

If Russia continues to obfuscate and evade responsibility, it will eventually have to pay a heavy price.
 このまま、事実をうやむやにしかねない態度を続けるなら、そのつけは自身にはね返る。

The European Union used to be more cautious than the United States whenever the issue of imposing sanctions

against Russia cropped up. This was in consideration of economic issues related to natural gas transactions and other

matters, but the European attitude toward Russia has now begun to harden because many of the victims of the

tragedy were Europeans.
 これまで欧州連合(EU)は米国に比べてロシアへの制裁に慎重だった。天然ガスの取引など経済に配慮してのことだったが、多数の

犠牲者を出した欧州の世論も硬化し始めている。

Putin has tried to push Russia's national interests not only on the Crimean Peninsula, but also in eastern Ukraine. He

ought to understand that his hard-line policy will eventually drive Russia into isolation.
 クリミア半島の併合だけでなく、プーチン氏はウクライナ東部でも自国の権益を押し通そうとしてきた。だが、その強硬策はロシア自身を

深い孤立に陥れることを悟るべきだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 23

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(社説)インドネシア 民主主義の深化を

EDITORIAL: Indonesia's new president should push reforms to uphold democracy
(社説)インドネシア 民主主義の深化を
July 24, 2014

Voters in Indonesia have elected Jakarta Governor Joko Widodo as their new president. Joko will be a president who

is neither a former top military officer nor a man with a political pedigree.
 インドネシアの人々は次の大統領にジャカルタ特別州知事のジョコ・ウィドド氏を選んだ。軍出身や政治家一族ではない庶民派大統

領である。

Sixteen years have passed since the military dictatorship of strongman Suharto was toppled. We strongly hope that

Joko will push the nation further toward democracy and ensure that people will enjoy the benefits of change in all

parts of this southern fast-growing nation.
 スハルト独裁政権が倒れてから16年になる。ジョコ氏が民主化をさらに進め、成長が続く南の大国の隅々にまで、その成果を届ける

ことを期待する。

Outgoing President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono restored law and order during his 10-year tenure by taking effective

steps to eradicate terrorism. He managed to reach a historic peace agreement in 2005 with separatists in the restive

province of Aceh, bringing an end to a bloody, 30-year conflict.
 現職のユドヨノ大統領は10年の任期中に、テロの根を断って治安回復に努め、アチェの独立紛争を平和的に収めた。

Yudhoyono also made serious efforts to crack down on endemic corruption. But he failed to prevent the widening of

the gap between rich and poor, even though the nation’s economy regained stability and growth momentum.
汚職の摘発にも力を入れた。ただ経済は安定を取り戻したものの、貧富の格差は大きくなった。

Joko was born to a poor family, but carved out an impressive career in politics. He first became mayor of Surakarta, a

city in central Java, and then successfully ran for the governor of Jakarta.
 その国を引き継ぐジョコ氏は貧しい家庭に生まれ、中部ジャワの市長からジャカルタ特別州知事になった。

While serving as the governor of the capital, Joko adopted policies to improve the well-being of the weak, especially in

the areas of education and health care, and also worked hard to promote competition and transparency in

administration.
 教育や医療分野で弱者に優しい政策をとり、行政に競争や透明性をもたらそうと努めた。

He gained popularity by frequently going to towns to talk to people and quickly emerged as a major candidate for the

presidency.
腰軽く現場に出かけて住民と話す姿勢が人気を集め、大統領候補に駆け上がった。

Indonesia became infested with corruption, collusion and nepotism under the Suharto regime. Every sector of

Indonesian society is still plagued by these evils.
 スハルト政権は、この国に長く腐敗、癒着、縁故主義をはびこらせ、その体質はいまも社会のいたるところに巣くう。

Joko’s main rival, Prabowo Subianto, who supported Suharto's dictatorial rule as an army general, surged after

campaigning began in early June, turning the election into a neck-and-neck race. His strong showing indicates that

many Indonesians are longing for a powerful leader.
 大統領選で猛追したプラボウォ氏は、国軍の幹部としてスハルト元大統領を支えた人物である。国民の中には強い指導者を好む気

持ちも残る。

But the election results mean that the president-elect, a non-elite politician with no inclination toward

authoritarianism, has won a public mandate to push through reforms to break down the vested interests.
 だが選挙結果が示すのは、権威主義とは無縁の非エリートの新大統領に、既得権益を崩す改革が託されたということだ。

Still, there are many reasons to be concerned about Joko’s leadership. He has no experience in national politics and

his Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle and other parties that supported him have less than 40 percent of the

seats in the nation’s parliament.
 ただ、ジョコ氏には不安材料も多い。国政の経験はなく、大統領選で支持した政党が国会に占める議席は4割以下だ。

Joko’s failure to gain a good lead on his contender in the election may deny him a strong political standing. His

diplomatic prowess is also an unknown factor.
 選挙で大きな差をつけられなかったことは、ジョコ氏の政治的立場を弱いものにするかもしれない。外交手腕もまったく未知数だ。

Indonesia has a population of 250 million people, the fourth largest in the world. With half of them below the age of

30, the country’s working population is expected to keep growing until around 2030.
 インドネシアは、世界4位の2億5千万人の人口をもつ。その半数は30歳以下で、2030年ごろまで生産年齢人口が増え続けると

みられている。

Indonesia is an important recipient of Japanese aid and investment and a key growing market for Japanese

companies.
 日本にとっては援助と投資の重要な対象であり、成長する市場でもある。

The members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations are seeking to form an economic and political union next

year.
 東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)は来年の共同体設立を目指している。

As political turmoil in Thailand continues, Indonesia’s leadership within the bloc will face a crucial test in ASEAN’s

quest to form the union.
タイの政治混乱が続くなかで、盟主を自任するインドネシアの指導力がより問われる。

Indonesia puts top priorities on ensuring unity among ASEAN members and maintaining a balance of power within

Asia. The country does not want to be dragged into the conflict between Japan and China.
 インドネシアはASEANの一体性とアジア地域のバランスをもっとも重視する。日本と中国との対立に巻き込まれるようなことは好まない



Japan should be well aware of Indonesia’s position while providing as much support as possible for the Joko

administration’s efforts to push the country up the ladder of democracy and reform.
 日本はそうした立場を理解したうえで、ジョコ新政権が民主化と改革への新たな階段を上っていくのを助けるべきだ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 24

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(社説)名簿ビジネス まず業者の登録制から

EDITORIAL: Japan needs registration system to regulate ‘name list’ businesses
(社説)名簿ビジネス まず業者の登録制から

No matter how many precautions you take, you cannot completely prevent wrongdoing and criminal activity.
 どんなに事前の対策を講じても、不正や犯罪を100%防ぐことはできない。

We are living in a society where a broad array of personal data are exchanged daily in electronic form--the

convenience of information and telecommunications technology.
 利便性と引き換えに、さまざまな個人情報を電子化してやりとりすることが当たり前の社会に私たちは暮らしている。

A suspect has been arrested in the case of a huge leak of private information about children who are customers of

Benesse Holdings Inc., a major provider of correspondence education. Now, the focus of public attention is on the

details about how the information leaked from Benesse and what kind of measures should be taken to prevent such

leaks in the future.
 通信教育大手ベネッセホールディングスの子ども情報が大量に流出した事件は、容疑者が逮捕されて、流出の全容解明と今後の

対策に焦点が移った。

In particular, the scandal has cast the spotlight on various problems with the business of selling lists of names that

also contain personal information about individuals.
 とりわけ問題として浮上しているのが「名簿ビジネス」のあり方だ。

The personal data protection law regulates the sale and commercial use of such private customer data.
 名簿の流通を律する法律としては個人情報保護法がある。

But companies that own private data about their customers can sell the data if they meet the condition that

information about specific individuals should be deleted if the individuals have so requested.
だが、名簿を持つ企業は「当事者から求められたら削除する」という条件

を満たせば、転売できる。

So-called name list vendors, who buy such compilations of personal data from businesses and sell them to other

businesses, are likely to avoid facing any criminal charges related to leaks of the data they have sold by simply

claiming that they did not know the information had been illegally obtained.
その名簿を仕入れて別の企業に売る名簿業者も「不正に流出したものとは知らなかった」と説明すれば、司直

の手が入りにくいのが実情だ。

It is currently not known how many name list vendors exist in this country.
 そもそも、こうした名簿業者が何社あるのか、現時点ではわかっていない。

Some players in the industry operate their businesses on a large scale by using their own websites. Others work in

close cooperation with gangsters and other criminal organizations to buy and sell financial and other sensitive

information about individuals that has been illegally obtained.
業界内には、ホームページを設けて大規模に展開する企業

もあれば、暴力団などと一体化して不正入手した金融情報などを売買する業者もいるという。

The opaque nature of this business inevitably breeds anxiety among many Japanese who don’t know where their

personal data are being used and in what ways.
 こうした不透明さも、私たちの個人情報がどこでどう使われているのかわからないという不安の温床になっている。

There is no doubt that the government should take steps as soon as possible to gather accurate information about

the actual operations of name list vendors.
 政府は名簿業界の実態を把握する手立てをできるだけ早く講じるべきだ。

One idea that merits serious consideration is the introduction of a registration system for these personal data vendors.

A registration system based on clearly defined business standards would help screen out dubious players.
 そのためには、名簿業者を登録制にすることを考えたい。基準を定めて登録する仕組みがあれば、怪しげな業者を選別する一つの目

安にもなるだろう。

If voluntary efforts by the industry alone are not enough to deal with the problems that have come to the fore, the

government may need to consider assigning a specific ministry or agency to the task of regulating and policing the

industry while establishing a new law governing the business.
 業界の自主的な取り組みだけでは不十分なら、所管官庁を明確にして法律をつくることを視野に入れてもよい。

The law would be better equipped if it contains a provision that allows authorities to carry out on-the-spot

investigations when it is clear that a list has been illegally obtained or in cases where criminal activity is suspected.
名簿の入手が不正だったり、犯罪性が疑われたりする場合に、立ち入り調査できるようにしてはどうだろうか。

But tightening regulations alone will not solve all the problems with this business. In addition, the government should

refrain from any excessive intervention in private-sector businesses.
 もちろん、規制を強めれば解決するわけではない。民間のビジネスに政府が過度に干渉することも避けるべきだ。

It should be noted that behind the proliferation of these vendors is the trend toward increasingly strict protection of

personal information.
 そもそも名簿業者の隆盛は、個人情報保護が厳しくなったことと裏表の関係にある。

As long as there are needs for private data, it is likely that unlawful attempts to obtain such data will be made by

players operating outside the boundaries of the law.
ニーズがある限り、違法とされる行為が水面下にもぐり込んで続く危険も生じる。

It is also necessary to make fresh efforts to build broad public consensus on such issues as the scope of personal

information that can be shared among businesses and where the line should be drawn to protect privacy.
 個人情報は、どこまで共有できるか、どこからが守られるべきなのかという命題にも、改めて向き合う必要がある。

Obviously, companies that possess private data have the obligation to make constant and maximum efforts to protect

them. But the Benesse scandal clearly shows that such efforts are not enough to prevent leaks and other troubles.
 個人情報をもつ企業ができる限りの対策を不断に積み重ねることは当然としても、それだけでは問題を防げないことをベネッセの事件

は示している。

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 25

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うさぎシュークリームのお店銀座ニコラシャール、パティシエはフランス生まれなんです

今年の1月に東京銀座なんですが、銀座ショコラストリート という素敵な通りが開設されました。
私が現役時代に勤務していた京橋から徒歩で行けるくらいの便利な場所なんです。
この通りに、素敵なシュークリームのお店が開店しています。

うさぎシュークリームのお店「ニコラシャール」なんですが、パティシエがフランス生まれ、フランス育ちなんです。

パティシエのニコラシャールさんは素敵なフランス人なんですが、フランスでは比較的のどかな街として有名なリヨン生まれなんですって。
料理人としての技術はフランスと日本で学んだそうで、今回、銀座で自分のお店を開店した次第なんです。

このお店のうさぎシュークリームが一番人気となっています。
お耳がついていてとてもかわいいので、食べるのがもったいない気がいたします。
あなたも銀座にお出かけのついでに、お店を覗いてみませんか。







ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ レビューブログからの情報

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中国期限切れ肉 外資企業にも及んだ背信行為

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Expired meat scandal in China a betrayal of Japan’s safety efforts
中国期限切れ肉 外資企業にも及んだ背信行為

Yet again, a problem that greatly damages the trustworthiness of Chinese-made food products has been exposed. This is a matter of enormous concern.
 中国製食品の信頼性を著しく損なう事件が、またも起こった。ゆゆしき事態である。

Shanghai Husi Food Co., a Shanghai-based subsidiary of a major U.S. food processing company, was revealed to have shipped meat products that had passed their expiration dates.
 中国・上海にある米食品加工大手の子会社「上海福喜食品」が、品質保持期限を過ぎた肉製品を出荷していたことが発覚した。

As a result, McDonald’s Co. (Japan) and leading convenience store chain FamilyMart Co., both of which had imported chicken meat from Husi Food, have been forced to suspend sales of some of their products.
 この会社から鶏肉製品を輸入していた日本マクドナルドとファミリーマートが、一部商品の販売中止に追い込まれた。

Chinese police authorities have concluded that the selling of meat past its sell-by date was the result of illegal production led by Husi Food’s management. They detained five people, including the factory’s quality manager. The full scope of the situation must be elucidated promptly.
 中国当局は、上海福喜食品による組織的な違法生産と断定し、工場責任者ら5人を拘束した。実態解明を急いでもらいたい。

According to the Chinese TV reports that revealed the meat shipping irregularities, the Husi Food factory repackaged meat products that had been returned unsold by turning them into ground meat. The chicken meat, which investigators said required frozen storage, was handled in a warehouse at room temperature.
 問題を暴露した中国のテレビ報道によると、工場では、返品された商品をミンチにして再利用していた。冷凍保存が必要な鶏肉は、常温の倉庫に置かれていた。

Regarding the mixing of out-of-date meat into ordinary ground meat, one factory employee was quoted as making the remarkable assertion, “People won’t die from consuming expired foods.” That sentiment is emblematic of the many words and deeds pointing to the total moral failure at food-processing facilities, where the safety of consumers should have been the absolute top priority.
 従業員は、期限切れの肉を混ぜることについて、「食べても死なない」と言い放った。消費者の安全を最優先すべき食品製造現場のモラル崩壊を象徴する言動だ。

In a 2008 incident in China, baby formula was tainted with a toxic chemical, affecting the health of about 300,000 babies and toddlers. There has been a seemingly uninterrupted stream of food-related problems in China, including the revelation last year of the distribution of rice contaminated with cadmium.
 中国では2008年、粉ミルクに有害物質が混入し、乳幼児約30万人に健康被害が出た。昨年にはカドミウム汚染米の流通が発覚するなど、問題が後を絶たない。

The tendency to disregard consumers’ health and put profits ahead of all else is likely behind this succession of problems.
 金儲もうけを優先し、消費者の健康を軽視する風潮が背景にあるのは間違いあるまい。

Dependence on China foods

The Chinese public is extremely dissatisfied with this state of affairs, in which the need for safe food receives little scrutiny. The leadership of the Chinese Communist Party administration, eager to ensure the stability of society, may have found it necessary to hurriedly launch law enforcement investigations into the latest food scandal, aiming to demonstrate the government’s intent to clamp down rigorously on such wrongdoing.
 食の安全がおろそかにされている現状に対し、中国国民の不満は強い。社会の安定に腐心する共産党政権は、不正に厳しく対処する姿勢を示すため、素早く強制捜査に乗り出したのだろう。

What cannot be ignored in the Husi Food case is that the illegal production occurred at the factory of a foreign-capitalized company—one generally believed to operate in a relatively safe manner compared to Chinese-run firms.
 看過できないのは、比較的安全とされた外資企業で違法生産が行われていたことである。

A deliberate poisoning incident in 2008, in which an employee at a Chinese food firm laced frozen gyoza dumplings with pesticide, spurred food processing companies affiliated with Japanese food firms and trading houses to redouble their efforts to enforce strong quality control and ensure the maintenance of a high standard of food safety. In recent years, food imports to Japan from China have been steadily growing.
 従業員が殺虫剤を混入させた08年の中国製冷凍ギョーザ中毒事件を契機に、日系のメーカーや商社は品質管理に一層努め、安全水準を維持してきた。中国からの食品輸入額も回復しつつある。

This incident at Husi Food is an unmistakable betrayal of the work of many on the Japanese side and throws cold water on their food quality crusade.
 今回の事件は、日本側のこうした取り組みに冷や水を浴びせる背信行為と言わざるを得ない。

The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has ordered the suspension of food imports from Shanghai Husi Food. Over the past year, Japan’s chicken meat imports from the company totaled 6,000 tons. Thorough probes must be conducted to determine whether the firm had previously shipped expired meat, to help alleviate customers’ anxiety.
 厚生労働省は、上海福喜食品からの輸入を差し止めた。過去1年間に輸入された鶏肉製品は6000トンに上る。消費者の不安を軽減するため、期限切れのものがなかったか、徹底調査が必要だ。

The continued existence of Japan’s food industries relies on low-priced ingredients produced in China.
 日本の食産業は今や、中国産の安価な食材なしには成り立たない状況にある。

Companies importing Chinese goods must strengthen their inspection and supervision systems, working from the assumption that people should be deemed dishonest by nature when it comes to food processing in China. These companies may have to take such measures as arranging regular factory visits by officials from Japan for safety checks and installing security cameras in factories.
 輸入企業に求められるのは、中国側の生産工程では不正が起こり得るという性悪説に立った監督・検査体制の強化だ。防犯カメラの設置や、現地に出向いての定期的なチェックは欠かせまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 25, 2014)

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インドネシア 「庶民派」は成長維持できるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Will new Indonesian president Widodo be able to maintain economic growth?
インドネシア 「庶民派」は成長維持できるか

A leader with an unprecedented image as a common man has won the presidential election in Indonesia, a great regional power that plays a leading role in Southeast Asia.
 東南アジアで指導的役割を担う地域大国に、過去に例のない「庶民派」の指導者が誕生した。

Jakarta Gov. Joko Widodo defeated retired Gen. Prabowo Subianto by a small margin to win his first term. He will officially assume the post in October.
 インドネシア大統領選で、ジョコ・ウィドド・ジャカルタ特別州知事が、プラボウォ・スビアント元陸軍戦略予備軍司令官を小差で破り、初当選した。10月に正式に就任する。

Prabowo has said he will file a complaint regarding the election results, saying there was massive fraud during the poll. Both sides must work toward reconciliation to avoid turmoil among the people.
 プラボウォ氏は、選挙に不正があったとして、異議を申し立てる構えだ。混乱を招かぬよう、両陣営は融和に努めるべきである。

The election was held to elect the successor of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. After serving two terms of five years each, Yudhoyono will step down due to the constitutional provision that bans a third term in office. Attention was focused on the advisability of carrying on “elite politics,” in which the six presidents since the nation’s first, President Sukarno, have been people like military leaders or members of prominent political families.
 今回の選挙は、憲法の3選禁止規定の下、2期10年務めたユドヨノ大統領が退任することに伴うものだ。初代のスカルノ氏以来、6代の大統領を軍幹部や政治家一族などが占めてきた「エリート政治」の継承の可否が注目された。

Born into the family of a carpenter, Widodo extended his support base especially among the poor through repeated dialogue with residents and by calling for the eradication of corruption. As governor, Widodo displayed his leadership in promoting administrative reform while also using such populist policies as providing free medical and education services for low-income families.
 大工の家庭に生まれたジョコ氏は、住民との対話を重ねて、「汚職撲滅」を強調し、貧困層などに支持を広げた。州知事時代は、行政改革で指導力を発揮する反面、低所得者の医療・教育費の無償化など人気取り政策も目立った。

Prabowo is a typical member of the power elite. He was married to former President Suharto’s daughter and served as head of the country’s special military force.
 プラボウォ氏は、スハルト元大統領の元娘婿で、軍特殊部隊トップを務めた典型的なエリートだ。

He promoted himself as a “strong leader” and maintained support among highly educated voters and members of the business community.
「強い指導者」像を訴え、高学歴者層や財界に浸透していた。

Democracy taking root

Widodo’s victory gives the impression that Indonesia is steadily climbing the ladder of democracy after going through long years of autocracy.
 ジョコ氏の当選は、インドネシアが長年の独裁政治を経て、民主化の階段を着実に上がってきたことを印象づけた。

The biggest challenge for Widodo is whether he will be able to maintain national stability and growth amid signs of economic slowdown.
 ジョコ氏の最大の課題は、経済の減速傾向が見える中、国家の安定と成長を維持することだ。

To attain further economic growth, it is imperative to improve and expand the country’s poor social infrastructure, such as roads, ports and power plants. It is also indispensable to rectify the income gap that has been widening on the flip side of the rapid progress in recent years.
 更なる経済成長には、道路、港湾、発電所など貧弱な社会基盤の整備が急務である。近年の急速な発展の裏側で拡大してきた所得格差の是正も欠かせない。

How will fiscal resources be secured to carry out such policies?
 そうした政策に必要な財源をどう確保していくのか。

Widodo has expressed his intention to take over the Yudhoyono administration’s avowed policy of strengthening controls on exports of unprocessed resources such as nickel. Such an introverted economic policy is also a cause of concern.
 ジョコ氏は、ユドヨノ現政権が打ち出したニッケルなど未加工資源の輸出規制の強化を引き継ぐ姿勢を示している。こうした内向きな経済政策も懸念材料である。

To lure more investments from Japan and elsewhere and use them for economic growth, it would be unwise to resort to irresponsible protectionism.
 日本を含む外国資本の投資をさらに呼び込み、経済成長に活用するためには、安易な保護主義に走るのは禁物だろう。

Indonesia is the only major maritime power in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. It is also an important partner for Japan, as the two countries share fundamental values such as freedom of navigation and the rule of law.
 インドネシアは、東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)随一の海洋大国でもある。日本にとっては、「航行の自由」「法の支配」などの原則的な価値観を共有できる重要なパートナーだ。

Widodo’s diplomatic finesse is still unknown, but he has expressed his intention to attach importance to relations with Japan. Bolstering the bilateral strategic relationship would check China’s self-justified maritime advances and diplomacy vis-a-vis neighboring countries.
 ジョコ氏の外交手腕は未知数だが、日本との関係を重視する考えを表明している。両国の戦略的関係を強化することは、中国の独善的な海洋進出や近隣外交に対する牽制けんせい効果を持つだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 25, 2014)

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2014年7月25日 (金)

女性管理職比率 無理なく高める環境整備急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Create a work environment in which more women can become managers
女性管理職比率 無理なく高める環境整備急げ

Now that Japan is a society with a declining population, it is essential for more women to be appointed to positions of leadership so the nation can achieve sustainable economic growth and increase its international competitiveness.
 日本が人口減少社会を迎えた今、持続的な経済成長を実現し、国際競争力を高めるには、女性を指導的地位に登用することが欠かせない。

The Japan Business Federation (Keidanren) recently announced voluntary action plans by 47 of its major member companies to increase their number of female managers and board directors. Of them, 27 have set concrete numerical targets for promoting female workers to managerial posts. Three companies, including Shiseido Co., plan to have women filling 30 percent of these roles within two to seven years.
 経団連が、女性管理職を増やすための主要な会員企業47社の自主行動計画を公表した。このうち、27社が具体的な数値目標を掲げている。資生堂など3社は2~7年以内に女性管理職の割合を30%に引き上げるという。

Compared with firms in other developed nations, Japanese companies lag well behind when it comes to placing women in positions of responsibility. In the United States, 43 percent of managerial positions are held by women, while the figure in each nation in the European Union is 30 percent or higher. By contrast, Japan languishes at just 11 percent.
 日本企業は、他の先進国と比べて、女性が責任ある立場に就くことが遅れている。女性管理職の比率は、米国が43%で、欧州各国も軒並み30%以上なのに対し、日本は11%にとどまっている。

We think it is appropriate that Keidanren is calling on its member companies to give women more positions up the corporate ladder through policies like those espoused in the action plans.
 経団連が各企業に対し、行動計画の策定を通じて、女性の活用を呼びかけるのは妥当と言える。

Announcing the action plans could also be an opportunity to bring together talented human resources. Showing proactive efforts to promote women will appeal to female students hunting for jobs.
 行動計画の公表は、優秀な人材を集める機会にもなる。積極的な取り組みを示せば、就職活動中の女子学生にアピールしよう。

Some of the plans were vague on many details, with some not including numerical targets. We hope these companies will review their policies as needed and incorporate more specifics.
 今回の計画には、目標人数が示されないなど、あいまいなものもある。随時、見直して、より具体的な内容にしてもらいたい。

Of course, just setting targets for increasing the number of women in senior positions will not be enough. Preparing workplace environments that will enable the achievement of these targets will be vital.
 無論、単に女性管理職を増やす目標を掲げれば済む訳ではない。肝心なのは、それを実現するための職場環境を整えることだ。

Companies can do more

The Equal Employment Opportunity Law, which came into effect in 1986, has enabled women to choose major career tracks and seek promotions to managerial posts the same way as men. In 1992, the Child Care Leave Law took effect, which obligated companies to establish a maternity leave system for their employees. These and other steps have set up a legal framework that creates such workplace environments—to a point.
 1986年の男女雇用機会均等法の施行で、女性も、男性と同様に総合職を選択し、管理職を目指しやすくなった。92年には育児休業法が施行され、育児休業制度を企業に義務づけるなど、法制度の整備は一応、進んできた。

However, for women who get married and have children, the chronic shortage of day care centers and the lopsided burden of household chores and child care shouldered by women are obstacles to acquiring enough of the work experience necessary for handling managerial positions.
 だが、結婚・出産した女性にとっては、保育所の恒常的な不足に加え、家事や育児の負担が女性に偏っていることが、管理職になるために必要な職務経験を積む上での障害となっている。

In addition to rethinking the practice of demanding long working hours, Japan needs to expand and make more widespread child care leave for male workers. It also will be important to steadily craft systems that make it easier for women to return to the office after they temporarily leave to give birth and look after a child.
 長時間労働を求める慣行を見直すとともに、男性の育休制度を拡充・普及させる必要がある。出産や育児のために女性が一時的に職場を離れても、復帰しやすい制度作りを進めることも大切だ。

Sometimes workers are transferred to other areas. Some companies have introduced a system that enables women who are taking care of a child but want to continue working to be transferred to the same area should their spouses be relocated. Perhaps other businesses should consider adopting such a system.
 一部企業は、女性が子育てをしながら働き続けられるように、配偶者が転勤する際、同じ地域に異動できる制度を導入している。他の企業も参考にしてはどうか。

It also would be well worth considering setting up specialist training and education programs for women with the qualities to fill managerial positions.
 管理職の資質を有する女性を対象とした専門の研修・教育制度を設けることも検討に値しよう。

The administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has set a goal of raising the percentage of women filling leadership posts in all fields of society to 30 percent by the end of 2020.
 安倍政権は、社会のあらゆる分野において指導的地位に占める女性の割合を、20年には30%に引き上げることを目指している。

Achieving this goal will not be simple. But we hope that society as a whole will support the efforts being made by the public and private sectors.
 目標達成は簡単ではないが、官民を挙げた取り組みを社会全体で後押ししたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 24, 2014)

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陸自オスプレイ 南西諸島防衛を強化したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Defense of Nansei Islands should be reinforced with Osprey deployment in Saga
陸自オスプレイ 南西諸島防衛を強化したい

Creating an environment for the new aircraft to show its high transport capabilities during emergencies is important for purposes such as disaster response and urgent medical transportation, let alone the defense of remote islands.
 離島防衛はもとより、災害派遣や急患搬送などで、その高い輸送能力を発揮させる環境を整えることが肝要である。

The Defense Ministry has asked the Saga prefectural government to accept its plan to deploy at Saga Airport the MV-22 Osprey transport aircraft, which the Ground Self-Defense Force plans to introduce starting next fiscal year. The ministry plans to have all 17 Ospreys deployed at the airport from fiscal 2019.
 防衛省は、陸上自衛隊が2015年度から調達する新型輸送機「MV22オスプレイ」の佐賀空港への配備を佐賀県に打診した。19年度から全17機を佐賀空港に駐機したい考えだ。

To reinforce the defense of the Nansei Islands, including the Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea, the GSDF plans to establish by fiscal 2018 an amphibious mobile unit modeled after the U.S. Marine Corps. The task force will be mainly comprised of an infantry regiment stationed in Sasebo, Nagasaki Prefecture, and tasked exclusively with defending remote islands. The Osprey will be assigned to transport the unit’s personnel.
 尖閣諸島など南西諸島の防衛を強化するため、陸自は18年度までに、長崎県佐世保市に駐屯する離島防衛専門の普通科連隊を中心に、米海兵隊をモデルにした「水陸機動団」を新設する。オスプレイは、その隊員輸送を担う。

Saga Airport, which is under the administration of the Saga prefectural government, is located about 60 kilometers from Sasebo and is on the sea. The deployment of the Ospreys is reasonable in terms of allowing for a prompt response to a contingency in the Nansei Islands.
 佐賀県が管理する佐賀空港は、佐世保市から約60キロと近く、海に面している。南西諸島の有事などに迅速に対応するうえで、オスプレイ配備は理にかなっている。

The Osprey combines the vertical takeoff and landing capabilities of a helicopter and the high-speed flight of a fixed-wing aircraft. Compared to a U.S. Marine Corps CH-46 Sea Knight helicopter, the Osprey can fly about twice as fast and carry three times the load, boasting about four times the radius of action.
 オスプレイは、ヘリコプターの垂直離着陸機能と固定翼機の高速飛行の長所を兼ね備える。米海兵隊の輸送ヘリCH46と比べ、速度で約2倍、搭載量で約3倍、行動半径は約4倍の能力を持つ。

The aircraft, which can freely take off and land on a remote island with no runway, is expected to be highly effective in life-saving operations and transportation of supplies in the event of a disaster.
 滑走路のない離島でも自由に離着陸できるほか、災害時の人命救助や物資輸送などでの活躍が期待される。

After a powerful typhoon wreaked havoc on the Philippines last November, Ospreys were promptly deployed by U.S. forces for a rescue operation.
昨年11月のフィリピンの台風被害時も、米軍オスプレイがいち早く救援活動に当たった。

Unfair reputation for danger

There has been widespread misunderstanding that the Osprey is an extremely unsafe aircraft. Yet its actual rate of accidents is lower than the average for U.S. military aircraft as a whole. It can be said that the Osprey is safer than other aircraft.
 オスプレイは極めて危険であるかのような誤解が広がっている。しかし、実際の事故率は、米軍の全航空機の平均以下で、むしろ安全な輸送機と言える。

The Air Self-Defense Force’s Komaki Base, which uses a runway of Nagoya Airport, managed by the Aichi prefectural government, is an example of a civilian airport, under the administration of a local government, used jointly by the Self-Defense Forces. The ministry has earmarked in fiscal 2014 budget runway usage fees totaling about ¥940 million to be paid to the prefecture.
 自治体管理の空港を自衛隊が共用する例としては、愛知県営名古屋空港の滑走路を使う航空自衛隊小牧基地がある。防衛省は今年度予算に約9億4000万円の愛知県への使用料を計上している。

Saga Airport, which has not been used as originally expected, continues to struggle with expenditures about three times greater than its revenues. The shared use of the airport with the SDF, which will require coordination of opinions with such entities as local fisheries cooperatives, can be considered a realistic option.
 佐賀空港は当初の見通しほど利用されず、歳出が歳入の約3倍の状態が続く。自衛隊との共用化は、地元漁協などとの調整が必要だが、現実的な選択ではないか。

The central government must provide a thorough explanation of the Osprey’s safety to win understanding of the Saga prefectural government and other organizations concerned.
 政府は、佐賀県や関係団体にオスプレイの安全性などを丁寧に説明し、理解を得るべきだ。

The ministry has also told the Saga prefectural government that Saga Airport may temporarily host the U.S. Marine Corps’ Ospreys, currently deployed at Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture.
 防衛省は、沖縄県の米軍普天間飛行場のオスプレイが佐賀空港を暫定利用する可能性があることも佐賀県に伝えた。

The Japanese and U.S. governments plan to hold flight drills of the U.S. forces’ Ospreys at various locations in Japan, in a bid to reduce Okinawa Prefecture’s heavy burden of hosting U.S. bases.
 日米両政府は、沖縄県の過重な米軍基地負担を軽減するため、米軍オスプレイの飛行訓練を日本各地に分散移転する方針だ。

Having local governments on Honshu and elsewhere share the burden of hosting the bases with Okinawa is quite important for making the Japan-U.S. alliance a more sustainable one and for having local governments assume the costs of maintaining the peace and security of the nation more fairly. We believe the Saga prefectural government is fully aware of that significance.
 沖縄の負担を本土の自治体が分かち合うことは、日米同盟をより持続可能なものとし、平和と安全のコストをより公平に担ううえで極めて重要だ。佐賀県も、その意義を十分に分かっていよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 24, 2014)

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2014年7月24日 (木)

お友達の誕生日プレゼント は通販バースデープレスにお任せ

インターネットの仕組みが確立されたのは、米国で、今から20年くらい前のお話しでした。
この20年、インターネットビジネスの発達には目を見張ります。
ネットを利用した通販ビジネスは年々拡大の方向で、すでに年間数兆円規模のビジネスとして確率しています。

ところで、通販には様々分野のものが参入しています。
私のお気に入りは誕生日プレゼント などのプレゼントを通販してくれるサイトなんです。
お友達の誕生日プレゼント は通販バースデープレスにお任せというところでしょうか。

誕生日プレゼント に限らず、プレゼントをするときには大切なポイントがあります。
もらった相手の性格や趣味に考えを巡らせ、相手が心から喜べるような商品を選ぶべきなんです。
お値段が高額であるという事実よりも、心のこもったプレゼントが、相手の心を打つのですね。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

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今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

西広ショータさん書き下ろしの新曲「ねむるりすのうた」をCM楽曲に。休息サプリメント「ネムリス」の新CMを発表。 株式会社ヴィジョンステイト

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早大博士論文 杜撰な審査がまかり通るのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Unsound methods for thesis screening should shock the public
早大博士論文 杜撰な審査がまかり通るのか

It has come to light that not only was Haruko Obokata’s Waseda University doctoral thesis grossly flawed—the school’s screening process itself was defective.
 博士論文がお粗末なうえに、大学内の審査も杜(ず)撰(さん)だった。

The thesis, about pluripotent cells, was submitted to Waseda in 2011 by Obokata, who was then a student at the university and is currently a scientist at the government-backed research institute RIKEN. Waseda’s investigative panel has concluded that her paper included plagiarism and other forms of misconduct and deemed it “extremely unreliable.”
 理化学研究所の小保方晴子氏が早稲田大学に提出した万能細胞に関する博士論文について、早大の調査委員会は、盗用などの不正を認定し、「内容の信ぴょう性は著しく低い」と結論づけた。

The investigation committee also criticized Waseda’s method for reviewing Obokata’s thesis, saying the university’s instructions to Obokata on how to write it were extremely flawed, as was its screening of her paper.
 早大側の対応についても、論文の作成指導や審査体制に重大な不備があったと批判している。

However, in spite of these findings, the panel decided that the defects in Obokata’s thesis do not warrant the revocation of the doctorate granted to her. In offering this conclusion, the committee said that her paper’s faults did not constitute irregularities created by falsifying experimental results.
 ところが、調査委は「博士号の取り消しには該当しない」と判断した。実験結果を偽った不正ではないという理由からだ。

We find the panel’s decision unreasonable.
 解せない結論である。

Earlier, Obokata had defended herself, insisting the thesis was a rough draft that she inadvertently submitted to the university three years and six months ago. In May, she submitted to the panel a paper she claimed to be “a complete version.”
 小保方氏は、3年半前に下書き段階の「草稿」を誤って大学に出してしまったと弁明し、今年5月になって、「完成版」を調査委に改めて提出した。

We believe Obokata’s submission of the purported rough draft should not be dismissed as merely a careless error, given her pursuit of a career in science.
 草稿を出したこと自体、研究者を目指す者として、うっかりでは済まされない行為ではないか。

The complete version of the thesis was no less faulty. A significant part of the paper’s introduction, which emphasized the significance of her research, was a direct copy of text attributed to a U.S. research institution. There is every reason to question the originality of her paper.
 論文の完成版でさえ、研究の意義をアピールする序章の大半で、米国の研究機関の文章を丸写ししていた。論文の独創性が疑問視されても仕方がない。

Obokata’s professional shortcomings were also evident in her comments on her unauthorized use of images from other scientists’ works. She reportedly told the panel that she had “no awareness” as to whether doing so was inappropriate.
 他の著作物の画像流用についても、小保方氏は「何の問題意識も持っていなかった」と調査委に語ったという。

Shoddy supervision

A Waseda professor who served as an adviser for Obokata must be brought to task for failing to properly teach her the importance of research ethics and observing the basic rules for writing articles, though there is no need to speak of Obokata’s immaturity.
本人の未熟さは言うに及ばず、研究倫理や論文作成の基本をきちんと教えなかった指導教員の責任は重い。

Despite his position as the chief examiner of Obokata’s paper, the professor did not inspect her thesis. Questions must be raised about his failure to realize that her so-called draft thesis had been submitted to Waseda’s in-house board responsible for judging whether submitted papers should be given passing marks.
 指導教員は審査の責任者でありながら、博士論文を精査しなかった。論文の合否判定を担う学内の審査会に草稿が出ていることすら気づかなかったのは問題だ。

It also should not be overlooked that the board’s screening process has been reduced to a mere formality. Members of the board spent only several minutes reading each submitted thesis. It would be impossible for them to fully examine the substance of each paper.
 審査の形骸化も看過できない。審査会の委員が個々の論文を閲覧する時間は数分程度にすぎなかった。これでは、論文の中身をチェックするのは不可能だろう。

The ultimate authority to decide whether individual Waseda students should be awarded doctorates rests with the university’s president, Kaoru Kamata. After receiving a report from the investigation panel, he said, “I’ll carefully examine [the committee’s findings], and launch discussions within the university.”
 博士号を授与するかどうかの最終的な決定権は大学総長にある。調査委の報告を受け、鎌田薫・早大総長は「内容を吟味して、学内での検討に入る」と述べた。

If Waseda neglects to take appropriately stringent action in connection with the Obokata case, it could damage the international credibility of doctoral degrees awarded in Japan.
 早大が厳正な対処を怠れば、日本の博士号に対する国際的信用も揺るがしかねない。

Doubts have also arisen over articles written by other students from the Waseda postgraduate course to which Obokata belonged. The university must uncover the whole truth of the matter.
 小保方氏の所属した研究科では、他の学生の博士論文にも疑義が指摘されている。早大には徹底した実態解明が求められる。

The government has been implementing measures to greatly expand the number of people holding doctorates, with a view to improving our nation’s stature in science and technology. The number of people in Japan with doctorates has increased by 50 percent since the early 1990s.
 政府は、科学技術の向上を目指し、博士を大幅に増やす政策を進めてきた。博士号の取得者は1990年代初めに比べて、1・5倍に増えた。

Does the increase in quantity reflect the same quality of degree recipients? Other universities should also examine their systems for examining papers in the awarding of degrees.
 だが、質は伴っているのだろうか。他の大学も、学位授与の審査体制を点検すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 23, 2014)

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撃墜非難決議 国際調査にはまだ障害がある

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Despite UNSC resolution, investigation of MH17 downing still faces obstacles
撃墜非難決議 国際調査にはまだ障害がある

To ensure that the truth behind this tragic incident can be quickly determined, all parties involved in the conflict and other nations that have a stake in the matter, including Russia, should positively cooperate with an international investigation team.
 悲惨な事件の真相を早期に究明するため、ロシアなど関係国と紛争当事者は国際調査団に積極的に協力すべきだ。

The U.N. Security Council has unanimously adopted a resolution condemning the shooting down of a Malaysian Airlines passenger plane over eastern Ukraine last week.
 ウクライナ東部で発生したマレーシア航空旅客機の撃墜事件について、国連安全保障理事会が、強く非難する決議を全会一致で採択した。

The resolution called on all states to cooperate fully with efforts to ensure that those responsible for this incident will be held to account. It demanded that pro-Russian militant groups that control the area where the plane came down immediately provide international investigators “safe, secure, full and unrestricted access to the site” and “refrain from any actions that may compromise the integrity of the crash site.”
 決議は、事件の責任者を追及するよう国際社会に呼びかけた。現場を支配する親ロシア派武装集団に対しては、「調査団の安全、完全かつ無制限の立ち入り」と「現場の保存」を要求している。

In the days after the airliner was shot down, armed rebels brazenly interfered with investigators’ efforts to examine the crash site and removed bodies of the victims. Some of their actions appeared to constitute tampering with evidence, such as their quick retrieval of the black boxes that contain flight data and records of communications between the flight crew and others.
 武装集団は事件後、調査団の立ち入りや犠牲者の遺体の搬出を公然と妨害した。飛行データや通信内容を記録した「ブラックボックス」をいち早く現場から回収するなど、証拠隠滅と見られる動きもしてきた。

The Security Council’s adoption of a legally binding resolution demanding the correction of these actions is significant.
 国連安保理が、法的拘束力を持つ決議によって、その行動の是正を求めた意味は小さくない。

The militants accepted the resolution and have handed two black boxes to Malaysian authorities. They have also relented on their initial refusal to hand over the victims’ bodies. Although this has come far too late, they are steps in the right direction.
 武装集団は決議を受け、2個のブラックボックスをマレーシア当局に引き渡した。犠牲者の遺体搬出にも応じた。遅きに失した対応だが、一歩前進ではある。

Ukraine and the United States have criticized the Russian military’s involvement in this incident, including its provision of surface-to-air missiles to the pro-Russian militants. Their accusations are backed by evidence, including satellite images of the missile launch and intercepted conversations and communications between the militants after the plane was shot down.
 ウクライナや米国は、親露派に対する地対空ミサイル供与など、ロシア軍の事件への関与を非難してきた。ミサイル発射の衛星画像や、撃墜後の武装集団の会話傍受記録などを根拠としたものだ。

Onus on Moscow

As the main supporter of the rebels, Russia has an important role to play in the investigation.
 武装集団の後ろ盾であるロシアが果たすべき役割は大きい。

Moscow supported the resolution in an apparent bid to avoid becoming internationally isolated at a time when Britain, France and Germany are considering tightening sanctions on Russia as anti-Russia sentiment grows in Europe, where most of the passengers on Flight MH17 came from.
 ロシアが決議に賛成したのは、多くの犠牲者を出した欧州で反露感情が高まり、英独仏が対露制裁強化を検討する中で、国際的な孤立を回避する狙いからだろう。

However, there is no guarantee efforts to unravel the truth will progress smoothly. Russia continues to say one thing while it does another.
 しかし、真相究明が円滑に進む保証はない。ロシアが言行不一致を続けているためだ。

Although Moscow has indicated its willingness to cooperate with the investigation, it still denies involvement in the incident. It has lambasted Ukraine for permitting civilian aircraft to fly through airspace over a conflict zone as “criminal,” and also has been trying to shift the blame for the downing of the Malaysia Airlines plane.
 ロシアは、調査に協力する姿勢を示しながら、事件への関与を否定している。ウクライナが戦闘地域上空での民間機航行を認めていたことを「犯罪的だ」などと批判し、責任転嫁も図っている。

We think Russian President Vladimir Putin has a responsibility to exercise the influence he wields over the armed groups and supply whatever information he possesses to ensure the international investigation team can get to the bottom of what really happened.
 プーチン露大統領には、国際調査団による真相究明が前進するよう、自らが保有する情報を提供するとともに、武装集団への影響力を行使する責任がある。

The investigation will clarify whether the claims made by Washington and Moscow have reason on their side. The International Civil Aviation Organization and nations caught up in this incident must ensure that a fair, transparent investigation can be conducted.
 米露どちらの主張に理があるかは、調査が明らかにするだろう。関係国や国際民間航空機関(ICAO)は、公平かつ透明な形で調査を進めなければならない。

The Security Council resolution also demanded that all military activities immediately cease in the area surrounding the crash site. Using this opportunity, the Ukrainian military and the pro-Russian armed groups should refrain from hostilities and work toward an immediate ceasefire.
 安保理決議は、現場周辺での軍事活動の停止も訴えた。これを機に、ウクライナ軍と親露派武装集団は戦闘行動を自制し、早期停戦に動くことが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 23, 2014)

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2014年7月23日 (水)

BRICS開銀 欧米主導への対抗軸となるか

note:
Q:
What are the Bretton Woods Institutions?
A:
The Bretton Woods Institutions are the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). They were set up at a meeting of 43 countries in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, USA in July 1944.
(srachai)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can BRICS bank be counterweight to current intl financial order?
BRICS開銀 欧米主導への対抗軸となるか

A recent announcement by the BRICS countries, which have grown in economic stature, can be considered a demonstration of a stance that rivals the international financial order led by the United States and European countries.
 経済力を増した新興国が、欧米主導の国際金融秩序に対抗姿勢を示したと言えよう。

The BRICS emerging economies—Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa—decided at a recent group summit to create a new development bank.
 ブラジル、ロシア、インド、中国、南アフリカの新興5か国(BRICS)首脳会議は、「新開発銀行」を創設することを決定した。

The new bank is intended to fund infrastructure projects in emerging economies and developing countries, with each of the five countries contributing $10 billion. The bank will be headquartered in Shanghai, and its first president will be from India.
 新興国や途上国による社会基盤(インフラ)整備などを支援するのが目的で、5か国が100億ドルずつ出資する。中国の上海に本部を置き、初代総裁はインドの出身者が務めることになった。

In addition to the planned development bank, the BRICS countries have also agreed to create a joint foreign reserve fund of $100 billion. The fund will assist these countries, by providing a well of foreign currency at the time of a future financial crisis.
 新開銀とは別に、金融危機の際に外貨融通などの支援を行えるようにするため、1000億ドルを共同で積み立てる外貨準備基金を設けることでも合意した。

With their growing presence, the attempt by these economies to take on important roles in assisting developing countries and maintaining the international financial order warrants recognition.
 存在感を増す新興国が、途上国支援や国際金融秩序の維持に一定の役割を果たそうとしていることは評価できる。

Behind the creation of the new development bank lies a strong sense of discontent among emerging and developing countries over the current U.S.- and Europe-led international financial order.
 新開銀設立の背景には、欧米の主導する現在の国際金融秩序に、新興・途上国が強い不満を持っているという事情がある。

The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have long contributed to the world’s economic system, such as by assisting developing countries and working to check financial crises.
 国際通貨基金(IMF)や世界銀行は長年、途上国の支援や危機回避に貢献してきた。

Yet in crucial times, such as Asia’s currency crisis in the 1990s, the two institutions imposed fiscal austerity and other strict conditions on developing countries, which led these countries to feel strongly dissatisfied over the institutions’ lack of consideration for their particular circumstances.
 しかし、1990年代のアジア通貨危機などの際に緊縮財政など厳しい条件を課したことから、途上国では各国の事情への配慮が足りないとする批判が根強い。

Lack of weight

The BRICS powers have grown to account for about 20 percent of the global economy, and for around 40 percent of the world’s population. Yet their combined contributions to the IMF, which reflect the force of their voices in the institution, constitute only 11 percent of the IMF’s total funding. The BRICS have also expressed opposition to the lack of weight they carry in the IMF.
 BRICSは経済規模で世界の約2割、人口で約4割を占めるまでに成長したが、IMFでの発言力を示す出資比率は、BRICS全体で11%にとどまる。これにも新興国は反発している。

The IMF has compiled a reform plan to raise the contribution ratio of the BRICS to 14 percent, but, due to opposition from the United States and other countries, this plan has yet to be realized.
 IMFは比率を14%に引き上げる改革案をまとめたが、米国などの反対で実現していない。

It is necessary to promote IMF reform from the viewpoint of allowing the emerging economies to assume responsibility proportional to their economic might.
 新興国に応分の責任を果たしてもらうためにも、IMF改革を進展させる必要がある。

It remains to be seen whether these two new multilateral institutions can function as the Bretton Woods institutions have been doing.
 ただ、新開銀などがIMF体制のような機能を発揮できるかどうかは未知数だ。

The BRICS countries have not specified when these institutions will be established, and uncertainty remains over the concrete frameworks through which they will extend financial assistance.
 設立時期さえ明示されず、金融支援などの具体的な枠組みも、あいまいである。

It would be troublesome if the new development bank were to attach importance solely to expanding the natural resource interests or corporate profits of contributing countries, and to extend financial assistance without careful consideration.
 新開銀が出資国の資源権益や企業利益の拡大ばかり重視し、安易に支援するようでは困る。

There is also a likelihood that lax screening on loans and investments by the bank could lead to a massive increase of irrecoverable loans and investments, which would upset the international financial system.
甘い審査が原因で巨額の投融資が焦げ付き、国際金融システムを混乱させることにもなりかねない。

No assistance should be extended to countries beset with records of suppressing human rights and overdevelopment of natural resources. Highly transparent management is a must for the new bank.
 人権弾圧や乱開発など問題の多い国への援助も避けるべきだ。透明性の高い運営が求められる。

The BRICS countries are by no means a monolithic group.
The territory dispute between China and India is just one example of their differences.
 中国とインドが領土問題を抱えるなど、BRICS諸国は一枚岩ではない。

It is also questionable whether the members can deal with financial crises and other problems through close cooperation.
金融危機などの緊急事態に、緊密に連携して対処できるかどうかも疑問である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 22, 2014)

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白ナンバー輸送 過疎地の足を確実に維持せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Utmost efforts a must to secure transport in underpopulated areas
白ナンバー輸送 過疎地の足を確実に維持せよ

Decentralization of administrative power must be promoted to help secure and maintain transportation essential for local communities.
 地方分権を進め、地域にとって大切な交通手段を確保・維持したい。

Starting next April, the Infrastructure, Land, Transport and Tourism Ministry will transfer to municipalities clerical work on registration, guidance and supervision in connection with a system under which automobiles registered as private vehicles would be allowed to transport fare-paying passengers in underpopulated areas. This type of transportation would be provided depending on regional conditions.
 国土交通省は来年4月に、過疎地などで自家用の白ナンバー車で料金を取って客を運送する制度の登録・指導・監督事務を自治体に移譲する。地域の実情に応じた運行を可能にするのが狙いだ。

The planned transfer of clerical work is in line with the fourth package of laws on decentralization of administrative power that was enacted in May. The ministry will hold explanatory meetings for municipalities this summer.
 5月に成立した第4次地方分権一括法に基づくもので、今夏から自治体向けの説明会を開く。

The system to permit the transportation of fare-paying passengers by private vehicles was introduced in line with the revised Road Transportation Law, which was enforced in 2006. The system calls for municipalities and nonprofit organizations to engage in the transportation business in sparsely populated communities where there are no bus and taxi services, and to transport wheelchair users and other disabled persons in areas without adequate transport service.
 この自家用有償旅客運送制度は2006年の改正道路運送法で導入された。民間のバス・タクシー事業のない過疎地の輸送や、福祉タクシーがない地域での車いすの身体障害者などの輸送を自治体や非営利組織(NPO)が担う。

About 3,000 organizations have registered with the system, about 80 percent of them welfare-related. About 19,000 vehicles have been registered. Users of the system made about 26.84 million trips in fiscal 2011.
 登録団体は約3000団体で、うち福祉関係が約8割を占める。登録車両は約1万9000台だ。11年度の輸送人員は推計約2684万人に上っている。

It is indispensable for the elderly and nondrivers to secure transportation to go shopping and visit hospitals. Municipalities are required to maintain so-called community transportation means, while making up any deficits and relying on the help of nonprofit organizations.
 車の運転ができない高齢者などにとって、買い物や通院の交通手段の確保は不可欠だ。自治体が赤字を負担し、NPOのボランティアに頼りながらも、「地域の足」は維持する必要がある。

Transfer of clerical work on registration and other functions would not be carried out uniformly across the country, as it would only be possible for municipalities that apply.
 登録事務などは、全国一律でなく、希望する市町村だけに移譲される。

For villages, towns or cities that do not apply, clerical work will be transferred to the relevant prefecture if it applies. 市町村が希望しない場合は、希望する都道府県に移す。

This “voluntary participation formula” is a new method of administrative decentralization adopted for the first time in the latest package of laws promoting decentralization.
「手挙げ方式」と呼ばれ、分権一括法でも唯一の新たな分権の手法だ。

Increased responsibility

The municipalities to which clerical work is transferred would not be required to deal with regional offices of the transport ministry, making it possible for them to respond swiftly to regional needs.
 事務を移譲された自治体は、国交省の出先機関との調整が不要となり、地域のニーズに応じた迅速な対応が可能になる。

This would also leave room for municipalities to promote original and innovative projects, such as providing microbus services linked to town planning.
町づくりと連動した小型バスの運行など、創意工夫の余地も生まれよう。

By taking over clerical work on guidance and supervision to ensure safety, municipalities would have to accept responsibility when accidents occur. Therefore, the motivation and determination of municipalities would be tested. The system could become a model for the transfer to local governments of clerical work and administrative power on other matters.
 反面、安全確保のための指導・監督事務を引き受けることで、事故の発生時などの責任も負う。各自治体のやる気と覚悟が問われる仕組みだ。今後、他の事務・権限の地方移譲のモデルとなろう。

In a survey of local governments conducted by the transport ministry in autumn last year, a paltry 6 percent of respondents expressed a desire for such a transfer. The percentage did not exceed 17 percent even when government assistance and other conditions were attached. A 51 percent majority “do not wish for a transfer,” while another 43 percent said they “don’t know.”
 国交省の昨秋のアンケート調査では、移譲を希望する市区町村は6%で、政府の支援など条件付きの希望を加えても17%にとどまった。「希望しない」は51%で、「分からない」も43%と多かった。

The survey results indicate that municipalities are extremely worried about how much their clerical work would increase after such a transfer and what they would actually have to do.
 事務量の増加や、事務の実態が不明なことに対する自治体の不安が少なくないと見られる。

To promote the transfer to local governments, it is imperative for the transport ministry’s regional offices to instruct municipalities on how to carry out the clerical work on guidance and supervision and support their personnel training programs.
 地方移譲を円滑に進めるには、国交省の出先機関が指導・監督事務のノウハウを各自治体に伝授するとともに、人材育成面などで支援することが欠かせない。

Prefectural governments also must play major roles in this regard. In addition to undertaking clerical work on behalf of small municipalities, they will have to provide indirect support for establishing community-wide transportation networks.
 都道府県の役割も大きい。小規模の市町村に代わって事務を引き受けるのはもとより、地域の交通ネットワーク作りを側面支援することが求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 22, 2014)

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2014年7月22日 (火)

エネルギー高騰 価格交渉力の強化も急ぎたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Urgent measures needed to counter adverse effects of high energy prices
エネルギー高騰 価格交渉力の強化も急ぎたい

With the prices of crude oil and other energy resources hovering at high levels, it is feared that their soaring costs will have an adverse effect on the nation’s economy.
 原油などの資源価格が高止まりし、景気への悪影響が懸念される。

If a surge in energy costs depresses corporate profits and scuttles efforts by companies to make capital investments and offer wage hikes, it will be difficult for the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to achieve its goal of putting the Japanese economy onto a virtuous economic cycle.
 エネルギーコストの上昇が企業収益を圧迫し、設備投資や賃上げの足を引っ張る事態となれば、安倍政権の目指す「好循環経済」の実現は難しくなろう。

The government, therefore, must do its utmost to secure a stable supply of energy and stop energy prices from soaring further.
 政府はエネルギー安定供給の確保と、価格高騰の抑止に全力を挙げなければならない。

Due to the deterioration of the situation in the Middle East, crude oil has been trading at around $100 per barrel, more than double the lowest figure posted after the collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008.
 原油価格は中東情勢の悪化を受け、リーマン・ショック後の底値より2倍以上高い、1バレル=100ドル前後で推移している。

Rising crude oil prices have pushed the nation’s average regular gasoline price upward for 12 consecutive weeks and they are now edging closer to a high of ¥170 per liter. Coupled with the April consumption tax hike, higher gasoline prices have surely dealt a heavy blow to household finances.
 原油高を背景に、全国のレギュラーガソリンの平均価格は12週連続で上昇し、1リットル=170円目前の高値となった。消費税率引き上げも重なり、家計にとっては、かなりの痛手だろう。

Accordingly, the prices of light and heavy oils have surged, raising costs for various sectors including the transportation and fisheries industries—both of which use a large volume of fuel—and the laundry industry, which uses organic solvents made from crude oil.
 軽油や重油などの価格も上がり、燃料使用量の多い運送や漁業、有機溶剤を使うクリーニングなど幅広い分野の業種にコスト増が重くのしかかっている。

There have been significant ramifications from the steep increases in the volume of liquefied natural gas imported as fuel for thermal power plants substituting for the idled nuclear power plants. The additional fuel cost for thermal power generation is tagged at ¥3.6 trillion a year, draining a huge amount of national wealth out of Japan.
 運転を停止している原子力発電所を代替するため、火力発電所の燃料である液化天然ガス(LNG)などの輸入が増えた影響も大きい。火力発電の追加燃料費は年3・6兆円に上り、巨額の国富が流出している。

Compared with pre-disaster levels, when nuclear reactors were in operation, electricity charges for households have increased 20 percent, while those for businesses have risen 30 percent. If the situation remains unchanged, further hikes will be unavoidable. A possible acceleration of the hollowing-out of industry is worrisome as more companies could opt to move their production bases abroad due to high utility costs.
 原発停止前に比べ、電気料金は家庭用が2割、産業用は3割上昇し、このままではさらなる値上げも避けられない。企業が生産拠点を海外に移転する産業空洞化の加速も心配だ。

Nuclear energy vital

Kyushu Electric Power Co.’s Sendai nuclear power plant, which has been deemed to have met new safety standards, should resume operations as soon as possible, while the Nuclear Regulation Authority should smoothly conduct safety screenings of other nuclear power plants so that they can be steadily restarted.
 安全審査に「合格」した九州電力川内原発の再稼働を急ぐとともに、他原発も円滑に審査を進め、着実に再稼働させるべきだ。

Simultaneously, Japan should make efforts to lower the prices of fuel it procures from abroad.
 同時に、燃料の調達価格を下げる努力が求められる。

The prices of LNG that Japan imports from the Middle East and Russia are pegged to the price of crude oil, making them about four times higher than that from the United States, where exploration costs have plunged thanks to the so-called shale gas revolution.
 日本が中東やロシアから輸入しているLNGの価格は、高止まりしている原油に連動して決まる仕組みで、シェールガス革命で採掘コストの下がった米国産LNGの約4倍という高値だ。

The government and the private sector alike must strongly call on LNG-producing countries to change the way gas prices are set.
 ガス価格の決定方法を改めるよう、官民を挙げて産出国に強く働きかける必要がある。

Major electric power and gas companies are jointly purchasing LNG in a bid to leverage their negotiating power. It is hoped that such a move will spread beyond such firms.
 大手電力やガス会社がLNGを共同購入し、価格交渉力を高める取り組みも始まった。こうした動きの広がりに期待したい。

The nation’s self-sufficiency rate in the area of energy, including nuclear energy, has dropped from about 20 percent before the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake to about 6 percent, a level lower than that during the first oil shock in the 1970s. From the viewpoint of energy security, the nation is undeniably in a dangerous situation.
 原子力を含む日本のエネルギー自給率は、震災前の約20%から約6%に低下し、1970年代の第1次石油ショック時を下回った。エネルギー安全保障の観点から危機的な状況と言える。

It is also urgent to diversify the countries from which the nation procures energy resources by linking up private businesses and the government’s energy diplomacy.
 民間ビジネスと政府の資源外交とを連動させ、調達先を多様化することも急務である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 21, 2014)

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大陸棚延長 戦略的に海洋資源を開発せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Tap Japan’s extended continental shelf for strategic development of resources
大陸棚延長 戦略的に海洋資源を開発せよ

A move has been taken that is highly important for further consolidating Japan’s status as a maritime nation.
 海洋立国としての立場を一段と強固にするうえで、重要な前進だ。

The government has decided to lay down an ordinance to designate two sea areas, including the area north of the island of Okinotorishima, which constitutes the southern extremity of the country, as part of the nation’s continental shelf. The ordinance will cover further two areas, such as that in the vicinity of the Ogasawara Islands, after consulting with the United States on the matter.
 政府は、日本最南端・沖ノ鳥島の北方など2か所の海域を、日本の大陸棚として政令で定めることを決めた。小笠原諸島周辺など2か所も米国と調整したうえで、政令に規定する予定だ。

The U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea stipulates that each coastal state has sovereign rights over an area 200 nautical miles from the coastline as its continental shelf for exploring and developing resources, such as those on the seabed, and for other purposes. It is possible for a state under the convention to expand the limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles if and when it can prove that the extended continental shelf can be construed as having formed naturally.
 国連海洋法条約は、沿岸から200カイリまでを大陸棚とし、海底の資源開発などに関する沿岸国の主権的な権利を認めている。自然な地続きであると証明できれば、200カイリを超えて延長できる。

The government’s plans for designating the continental shelf this time are in the wake of the acknowledgement in April 2012 by the U.N. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) that the expansion of the limits of the nation’s continental shelf should be recognized as valid.
 政府が今回制定する大陸棚は、一昨年4月に国連の大陸棚限界委員会から延長を認められた。

The total area to be covered by the expansion of the nation’s continental shelf will stand at an estimated 310,000 square kilometers, equivalent to about 80 percent of the nation’s entire land area. It is said precious resources exist on the continental shelf including methane hydrate, which contains natural gas. The expansion of the oceanic interests of Japan, a country poor in natural resources, is definitely of high significance.
 総面積は計31万平方キロ・メートルに及び、日本の国土の約8割にも相当する。大陸棚には、天然ガスを含有するメタンハイドレートなどの貴重な資源が存在するとされる。資源の乏しい日本が、海洋権益を広げる意義は大きい。

Commenting on the continental shelf expansion, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has stressed, “It is possible that the resources from the expanded sea areas will have a great impact on the future of Japan.” It is also important from the viewpoint of ensuring this country’s energy security.
 安倍首相は「広い海からもたらされる資源は、日本の未来を切り開く可能性を秘めている」と強調している。エネルギー安全保障の観点でも重要である。

Objections from China, ROK

Resource developmental projects on the seabed, however, are extremely expensive and many technological challenges exist. Long-term plans should be formulated at the initiative of the government.
 ただ、海底での資源開発は、巨額の費用を要し、技術的な課題も多い。政府主導による長期的な取り組みが必要である。

The CLCS, meanwhile, has been postponing judgment of Japan’s application seeking the U.N. body’s acknowledgement of the nation’s expansion of the continental shelf of the Southern Kyushu-Palau Ridge Region located to the south of Okinotorishima. This is because China and South Korea have opposed Japan’s submission of the application, claiming that Okinotorishima should not be deemed an island but “rocks,” meaning that it should not be considered a base point for determining the limits of Japan’s continental shelf.
 一方、大陸棚限界委員会は、沖ノ鳥島の南方にある「九州パラオ海嶺南部海域」の大陸棚延長申請について結論を先送りしている。中国と韓国が「沖ノ鳥島は『島』でなく『岩』で、大陸棚の基点にならない」と反対したためだ。

Under the circumstances, the government should appeal to the international community to support the legitimacy of Japan’s assertion about the continental shelf expansion.
 政府は国際社会に、日本の主張の正当性を訴えていくべきだ。

Around Okinotorishima is a vast exclusive economic zone, providing Japan with a wealth of marine products and seabed resources. The government should forge ahead with the task of preserving the island by pushing ahead with such projects as port and harbor construction.
 沖ノ鳥島の周囲には、広大な排他的経済水域(EEZ)が広がり、水産・海底資源を日本にもたらしている。政府は、港湾施設の整備などを進め、島を確実に保全することが肝要である。

China’s heavy-handed maritime advances are not limited to the East China and South China seas, but have been spreading to the western Pacific region. It has been pointed out that there is a possibility Beijing, on the strength of extending support for construction projects of ports and harbors to island states in the region, might build naval bases there in the future. Through these moves, China most likely has taken into account the U.S. military base on Guam.
 中国の強引な海洋進出は、東・南シナ海にとどまらず、西太平洋に及ぶ。島嶼(とうしょ)国の港湾整備を支援し、将来、中国海軍の拠点とする可能性も指摘される。グアムの米軍基地をにらんだ動きである。

Beefing up Japan’s efforts to ensure adequate oceanic administration in the seas in the environs of Okinotorishima, as well as such islands as Minami-Torishima and the Ogasawara Islands, will certainly have strategic significance on holding China’s moves in check.
 日本が沖ノ鳥島や南鳥島、小笠原諸島の周辺海域で適切な海洋管理に努めることが、中国に対する戦略的なけん制効果を持とう。

In April last year, the government laid down the Basic Plan on Ocean Policy that is intended to serve as the basis of maritime measures for a period of five years. The plan sets key policy goals, including development of maritime resources, preservation and administration of remote islands, and technological development projects for oceanic, renewable energy sources.
 政府は昨年4月、5年間の海洋政策の基本方針となる「海洋基本計画」を定めた。海洋資源開発や離島の保全・管理、海洋での再生可能エネルギーの技術開発などを重点的に推進する内容だ。

By working closely with the private sector, the government should address these objectives from a broad range of perspectives.
 民間とも緊密に連携し、多角的に取り組むべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 21, 2014)

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2014年7月21日 (月)

トラック新免許 事故防止策の徹底を最優先に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Easing of truck driving licensing must come with accident prevention steps
トラック新免許 事故防止策の徹底を最優先に

Can the easing of requirements for driver licenses for small trucks effectively alleviate the shortage of drivers?
 小型トラック免許の取得条件の緩和が、ドライバー不足を補う有効打となるか。

Expectations are high in the trucking industry for the planned new licensing system, but what is most important is to thoroughly ensure measures to prevent accidents.
 運送業界の期待は大きいが、重要なのは、事故防止策の徹底である。

A panel of experts of the National Police Agency has proposed the introduction of a new licensing category for small trucks. The agency is set to submit a bill to an ordinary Diet session next year for revising the Road Traffic Law to introduce the new system.
 警察庁の有識者会議が、小型トラックの新たな免許区分の導入を提言した。警察庁は、来年の通常国会に道路交通法改正案を提出する方針だ。

The current licensing system has three classes: ordinary, for vehicles whose gross vehicle weight (GVW), or the total weight of the vehicle including its cargo, is less than five tons; midsize, for those with a GVW with five tons or more but less than 11 tons; and heavy duty, with a GVW of 11 tons or more.
 運転免許は現在、車の総重量別に、5トン未満の普通、5トン以上11トン未満の中型、11トン以上の大型の3種類に区分されている。

The pillar of the proposals by the NPA panel is to change the number of classes to four, creating a new class between the ordinary and midsize classes that would cover trucks with gross weights of 3.5 tons or more but less than 7.5 tons.
これを4種類に変え、普通と中型の間に3・5トン以上7・5トン未満の新区分を設けるのが、提言の柱だ。

The current midsize truck driver licenses are limited to those aged 20 or older with at least two years of driving experience under an ordinary license. The envisioned new licensing category, by contrast, would make it possible for people aged 18 or older with an ordinary license to obtain the new license with no conditions attached.
 現在の中型免許には「20歳以上、普通免許取得から2年以上」という取得条件がある。これに対し、新区分の免許は、18歳から取得可能で、普通免許を取ってからの経験年数も問われない。

The main factor behind the review of the licensing system is that the GVW of small trucks, such as those used for delivery to residences and convenience stores, have become heavier than before. The rise in the number of trucks equipped with devices such as refrigeration systems and tailgate loaders means more trucks weigh more than five tons.
 見直しのきっかけは、宅配便やコンビニの商品配送で利用されている小型トラックの総重量が、全体的に重くなったことだ。保冷設備や昇降機などを備えた結果、5トンを超える車両が増えた。

Longer braking time

Given that trucks weighing five tons or more require midsize licenses, the number of drivers eligible for such vehicles has been limited under the current system. It is understandable to some degree that the NPA has considered it necessary to revise the licensing system flexibly and ease requirements for driver licenses in a way well suited to changes in the designs of trucks.
 5トン以上になると、中型免許が必要なため、ドライバーの数は限られる。使われる車両の変化に応じて、制度を柔軟に見直し、免許を取得しやすくしようという狙いには、うなずける面もある。

Trucking companies afflicted with driver shortages increasingly complain that, despite desiring to hire new high school graduates, they have to abandon their employment plans as the new graduates would not be of age to acquire the licenses for midsize trucks.
 ドライバー不足に悩む運送業界では、「高校の新卒者を採用したくても、すぐには中型免許を取れないため、見合わさざるを得ない」との声が高まっていた。

If the new licensing category is introduced as proposed, 18-year-olds would become eligible to drive small trucks with a GVW of five tons or more, bringing more personnel into the industry. The proposed law revision strongly reflects the wishes of the trucking industry.
 新区分が導入されれば、18歳の若者も即戦力として、5トン以上の小型トラックのハンドルを握れるようになる。業界の要望を色濃く反映した制度改正である。

What is worrisome in this connection is the fear of an increase in the number of accidents with an increase of young drivers lacking experience.
 懸念されるのは、経験の浅いドライバーによる事故の増加だ。

The heavier a vehicle becomes, the longer the distance needed for the vehicle to come to a halt after applying the brakes. A truck driver is also subjected to more blind spots than a passenger-car driver and is required to have higher skills when backing up and changing directions. Data indicate that fatal road accidents involving small trucks far outnumber those involving passenger cars.
 車両が重くなれば、ブレーキを踏んでから停止するまでの距離が長くなる。死角が多く、バックや方向転換には、乗用車以上の技能が求められる。小型トラックの死亡事故率は、乗用車に比べて大幅に高いというデータもある。

It should never be forgotten that what triggered the 2007 introduction of the current midsize truck driver licensing system was a rise in the number of accidents caused by inexperienced drivers.
 今の中型免許が2007年に導入されたのは、未熟な運転手による事故の多発がきっかけになったことを忘れてはならない。

Drivers obtaining the licenses under the planned new category should, like those with midsize and heavy-duty truck licenses, be statutorily obliged to undergo training courses with the actual, relevant trucks to ensure a sufficient level of driving skills. Driving schools must assume heavy responsibility in this regard.
 中型、大型と同様、新区分でも実際のトラックを使った教習を必修として、ドライバーの技能を確保すべきだ。自動車教習所に課せられる責任は重い。

Trucking firms should also be called upon to redouble their efforts to prevent accidents through such means as strengthening the in-house training of drivers.
 運送業者も、運転手に対する研修の強化など、事故防止に一層、力を入れる必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 20, 2014)

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南シナ海情勢 掘削を中止させた対中包囲網

The Yomiuri Shimbun
International pressure forced China to stop oil drilling in South China Sea
南シナ海情勢 掘削を中止させた対中包囲網

In the face of fierce criticism from the international community, China perhaps had no choice but to suspend its attempt to “change the status quo by force” when it ended its operations to drill for oil near the Paracel Islands in the South China Sea.
 強い国際的な批判を受けて、「力による現状変更」を中断せざるを得なかったのだろう。
 中国が、南シナ海・パラセル(西沙)諸島付近での石油掘削作業を終了した。

The operations were originally scheduled to continue through mid-August but ended earlier because “work proceeded smoothly,” according to China’s explanation. Undoubtedly, however, China bowed to the international pressures and curtailed the operations.
 作業は当初、8月中旬までとされていた。中国は「作業が順調に終わった」と説明するが、実際は、対中包囲網が作業短縮の要因だったのは間違いあるまい。

In early May, China unilaterally started drilling for oil in a sea zone also claimed by Vietnam, which strongly urged it to halt its operations. Chinese and Vietnamese vessels rammed into one another repeatedly, sinking a Vietnamese boat in one instance and escalating the tension to a dangerous level.
 中国がベトナムとの係争海域で一方的に掘削を始めたのは5月初旬だ。ベトナムは強く中止を求めた。中越双方の船が衝突を繰り返し、ベトナム船が沈没するなど、一時は危険な状態に陥った。

Large-scale anti-China demonstrations erupted in Vietnam one after another, while its government waged an international campaign denouncing China for its unjustness. Perhaps China had not expected that Vietnam—increasingly becoming economically dependent on China—would put up such fierce resistance.
 ベトナムは、中国の不当性を国際社会に訴え、大規模な反中デモも続発した。中国は、経済面で対中依存を強めるベトナムの抵抗が、これほど激しいとは予測していなかったのではないか。

Exposing a greater miscalculation by China was the fact that Japan, the United States and members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations swiftly rallied behind Vietnam to strengthen their cooperation to counter China.
 更に大きな誤算は、日米両国や、東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)などによる対中連携が一気に強まったことだろう。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe criticized China for its self-righteousness at international conferences and on other occasions by repeatedly underscoring the importance of the rule of law in light of China’s territorial claims, which have no grounds in international law. His assertions were widely accepted in the international community.
 安倍首相は国際会議などで、中国の独善的な行動を批判した。領有権を巡る中国の主張に国際法上の根拠がないことを念頭に、「法の支配」の重要性を繰り返し強調し、幅広い賛同を得た。

Stronger Japan-U.S. ties backed

Strengthening the Japan-U.S. alliance through the approval of the exercise of the right of collective self-defense has won the support of many countries concerned.
 集団的自衛権の行使容認を通じた日米同盟の強化も、関係国の支持を集めている。

With its policy of focusing on Asia, the United States made it clear it is willing to actively engage in South China Sea issues. At a time when Beijing is trying to exclude the United States from building an Asian security order, it is significant that the United States is squarely challenging such Chinese endeavors.
 「アジア重視」政策を掲げる米国も、南シナ海問題に積極的に関与する姿勢を明確にした。中国がアジアの安保秩序から米国の排除をうかがう中、その意図を正面から否定する意義は大きい。

At their foreign ministerial talks in May, ASEAN members—whose stances toward China usually differ—took the concerted action of expressing “serious concerns” about the dangerous situation in the South China Sea.
 普段は対中姿勢がばらつくASEAN各国も外相会議で、南シナ海の危険な状況に「深刻な懸念」を表明し、共同歩調を取った。

China’s isolation could not have been any clearer.
 中国の孤立は明らかだった。

A series of international meetings awaits China. The ASEAN Regional Forum, which will be joined by Japan, the United States and China, will be held early next month, while China will host the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit meeting in Beijing in November.
 来月上旬には、日米中も参加するASEAN地域フォーラム(ARF)が開かれる。11月には、中国が北京でアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議を主宰する予定だ。

China apparently wants to avoid being the target of criticism in these forums. Some observers predict that the country will exercise self-restraint for the time being.
 中国には、こうした場で対中批判が集中する事態を避けたい思惑があろう。当面は、抑制的な行動を取るとの見方も出ている。

Even so, China will surely not change its strategy of expanding its territories and maritime interests in the South and East China seas.
 しかし、南・東シナ海で自らの領土や海洋権益の拡大を図る中国の海洋進出戦略は変わるまい。

Japan and the United States must brace themselves for a prolonged, hegemonic campaign by China.
 日米両国は、中国の覇権的な行動は長期化すると覚悟すべきだ。

It is notable, however, that accumulated efforts by the international community have borne some fruit this time around. Factoring this experience in, the nations concerned should try to persuade China to constructively participate in an initiative to build a new Asian order.
今回、国際的な連携の積み重ねが一定の成果を上げた。この経験を踏まえつつ、新たなアジア秩序作りに、中国を建設的な形で参加させていくことが求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 20, 2014)

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2014年7月20日 (日)

地方創生本部 人口減克服へ総力を結集せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Coordinated, multifaceted efforts needed to stem population decline
地方創生本部 人口減克服へ総力を結集せよ

The sharp decline in the population is a far more serious problem for provincial areas than for big cities. Central and local governments must do their best together with the private sector to deal with this problem.
 人口急減問題は、都市部よりも地方の方が格段に深刻だ。政府と自治体は民間とも連携し、総力を結集して対策に取り組む必要がある。

An office with dozens of staffers will be opened under the Cabinet Secretariat as early as the coming week to launch a “government task force to reinvent communities, people and jobs” in the nation. The task force is expected to play a central role in reinventing provincial areas, through dealing with issues such as population decline and revitalization of rural communities.
 人口減対策や地域活性化など地方創生の司令塔として政府が新設する「まち・ひと・しごと創生本部」の準備室が来週にも、内閣官房に数十人の態勢で発足する。

“The planning of measures to rejuvenate provincial areas, which is currently spread across ministries, will be consolidated [in the task force],” Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said at an informal meeting of Cabinet ministers. “We will try our best to help rural areas reinvent sustainable communities.”
 安倍首相は閣僚懇談会で、「地方創生の各省の企画立案機能を集中させる。地域が持続的な社会を創生できるよう、全力で取り組みたい」と強調した。

The task force will be officially established when a state minister is appointed at the next Cabinet reshuffle to lead the unit. It is ultimately headed by the prime minister.
 創生本部は、内閣改造で担当相を設置するのに合わせて新設する。本部長は首相が務める。

Population decline is a significant problem that affects Japan’s future. To counter it, the government must take a variety of measures such as helping young people marry, have babies and rear children; promoting the migration and settlement of people in rural areas; and creating new jobs there.
 人口減問題は、日本の将来を左右する重要課題だ。結婚・出産・子育て支援、地方への定住・移住促進、雇用創出など、取り組むべき課題は多岐にわたる。

The Japan Policy Council, a private panel of experts chaired by Hiroya Masuda, former internal affairs and communications minister, forecast that about half of the municipalities in the nation are likely to disappear in the future due to a sharp decline in the number of young women.
 増田寛也・元総務相らの「日本創成会議」は、若年女性の激減に伴い、約半数の自治体が消滅の可能性があると推計している。

Local governments have deep concerns about the issue. The Association of Prefectural Governors has adopted an “emergency declaration,” demanding that central government drastically boost countermeasures against the falling birth rate.
 地方の危機感は強い。全国知事会は、少子化対策の抜本的な強化を求める「非常事態宣言」を採択した。

Comprehensive strategy needed

“Japan is stricken with a mortal illness,” said Kyoto Gov. Keiji Yamada, who chairs the association.
会長の山田啓二京都府知事は、「日本は死に至る病にかかっている」とまで訴えた。

According to a survey by The Yomiuri Shimbun, 15 prefectures have established across-the-board sections for the promotion of measures to raise the birth rate and attract young families and companies to their areas from larger cities. Local governments should share their ideas and plans with each other, and proceed with measures by learning from other successful cases.
 読売新聞の調査では、15道県が人口減対策の全庁的組織を設置し、出生率の向上策や、都会から若い家族や企業などの誘致を進めている。各自治体はアイデアを出し合い、成功事例を参考にしながら施策を推進すべきだ。

A long-term strategy is essential to reinvent rural areas and curb the population decline.
 地方創生と人口減の抑制には、長期的な戦略が欠かせない。

The task force will likely draft a comprehensive strategy for the years up to 2020, and create a longer-term vision. It should listen to a variety of opinions, and be unconstrained by conventional ideas.
 創生本部は、2020年までの総合戦略と、さらに長期のビジョンを策定する方向だ。従来の発想にとらわれず、多様な意見を取り入れることが大切である。

The central government already has several polices in place to revitalize provincial areas. They are all plans to curb the population drain by creating a central hub in each rural area, such as the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry’s idea of central cities in provincial areas and the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry’s idea of alliances between high-level rural cities.
 政府内では既に、複数の地方活性化策がある。総務省の「地方中枢拠点都市」、国土交通省の「高次地方都市連合」などで、いずれも地域圏に拠点を定めて人口流出に歯止めをかける構想だ。

The task force must coordinate such policies in a comprehensive manner, so that their implementation is not hindered by sectionalism between government offices.
 一連の施策が各府省の「縦割り」に陥らないよう、創生本部が総合調整せねばならない。

The prime minister has also expressed his idea to triple to 3,000 the number of people living in depopulated municipalities and helping reinvent local communities. There is no magic bullet to stop depopulation. Straightforward and constant efforts in software and other fields are required to solve the problem.
 首相は、過疎自治体で地域づくりを手伝う「地域おこし協力隊」を3年間で今の3倍の約3000人に増やす考えを表明している。過疎対策に特効薬は存在しない。ソフト面を含め、地道な努力の積み重ねが求められる。

Unified local elections will be held next spring. They should be used as an opportunity for not only political parties and their election candidates, but also the whole nation, to contemplate how population decline could be controlled.
 来年春には統一地方選が行われる。いかに人口減を食い止めるのか。政党・候補者だけでなく、国民全体で考える機会としたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 19, 2014)

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ウクライナ撃墜 真相究明の国際調査が急務だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
International investigation critical to discovering truth in MH17 tragedy
ウクライナ撃墜 真相究明の国際調査が急務だ

Innocent civilians have been caught up in a terrible tragedy in conflict-torn Ukraine.
 紛争の続くウクライナで、無辜むこの民間人を巻き込む大惨事が起きた。

The international community must stand united and quickly get to the bottom of what happened.
 国際社会が連携し、真相の究明を急がなければならない。

In eastern Ukraine, an area effectively controlled by pro-Russian militants, a Malaysian Airlines jet that was flying at an altitude of 10,000 meters crashed on Thursday. All 298 passengers and crew aboard the plane died.
 親ロシア派の武装集団が実効支配するウクライナ東部で、1万メートルの上空を飛んでいたマレーシア航空機が墜落し、乗客・乗員298人全員が死亡した。

Ukrainian authorities have determined that the pro-Russian insurgents launched a Soviet surface-to-air missile, and Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko has condemned the incident as “an act of terrorism.” There are reportedly records of communications between the separatists and a Russian officer, which has fueled suspicions of Russian military involvement.
 ウクライナ当局は、親露派武装集団が旧ソ連製の地対空ミサイルを発射したと断定し、ポロシェンコ大統領は「テロリストが撃墜した」と糾弾した。武装集団が露将校に連絡した形跡もあり、ロシア軍の関与が疑われるという。

The insurgents and the Ukrainian military have frequently clashed in the region where the civilian airliner crashed. A Ukrainian military transport plane and a fighter jet also were shot down in the area recently. Observers have suggested that the militants possibly launched the missile after mistaking Flight MH17 for a Ukrainian military aircraft.
 この地域では、武装集団とウクライナ軍が日常的に衝突を繰り返している。最近はウクライナ軍の輸送機や戦闘機などが相次いで撃墜されていた。武装集団が旅客機をウクライナ軍機と見誤って攻撃した可能性も指摘される。

The rebels have claimed that Kiev’s armed forces shot down the airliner. However, the United States found the missile was fired from an area under rebel control. The United States detected the missile tracking toward the plane based on its satellite data and other information, and analyzed where it was launched from.
 武装集団は「ウクライナ軍による撃墜だ」と主張している。だが、米国が人工衛星の情報などで、旅客機を追尾するミサイルをとらえ、発射地点を解析したところ、武装集団の支配地域から放たれたミサイルだったという。

Poroshenko has decided to set up a commission to investigate the incident. Experts from Malaysia and the International Civil Aviation Organization will participate in the commission, and the United States has indicated it plans to cooperate.
 ポロシェンコ大統領は、調査委員会の設置を決めた。国際民間航空機関(ICAO)やマレーシアの専門家も参加し、米国も協力する方針を示している。

Probe needs full support

Collection and analysis of fragments of the missile and the black boxes that recorded flight data of the airliner will provide major clues for determining the truth behind the attack.
 ミサイルの破片や、旅客機の飛行データを記録した「ブラックボックス」の回収・分析が、解明の大きな手がかりとなる。

U.S. President Barack Obama has urged Poroshenko to safeguard all the evidence at the crash site. This is an appropriate response, given the need to prevent interference with the investigation and destruction of the evidence.
 オバマ米大統領は、ポロシェンコ大統領に、現場での証拠をすべて保全するよう促した。証拠隠滅や調査妨害を防ぐうえで適切な対応と言えよう。

It is essential that the investigation team and its experts are given access to the crash site area and are allowed to conduct their examination properly. The militants should heed calls for a ceasefire and guarantee the safety of the investigators.
 専門家を含む調査団が、墜落現場周辺に立ち入って、十分な活動を行えるようにすることが欠かせない。武装集団は停戦に応じ、調査団の安全を保証するべきだ。

The U.N. Security Council held an emergency meeting and issued a statement calling for an “international investigation.” It is important that this investigation be transparent and independent. Nations affected by this incident, not least Russia, also will need to provide full cooperation to the investigation.
 国連安全保障理事会は緊急会合を開き、国際機関による調査を求める声明を発表した。独立性と透明性を確保することが重要だ。ロシアをはじめ関係国も、調査への全面的な協力が求められる。

Political maneuvering is intensifying among nations affected by the crash. The United States and the European Union had only just tightened sanctions on Russia over its violations of Ukraine’s sovereignty.
 関係国の駆け引きも激化している。米国と欧州連合(EU)は、ロシアがウクライナの主権を侵害しているとして、対露制裁を強化したばかりだ。

Shortly before the airliner crashed, Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida met with Poroshenko and other officials, and pledged to continue Japan’s assistance to Ukraine. We hope Japan will cooperate to ensure the stability of Ukraine and help establish conditions that will ensure there is no repeat of the Flight MH17 tragedy.
 岸田外相は墜落の直前、ポロシェンコ大統領らと会談し、ウクライナ支援の継続を表明した。日本もウクライナの安定化に協力し、こうした悲劇を繰り返さないための環境作りに関与したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 19, 2014)

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2014年7月19日 (土)

ベネッセ流出 逮捕を情報管理徹底の契機に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Arrest in Benesse data breach case must lead to tighter info management
ベネッセ流出 逮捕を情報管理徹底の契機に

The leakage of personal information on children has developed into a criminal case.
 子どもの個人情報が大量に流出した問題が、刑事事件に発展した。

The Metropolitan Police Department has arrested a systems engineer in charge of database management at education service provider Benesse Corp., on suspicion of copying customer information in violation of the Unfair Competition Prevention Law.
 ベネッセコーポレーションの顧客情報を持ち出したとして、警視庁は、顧客データベース(DB)の管理を担当していたシステムエンジニアの男を不正競争防止法違反(営業秘密複製)容疑で逮捕した。

The man is suspected of abusing the ID he received from Benesse for logging into a customer database. He held a supervisory position among the staff in charge of maintenance and management of the database.
 男は、ベネッセから与えられたDB接続用IDを悪用していた。DBの保守管理担当の中で指導者的立場にもあった。

The suspect has reportedly admitted to police that he approached a name-list broker many times to sell customer information and received ¥2.5 million in total. He is said to have debts of several hundred thousand yen due to gambling and living expenses.
 顧客情報の買い取りを何度も名簿業者に持ちかけ、計250万円を得たと供述している。ギャンブルや生活費で数十万円の借金を抱えていたという。

His conduct must be denounced as an extremely malicious act that took advantage of his position at work.
 職務上の立場を利用した、極めて悪質な犯行である。

The Unfair Competition Prevention Law defines name lists and other useful information that have been handled as secret and not made public as “trade secrets,” and bans their copying and disclosure.
 不正競争防止法は、顧客名簿など「秘密として管理された有用情報で、公然とは知られていないもの」を「営業秘密」と定義し、不正な複製や開示を禁じている。

Following its revision in 2009, the law also began to be applied to cases in which such secrets are leaked by individuals to illegitimately obtain benefits. Police believe the engineer’s acts constitute illegal copying of trade secrets.
 2009年の改正で、個人が不正に利益を得る目的で漏洩した際にも適用されるようになった。警視庁は、男の行為が営業秘密の不正な複製に当たると判断した。

The revelation of the Benesse breach has heightened anxiety that children’s personal information will be abused. The MPD has decided to arrest the engineer, as it takes a serious view of his alleged crime.
 問題発覚後、「子どもの個人情報が悪用されるのでは」といった不安が広がっている。警視庁が逮捕に踏み切ったのは、事態の深刻さを重視した結果だろう。

Preventing further abuse

The MPD’s action may also be intended as an example to deter others from similar violations.
 同様の事件が繰り返されないよう、一罰百戒の意味合いもあるのではないか。

Benesse bears a heavy responsibility over its database management, which failed to prevent the exposure of personal information.
 犯行を許したベネッセの管理責任も重大である。

The compromised data has already been resold among name-list brokers and is believed to have been passed to more than 10 companies.
 漏洩された情報は、すでに名簿業者間で転売され、少なくとも十数社に流れたとみられる。

The Unfair Competition Prevention Law prohibits the purchase of trade secrets for the purpose of obtaining illegitimate profits.
 不正競争防止法は、営業秘密に関し、不正な利益を得る目的で買い受けることを禁じている。

It is problematic, however, that name-list brokers do not face charges if they obtain information without knowing it was illegally acquired.
 問題なのは、名簿業者が不正に入手された情報であることを知らなければ、罪に問われない点だ。

In the Benesse case, a name-list broker reportedly said it obtained the information “without knowing that it had been illegally leaked.”
今回の事件でも、男から顧客情報を買い取った業者は、「不正に持ち出された情報とは知らなかった」と弁明しているという。

It is not clear which government offices are in charge of name-list companies. Even the number of such companies has yet to be confirmed.
 名簿業者に関しては、所管官庁が明確でなく、数さえ把握されていないのが実情だ。

The provisions of the Personal Information Protection Law are not particularly effective.
 個人情報保護法の規定も実効性に乏しい。

The law bans name-list brokers who handle personal information on more than 5,000 people from providing information to a third party without obtaining approval from the individuals to whom the information pertains. But the brokers are permitted to sell information if they disclose the titles of lists and other information at shops or on homepages.
5000人超の個人情報を扱う業者が、本人の同意なしに第三者へ提供することを禁じているが、名簿の表題などを店頭やホームページで公表すれば、同意を得なくても販売できる。

In the wake of the leakage case at Benesse, calls have been growing louder for strengthening control of name-list agents.
 事件を受け、名簿業者の規制強化を求める声が高まっている。

It is imperative for the government to study measures to prevent the diffusion of illegally leaked personal information.
政府は、不正に流出した個人情報の拡散防止策を検討すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 18, 2014)

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DNA父子訴訟 民法の枠組み重視した最高裁

The Yomiuri Shimbun
‘Presumption of paternity’ an old rule; should it still apply in a DNA-test era?
DNA父子訴訟 民法の枠組み重視した最高裁

Even in cases in which blood relationships are disproved through DNA testing, legal paternity cannot be revoked. A ruling the Supreme Court handed down Thursday drew this conclusion.
 DNA鑑定で血縁が否定された場合でも、法律上の父子関係は無効にできない。最高裁は判決でそう結論づけた。

This is a judicial decision that gives great weight to the framework regarding the paternity of a child as stipulated by the Civil Code.
 父子関係について定めた民法の枠組みを重視した司法判断である。

A married woman had an affair with another man, becoming pregnant and having a baby. As a result of DNA analysis, it was subsequently determined that the child’s biological father is the man with whom the woman had the extramarital liaison. Under the circumstances, the litigation in this case was initiated by the wife, who demanded that the parental relationship between the child and her husband be revoked.
 妻が夫と婚姻中に、別の男性と交際して妊娠・出産した。DNA鑑定の結果、子の血縁上の父親が交際男性であると確認された。妻側が夫に対し、父子関係の取り消しを求めたのが今回の訴訟だ。

The Civil Code states that a child conceived during marriage “shall be presumed to be the child of the husband,” a stipulation known as the rule of the presumption of paternity for the legitimacy of children. This exists for the purpose of legally clarifying the child support obligations of a father.
 民法には「妻が婚姻中に妊娠した子は、夫の子と推定する」という嫡出推定の規定がある。扶養義務を負う父親を法的に明確にし、子の保護を図るのが目的だ。

The Supreme Court stated in its decision on this case and two others, “Even though it is evident that there exists no blood relationship, the necessity of retaining the stability of the child’s status in the eyes of the law never ceases.”
 最高裁は、「血縁関係がないことが明らかであっても、子の身分関係の法的安定を保持する必要性はなくならない」と指摘した。

The verdict underscores the top court’s stance in favor of strictly applying the rule of the presumption of paternity concerning the legitimacy of children.
嫡出推定の規定を厳格に適用する姿勢を示したものだ。

As for judicial precedent, exceptions to the presumption of paternity have been restricted to cases in which it is obvious that a married couple had no sexual relations during the relevant period, under such circumstances as the husband being in prison at the time of his wife’s pregnancy or the husband staying overseas and living separately from the wife for a long period of time.
 従来の判例では、嫡出推定の例外は、妻の妊娠時に夫が服役したり、海外に長期滞在したりして、夫婦の性交渉がないことが明らかな場合に限定してきた。

Upholding the Civil Code

The Supreme Court’s verdict in these cases should be interpreted as its judgment that the results of DNA tests cannot lead to denying the rule of the presumption of paternity, in light of the spirit of the Civil Code.
 最高裁は今回、民法の趣旨を踏まえ、DNA鑑定では嫡出推定を覆せないと判断したと言える。

The lower courts in these cases had acknowledged the annulment of the paternal relationship. The judgment by the top court is diametrically opposite the lower courts’ rulings.
However, the Supreme Court decision was a narrow one, with two of the five judges in charge of the cases supporting the lower courts’ verdicts.
 1、2審は父子関係の取り消しを認めた。最高裁はこれと正反対の結論を導いたが、5人の裁判官のうち、2人が1、2審を支持するという際どい判決だった。

The children in the cases reside with their biological fathers, living their lives in a new environment.
 今回のケースでは、子は血縁上の父と同居し、新たな環境で生活を送っている。

There is some merit to the dissenting view that allowing a man who has no genetic relationship to a child to have the legal relationship of paternity could have an adverse psychological and emotional impact on the child during the process of his or her development.
 「血縁関係のない人と法律上の父子関係を残すことは、子の成育にとって心理的、感情的な不安定要因を与えるのではないか」と疑問を投げかけた少数意見にも、うなずける面がある。

Another minority view noted that it is necessary to “harmonize the rule of presumption of paternity on the one hand and desires to have blood relations reflected in family registers on the other.”
 別の少数意見は「嫡出推定の規定と、血縁関係を戸籍にも反映させたいと願う心情を調和させる必要がある」と言及している。

It is worth noting that the presumption of paternity was established in the Meiji era, long before the advent of today’s DNA testing technology. The related legal system has failed to keep up with the progress of testing technology, becoming inadequate for the realities of fatherhood issues. It may be that the time has come to discuss the advisability of the rule of the presumption of paternity under the Civil Code.
 そもそも、嫡出推定の規定は、明治時代に設けられ、DNA鑑定を想定していない。鑑定技術の進歩に法制度が追いつかず、社会の実情に沿わなくなっている。民法の嫡出推定について、議論すべき時期に来ているのではないか。

In recent years, DNA testing has become less expensive, so that ordinary people can have tests done fairly easily. But at the same time, anxiety has been rising over the accuracy of the testing due to a sharp rise in the number of businesses entering the field of DNA testing.
 近年、DNA鑑定の費用が安価になり、一般の人が利用しやすくなっている。一方で、参入業者の急増とともに、鑑定の精度に対する懸念も生じている。

There is a strong body of opinion that relations of mutual trust between parents and children can be built even in the absence of biological relations if the parents are affectionate with the children.
 血縁関係がなくても、愛情を注ぐことで、親子の信頼関係は築けるという声も根強い。

Discussions about the wisdom of redesigning a family system in connection with such paternity issues should be encouraged with top priority being placed on ensuring the happiness of the children involved.
 子どもの幸福を最優先に、制度の在り方を考えたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 18, 2014)

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2014年7月18日 (金)

ガザ空爆 早期停戦へ国際仲介を強めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Intl community must step up to quickly bring about Gaza truce
ガザ空爆 早期停戦へ国際仲介を強めよ

To break the chain of violence and swiftly bring about a ceasefire, the international community should stand united and step up efforts to persuade all sides involved in the fighting to lay down their arms.
 暴力の連鎖を断ち、早期停戦を実現するため、国際社会は結束し、紛争当事者に対する説得工作を強めるべきだ。

Rocket attacks by the Hamas Islamist group that effectively controls the Palestinian autonomous territory of Gaza and retaliatory air strikes by the Israeli military have intensified.
 パレスチナ自治区ガザを実効支配するイスラム主義組織ハマスなどのロケット弾攻撃と、イスラエル軍による空爆の応酬が激化してきた。

Egypt proposed a truce centering on talks between the top leaders of both sides and the easing of the economic blockade on Gaza. Israel initially accepted the truce plan. However, Hamas rejected the proposal and the ceasefire did not come into effect. Both sides have since launched a fresh barrage of attacks.
 エジプトが、紛争当事者のトップ会談やガザ経済封鎖の解除を柱とする停戦案を示し、イスラエルはいったん受け入れた。だが、ハマスが拒否したため、停戦は実現せず、双方が攻撃を再開した。

A handful of Israelis have been killed or injured by the Hamas rocket attacks, but the number of dead and wounded in Gaza has topped 1,600. There are fears that there could be even more bloodshed.
 ロケット弾によるイスラエル側の犠牲者は少数だが、ガザの死傷者は1600人を超えた。流血のさらなる拡大が懸念される。

Over 70 percent of the more than 200 people killed have been civilians caught in the fighting. The U.N. Security Council quite rightly issued a statement that unanimously called for all sides to ensure the protection of civilians.
 200人超の死者の7割以上が巻き添えになった市民とされる。国連安全保障理事会が双方に対して、民間人の保護を全会一致の声明で訴えたのは当然である。

The flare-up in the fighting stems from the murder of three Israeli teenagers in mid-June, which was followed by the killing of a Palestinian teen. Skirmishes between Israeli forces and Palestinian people have developed into a military conflict.
 紛争の発端は、6月中旬以降、イスラエル、パレスチナ双方の若者が相次いで殺された事件だ。イスラエル軍と民衆の小競り合いが軍事衝突に発展した。

Militant groups in Gaza have fired about 1,000 rockets into Israel. Daily Israeli air strikes have targeted Hamas-linked facilities and rocket launching sites.
 ガザの武装勢力がイスラエルへ撃ち込んだロケット弾は約1000発に上る。イスラエルは連日、ハマスの関連施設やロケット弾の発射基地を空爆している。

Nations taking sides

Another cause for concern is that rockets have also been fired at Israel from Lebanon and Syria.
 心配なのは、レバノンやシリアからもイスラエルへのロケット弾攻撃が行われていることだ。

The Middle East is already trembling due to civil wars raging inside Syria and Iraq. If the Israel-Palestine fighting escalates and spreads, the region will plunge into an extremely serious crisis.
 中東は既に、シリアとイラクの内戦で揺れている。さらに、今回の紛争が拡大すれば、極めて深刻な危機に陥ろう。

We think the United States should show strong leadership and urge its ally Israel to exert self-restraint.
 米国は、強い指導力を発揮し、同盟国であるイスラエルに自制を働きかけるべきだ。

We also hope the Palestinian Authority and Arab nations that wield some influence over Hamas will work closely with international organizations and other channels to seek ways to quickly bring about a solution to the current situation.
 ハマスに一定の影響力を有するアラブ諸国やパレスチナ自治政府も、国際機関などと緊密に連携し、事態の早期収拾に向けた道筋を探ってもらいたい。

Hamas’ hard-line position of refusing to accept the state of Israel’s existence lies at the heart of the problem. Under the rule of Hamas, which has shown scant ability to govern, Gaza’s economy has collapsed and its people are losing hope.
 問題の根底には、イスラエル国家の存在を認めないハマスの強硬姿勢がある。統治能力を欠くハマスの下でガザ経済は破綻し、住民は希望を失っている。

However, if Hamas were to lose strength, it could open the door to the rise of even more dangerous Islamist organizations such as the Islamic Jihad extremist organization. This conflict complicates efforts to resolve the Gaza problem.
 だが、ハマスが弱体化すれば、過激派組織「イスラム聖戦」など、より危険なイスラム主義勢力を台頭させかねない。この矛盾がガザ問題の解決を難しくしている。

The Israeli government and the Palestinians halted Middle East peace talks at the end of April. The negotiations remain suspended.
 イスラエルとパレスチナの中東和平交渉は4月末に頓挫し、現在も中断したままだ。

When dialogue is cut off, the situation destabilizes and military conflict starts. Unless leaders on both sides share a resolve to eradicate this chronic disease afflicting the Middle East, it will be impossible to escape from the quagmire in which they are stuck.
 対話が途絶えると、情勢が不安定化し、軍事紛争が始まる。この中東の宿痾を克服する決意を双方の指導者が共有しなければ、泥沼からの脱却はあり得まい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 17, 2014)

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川内原発「合格」 再稼働への課題をこなそう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Steadily address tasks necessary for restarting nuclear power plants
川内原発「合格」 再稼働への課題をこなそう

Progress has been made toward restarting a nuclear power plant, but a number of challenges still lie ahead, making it important for the parties concerned to steadily prepare to resume operations through such efforts as winning the consent of local governments and communities.
 原子力発電所の再稼働に向けて前進したが、実現への課題も多い。
 地元の同意取り付けなどを着実に進めることが重要である。

The Nuclear Regulation Authority on Wednesday approved a draft safety screening report that concluded that safety measures for the Nos. 1 and 2 reactors at Kyushu Electric Power Co.’s Sendai nuclear power plant “meet new safety standards.”
 原子力規制委員会が、九州電力川内原発1、2号機について、新規制基準に「適合している」との審査書案を了承した。

With the NRA’s approval, the Sendai plant has effectively passed the safety examination, a precondition for restarting. Kyushu Electric hopes to resume operating the power plant this autumn.
 川内原発は、再稼働の前提となる安全審査に、事実上合格したことになる。九電は、今秋にも再稼働を実現したいとしている。

The new safety standards call for a nuclear power plant operator to take strict safety measures based on lessons from the nuclear crisis at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
 新規制基準は、東京電力福島第一原発事故を踏まえ、厳格な安全対策を求めている。

It is significant that the Sendai plant has become the first nuclear power plant to clear the new safety standards and have its safety confirmed.
 川内原発が国内の原発として初めて新基準をクリアし、安全性が確認された意義は大きい。

One focal point of the safety screening was the magnitude of earthquakes and the scale of tsunami the nuclear plant operator would assume for the plant.
 安全審査でポイントとなったのは、どれくらいの規模の地震や津波を想定するかだった。

Kyushu Electric has raised its assumptions for the maximum height of a tsunami by 50 percent and for the maximum impact of an earthquake on the reactors by 15 percent. On the basis of these assumptions, the utility will take measures against possible flooding and introduce quake-resistant reinforcement of the facilities and equipment.
 九電は、備えるべき津波の高さを従来の1・5倍、地震の強度は1・15倍に引き上げた。これに基づいて、浸水対策や設備の耐震補強を進める。

Measures to prevent crisis

Another focal point was what sort of measures the plant operator would take to prevent such major accidents as those triggered by the loss of cooling functions for reactors, as happened at the Fukushima plant.
 もう一点は、福島第一原発事故のような冷却機能の喪失による重大事故を防ぐため、どのような対策を取るかである。

Kyushu Electric has won the NRA’s recognition of its countermeasures, such as the expansion of its emergency power sources and the reinforcement of intake pumps, and multiplexing pipework for cooling the reactors.
 非常用電源の増設や取水ポンプの補強、冷却用配管の多重化などの対応策が評価された。

The NRA will examine the construction plan for the facilities and equipment, and its regulations for maintenance and safety checks. It is expected to take at least two to three months to complete all these screenings, including inspections following the completion of the work.
 規制委は今後、こうした機器や設備の工事計画や、保守点検作業の規定を審査する。工事後の検査も含めれば、最低2~3か月を要する見込みという。

Winning the understanding of the local governments is also important. In addition to Kyushu Electric, the government must also responsibly explain to officials concerned about the safety of the Sendai nuclear power plant and the necessity of restarting it.
 地元自治体の理解を得ることも重要だ。川内原発の安全性と再稼働の必要性について、九電はもとより、政府が責任をもって関係者に説明すべきである。

The evacuation plan to be followed in case of an accident at the plant also needs to be fully known among local residents.
 万一、事故が起きた場合の避難計画についても、住民への周知徹底が求められる。

It is also crucial for the screening conducted at the Sendai plant to be utilized to facilitate the checking of other nuclear power plants. In addition to the Sendai plant, applications for the NRA’s safety screening have been made for 17 reactors at 11 nuclear power plants. So far, however, there are no prospects for any of them to pass.
 川内原発の審査の経験を、他原発の審査の円滑化に生かすことが大事だ。川内原発以外に11原発17基が安全審査を申請しているが、合格のめどは立っていない。

This is primarily because the NRA’s screening has been quite inefficient, with utility companies repeatedly asked to submit more data.
 規制委が電力会社に次々にデータの追加提出を要求するなど、非効率な審査をしてきたためだ。

The NRA’s draft safety screening report gives a detailed account of how the safety measures against accidents have been screened by the authority. Power companies should do their utmost to prepare appropriately for the screening by referring to this account.
 川内原発の審査書案は、事故対策の審査経緯を詳しく記述している。これを参考に、電力会社は的確な審査準備に努めてほしい。

On the other hand, there was hardly any description of how the NRA made its judgment regarding the assumed impact of earthquakes and tsunami. We think the NRA has a responsibility to clearly specify the grounds for its decision.
 一方、地震や津波の想定に関する判断の理由は、ほとんど記述されていない。規制委は根拠を明示する責任があるのではないか。

The supply of electricity remains precarious, while soaring power rates have directly hit ordinary households and businesses. The NRA needs to accelerate its safety screenings and get the restart of nuclear power plants on track.
 電力供給は綱渡りで、料金高騰が生活と産業を直撃している。安全審査を加速させ、原発の再稼働を軌道に乗せねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 17, 2014)

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2014年7月17日 (木)

社員発明の特許 「企業所有」で競争力高めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Corporate patent control essential to international competitiveness
社員発明の特許 「企業所有」で競争力高めたい

The government is faced with two parallel goals in developing and implementing new intellectual property policies—first, to encourage corporations to make better use of patent rights, and second, to motivate employees to create new inventions.
 企業の特許活用と社員の発明意欲を両立させる制度作りが課題だ。

The government has assembled a plan for promoting greater utilization of patents and other intellectual property rights.
 政府が、特許など知的財産のさらなる活用を目指す「知的財産推進計画」をまとめた。

In revealing its new policy, the government has said that corporations will be able to receive rights to patents for employee inventions if they meet certain requirements.
 ポイントは、社員が仕事で行った発明(職務発明)の特許権を、一定の条件で企業の所有とする方針を示したことだ。

Currently, companies must pay compensation to employees if they seek to obtain patents for their workers’ inventions.
 企業が職務発明の特許権を得るには、発明者に対価を払って買い取らねばならない。

The government’s new policy will rectify the status quo to grant corporations such patent rights when certain conditions are met.
For instance, companies will be required to ensure appropriate payments to employees for their inventions.
この仕組みを改め、発明者への適正な報酬を保証するなどの基準を満たした企業については、最初から特許権の所有を認める方向という。

Japanese corporations must be able to fully utilize inventions and patents as vital tools to achieve growth.
Being able to do so is essential for reclaiming the upper hand over international competitors.
 日本企業が国際競争を勝ち抜くには、成長の源泉である特許を最大限活用する必要がある。

Domestic companies today are dedicating a great deal of time and financial resources to supporting employee efforts in creating new inventions.
企業がコストと時間をかけて、社員の発明を支えているのも事実だ。

These circumstances give the government good reason to try to adapt the current system so it can support intellectual property strategies within the corporate sector.
 企業の知財戦略を後押しする制度改正の方向性は妥当だろう。

One driving factor behind the government’s latest policy is the seemingly endless number of disputes between corporations and employees over the size of fees paid for employee inventions made during work.
 背景には、職務発明への対価を巡る社員との紛争が絶えない実情がある。

A scrap between Nichia Corp. and a former employee over his invention of a blue light-emitting diode serves as a strong illustration of the pattern. The two reached a compromise to settle the dispute in 2005, with the chemical firm paying the inventor a little over ¥800 million.
日亜化学工業が2005年、青色発光ダイオードを発明した元社員に、8億円余りの和解金を支払ったのが代表例だ。

Even when corporations buy the patents for employee inventions, that does not necessarily mean that no dispute will erupt between the two sides. Inventors may choose to file lawsuits against the companies, asserting the payments received were not proportionate in light of the patents’ contributions to improved business performance, for example.
 企業が特許を買い取った後も、業績向上などの貢献に比べて対価が安すぎるなどとして、発明者が訴訟を起こす恐れは残る。

Balancing interests, incentives

If corporations still run the risk of being held responsible for massive payments for employees’ inventions, even after purchasing patent rights, there are potentially large hurdles to making progress. In fact, many companies have said, under such circumstances, it will be difficult to join hands with other companies in making new inventions and to sign licensing agreements with others.
 多額の対価支払いを迫られるリスクを抱えたままでは、他社との共同開発やライセンス契約を進めにくいという声も少なくない。

If corporations are allowed to retain patent rights on new inventions from their employees, the number of disputes over the fees paid to inventors is likely to decrease. Companies will also have greater latitude in devising business strategies.
 企業が最初から特許権を持てるようになれば、対価を巡る紛争は減ると見られている。経営戦略上の自由度も増すだろう。

However, there is concern that the government’s new intellectual property policy could prevent individual employees from obtaining patents for their inventions, and thereby leave those employees less motivated to make new inventions. If the new policy undermines morale among corporate researchers and hampers technological innovation, it would be a complete loss for both corporations and their workers.
 気がかりなのは、個人で特許を取得できなくなり、社員の発明意欲が薄れかねないことだ。研究部門の士気が下がり、開発力が衰えてしまっては、元も子もない。

There is also fear that talented corporate researchers could be headhunted by companies in emerging economies that may offer to pay hefty sums. This could cause so-called “hollowing out” of technical experts.
 優秀な研究スタッフが、新興国などに高額の報酬で引き抜かれる「人材の空洞化」も心配だ。

Bearing this in mind, it is important that the envisaged system should be designed to sufficiently reward successful corporate inventors with payments, promotions and other work incentives.
 十分な報酬や人事で報いる制度とすることが大切である。

The Japanese Trade Union Confederation called for patent-acquisition procedures to be implemented under the new policy to be studied in a manner satisfactory to employees, as they argue that “corporations have the upper hand over their employees.”
 連合は「社員の立場は会社より弱く、社員が納得する手続きを検討すべきだ」と主張している。

The government should listen to such voices and lay down standards for enabling companies to obtain rights to patents for employee inventions.
 政府はこうした意見も踏まえ、職務発明の特許所有を企業に認める基準を策定するべきだ。

Some corporations have already adopted a system of monetary rewards for employee inventions based on sales, profits and royalties accrued from their accomplishments. Such systems are intended to avoid disputes with corporate researchers over their inventions.
 一部の企業では、職務発明をめぐる争いを避けるため、発明が生み出した売上高や利益、特許料などの実績に応じて、報奨金を支払う仕組みを導入している。

We hope the government will work to design a new system acceptable to both corporations and employees, while studying and giving consideration to the measures already implemented in the private sector to reward corporate inventors.
 政府は、民間の先行的な取り組みを参考にしながら、企業と社員双方が受け入れやすい制度に仕上げてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 16, 2014)

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沖縄「密約」判決 文書管理と原則公開の徹底を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Top court ruling must not impede information disclosure requests
沖縄「密約」判決 文書管理と原則公開の徹底を

Documents on a secret agreement may have existed, but that does not mean they were kept by the Foreign Ministry—this was the opinion expressed by the Supreme Court in a recent ruling regarding the disclosure of documents on a secret Japan-U.S. accord.
 「密約」文書が作成されたとしても、外務省が保有していたとは認められない――。最高裁はそう指摘した。

Former Mainichi Shimbun reporter Takichi Nishiyama and other plaintiffs have demanded the court order the government to disclose documents confirming the existence of a secret accord tied to the 1972 reversion of Okinawa Prefecture to Japan from U.S. control.
 沖縄返還に伴う日米間の密約を示す文書の開示を、元毎日新聞記者の西山太吉氏らが求めた訴訟の判決だ。

On Monday, the top court upheld a high court ruling which concluded that it was legitimate for the government to turn down an information disclosure request for the documents on the grounds that such documents “do not exist.”
最高裁は、「文書の不存在」を理由に開示しなかった国の決定を適法とした2審判決を支持した。

Despite the ruling, the high court acknowledged that the secret agreement did exist between Tokyo and Washington, and referred to the possibility that the documents were secretly destroyed by the Foreign Ministry or other parties.
 2審判決は、文書の存在を認めた上で、外務省などが秘密裏に文書を廃棄した可能性に言及した。

But Monday’s ruling did not go that far, and we believe the top court was duly careful to avoid making assumptions.
最高裁判決はそこまでは踏み込まなかった。推測を交えず、慎重に判断したと言えよう。

The papers in question include one showing that Japan, during the negotiation process with the United States for the 1972 reversion, has agreed to pay $4 million for the restoration of land occupied by the U.S. military.
 問題となったのは、1972年の沖縄返還に至る日米交渉の過程で、米軍用地の原状回復費400万ドルを日本側が肩代わりすることなどを申し合わせた文書だ。

Nishiyama obtained a copy of the relevant documents from a Foreign Ministry official. Based on the copy, an opposition party lawmaker questioned the government in the Diet.
 西山氏が関連文書の写しを外務省職員から入手し、野党議員がそれを基に国会で追及した。

Nishiyama was later convicted for violating the National Civil Service Law.
西山氏は国家公務員法違反で有罪となった。

These series of events are now known as the “Nishiyama incident.”
「西山事件」である。

The government denied the existence of the secret accord when suspicions were raised.
 日本政府は当時、密約を否定した。

The decision was apparently not easy—we assume that the government decided to deny the suspicion so the reversion of Okinawa would smoothly proceed.
沖縄返還を円滑に実現するため、苦渋の選択をしたという一面もあったろう。

There are always secrets in diplomatic negotiations, which have a huge impact on national interests.
国益をかけた外交交渉に秘密はつきものだ。

Govt’s irresponsible attitude

In 2000, an official document indicating the existence of the secret accord was discovered in the United States.  2000年になって、米国で密約の存在を示す公文書が発見された。

Later, a former director of the Foreign Ministry’s American Bureau who was in charge of negotiations with the United States for the handover admitted Japan’s payment for land restoration during a media interview.
沖縄返還協定の対米交渉責任者だった元外務省局長は、報道機関のインタビューで、日本側の肩代わりを認めた。

However, the government continued to deny the existence of the secret accord.
 日本政府はその後も、密約自体を否定し続けた。

There is no way to avoid criticisms that the government had dodged its responsibility to explain the incident.
国民に対する説明責任に背を向けたと批判されても仕方ない。

Examination of the case took place under the Democratic Party of Japan-led administrations from 2009 to 2010, and a Foreign Ministry advisory panel admitted that Tokyo and Washington exchanged “a secret pact in a broad sense.”  民主党政権下の2009~10年に検証作業が行われ、外務省の有識者委員会は、日米間に「広義の密約」があったと認定した。

The ministry also conducted an in-house investigation but failed to find documents of the secret accord itself.
一方、外務省の内部調査で、密約文書そのものは発見されなかった。

Considering the circumstances, the top court likely decided to cautiously approach the issue.
 こうした経緯から、最高裁は、慎重な姿勢に徹したのだろう。

There is one concern over the ruling, however: The top court ruled that those requesting information disclosures bear the burden of proving the existence of the documents in question.
 疑問が残るのは、最高裁が、文書の存在を立証する責任を開示請求者側に負わせた点だ。

But it is extremely difficult for an ordinary citizen to know how administrative bodies handle the documents they are seeking.
一般国民が、行政機関の文書管理の状況を把握するのは極めて難しい。

We are afraid that Monday’s ruling may raise the bar for people wishing to access government documents through the freedom-of-information system.
 今回の判決で、情報公開のハードルが、これまでよりも高くならないだろうか。

The system is able to exist on the condition that administrative organs preserve their documents appropriately.
 情報公開制度は、行政機関が文書を適切に保存していることを前提に成り立っている。

It is impermissible for such organs to arbitrarily destroy their documents to avoid them being disclosed to the public.
仮にも、行政機関が恣意しい的に文書を廃棄し、情報公開を免れるようなことはあってはならない。

The principle must be reasserted once again that diplomatic documents should be disclosed to the public after a certain period of time to let posterity examine them.
 外交文書は原則、一定期間後に公開して、後世の検証を受けられるようにする必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 16, 2014)

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2014年7月16日 (水)

都心の飛行制限 羽田強化につながる見直しを

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Ease flight restrictions over Tokyo to give Haneda Airport extra wings
都心の飛行制限 羽田強化につながる見直しを

How can the functions of Haneda Airport be improved while ensuring nearby residents support the changes?
 羽田空港の機能強化を周辺住民の理解を得ながらどう実現するか。

The government will need to hold sincere discussions with affected municipalities and residents on this issue.
 政府には、自治体や住民との真摯しんしな協議が求められよう。

The government is considering relaxing flight restrictions in the airspace over the Tokyo metropolitan area as it seeks to increase the number of arrival and departure slots at Haneda.
 羽田空港の発着枠の拡大を目指し、政府が都心上空の飛行制限緩和を検討している。

To help prevent noise pollution, commercial aircraft must, in principle, fly at an altitude of at least 6,000 feet (about 1,800 meters) over central Tokyo. Consequently, most flights that land at and depart from Haneda use routes over Tokyo Bay and Chiba Prefecture.
 民間航空機は騒音対策のため、都心上空を原則6000フィート(約1800メートル)以上で飛行しなければならない。このため、大半は東京湾や千葉県の上空を飛ぶルートで羽田に離着陸している。

Each year, Haneda has 450,000 arrival and departure slots. Many airlines want extra slots allocated to them so they can capitalize on the airport’s convenient location.
 羽田の発着枠は年間45万回だ。利便性の高さから追加配分を求める航空会社が多い。

However, the airport’s current flight routes are already overcrowded. It will be extremely difficult to increase the number of flights Haneda can handle solely by squeezing even further the time between arrivals and takeoffs.
 ところが、現在の飛行経路はすでに過密状態のため、発着間隔をさらに短縮して便数を増やすことは極めて難しい。

If the rules were eased to enable planes to fly lower over central Tokyo, air traffic control would have a wider range of options available, such as being able to simultaneously use runways that run in different directions. This would apparently enable enough leeway to raise the number of arrival and departure slots at Haneda.
 都心部を今より低く飛べるよう規制を改めれば、方向の違う滑走路を同時に使えるなど航空管制の選択肢が広がり、発着枠を上積みする余地が生まれるという。

The government estimates that relaxing these restrictions could enable about 25,000 more flights to take off and land at Haneda annually by the time the flame is lit for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games.
 政府は、飛行制限の緩和で2020年の東京五輪・パラリンピックまでに、年2万5000回前後増やせると見込んでいる。

The number of foreign visitors to Japan from Asia and other growing regions is expected to continue increasing. Adding slots at Haneda to accommodate the ensuing rising demand for flights also will likely contribute to boosting growth in the Japanese economy.
 成長するアジアなどからの訪日客は、今後さらに増えるだろう。高まる航空需要に応えるため発着枠を拡大することは、日本経済の成長促進にも資するはずだ。

Address noise concerns

The government says it wants to establish new routes that would fly over Tokyo wards including Shinagawa and Ota.
 政府は、品川区や大田区などの上空を飛行する経路を新たに設けたいとしている。

The biggest challenges will be figuring out how much noise pollution will be generated in areas where aircraft are permitted to fly lower and coming up with effective steps to counteract this noise.
 最大の問題は、飛行高度の下がる地域で、どの程度の騒音が発生し、それに対する有効な対策が取れるかどうかである。

Takeshi Hamano, the mayor of Shinagawa Ward, was quite justified in saying, “I won’t oppose increasing the number of flights, but I want thought to be given to the height they fly and the times they fly.”
 品川区の浜野健区長が、「増便には反対しないが、高さや時間帯は考えてもらいたい」としているのは当然だろう。

The government is planning a proposal that would allow flights in airspace over central Tokyo only between 3 p.m. and 7 p.m., and restrict flights to small and midsize aircraft that do not produce a lot of noise.
 政府は、都心上空の飛行時間を午後3時から7時までとし、機種も騒音が小さい中・小型機に限る案を示す方針だ。

The government will need to provide clear data on the noise levels that will arise and what effects the extra flights will have on nearby areas, and to explain it to the public in simple terms. It should also present concrete proposals for details including how expenses for soundproofing work will be met.
 騒音のレベルや範囲のデータをきちんと示し、分かりやすく説明しなければならない。防音工事の費用負担の在り方など、具体的な提案も行うべきである。

Not to be forgotten in this matter is Narita Airport. At present, about 40,000 of Narita’s annual 270,000 arrival and departure slots are not being used. This is apparently because transport links to central Tokyo late at night or very early in the morning are inconvenient.
 一方で成田空港は、年27万回の発着枠のうち約4万回が使われていない。深夜や早朝の都心への交通が不便なためと見られる。

Improving transport access to and from Narita will be essential for boosting the number of flights in time slots currently underutilized.
利用率の低い時間帯の発着便数を増やすには、交通アクセスの改善が欠かせない。

It also will be important to make it easier for Haneda and Narita airports to operate in an integrated manner so they can both serve as key airports for the Tokyo metropolitan area. We hope the public and private sectors will together examine whether it will be possible to improve rail and other facilities that directly link the two airports.
 羽田と成田を首都圏空港として一体的に活用しやすくすることも大事だ。両空港間を直結する鉄道の整備などが可能かどうか、官民で検討を進めてほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 15, 2014)

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集団的自衛権 国会の論議をさらに深めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Diet debate must be deepened on collective self-defense right
集団的自衛権 国会の論議をさらに深めたい

Diet debate must be intensified further on what can or cannot be done under the government’s new interpretation of the Constitution that would enable a limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense.
 集団的自衛権の行使を限定的に容認する新たな政府見解により、何ができ、何ができないのか。国会での議論をさらに深めることが重要だ。

The first Diet discussions on the matter since the Cabinet approval of the new interpretation were held at the House of Representatives Budget Committee on Monday. Banri Kaieda, president of major opposition party the Democratic Party of Japan, expressed strong opposition to the Cabinet’s decision on the new interpretation, arguing: “The government has made an about-face in constitutional interpretation without holding Diet discussions. Is it all right to make a decision without listening to the people’s opinions?”
 新見解の閣議決定後初の国会論戦が、衆院予算委員会で行われた。民主党の海江田代表は、閣議決定について「国会の議論をせず、憲法解釈を百八十度変える。国民の声を無視して決めて良いのか」と反対する考えを強調した。

Countering that 70 lawmakers had been involved in question-and-answer sessions, including intensive deliberations, in addition to discussions by an expert panel and consultative talks between the ruling parties, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe brushed aside the criticism that the Cabinet decision was made “with more haste than caution.”
 安倍首相は、有識者会議の議論や与党協議に加え、国会の集中審議などで議員70人の質疑があったとし、「閣議決定が拙速だとの指摘は当たらない」と反論した。

Abe’s contention is reasonable because the government and ruling parties went through adequate procedures before making the Cabinet decision.
 政府・与党は十分に手順を踏んでおり、首相の主張は妥当だ。

Diet deliberations will be conducted on bills related to a limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense. We hope to see that the planned sessions will serve as forums to hold intensive discussions about specific cases in which the right will be exercised, so as to win over a greater number of the people on the new constitutional interpretation.
 今後、関連法案の国会審議も行われる。より多くの国民が新見解を理解するよう、具体的事例に即して集中的に議論する機会としたい。

It is also indispensable to hold discussions on the security environment around Japan, which has been growing more severe due to such factors as North Korea’s recent series of ballistic missile launches.
最近の北朝鮮の相次ぐ弾道ミサイル発射など、厳しさを増す国際情勢の論議も欠かせない。

Referring to the three conditions newly set for exercise of the right of collective self-defense, including “there is a clear danger that the people’s rights will be fundamentally undermined,” Abe presented criteria for judgment on whether to approve an exercise of the right.
 「国民の権利を根本から覆す明白な危険」などの集団的自衛権行使の新3要件について首相は、行使の可否の判断基準を示した。

Abe said the government will make judgments by “comprehensively considering” such factors as “the intention and capability of a country threatening to attack, and the location, scale and situation of a contingency,” and in light of “the seriousness and graveness of damage anticipated to be suffered by the people.”
 「攻撃国の意思、能力、事態の発生場所、規模、態様」などを政府が「総合的に勘案」し、「国民が被る犠牲の深刻性、重大性」などから判断する、と語った。

Too many constraints harmful

The DPJ’s Katsuya Okada, a former deputy prime minister, criticized the government, saying, “The criteria for judgment are ambiguous, and this leaves much room for [the government’s] discretion.”
 民主党の岡田克也前副総理は「基準があいまいで(政府の)裁量の余地が大きい」と批判した。

Limiting the exercise of the right of collective self-defense is unavoidable to maintain the legal consistency of constitutional interpretation. However, if too much emphasis is placed on restraints for their own sake, it would lead to excessively restricting the scope of Self-Defense Forces activities and the effectiveness of their operations would be lost.
 集団的自衛権の行使を限定的にするのは、憲法解釈の法的整合性を保つためにやむを得ない。だが、限定のための「歯止め」ばかりを重視すれば、自衛隊の活動を過度に制約し、実効性が失われる。

Giving the government a certain level of discretionary power is a realistic option to make it possible to deal with various situations effectively.
 様々な事態に効果的に対処できるよう、政府に一定の裁量権を認めることが現実的である。

While stressing that the SDF will not take part in international military operations such as those during the Persian Gulf and Iraq wars, Abe showed an interest in the SDF’s participation in minesweeping operations, saying that they are “passive and limited and different in nature [in terms of the use of force].”
 首相は、イラク・湾岸戦争のような海外での武力行使には参加しないと強調する一方で、機雷除去には意欲を示した。掃海活動は「受動的、限定的で、(武力行使の)性格が違う」と語った。

The idea of differentiating between attacks on other countries and minesweeping operations is understandable. We hope to see the government provide more detailed and comprehensible explanations on the matter.
 他国への攻撃と掃海を区別する考え方は理解できる。より丁寧で分かりやすい説明を求めたい。

The DPJ is opposed to the government resorting to changing the constitutional interpretation to approve the exercise of the right of collective self-defense, but has yet to reach a conclusion of its own on whether to approve a limited use of the right. This is because the party has avoided internal discussions of national security due to intraparty differences of opinion. The party should present a unified view of national security as soon as possible.
 民主党は、憲法解釈の変更という手法には反対しているが、集団的自衛権の限定容認の可否については結論を出せていない。党内に賛否両論を抱え、安全保障論議を避けてきたツケである。早く党の統一見解を示すべきだ。

Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) and Your Party have already decided to endorse the limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense. The government and ruling parties must make steady efforts to compile relevant bills that would enable the limited use of the right.
 日本維新の会やみんなの党は既に、限定容認への支持を決めている。政府・与党は、関連法の整備を着実に進めてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 15, 2014)

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上越妙高山で感動のグラウンドイルミをみませんか

上越妙高山で新時代のイルミネーションがみられます。
これはイルミネーションファンだったら見逃せないイベントですね。
ゴルフ場の1ホールの敷地を全部利用した広大なサマーイルミネーションなんです。
モチーフは昇り竜で「光の双龍」と名づけられています。
二頭の巨大な竜が絡み合いながら天に昇る構図に打たれました。
このイベントはこの8月1日から「アパリゾート上越妙高」で開催されます。
香港の百万ドルの夜景も良いですが、こちらの登り竜は夜景としても超一流なんです。
この夏を締めくくる夏休みのイベントとして、ご家族でお出かけすれば、一生の思い出に残ること請け合いなんです。
夏の暑さをしのいで見ませんか。おすすめです。



今夏、新潟県妙高市に東日本最大級のサマーイルミネーションが誕生!



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2014年7月15日 (火)

車の運転で腰が痛い人いませんか?解決策があります

車に乗るとすぐに腰が痛くなってしまう人は案外多いものです。
私もそのうちの一人なんです。
車の運転と腰痛とは、どうやら、切っても切れない関係があるようですね。
それには理由(わけ)がありました。
それは、車に座る姿勢が悪いことに起因しているといわれています。

そこで、運転時の腰痛 を軽減するエルゴテラという座席シートカバーが開発されました。
このエルゴテラを車の座席に貼り付けるだけで、あら不思議、腰痛が軽減されます。
人の体とは実に不可思議なもので、一人として同じ体型はございません。
そもそも車の座席シートで完璧に体にフィットさせることなどできないのです。
エルゴテラを貼り付けると、それがクッションとなり、座席シートと身体とのわずかな隙間を充填してくれます。
それで、腰痛が軽減できるのですね。
すばらしい発想に脱帽なんです。



腰痛用ドライビングサポートクッション「エルゴテラ」7月15日新発売!カーグッズオブザイヤーグランプリを獲得した「エルゴ」シリーズの最新作!運転姿勢を高反発素材で《正しい姿勢+楽な姿勢》に矯正!



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滋賀県知事選 与党の緊張感欠如も響いた

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Shiga election results highlight complacency in ruling parties
滋賀県知事選 与党の緊張感欠如も響いた

A government and a Liberal Democratic Party that had grown overconfident were apparently handed a rebuke when a former Democratic Party of Japan lawmaker defeated a candidate supported by the two ruling parties in Sunday’s Shiga gubernatorial election.
 政府・自民党の慢心を戒める結果だった、と言えるのではないか。

Taizo Mikazuki, an independent candidate and a former member of the House of Representatives with the DPJ, was elected to his first term in a poll contested by two other independents, including Takashi Koyari, who had the backing of the LDP and New Komeito.
 滋賀県知事選は、無所属で前民主党衆院議員の三日月大造氏が、自民、公明両党が推薦する無所属の小鑓隆史氏らを破り、初当選した。

Mikazuki’s victory owes much to his election tactic of positioning himself clearly as the successor to Gov. Yukiko Kada, who served two terms, and criticizing the political stances of the government and the LDP.
 三日月氏は、2期務めた嘉田由紀子知事の後継者との立場を明確にするとともに、政府・自民党の政治姿勢を攻撃する選挙戦術をとったことが奏功した。

Mikazuki was also supported by a timely tailwind, especially after criticism mounted against Environment Minister Nobuteru Ishihara for his comments last month that “money will be what matters most after all” in negotiations between the central and local governments over selecting locations for the construction of temporary storage facilities for contaminated soil in Fukushima Prefecture.
Much criticism has also been directed toward LDP members of the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly and the lower house Committee on Internal Affairs and Communications who made sexist jeers.
 特に、福島県での中間貯蔵施設建設を巡る石原環境相の「金目」発言や、東京都議会や衆院総務委員会での自民党議員のセクハラヤジに対する批判が高まったことが三日月氏への追い風となった。

Voters apparently felt that these words and deeds, which lacked respect for women, and residents seriously affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, demonstrated the arrogance and complacency of the ruling parties.
 東日本大震災の被災者や女性への配慮を欠いた言動は、与党の傲おごりや緊張感の欠如の表れ、と受け止められたのだろう。

The LDP is the sole powerful party in the Diet, occupying an overwhelming majority of seats, and the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe still enjoys a high approval rating. Nonetheless, the government and the LDP should be more humble and take every necessary step to carry out policies.
 国会は自民党が圧倒的多数を占める「1強」体制で、安倍内閣の支持率もなお高いが、政府・自民党は、より謙虚な姿勢で手順を尽くし、政策を遂行すべきだ。

Taking national politics local

A gubernatorial election is generally expected to hinge on the capabilities of the candidates, and their stances on important issues facing the prefecture. LDP Secretary General Shigeru Ishiba said, “[The election] was influenced by some factors other than those directly connected to the candidates and prefectural administration.” It is regrettable that the race unfolded the way he described.
 知事選は本来、候補者の資質や県政の問題を問うものだ。自民党の石破幹事長が「候補者、県政に直接、影響があること以外で影響が出ている」と指摘したような展開になったのは残念である。

Mikazuki’s move to call for a phaseout of nuclear power, as Kada did, is questionable, because nuclear policies should be left to the government to decide from a broader perspective. Governors have no legal authority over decisions to resume operations at nuclear power plants.
 疑問なのは、三日月氏が、嘉田知事と同様、段階的に原子力発電から脱却する「卒原発」を唱えたことだ。原発政策は、政府が大局的観点から判断すべきものだ。原発の再稼働などには、知事の法的権限は及ばない。

There are no nuclear power plants currently operating in Japan, which has led to higher fuel costs for thermal power plants and higher electricity charges.
 現状は、原発が稼働せず、火力発電の燃料費がかさみ、電気料金は上昇し続けている。

The government must expedite efforts to restart nuclear reactors by persuading relevant municipal governments to give their consent.
政府は、関係自治体の理解を得て、原発の再稼働を急がねばならない。

Koyari, a former official of the Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry, pledged to revitalize the Shiga prefectural economy, while stressing the achievements of the Abe administration’s economic policies, known collectively as Abenomics.
 経済産業省出身の小鑓氏は、安倍政権の経済政策「アベノミクス」の成果を強調し、「滋賀県の経済を再生する」と訴えた。

He failed to garner wide support, however, as the effects of Abenomics remain limited in communities away from the country’s major urban centers—a reminder of the government’s need to revitalize local communities in earnest.
 ただ、アベノミクスの効果が地方では限定的なこともあり、支持は広がらなかった。政府は、地域活性化にも力を入れるべきだ。

The Shiga race came on the heels of the Cabinet’s approval of the government’s new constitutional interpretation allowing for limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense.
 知事選は、集団的自衛権を限定的に容認する新たな政府見解を閣議決定した直後に行われた。

Given the recent deterioration in Japan’s security environment, strengthening the Japan-U.S. alliance and international cooperation by making it possible for the nation to exercise this right is a significant development.
 日本の安全保障環境の悪化を踏まえれば、集団的自衛権の行使を可能にし、日米同盟や国際連携を強化する意義は大きい。

The Mikazuki election camp criticized the new interpretation as part of its attacks on the Abe administration, dragging the campaign fight “outside the ring.”
 だが、三日月陣営は、政権批判の一環で新見解に反対し、「場外戦」に持ち込んだと言える。

The government and ruling parties should not dwell on the outcome of this election, but instead try to win wider acceptance among the public for the right of collective self-defense by sparing no efforts to explain why it is necessary to permit its exercise.
 政府・与党は、知事選の結果にとらわれず、行使容認の必要性を丁寧かつ積極的に説明し、国民の理解を広げる必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 14, 2014)

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研究不正対策 新指針で科学の信頼取り戻せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Restore credibility of science through new guidelines for research integrity
研究不正対策 新指針で科学の信頼取り戻せ

The act of concocting research results is called fabrication, while the alteration of data is referred to as falsification and stealing papers written by other researchers is plagiarism.
 研究成果をでっち上げる「捏造ねつぞう」、データを加工する「改ざん」、他の研究者の論文などを流用する「盗用」――。

Reforms are being urgently sought to prevent research misconduct from destroying the credibility of science.
 科学に対する信頼を失墜させる研究不正を許さない体制作りが求められる。

The Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry has drafted a revised version of guidelines on dealing with research irregularities. Since last summer, the ministry has pushed ahead with the task of reviewing its current guidelines, as there are no signs misconduct has been halted since the guidelines were worked out in 2006.
 文部科学省が不正対応の新指針案をまとめた。2006年の指針策定後も不正が絶えず、昨夏から見直しを進めていた。

During the review, the alleged malfeasance involving papers on stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) cells was brought to light at the RIKEN government-affiliated research institute. In light of this, problematic points in connection with the STAP fiasco have been reflected in the draft of the revised guidelines.
その最中に、理化学研究所でSTAP論文の不正が明るみに出たため、指摘されている問題点を反映させた。

The current guidelines attribute the responsibility for research misconduct exclusively to individual researchers. The draft guidelines are laudable for clearly making reference to the oversight responsibility of the people in charge of administering research institutions. To eliminate research misconduct, it is critical for each institution to work as one in making thorough efforts to address this problem.
 現行指針が、不正の責任を専ら研究者個人に帰していたのに対し、新指針案が、研究機関の管理責任を明確にした点は評価できる。不正防止には、研究組織を挙げての取り組みが不可欠だ。

The draft calls for research bodies to implement such measures as ethical education for researchers, preservation of data on experiments and making provisions to conduct investigations of suspected research misconduct. A stipulation has also been incorporated into the draft stating that research institutions would be subject to cuts in funding for research activities if they are negligent in preventing research irregularities.
 研究機関に対し、倫理教育の実施、実験データの保存、不正調査の規程整備なども求めている。不正防止対策を怠れば、研究費を減らすことなども盛り込んだ。

Lessons from RIKEN

It is of utmost importance that preventive steps against dishonesty in research prove effective.
 大切なのは、こうした不正防止策に実効性を持たせることだ。

Following the revelation in 2004 of research misconduct at RIKEN, the research institute stipulated in its internal regulations that data in experiments must be recorded and preserved. The regulations also made it obligatory for RIKEN researchers to undergo training courses aimed at preventing research misconduct, but its stipulations lack teeth.
 理研は、04年に研究不正が発覚したのを契機に、実験データの記録・管理を内規に明記した。不正対策の研修なども義務付けたが、徹底されなかった。

The lack of governance, or organizational control, that led to the de facto emasculation of internal regulations is one of the major factors behind the STAP problem. All research organizations should draw valuable lessons from the serious situation RIKEN is currently embroiled in.
 内規を形骸化させたガバナンス(組織統治)の欠如が、STAP問題を引き起こした要因の一つと言えよう。理研の深刻な現状を、すべての研究機関は、他山の石とせねばならない。

In line with the new guidelines, the education ministry plans from fiscal 2015 to regularly check the efforts of research institutions to put arrangements in place to ensure scientific integrity. If a case of research misconduct is discovered, the ministry will make public the names of the organizations involved, and describe the malfeasance. The ministry should be resolute in tackling this task.
 文科省は来年度以降、新指針に沿って研究機関の体制整備の状況を定期的にチェックする。ガバナンス確立を後押しすることが狙いだ。不正が確認された場合は、機関名や不正の概要を公表する。厳しい姿勢で臨んでもらいたい。

The draft of the new guidelines also suggests that accusations regarding possible research misconduct on the Internet could prompt research institutes to embark on investigations.
 新指針案は、研究不正に対するインターネット上の指摘についても、研究機関による調査のきっかけになるとの見解を示した。

Although many slanderous and groundless remarks are made on the Internet about research papers, it should be remembered that accusations by experts online did serve to reveal misconduct concerning the STAP cell research. Research institutions, for their part, must be ready to act swiftly and rigorously when dealing with any research misconduct.
 ネット上には論文への中傷や根拠のない意見も多いが、STAP問題ではネット上での専門家による追及が不正発覚の端緒となった。研究機関には、自らの組織内の不正に、機敏かつ厳正に対応する姿勢が求められている。

Research misconduct has become a major problem in many countries. As huge amounts of taxpayers’ money are spent on science and technology projects, and competition has intensified among researchers, some researchers will go to any lengths to achieve results, even if it means committing misconduct.
 研究不正は、各国で問題化している。科学技術に多額の国費が投じられ、競争が激化した結果、不正を犯してでも成果を上げたい研究者が少なくないのだろう。

The result of scientific research is subject to unceasing verification among researchers. Research misconduct not backed up by relevant data will always be exposed. It is essential for individual researchers to take to heart the pursuit of truth.
 科学の研究成果は、研究者間で絶え間なく検証されている。データの裏付けがない不正は、必ず露見する。研究者自身が、真理を探究するという本来の姿勢を忘れないことが肝要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 14, 2014)

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2014年7月14日 (月)

精神医療改革 社会的入院の解消を図りたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Mental health care reform urgently needed for ‘deinstitutionalization’
精神医療改革 社会的入院の解消を図りたい

It is a matter of urgency to transform the nation’s mental health care system to shift away from the current hospital-centered treatment to making arrangements for encouraging care at the homes of the mentally ill.
 入院中心の治療から、在宅療養を支える体制へと、精神医療を転換させることが急務である。

A report recently produced by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has pointed out that the number of psychiatric care beds in hospitals in Japan is four times the average of OECD member countries. While treatment of the mentally ill at their homes has been increasingly spreading in industrially advanced countries, Japan trails other nations in “deinstitutionalization,” the shifting of care away from hospitals and toward patients’ homes or in the community, the report noted.
 経済協力開発機構(OECD)が、日本の精神病床数は、人口当たりで加盟国平均の4倍に上っているとする報告書をまとめた。先進諸国で在宅療養が広まる中、「脱施設化」が遅れていると指摘している。

About 320,000 of the nation’s 340,000 psychiatric beds at hospitals are occupied by patients, 200,000 of whom are long-stay patients having been hospitalized for one year or longer, according to the report. Psychiatric patients in this country are hospitalized for about 300 days on average, far longer than the approximately two weeks in other developed countries, it said.
 国内では、34万の精神病床に32万人が入院し、このうち20万人が1年以上の長期入院だ。入院期間は平均約300日で、2週間前後の先進諸国との差が大きい。

Many patients stay for a long period at hospitals even though the need for their hospitalization is low, only because they have nowhere to go after being discharged. In many cases, people with mental illnesses suffer further declines in their living competence due to long-term hospitalization, finding it all the more difficult to get out of the hospital. It is imperative to resolve the problem of such patients in long-stay beds, a situation often referred to as “social hospitalization,” or socially unavoidable hospital admissions.
 入院の必要性が低いのに、退院後の行き場がないため、病院にとどまる患者が少なくない。長い入院で生活能力が低下し、退院が困難になる例も多い。こうした社会的入院を解消する必要がある。

In Japan after the end of World War II, the government adopted a psychiatric medical treatment policy of largely separating the mentally ill from society, encouraging establishment of private-sector psychiatric hospitals through the introduction of a subsidy system. Special steps have also been taken to relax staffing requirements to allow a relatively small number of medical doctors to take care of many psychiatric inpatients. The increases in the number of social hospitalizations were partly due to these steps.
 日本では戦後、隔離収容型の精神医療政策の下、補助金を出して民間の精神科病院の開設を促した。少ない医師数で多数の入院患者を受け持つ特例も設けた。社会的入院が増加した背景である。

‘Social hospitalization’

In 2004, the government hammered out a policy changeover in favor of “shifting from hospitalization to the community” in mental health care, setting a goal of reducing the number of psychiatric beds at hospitals by 70,000 during a period of 10 years. The actual number of reduced beds in the 10-year program, however, is considered to be no more than around 10,000, primarily because hospitals are not keen on the cuts in beds as they mean less revenue.
 政府は、2004年に「入院から地域へ」の転換を打ち出し、10年間で7万床の病床削減目標を掲げた。だが、この間の削減数は1万床程度にとどまる。収入減を嫌って病院側が消極的なためだ。

In April this year, the government announced a set of guidelines for psychiatric treatment aimed at having patients discharged from hospitals within a period of one year after their first-time hospitalization and improving support measures for treatment of patients at their homes.
 今年4月には、新規の入院患者を1年以内に退院させる体制や、在宅患者の支援体制の整備を掲げた精神医療の指針が示された。

The guidelines should be considered proper in seeking to limit hospitalization to those patients with serious disorders, while having those with mild and moderate problems taken care of in communities where they are accustomed to living.
 入院は重度患者に限り、他の患者は住み慣れた地域で暮らし続ける。その方向性は適切である。

A key task in this connection is how to expedite the discharges from hospitals of social hospitalization patients, the long-stay inpatients.
 課題は、長期の社会的入院患者の退院をいかに促進するかだ。

A study panel of the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has created a report in favor of the idea of converting part of the hospitals with such long-stay beds into residential facilities for the patients. The idea is designed to proceed with the reduction of hospital beds in consideration of the desires of inpatients reluctant to be discharged from hospitals, while also taking into account the need to prevent hospitals from suffering declines in revenue.
 厚生労働省の検討会は、病床の一部を居住施設に転換することを認める報告書をまとめた。退院の意欲が低い患者の受け皿にして、病院の経営にも配慮しながら病床削減を進めるのが狙いだ。

However, the proposed conversion into residential facilities has been strongly criticized for being only a change in name. In addition, anxieties on the part of patients and their families over the possibility of being enclosed in the compounds of hospitals are understandable.
 しかし、居住施設への転換には、「看板の掛け替えに過ぎない」といった批判が強い。病院の敷地内に囲い込まれるという患者や家族の懸念は、理解できる。

The ministry panel’s report said the planned conversion should be contingent on the choice of the patients themselves, while stipulating the length of the periods of accommodation at the envisioned facilities. It also came up with an idea of limiting the users of the facilities to currently long-staying patients.
 報告書では、患者本人の選択の自由を確保し、入居期間の規定を設けることなどを転換の条件とした。利用者を現在の長期入院患者に限定する案も示した。

The envisaged facilities should certainly be used as temporary measures, placing priority without fail on creating a system to enable patients to return to their communities.
 あくまでも例外的な施策と位置づけ、患者が確実に地域社会に戻れるよう制度設計すべきだ。

To ensure sufficient support for the patients’ life in their communities, it is indispensable to help them manage such pecuniary affairs as those relating to public assistance benefits, as well as improving counseling services for them.
 患者の地域生活を支えるには、生活保護費などの金銭管理の支援や相談体制の充実が欠かせない。

It is also important to ensure the provision of housing or group homes for them. To accomplish these objectives, coordination of efforts is essential between municipal governments and medical and welfare service organizations.
アパートやグループホームなどの確保も重要だ。自治体と医療・福祉機関の連携が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 13, 2014)

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日米防衛相会談 同盟強化へ画期的な新指針に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
New Japan-U.S. defense cooperation guidelines must mark start of new era
日米防衛相会談 同盟強化へ画期的な新指針に

Enhancing the efficacy of the Japan-U.S. alliance is essential if Japan wants to effectively deal with a new security environment facing the nation and other parts of Asia.
 日本とアジアの新たな安全保障環境に、より効果的に対処できるよう、日米同盟の実効性を高めることが肝要である。

During their meeting in Washington, Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera and U.S. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel confirmed that the two nations will reflect the Japanese government’s new constitutional interpretation approving the limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense in the Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation, to be revised by year-end.
 小野寺防衛相とヘーゲル米国防長官がワシントンで会談し、年内に改定する日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)に、集団的自衛権の行使を限定容認する新たな日本政府の見解を反映させる方針を確認した。

Onodera and Hagel also agreed to issue an interim report on the new guidelines at an early date. At the press conference, Hagel expressed U.S. support for the new interpretation, which he referred to as “this bold, historic, landmark decision.”
 新指針の中間報告を早期に公表することでも一致した。ヘーゲル長官は記者会見で、新見解について「大胆で歴史的な決定であり、強力に支持する」と表明した。

It is important that the new guidelines will incorporate as many specific ways as possible to expand cooperation between the Self-Defense Forces and the U.S. military on the premise that Japan can exercise its right of collective self-defense.
 新指針には、集団的自衛権の行使容認を前提に、自衛隊と米軍の協力拡大をできるだけ具体的に盛り込むことが重要である。

The guidelines—made in 1978 to deal with emergencies Japan may face—were revised in 1997 to clearly state that the SDF will provide a certain level of logistic support to the U.S. military in emergencies that threaten the peace and stability surrounding Japan, including the Korean Peninsula.
 1978年に日本有事を想定して作られた指針は、97年の改定で、朝鮮半島などの周辺有事の際、自衛隊が米軍に一定の後方支援を行うことが明記された。

It is worth mentioning that the range of SDF logistic support provided to the U.S. military had been largely restricted because of the constitutional interpretation banning the exercise of the right of collective self-defense as well as kinds of logistic support that are “integrated with the use of force.”
 しかし、集団的自衛権の行使や「武力行使との一体化」を禁じる憲法解釈のため、支援内容は大きく制限されていた。

But developments in areas surrounding Japan have raised serious concerns: North Korea has been continuing its nuclear and missile development programs, while China has been escalating its provocative activities in the East and South China seas. It is, therefore, indispensable for Japan and the United States to have new guidelines capable of dealing with the current security situation, which came into being after drastic changes over the last 17 years.
 日本周辺では、北朝鮮が核・ミサイル開発を続け、中国は東・南シナ海で挑発行為を強めている。17年間で激変した安保情勢に対応する新指針が不可欠だ。

Joint plans crucial

Joint operation plans for the SDF and the U.S. military to act seamlessly in transitions from peacetime to emergencies must be urgently compiled with various scenarios in mind.
 様々な事態を想定し、平時から有事まで「切れ目のない」自衛隊と米軍の共同対処の作戦計画を策定することが急務である。

In its reinterpretations, the government approved the limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense and defined logistic support that “integrated with the use of force” as activities in areas “where combat is taking place.” These changes in the constitutional interpretations enable the SDF to guard U.S. ships and to provide a wider range of logistic support to the U.S. military, such as supplying U.S. forces and providing transportation support.
 政府は今回、集団的自衛権行使を限定容認し、「武力行使との一体化」の対象を戦闘現場での支援などに限った。これにより、自衛隊の米艦防護や米軍への補給・輸送支援の拡大が可能になった。

The new guidelines should offer two-way cooperation: The SDF should be able to provide the aforementioned support to the U.S. military in case of emergencies surrounding Japan, while the U.S. military should be able to swiftly cooperate with the SDF in response to gray-zone situations, such as the occupation of remote islands by armed groups.
 周辺有事では、自衛隊がこうした米軍支援を行う。武装集団による離島占拠などのグレーゾーン事態では、米軍がより迅速に自衛隊と共同対処する。こんな双方向の協力を新指針で打ち出したい。

Hagel cited missile defense, measures to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, antipiracy steps and disaster relief as the areas of cooperation Japan and the United States will deepen. The government should steadily push forward with building a domestic legal framework to accommodate expansion in the two nations’ cooperation in these fields.
 ヘーゲル長官は、日米協力を深める分野として、ミサイル防衛、大量破壊兵器の拡散防止、海賊対処、災害救援などを挙げた。日本政府は、これらの分野での協力拡大を念頭に、国内関連法の整備を着実に進める必要がある。

During their meeting, Onodera and Hagel agreed to beef up cooperation in the areas of defense equipment and their technologies in light of the Cabinet’s approval in April of the nation’s three principles on transferring defense equipment.
 防衛相会談では、今年4月に閣議決定した防衛装備移転3原則を踏まえ、装備・技術協力を強化することでも一致した。

While in the United States, Onodera indicated that Japan will seek to host an international hub for maintenance of the state-of-the-art F-35 stealth fighters, which the Air Self-Defense Force will deploy. Japan should make this a reality if it wants to maintain and expand its defense-related production and technologies.
 小野寺防衛相は訪米中、航空自衛隊が導入する最新鋭ステルス戦闘機F35の国際的な整備拠点を日本に誘致する考えを示した。防衛生産・技術基盤の維持・拡充のため、実現を目指すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 13, 2014)

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2014年7月13日 (日)

県議政務活動費 泣かずに説明責任を果たせ

まるで駄々っ子!
あきれました。
日本の恥さらしだと思います。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Bawling Hyogo assemblyman should come clean on expenses
県議政務活動費 泣かずに説明責任を果たせ

Funds for local assembly members’ political activities come from tax money, so any improper use of this money on expenses is unpardonable. Local assemblies must thoroughly improve the transparency of their members’ expenditures, and ensure this money is being spent appropriately.
 議員の政務活動費が税金で賄われる以上、不正な支出は許されない。地方議会は、支出の適正性の確保と透明性の向上を徹底すべきだ。

A recent case in which a Hyogo Prefectural Assembly member allegedly used political funds for dubious purposes has caused quite a stir.
 兵庫県議の不明朗な政務活動費が問題となっている。

According to an income and expenditure report submitted to the assembly, the assemblyman in question claimed he made 345 day trips to locations including Tokyo and hot spring resorts in Hyogo Prefecture from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2013, spending about ¥8 million of political funds on transportation for these trips.
 当該県議が議会に提出した収支報告書によると、2011~13年度に兵庫県の温泉や東京などを345回も日帰りで訪問したとして、交通費名目で約800万円の政務活動費を使っていた。

However, the report contained absolutely no mention of the names of people he visited, or the purpose of these trips. He did not attach any receipts. One trip was reportedly on a day when most of the limited express trains to the destination he claimed to have visited were canceled due to heavy rain.
 だが、報告書には、訪問相手の名前や目的が一切記載されず、領収書も添付されていなかった。訪問日には、大雨で大半の特急列車が運休になった日も含まれる。

Was this assemblyman really conducting political activities? The suspicion swirling around him will not go away.
 本当に政務活動を行っていたのか。疑問はぬぐえない。

At a press conference on July 1, the assembly member sobbed and wailed loudly as he tried to explain his side of the story. He refrained from naming the locations he had supposedly visited or providing other details. It is utterly inconceivable that such a performance will earn the support of residents of the prefecture. The Hyogo Prefectural Assembly has been inundated with complaints.
 県議は1日の記者会見で号泣しながら釈明したが、具体的な訪問先などの公表は拒んだ。県民の理解は到底、得られない。県議会には抗議が殺到している。

It has also been revealed that the assemblyman received a considerable sum of money that he said was used for postage stamps in fiscal 2013.
 県議については13年度、切手代として多額の政務活動費を受け取っていたことも発覚している。

The assembly chairman has quite rightly demanded the assemblyman return any funds confirmed to have been misused, and quickly resign if he cannot fulfill his responsibility to explain what actually happened.
 兵庫県議会議長が、不正が確認された政務活動費の返還と、説明責任が果たせない場合の速やかな辞職を求めたのは当然である。

Assembly also at fault

The assemblyman is reportedly considering quitting, but if he is indeed confirmed to have illegally spent political funds, it could constitute fraud. His resignation would not be sufficient to bring an end to this matter.
 当の県議は辞職を検討しているというが、不正な支出が確認されれば、詐欺に当たる可能性もある。辞職だけでは済まされない。

In addition to their regular pay, local assembly members are provided with funds to meet political expenses for research, study and other activities.
 地方議員には、報酬とは別に、調査研究活動などのために政務活動費が支給されている。

In the past, this money was called “policy research expenses.” However, a revision to the Local Autonomy Law in 2012 changed the name, and it became possible for assembly members to seek such funds for expenses incurred in activities such as petitions and lobbying. Even tighter monitoring of this expenditure is required.
 かつては政務調査費と呼ばれたが、12年の改正地方自治法で名称が変わり、陳情など議員活動への支出も認められるようになった。従来以上に、支出の厳格な監視が求められている。

The lax response of the Hyogo Prefectural Assembly to this case cannot be simply shrugged off.
 看過できないのは、兵庫県議会の対応の甘さだ。

Assembly members are obligated, in principle, to attach receipts to their income and expenditure reports. However, the assembly approved expenditures based solely on a “certificate” produced by its members. The assemblyman in question did not attach any receipts for three years, yet the response of the assembly’s secretariat was merely to bring the matter to his attention.
 収支報告書に原則、領収書の添付を義務づけていたが、本人作成の「証明書」だけでも支出を認めていた。問題の県議が3年間、領収書を添付しなかったのに、事務局が注意喚起しただけだった。

The prefectural assembly reportedly plans to review its procedures regarding political fund expenditures, but this step is long overdue.
 県議会は、政務活動費に関する運用手順を見直すというが、遅きに失した措置である。

It is indeed true that political activities require a significant amount of money, so expenditures for genuine activities by lawmakers and assembly members should be approved. These representatives of the public must keep firmly in mind that they are using public funds, and ensure that this money is spent effectively.
 政治活動に多額の資金を要するのは事実で、正当な議員活動への支出は認めるべきだ。議員は、公金であることを肝に銘じ、有効に活用せねばならない。

Local assemblies will need to craft rules that allow no wrongdoing by their members. Having a third-party body monitor how such money is being spent would probably be effective in this regard. We urge local assemblies to increase the transparency of their members’ activities through such steps as displaying income and expenditure reports on their websites.
 地方議会は、議員の不正を許さないルール作りに取り組まねばならない。第三者機関による使途の監視も有効だろう。ホームページでの収支報告書の公開など、透明性向上にも力を入れてほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 9, 2014)

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日豪首脳会談 「特別な関係」築く安保協力を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan-Australia partnership crucial to improve defense of Asia-Pacific
日豪首脳会談 「特別な関係」築く安保協力を

Japan and Australia are strategic partners that share the responsibility of fostering peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. We urge the two countries to deepen their mutual relationship on the occasion of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s visit to Australia.
 日本と豪州は、アジア太平洋の平和と安定への責任を共有する戦略的パートナーだ。安倍首相の訪豪を機に、協力関係を一層深化させたい。

In his talks with Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott on Tuesday, Abe explained Japan’s reinterpretation of the Constitution to allow limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense.
 安倍首相はアボット豪首相に、集団的自衛権行使を限定的に容認する新たな政府見解を説明した。

Abe stressed that the aim of the reinterpretation was to “protect the lives and peaceful livelihood of the people and let Japan play a more proactive role in the international community.”
「国民の命と平和な暮らしを守り抜くとともに、国際社会でより積極的な役割を果たすことを可能とするものだ」と強調した。

Abbott welcomed Japan’s move and credited Japan as being a peace-loving country, saying that “Japan has been...an exemplary international citizen in the postwar era.”
 アボット首相は日本の取り組みを歓迎した。共同記者会見では「日本は戦後、ずっと模範的な国際市民だった」と述べ、平和国家としての歩みを評価した。

The reinterpretation enables Japan to exercise its collective self-defense right and order the Self-Defense Forces to protect Australian vessels when an emergency occurs on the Korean Peninsula or elsewhere.
 新見解により、朝鮮半島有事などの際、自衛隊が集団的自衛権を行使し、豪軍艦船などを防護できるようになる。

During a speech to the Australian Parliament, Abe said, “Australia and Japan have now freed ourselves from one old layer and are now moving towards a new ‘special relationship.’” We concur with Abe’s view.
安倍首相が豪議会での演説で「日豪は新たな『特別な関係』へ、歴史的脱皮を遂げた」と指摘したのも、うなずける。

Abe and Abbott signed an accord on the joint development of defense equipment. Australia is interested in Japan’s submarine technology, and the two countries are scheduled to conduct a joint study on the fluid mechanics of ships. We urge the two nations to steadily continue cooperation in this respect.
 両首脳は、防衛装備品の共同開発に関する協定に署名した。豪州は、日本の潜水艦技術に関心を示しており、当面、船舶の流体力学分野を共同研究する。こうした装備協力を着実に進めるべきだ。

Trilateral cooperation

It also is essential to expand joint exercises between the SDF and the armed forces of Australia and the United States, an ally of both Japan and Australia.
 自衛隊、豪軍と、両国の同盟国である米軍による3か国の共同訓練の拡充も欠かせない。

China has been trying to change the status quo in the East and South China seas by force. Australia has strong economic ties with China, but like Japan and the United States it places emphasis on the rule of law. It is important for the three nations to join hands and tenaciously press China to exercise restraint.
 中国は東・南シナ海で、力による現状変更を試みている。豪州は、中国との経済関係は強いが、「法の支配」を重視する立場では、日米と足並みをそろえている。日米豪の協力により、中国に粘り強く自制を促すことが重要である。

Abe and Abbott also signed an economic partnership agreement. Japan will reduce tariffs on Australian beef, while Australia’s tariffs on Japan’s medium-sized cars will be removed. The two nations will work for early enforcement of the agreement.
 日豪首脳は、経済連携協定(EPA)にも調印した。日本は豪州産牛肉の関税を引き下げる。日本製中型車などの関税は撤廃される。早期の発効を目指す。

The two leaders also agreed to cooperate to bring about the early conclusion of the Trans-Pacific Partnership multilateral trade negotiations.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉の早期妥結へ、日豪が協力することでも合意した。

Prior to his visit to Australia, Abe held talks in New Zealand with Prime Minister John Key. Abe and Key confirmed that they will work proactively for a conclusion of the TPP talks.
 豪州に先立ち、首相はニュージーランドを訪問し、キー首相との会談の中でも、TPP交渉の妥結に向けて精力的に取り組む方針を確認した。

Promotion of free trade is one of the main pillars of the Abe administration’s growth strategy. It is imperative that the administration work hard on opening up its market on farm produce and other products and play an active role in concluding the TPP talks as early as possible.
 自由貿易の推進は、安倍政権の成長戦略の重要な柱だ。農産物の市場開放などに努め、早期妥結へ役割を果たさねばならない。

Abe will next head for Papua New Guinea. It will be the first time in 29 years for a Japanese prime minister to visit the island nation. In talks with Prime Minister Peter O’Neill, the two leaders are expected to reach an agreement to cooperate on natural gas development.
 首相は今回、島嶼とうしょ国のパプアニューギニアも訪れる。日本の首相の訪問は29年ぶりだ。オニール首相と会談し、天然ガス開発の協力などで一致する見通しだ。

In the western Pacific, China is increasing its influence over the Pacific Islands by supporting the building and renovation of harbors and ports. It therefore is important for Japan to build trust in the region through cooperation in such fields as disaster prevention and human resources development.
 西太平洋では、中国が島嶼国の港湾整備などを支援し、影響力を強めている。日本は、防災や人材育成などの分野で協力し、各国と信頼関係を築くことが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 9, 2014)

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SIMロック 「囲い込み商法」をやめる時だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Mobile phone carriers must stop corralling customers with SIM cards
SIMロック 「囲い込み商法」をやめる時だ

If cell phone subscribers can receive services from other mobile phone carriers without changing their actual phones, the convenience of using mobile phones will be greatly improved.
 手持ちの端末が他の携帯電話会社でも使えるようになれば、利便性は大いに向上しよう。

In using mobile phones, including smartphones, customers insert a subscriber identity module (SIM) card containing their subscription information into the phone before using it.
 スマートフォンなどの携帯電話は、契約情報を記録した「SIMカード」を差し込んで使っている。

Each mobile phone company puts “SIM locks” on the handsets so that subscribers cannot use their cell phones with other firms’ SIM cards, with the aim of preventing customers from switching to other companies. If customers transfer to other companies, they have to buy new phones from the companies to which they want to switch.
 携帯各社は他社のカードでは端末が作動しない「SIMロック」という制限をかけている。端末を買い替えなければ他社に乗り換えられないようにするためだ。

The Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry intends to oblige mobile phone carriers to remove SIM locks for handsets from fiscal 2015 as corralling customers with the locks narrows the range of customers’ choices for phones and service providers.
 総務省は、こうした携帯各社の「囲い込み」が消費者の選択肢を狭めているとして、「SIMロック」の解除を2015年度から義務化する方針という。

Each time customers change to other mobile phone companies, they have to also stop using phones which they had long used, a situation with which many mobile phone users may not be satisfied. It is natural that mobile phone carriers are being ordered to remove the SIM locks.
 他の携帯会社に移るたびに、使い慣れた端末を手放さなければならない現状に、納得できない利用者は多いだろう。ロック解除の義務化は当然である。

The three major mobile phone carriers—NTT Docomo, KDDI and SoftBank—have monopolized the market with an almost uniform set of services and rates.
 NTTドコモ、KDDI、ソフトバンクの大手携帯3社は、ほぼ横並びのサービス、料金のもとで寡占状態を続けてきた。

In other countries, such as the United States and European nations, mobile phone carriers, in many cases, are obliged to remove SIM locks after a certain period of time after a subscription begins.
 欧米など海外では、契約から一定期間後にロック解除を義務化しているケースが多い。

Voluntary action lacking

In 2010, the communications ministry asked mobile phone firms on a voluntary basis to remove their SIM locks, but there has been limited success. It can be said that the mobile phone industry has not changed its negative approach to the ministry’s request, resulting in the ministry resorting to ordering them to do so.
 総務省も10年、携帯各社に自主的にロックを外すよう求めたが、解除は一部の端末にとどまった。携帯業界の消極的な姿勢が改まらず、義務化に踏み切らざるを得なくなったと言えよう。

Mobile virtual network operators, which offer communication services at a low rate, have recently appeared, but they hold only a 4 percent share in the market.
 割安な料金の通信サービスを提供する仮想移動体通信事業者(MVNO)が登場しているが、そのシェア(占有率)は約4%にすぎないとされる。

In taking advantage of the removal of SIM locks, it is expected that the number of new entrants into the market will increase, which will lead to the diversification of rates and communication services.
 SIMロック解除を弾みに新規参入が増え、料金や通信サービスの多様化が期待できよう。

If mobile phone companies do not take a user-unfriendly approach to the order, such as by setting a high fee for removing the locks, the effectiveness of having the locks removed will not be seen. We hope each mobile phone company will respond actively to the ministry’s move.
 ロック解除の手数料を高額に設定するなど使い勝手を悪くすれば実効性は上がるまい。携帯各社には積極的な対応を求めたい。

In some cases, voice telephone communication did not work well when customers changed to other companies’ SIM cards. Mobile phone companies are required to explain the possibility of such trouble to customers in an earnest manner.
 携帯会社によっては、SIMカードを差し替えると音声電話が通じなくなるなど、サービスに支障が出る場合もある。利用者への丁寧な説明が求められる。

It cannot be denied that corralling customers with SIM locks has fostered a fruitless competition for customers.
 SIMロックによる顧客の囲い込みが、不毛な顧客争奪戦を助長してきた面もある。

In the mobile phone industry, a business practice continues wherein mobile phone companies pay sales agents an incentive so that the agents can largely discount the smartphones, which are originally priced at tens of thousands of yen, and entice customers of other companies’ phones to change to their subscription.
 携帯業界では、販売代理店に販売奨励金を渡し、本来は何万円もするスマホを大幅に値引きして、他社から契約を乗り換えさせる商法が続けられている。

The business practice is beneficial for those who often change their smartphones. However, the incentive money is covered by communication fees paid by users.
 スマホを何度も買い替える人には得になるが、奨励金は利用者の支払う通信料でまかなわれる。

If long-time subscribers are ignored in such a manner, many of them will express their discontent. Mobile phone companies need to become aware of the stern look coming from their customers.
 長年の契約者がないがしろにされていると、不満を募らせる人も多い。携帯各社は利用者の厳しい視線を自覚する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 10, 2014)

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刑事司法改革 国民の信頼を取り戻す制度に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Investigators should use new methods to regain public trust
刑事司法改革 国民の信頼を取り戻す制度に

The proposals compiled by a Legislative Council committee present investigative authorities with an opportunity to pick up steam in their efforts to win back some of the public trust they lost through the recent spate of scandals involving public prosecutors.
 一連の検察不祥事などで失った国民の信頼を取り戻す契機としたい。

The government council’s special committee was tasked with examining reforms of the criminal justice system, and has compiled a set of proposals for the justice minister, one of which would require investigative authorities to record the entire interrogation process, in certain cases.
 刑事司法改革を議論してきた政府の法制審議会特別部会が、一部の事件で捜査機関に取り調べの全過程の録音・録画(可視化)を義務づける法相への答申案をまとめた。

The Justice Ministry plans to submit relevant bills to the ordinary Diet session next year.
 法務省は来年の通常国会に関連法案を提出する方針だ。

The proposals are intended to prevent false accusations through the adoption of video recordings of interrogations and to enhance investigative capabilities by expanding the scope of cases subject to wiretapping as well as by introducing a system for plea bargaining.
 可視化により、冤罪えんざいの防止を図るとともに、通信傍受の拡大や司法取引の導入で、捜査力の向上にも目配りした内容と言える。

The most contentious issue has been designating which categories of crimes are to be subject to mandatory recording of interrogations. Those cases have narrowed down to crimes tried by lay judges and those subject to independent investigations by prosecutors’ offices.
 最大の焦点だった可視化の対象は、裁判員裁判の対象事件と検察の独自捜査事件に絞られた。

Recording would be required in only about 3 percent of criminal cases. In many such cases, however, the credibility and voluntariness of confessions made during interrogations wind up being contested in public trials.
 対象数は全事件の3%程度にとどまるが、これらの事件では、捜査段階における容疑者の供述の任意性や信用性が、公判になって争われるケースが多い。

Recording interactions between investigators and suspects during questioning is of great significance, in that it will enable an after-the-fact examination of the case to determine whether there was an induced confession or compelled testimony.
 捜査官と容疑者のやりとりを記録することで、供述の誘導や強要がなかったかどうか、事後的に検証できる意義は大きい。

Prosecutors have been introducing recorded interrogations through a process of trial and error in cases handled by lay judges. From October onward, prosecutors will begin voluntary interrogation recording in cases where written statements based on such questioning appears likely to become a focal issue at trial, irrespective of the category of crime.
 検察は、裁判員裁判対象事件などで可視化の試行を重ねている。10月以降は、罪種を問わず、供述内容が争点になりそうな事件でも、自主的に録音・録画する。

Becoming more common

Prosecutors have shifted to a more proactive stance on video recording as the courts have moved toward stricter appraisals of the admissibility as evidence of such statements compiled without recording.
 可視化せずに作成した供述調書の証拠能力について、裁判所が厳しく判断していることが、検察が積極姿勢に転じた背景にある。

The proposals also call for reviews of cases subject to recording when deemed necessary. Lawmakers should examine how police and prosecutors’ offices are carrying out recorded interrogations and should consider possible impacts of recordings on investigations before any conclusions are made regarding a potential expansion in the scope of cases subject to recording.
 答申案は、可視化の対象事件などを必要に応じて見直すよう求めた。対象の拡大に関しては、警察・検察の実施状況や捜査への影響を検証して検討すべきだろう。

Another facet of the proposals is the addition of nine new categories of crimes to the list of investigations subject to wiretapping of phone and e-mail communications.
 一方、電話やメールの通信傍受の対象には、複数犯の共謀が疑われる窃盗や詐欺など9種類の犯罪が新たに加わる。

The range of wiretapping targets has conventionally been limited to four categories of crimes, with a very limited number of actual cases, including those involving drugs or firearms.
従来は薬物・銃器犯罪など4罪種に限られ、実施件数が少なかった。

Also planned for introduction is a plea bargaining system, which would permit prosecutors to refrain from indicting a suspect in return for his or her cooperation, such as providing information on crimes committed by an accomplice.
 容疑者が捜査に協力し、共犯者の犯罪を明らかにすれば、見返りに、容疑者本人の起訴を見送る司法取引も導入される。

It is hoped that the expansion and improvement of these investigative methods will help authorities unravel increasingly sophisticated crimes. Abuse of wiretapping, however, could infringe on people’s privacy. There is also the risk of a deceptive statement obtained through the plea bargaining system leading to false accusations against people who have nothing to do with the crime.
 こうした捜査手法の拡充で、巧妙化する犯罪の解明が進むことを期待したい。ただ、通信傍受が乱用されれば、国民のプライバシーが侵害されかねない。司法取引には、虚偽供述で無関係の人を事件に巻き込む危険がつきまとう。

Both police and prosecutors are required to apply the proposed investigative methods in a circumspect and discreet manner.
 警察・検察には、厳格かつ慎重な運用が求められる。

The proposals also contain a new rule requiring prosecutors to reveal to the defense counsel a list of the evidence they hold prior to a public trial.
 答申案には、公判前に検察の保管証拠の一覧表を弁護側に開示する新ルールも盛り込まれた。

Evidence collected with the use of taxpayer money is not to be monopolized by prosecutors, but is rather public property which should be utilized to reveal the truth of cases being investigated. Fair trials must be ensured by securing the right to a fair defense for the accused person.
 税金を使って集めた証拠は、検察の独占物ではなく、事件の真相究明に役立てるべき公共財だ。被告の防御権を確保して、公正な裁判を実現しなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 10, 2014)

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ふるさと納税 利用促して地域振興図りたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Donations to local governments needed to support regional revitalization
ふるさと納税 利用促して地域振興図りたい

The government is considering augmenting a system for encouraging individual donations to hometowns or municipalities the individual wants to support by offering tax deductions of an amount similar to the donation.
 故郷や応援したい自治体への寄付を促す「ふるさと納税制度」の拡充が検討されている。

Under the system, if taxpayers donate money to municipalities where they do not reside, almost the same amount is deducted from their resident and income taxes. This is tantamount to paying part of their individual taxes to the municipalities of their choice.
 現住所と違う自治体に寄付をすると、それに近い金額が住民税や所得税から差し引かれる制度だ。自分の税金の一部を、希望する自治体に納めるのと同じことになる。

The system was established in 2008 to realize the wishes of people who hail from less urban areas and want to contribute part of their taxes to their hometowns.
 納税額の一部を故郷のために役立てたい。そんな地方出身者の思いをかなえるため、2008年にスタートした。

To help push for “regional revitalization” that Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has touted as a pillar of his growth strategy, we hope to see the system more actively utilized.
 安倍首相が成長戦略の柱に掲げる「地方創生」を後押しするためにも、ふるさと納税の利用促進が図られるよう期待したい。

Donations made under the system amounted to ¥65 billion in 2011, or nearly 10 times the figure recorded the previous year, as such donations to disaster-affected areas increased in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami disaster that occurred in that year. But the sum plunged to ¥13 billion the following year.
 ふるさと納税による寄付額は、11年に東日本大震災の被災地向けが増え、前年の10倍近い650億円に上った。だが、12年は130億円にとどまった。

The amount of a tax cut to be offered under the system is set according to donors’ annual income and family composition, with the ceiling set at ¥30,000, for example, for a household of a married couple with an annual income of ¥5 million.
 ふるさと納税に伴う税金の軽減額は、年収500万円の夫婦2人世帯で3万円など、収入や家族構成によって上限がある。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga has indicated a plan to double the amount of the tax deduction. The plan is worth studying as a measure to break the current stagnation of such donations.
 菅官房長官はこれを2倍に引き上げる考えを示唆した。伸び悩んでいる現状を打開するため、検討に値する提案と言える。

Simplify procedures

Also problematic are the complicated procedures that must be taken to utilize the tax deduction system.
 利用する際の手続きが煩雑なことも課題である。

To receive a tax deduction in return for donations, even salaried workers whose income tax is deducted from their salary every month are required to file tax returns.
 寄付に伴う税金の軽減措置を受けるには、普段は給与天引きで納税しているサラリーマンも、確定申告する必要がある。

Many people are said to have second thoughts about using the system as they consider the procedures bothersome. The government should do its utmost to simplify the procedures needed for utilizing the system.
 これが面倒で、ふるさと納税に二の足を踏んでいる人も多いとされる。政府は簡素化に知恵を絞ってもらいたい。

Regional endeavors are essential as well. More and more municipalities have been utilizing the system to emphasize the attractive points of their areas by implementing projects such as delivering local specialties to people who made donations under the system. We sympathize with local governments’ attempts to utilize the system for promoting regional industries and tourism.
 地方の取り組みも大事だ。ふるさと納税をしてくれた人に特産品をプレゼントするなど、地元のアピールに生かしている自治体が増えている。地方の産業育成や観光振興を図る狙いは理解できる。

But it is questionable whether presents alone will be able to appeal to the hearts of people who might want to contribute to regional areas.
 ただし、特典の豪華さを競うだけで、地域の役に立ちたいと考えている人々の心を、引きつけることができるだろうか。

Individual municipalities are urged to take a positive stance toward seeking supporters of the system by explaining how they will use the donations in a comprehensible manner.
 それぞれの自治体が寄付金をどのように活用するのか、わかりやすく説明し、賛同者を募る姿勢がもっとあってよい。

The municipal government for the town of Miyashiro in Saitama Prefecture, for example, has called for donations for such projects as the conservation of rural village forests and releasing fireflies into the wild. It was reportedly successful in collecting donation money.
 例えば、埼玉県宮代町は里山の保全やホタルの放流といった事業ごとに寄付を呼びかけ、順調に資金を集めているという。

Such efforts could be used as a reference for other municipalities.
 こうした取り組みは、他の自治体の参考となろう。

The municipal government for the town of Nishi-Izu, Shizuoka Prefecture, has started offering a hands-on diving program in local waters as a special gift for donors.
 静岡県西伊豆町は、寄付の特典として地元の海でのダイビング体験を提供し始めた。

Providing chances for visits to regional areas by utilizing the tax deduction-for-local donation system is an effective way for municipalities to increase their supporters and promote regional development.
 ふるさと納税をきっかけに地元に足を運んでもらう機会を設けることも、ファンを増やし、地域振興につなげる有効策だろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 11, 2014)

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ベネッセ漏洩 不安に陥れた責任は重大だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Benesse must be held accountable for leakage of children’s data
ベネッセ漏洩 不安に陥れた責任は重大だ

We must condemn the apparent lack of responsibility shown by a corporation entrusted with huge amounts of children’s personal information.
 子どもの膨大な個人情報を取り扱う企業としての自覚を欠いていると言わざるを得ない。

Benesse Holdings Inc. has announced that personal information of up to 20.7 million customers may have been leaked from group company Benesse Corp. The leaks comprise data on children learning through the firm’s correspondence courses, including Shinkenzemi for preschool children and schoolchildren, and the company-run prep schools, as well as data on their parents.
 ベネッセホールディングスは、「進研ゼミ」などの通信教育サービスや学習教室で学ぶ子どもやその親の情報が、最大約2070万件流出した可能性があると発表した。

This is one of the largest customer information leakage incidents in the nation’s history. The Metropolitan Police Department has begun investigations of the data leaks as a potential violation of the Unfair Competition Prevention Law, which prohibits disclosure of trade secrets. The Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry is taking the incident very seriously, and has issued instructions to Benesse to submit a report based on the Personal Information Protection Law about how the information leaks occurred, and related details.
 顧客情報の流出としては、国内で最大規模になる。警視庁は、不正競争防止法違反(営業秘密開示)容疑で捜査を始めた。経済産業省も、個人情報保護法に基づき、流出の経緯などを報告するよう、ベネッセに指示した。

In a news conference Wednesday, Benesse Holdings executives emphasized someone from outside the company with access rights to the firm’s customer database is believed to have secretly taken the data and sold it illegally to name list traders.
 ベネッセ幹部は記者会見で、顧客データベースへの接続権限を有する社外の人物が情報を持ち出し、名簿業者に横流しした、との見方を強調した。

Even though there may have been no involvement of any Benesse employees in the leaks, the company bears a heavy responsibility for the outcome due to its failure to prevent the massive information leaks.
 たとえ、社員の関与がなかったとしても、漏洩を防げなかったベネッセの結果責任は重大だ。

Among the leaked data are children’s names, birth dates, addresses and phone numbers. Ages of the victims vary widely from infants to high school students.
 流出した情報には、子どもの氏名や生年月日、住所、電話番号などが含まれている。幼児から高校生まで年齢層も幅広い。

There are reports that the leaked data has already been traded among name list traders and used to send direct mail advertising from correspondence course providers.
 既に名簿業者の間で売買され、通信教育関連の企業がダイレクトメールの発送に利用していた、という情報もある。

Info leaks endless

As the number of children in Japan continues to dwindle, competition has grown ever sharper among businesses targeting children. Information on children is said to be in high demand, as a means for promoting products for children and soliciting by education-related firms.
 少子化が進み、子どもを対象にしたビジネスの競争は激しい。個人情報は、商品販売や教育関連の勧誘に役立つとして、需要が高いと言われている。

Many people have likely had the experience of receiving pamphlets mailed from formal wear rental companies or other companies around the time of their children’s Shichigosan festivals for 3-, 5- and 7-year-olds, and Seijinshiki coming-of-age ceremonies.
 家族の七五三や成人式の前に、レンタル衣装などの案内が自宅に届いた経験のある人も多いのではないだろうか。

In the event of the data being abused, there would arise fears of children being victimized in criminal offenses. The data must obviously be handled with utmost scrupulousness.
 情報が悪用されれば、子どもが犯罪に巻き込まれる恐れもある。最も扱いに慎重を要するデータであることは言うまでもない。

Benesse has reportedly been inundated with inquiries and complaints, including demands to know whether personal data of the inquirers’ children was included in the leaked information. It is only natural for parents and guardians to feel worried about the data leaks.
 ベネッセには「自分の子どもの名前も含まれているのか」といった問い合わせや苦情が殺到しているという。保護者が不安を抱くのは当然である。

The leakage issue will inevitably impact Benesse’s business operations negatively. But the company must do its best to make every possible effort to prevent a recurrence of such problems and to restore public confidence in the company. This is a test for Eiko Harada, who was installed as chairman and chief executive officer of Benesse Holdings in June. His reputation for competence is at stake in steering the company through this challenge.
 漏洩問題が、ベネッセの経営に影響を及ぼすことは避けられまい。再発防止に万全を期し、信頼回復を図らねばならない。6月に就任したばかりの原田泳幸会長兼社長の手腕が問われよう。

There has been an unending succession of leaks of personal information held by businesses.
 企業が保管している個人情報の漏洩は後を絶たない。

The number of customer data and related information leaks from credit card firms and others stood at 319 in fiscal 2012, according to the Consumer Affairs Agency. Up to 70 percent of the affected companies had failed to take such measures as encrypting data and imposing access restrictions, the agency said.
 消費者庁によると、2012年度は、クレジットカード会社の顧客情報など319件に上る。このうち、データの暗号化やアクセス制限などの対策を講じていなかったものが7割を超えている。

Businesses are of course obliged to administer their customer data with utmost caution. Every company should reconfirm whether its information management and security systems are sufficiently reliable.
 企業には顧客情報を厳重に管理する義務がある。管理体制に問題はないか、再点検が必要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 11, 2014)

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台風8号被害 的確な警報発令で人命守ろう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Precise warning advisories critical to protecting lives from disasters
台風8号被害 的確な警報発令で人命守ろう

Utmost caution was taken against Typhoon No. 8, but damage occurred in unexpected areas.
 最大限の警戒態勢を敷いたが、思わぬ所で被害が発生した。

This revealed anew the difficulty in taking measures against natural disasters.
 自然災害の対策の難しさが、改めて浮き彫りになったと言えよう。

Said to belong to the most powerful level of typhoon to hit in July, Typhoon No. 8 wreaked havoc on various parts of the country this week. Many buildings, roads and bridges were damaged as they were hit by strong winds and heavy rains. A number of debris flows and landslides also occurred.
 7月としては「最強クラス」とされた台風8号が今週、各地で猛威を振るった。強い風や大雨により、多くの建物や道路、橋などが損壊した。土石流や地滑り、がけ崩れも相次いだ。

The town of Nagiso in Nagano Prefecture was particularly caught off guard. An avalanche of debris was caused by heavy rains Wednesday evening when the eye of the typhoon was still located off the western coast of Kyushu. The avalanche directly hit a residential home, killing a middle school student.
 虚を突かれたのは、長野県南木曽町だろう。台風の中心が、まだ九州西方沖にあった9日夕、豪雨で土石流が発生した。住宅が直撃され、中学1年生が死亡した。

The anticlockwise atmospheric flow caused by the typhoon brought offshore wet air as far as Nagano Prefecture. This appears to have resulted in heavy rain.
 台風が生み出す反時計回りの大気の流れが、海上の湿った空気を長野県にまで運んだことが、大雨の原因となったらしい。

Hit by the sudden torrential rain, the Nagiso municipal government issued an evacuation advisory, but it came 10 minutes after the debris flow. The mayor said this “couldn’t be anticipated,” but there is no denying that the town’s actions fell behind.
 突然の豪雨を受け、南木曽町が避難勧告を出したのは、土石流発生の10分後だった。町長は「予想できなかった」と語ったが、対応が後手に回ったのは否めない。

A caution against heavy rain was issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency, but it came immediately after the debris avalanche had happened.
 気象庁が大雨洪水警報を発したのも、土石流の直後だった。

Debris flows had occurred many times before in Nagiso. The site of the latest occurrence was designated as a warning area against debris flow disasters, and the town had prepared a detailed hazard map and taken various disaster prevention measures.
 南木曽町では過去に何度も土石流が起きている。今回の現場も土砂災害警戒区域に指定され、詳細なハザードマップを整備し、土砂災害対策に取り組んできた。

Catch early signs

Two debris barriers existed in the upper reach of the site of the latest disaster and another barrier was near completion. Measures had therefore been taken on the premise that the area was at risk, but the loss of life could not be prevented.
 現場の上流部には砂防ダムが2基あり、さらに1基が完成間近だった。危険を伴う地域であることを前提に、対策を講じてきたが、人的被害を防げなかった。

How early premonitory signs of something unusual can be detected could be key to preventing disasters.
 異変の前兆をいかに早く捉えるかが、被害を防ぐカギとなろう。

“The precision of radar rain gauges has been enhanced. We’ll look into the possibility of developing a method to disseminate pinpoint information in detail,” said Keiji Furuya, state minister for disaster management.
古屋防災相は「降雨レーダーの精度は上がっている。きめ細かく、ピンポイントで情報を伝える方法を検討したい」と述べた。

It is essential to apply the very latest technology to the issuance of effective warnings.
 最新技術を効果的な警報発令に反映させることが重要である。

The Japan Meteorological Agency issued a “special warning” in a district of Okinawa Prefecture over Typhoon No. 8, the first of its kind to be put out against a typhoon. The issuance came on Monday, the day before the supertyphoon came closest to the district. It was appropriate for the agency to have alerted residents early, without fearing that the warning would ultimately be unnecessary.
 気象庁は今回、台風としては初の「特別警報」を沖縄地方に発令した。最接近前日の7日のことだ。“空振り”を恐れずに早期警戒を呼びかけたのは適切だった。

The fact remains, however, that the district was hit by heavy rain after the special warning was lifted, causing the agency to issue a special warning again.
 ただ、9日未明に特別警報を解除した後、大雨となり、改めて特別警報を発令した。

Some residents might have thought the danger was over because the special warning was lifted once. Isn’t there any room for improving the way the warning is removed?
 いったん特別警報が解除されたことで、「危険は去った」と思った住民もいるだろう。解除の仕方に改善の余地はないか。

As global warming progresses, typhoons are said to be growing gigantic in size. This is because the heat caused by increases in sea-surface temperatures become an energy source for typhoons. Typhoon No. 8 could be a typical example of this.
 地球温暖化とともに、今後、台風は巨大化すると言われている。海面温度が上昇し、その熱が台風のエネルギー源となるからだ。台風8号は、その典型と言える。

Sea-surface temperatures have remained at high levels this year. With the arrival of the full-scale typhoon season, more powerful storms are feared to hit this country. Every possible countermeasure must be taken to protect people’s lives.
 今年は、海面温度の高い状態が続いている。本格的な台風シーズンになれば、さらに強大な台風の襲来が懸念される。人命を守るため、備えを万全にしたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 12, 2014)

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米中戦略対話 同床異夢の「新しい大国関係」

The Yomiuri Shimbun
U.S., China have different dreams about new ‘great-power relations’
米中戦略対話 同床異夢の「新しい大国関係」

The differences in U.S. and China strategies for the Asia region have become pronounced. Their struggle for leadership in building the regional order seems poised to intensify further.
 米中両国のアジア戦略の対立が際立った。地域の秩序作りを巡る双方の主導権争いは、今後、一段と激しくなろう。

The sixth round of the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue has been held in Beijing. Cabinet member-level representatives from both sides discussed a wide range of issues at the two-day meeting.
 第6回米中戦略・経済対話が北京で行われ、双方の閣僚級が2日間にわたり議論した。

For many observers, the major focus of the meeting was how both sides would handle Chinese President Xi Jinping’s call to U.S. President Barack Obama last year for a “new type of great-power relations.”
 最も注目されたのは、中国の習近平国家主席が昨年、オバマ米大統領に提唱した「新しいタイプの大国関係」の扱いだった。

Xi has a vision of a Pacific Ocean divided into U.S. and Chinese spheres of influence, in which Beijing can protect its “core interests” such as its territories. In his speech at the opening ceremony of the strategic dialogue, Xi also called for building such a major-power relationship. He has previously raised an “Asian security concept” that would remove the United States from the Asian regional security order.
 習氏は太平洋を米中の勢力圏に分割し、領土などの「核心的利益」を守る構想を持つ。戦略対話の開幕式でも、こうした「大国関係」の構築を呼びかけた。アジアの安保秩序から米国を排除する「アジア安全観」も掲げている。

In a statement regarding the dialogue, Obama said the United States remains committed to “increased practical cooperation and constructive management of differences” with China. While Washington is willing to cooperate with Beijing, Obama also clearly indicated his nation is determined to continue its involvement in Asia. While the United States and China might be in the same bed, they are clearly having different dreams.
 米側は、オバマ氏の声明を発表し、中国との「実質的協力を増やし、立場の違いには建設的に対処する」と強調した。米国が中国と協力しながらも、アジアへの関与を続ける決意を明示したものだ。両国関係は同床異夢と言える。

We applaud Obama for adhering to the “pivot to Asia” line embodied by his visit to the region in April.
 オバマ氏が4月のアジア歴訪で体現した「アジア重視」路線を堅持していることを評価したい。

In a reference to China’s pushy maritime expansion in the East China Sea and South China Sea, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said at the dialogue that nations cannot “be permitted simply to act unilaterally to advance territorial claims or interests.” He urged China to abide by international rules.
 東・南シナ海での中国の独善的な海洋進出について、ケリー米国務長官は、「一方的な行動は許されない」と述べ、中国に国際ルールの順守を求めた。

Patchy progress at talks

Chinese State Councillor Yang Jiechi expressed opposition to U.S. support for Japan and Southeast Asian nations in disputes with China. He urged the United States not to take sides but to adopt a “just and objective position.” However, China’s line of argument trying to justify its attempts to change the status quo through force will never win the support of nations affected by its maneuvers.
 中国の楊潔チ国務委員は、「米国が一方に肩入れしないよう求める」として、日本や東南アジアの立場を米国が支持することに反対した。だが、力による現状変更を正当化する中国の論法は、関係国の理解を到底得られまい。

The U.S. side also demanded the Chinese military halt its cyberattacks on the United States, and called for the restart of a working group on cybersecurity. China rejected accusations it is involved in cyberattacks, and showed no sign of ending its refusal to resume the working group talks.
 中国軍による米国へのサイバー攻撃については、米国が、攻撃の中止と作業部会での協議再開を求めた。中国は、攻撃の事実を否定しており、協議を拒否する姿勢も崩さなかった。

China’s cyberattacks are a concern shared by the international community. If China wishes to proclaim itself to be a major power, then it has a responsibility to engage properly in such talks.
 中国のサイバー攻撃は、国際社会に共通する懸案だ。中国が「大国」を自称するなら、きちんと協議に応じる責任がある。

In the economic field, the United States and China confirmed they would accelerate bilateral cooperation toward crafting a new framework for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. China is the world’s biggest emitter of such gases, and the United States is the second largest. For any such framework to be effective, it will require the active participation of both these nations.
 経済分野では、温室効果ガス削減の新たな枠組み作りに向けた米中協力の加速を確認した。中国と米国は世界1、2位の排出国だ。実効性ある枠組み作りへ積極的な取り組みが求められる。

The U.S. side again prodded China to move more toward a market-based exchange rate for the yuan. However, China remained reluctant on this issue, and they were unable to narrow their differences much.
 人民元の為替レート問題では、市場原理による為替相場への移行を主張する米国と、これに慎重な中国との溝が埋まらなかった。

Before the latest round of talks, Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida and Kerry held talks over the telephone, and Japan and the United States used other channels to exchange opinions in detail.
 今回の対話を前に、岸田外相とケリー氏が電話会談するなど、日米両国は緊密に意見交換した。

Many of the United States’ assertions are shared by Japan and its interests. It is essential that Japan strengthen solidarity with the United States in its policies toward China.
 米国の主張の多くは、日本と利害を共有している。日本は、対中国政策で、米国との連携を強化することが肝要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 12, 2014)

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2014年7月 8日 (火)

「富士山」山開き 世界遺産にふさわしい保全を

読売にしてはきわめて珍しい誤植(ミスタイプ)なんです。
Mr. Fuji → Mt. Fuji
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
With start of year’s climbing season, Mt. Fuji’s beauty must be preserved
「富士山」山開き 世界遺産にふさわしい保全を

Now that this year’s summer climbing season for Mt. Fuji has started, many people will aim to ascend Japan’s tallest mountain, which has observed the first anniversary of its registration as a World Cultural Heritage site.
 富士山が夏山シーズンを迎えた。世界文化遺産に登録されてから1年、今年も多くの人々が山頂を目指すだろう。

As the number of climbers increases, there are heightened concerns that the mountain’s rich natural environment will be damaged.
 入山者の増加とともに懸念されるのは、豊かな自然環境が損なわれることだ。

When it registered Mr. Fuji on its heritage list, UNESCO—in a rare move—assigned “homework” to the government to submit a report on the environmental preservation of Mt. Fuji by the end of February 2016.
 国連教育・科学・文化機関(ユネスコ)は、2016年2月までに富士山の保全状況に関する報告書を提出するよう政府に求めている。遺産登録の際、異例の“宿題”として課せられたものだ。

If its worth as a World Heritage site is compromised, the mountain could be designated as an endangered site. UNESCO has gone as far as delisting a heritage site: Dresden Elbe Valley’s listing was nullified after Germany built a new bridge there, significantly changing its scenic view.
 世界遺産としての価値が揺らげば、「危機遺産」の指定を受けかねない。ドイツ・ドレスデンの「エルベ渓谷」のように、新たに橋を架けて景観が大きく変化したことで、遺産登録自体を取り消された例もある。

The Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectural governments as well as relevant municipalities have set up the Mt. Fuji World Cultural Heritage council, which is tasked with making a report to UNESCO.
 山梨、静岡両県や地元自治体などは、「富士山世界文化遺産協議会」を組織し、ユネスコへの報告書作成に取り組んでいる。

Efforts must be made to preserve the environment of Mt. Fuji so the mountain can keep a status the nation can be proud of.
 富士山が、日本の誇る世界遺産であり続けるため、保全策に力を注がねばならない。

Above all, climbers must improve their etiquette. There is no end to littering by climbers despite the fact they are required to take all trash with them, a phenomenon that has resulted in a massive volume of garbage on the mountainsides.
 まず求められるのは、入山者一人ひとりのマナーの向上だ。ゴミを持ち帰らずに放置する例が後を絶たない。その量は膨大だ。

Hold down numbers

It is unavoidable to restrict the number of climbers, expected to reach 300,000 during the season, which runs through mid-September. Environment-friendly toilets are installed at about 50 locations above the mountain’s fifth station, but they are capable of handling only about 250,000 people.
 9月中旬までのシーズン中、30万人にも達する入山者の規制も避けて通れない。富士山の5合目から上には、環境配慮型トイレが約50か所に設置されているが、処理能力は約25万人分とされる。

The Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectures set a voluntary ¥1,000 fee for people to climb the mountain starting this season. It is reasonable for climbers who put a burden on nature to shoulder some of the preservation costs, a system used widely elsewhere in the world.
 山梨、静岡両県は今シーズンから、1人1000円の入山料を任意で徴収し始めた。
 山の自然に負荷をかける入山者が、その保全費用の一部を負担するのは理にかなう。海外では広く取り入れられている制度だ。

Some critics say paying ¥1,000 or so will not discourage people from climbing the mountain. We believe, however, it is a realistic approach to start with a fee that most people will easily accept. It is an important step toward strengthening measures to preserve the environment.
 1000円程度の負担では、入山者を減らす効果が期待できないとの声もあるが、賛同を得やすい金額でスタートさせたのは現実的な対応だろう。
 自然環境保護の強化に向けて、重要な一歩と言える。

Noncommercial vehicles have been banned from the Fuji Subaru Line connecting to a trail at the fifth station and other roads for a certain period for the past 20 years. This year, the period was extended further.
 富士山では20年前から、5合目の登山口に至る富士スバルラインなどで、マイカーの乗り入れを一定期間禁止している。今年は、禁止期間をさらに延長した。

To effectively curb the number of climbers, various measures like these should be combined.
 入山者の抑制の実効性を高めるには、こうした様々な施策を組み合わせることが必要だろう。

Local communities concerned are still pinning high hopes on a tourism boost with the heritage listing. But it will be utterly meaningless if a steep rise in the number of tourists and climbers to Mt. Fuji irreparably damages its nature.
 世界遺産登録により、地元では依然として、観光振興への期待が高い。だが、観光客や入山者の急増で、自然環境が破壊されてしまっては、元も子もない。

Stopping disorderly developments to ensure Mt. Fuji remains close to its original state can only enhance the worth of this mountain.
 無秩序な開発に歯止めをかけ、本来の姿をとどめることが、富士山の価値を高めよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 6, 2014)

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中枢拠点都市 「地方創生」へ戦略が問われる

The Yomiuri Shimbun
‘Regional pivotal city’ idea must lead to reinvigoration of local economies
中枢拠点都市 「地方創生」へ戦略が問われる

The rapid shrinking of the population, the graying of society and the widening economic disparity between big cities and other regions of the country have been progressing alarmingly. Many municipalities are facing the daunting challenge of what must be done to revitalize local economies and maintain the quality of administrative services for their residents.
 急速な人口減少や高齢化、大都市圏と地方の格差の拡大が進んでいる。いかに地域を活性化し、住民への行政サービスを維持するかは、多くの自治体にとって共通の課題だ。

The Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry is set to designate “regional pivotal municipalities” from among the country’s 61 cities with a population of 200,000 or more, with the exception of those in the nation’s three major metropolitan areas, including Tokyo. It aims to launch a system in which the designated cities will act as a driving force for economic growth in the respective regions.
 総務省は、東京など3大都市圏以外にある人口20万人以上の61市から「地方中枢拠点都市」を指定し、その地域圏の経済成長の牽引けんいん役を担わせる制度を開始する。

The envisioned midsize regional pivotal cities are to enter into “cooperative pacts” with cities, towns and villages surrounding them on the basis of the Local Government Law, which was revised in May. They are expected to allocate roles among the entities involved and mutually decide on a direction for bringing about the rebirth of the localities. The municipalities are to work out regional versions of the nationwide growth strategy comprising a range of programs, including those for the promotion of local industries and tourism.
 中枢拠点都市は、5月に成立した改正地方自治法に基づき、周辺市町村と「連携協約」を締結し、各自治体の役割分担や、地域圏のまちづくりの方向性を定める。産業・観光振興など「地域版の成長戦略」も策定する。

The central government will provide each regional pivotal city with hundreds of millions of yen in additional local tax grants each year. Pilot projects under this concept are scheduled to be implemented in nine cities this fiscal year, prior to full-scale implementation from fiscal 2015.
 中枢拠点都市には、年数億円の地方交付税が加算される。今年度は9市でモデル事業を行い、来年度から本格実施する予定だ。

The local growth strategies should adequately reflect local characteristics and the area’s current situations. It is essential for the municipalities to make the best possible use of private-sector ideas and vitality through discussions with local businesses, universities and others about what the future of the regions should be.
 成長戦略には、地域の特性や実情を反映させたい。各自治体が、地元企業や大学と地域の将来像を議論し、民間のアイデアや活力を活用することが欠かせない。

Japan’s population has been shrinking since it peaked at about 128 million in 2008, and is projected to fall below 100 million in 2048. The aging rate of the population—the percentage of people aged 65 or older out of the country’s total population—is forecast to reach 40 percent in 2050, compared to 20 percent in 2004.
 日本の総人口は、2008年の約1億2800万人をピークに減少し、48年には1億人を切る。高齢化率も、04年の20%から50年には40%に達する見通しである。

Population declines in areas outside big cities are especially serious. It will certainly become difficult for each municipality to maintain various public facilities and provide wide-ranging administrative services all by itself.
 特に、地方の人口減は深刻だ。各自治体が単独で様々な公共施設を維持し、あらゆる行政サービスを提供するのは困難となろう。

Follow good examples

The blueprint of the scheme calls for integration of high-level urban functions into the regional pivotal cities. Surrounding municipalities are supposed to share roles in such fields as industrial production and medical services, in a way conducive to maintaining the quality of livelihoods of local residents. These objectives are quite understandable.
 高度な都市機能は中枢拠点都市に集約する。周辺自治体は、産業、医療分野などで役割分担し、住民の生活の質を維持する。そうした構想の狙いは理解できる。

The realignment of aging public facilities is important in this connection, to ensure their optimum reallocation in the integrated municipalities in a way well suited to desires of their users, instead of simply rebuilding them in the same places as they are currently located.
 老朽化した公共施設は、同じ場所に建て替えるのでなく、圏域内で適正配置となるよう利用者の目線で再調整することも大切だ。

The city of Fukuoka has been proceeding actively with projects to attract international conferences and exhibitions, forging ahead to promote tourism and restaurant businesses in tandem with surrounding local governments. In another example, the municipal government of Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture, has developed an endoscope in collaboration with a local medical university and small and midsize businesses.
 福岡市は、国際会議や見本市を積極的に誘致し、周辺自治体の観光・飲食産業と連携した地域振興策を進めている。静岡県浜松市は、地元の医科大や中小企業と内視鏡手術装置を共同開発した。

The city government of Kumamoto has been working on a project aimed at turning the farming sector of the city and its environs into what is known as the “sixth industry,” by having local companies process farming products in the region and seeking to spread their marketing routes nationwide.
 熊本市は、圏域内の農作物を企業が加工し、全国に販路を広げる6次産業化に取り組んでいる。

Other municipalities are well-advised to exercise wisdom in fleshing out their own industrial promotion measures by referring to these good examples.
 各自治体は、こうした先行事例も参考にして、独自の振興策に知恵を絞ってもらいたい。

Besides the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry, government offices including the secretariat of the Cabinet Office; the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry; the Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry; and the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry have separately appropriated budgets for regional revitalization purposes and worked to establish necessary legislation. This a typical example of vertically segmented bureaucratic administration devoid of coordination.
 政府内では総務省以外に、内閣官房や国土交通、経済産業、農林水産省などが別々に地域活性化の予算を計上し、関連法を整備している。縦割り行政の典型だ。

The government will soon set up a “regional reinvigoration promotion headquarters” headed by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. All ministries concerned must take this opportunity to coordinate more closely with each other to adjust and consolidate their efforts to ensure the government policy produces synergistic effects.
 政府は、近く安倍首相をトップとする「地方創生本部」を設置する。これを機に、各省が緊密に連携・調整し、政策が相乗効果を生むようにしなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 6, 2014)

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2014年7月 7日 (月)

今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

デジタルサイネージと連動した、スマホアプリ活用O2Oプロモーションを開始 グッドプランニング株式会社

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「無関心」という不幸 /東京

June 15, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: The tragedy of apathy
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「無関心」という不幸 /東京

Cases of unidentified elderly men and women with dementia and other conditions taken into and kept under protective custody for long periods of time have recently come to the public's attention, thanks to stories run by the Mainichi Shimbun and other media outlets. Just the other day, a man with dementia who's been staying at a nursing home was finally identified by family members 18 years after he went missing.
 毎日新聞の記事などがきっかけとなり、認知症による徘徊(はいかい)などで行方不明となって保護された後、身元がわかるまで長期間かかる高齢者の問題に注目が集まっている。先日は老人ホームにいた男性の身元が18年ぶりに判明するというできごともあった。

Sharing the spotlight with these stories of men and women are those of children whose whereabouts and well-being are unknown. According to the education ministry, there were at least 705 elementary school and junior high school students whose whereabouts were unknown for at least one year as of last year. Meanwhile, the government does not yet have a grasp on the number of younger children who do not attend baby and toddler medical checkups and have not been located otherwise.
 一方、所在や安否が不明という子どもが大勢いることにも注目が集まっている。文部科学省によると、1年以上居場所が分からない小中学校の「居所不明児童」は、昨年時点で全国で705人にも上っている。また、乳幼児健診を受けないことなどで「所在不明」とされているさらに低年齢の子どももいるが、全国の実態はまだ把握されていない。

Municipal governments are required to make home visits in cooperation with child welfare offices and schools, but not all children can be located, for example, if the children's parents move repeatedly. Just recently, the body of a boy who had been abandoned in an apartment in Atsugi, Kanagawa Prefecture, was found years after his death. The municipal staff that visited the home had assumed the boy had moved and stopped following the case.
自治体は児童相談所や学校と連携して自宅を訪問するなどの対応をとることになっているが、親が転居を繰り返したりすると追跡しきれなくなる。先日、神奈川県厚木市でアパートに置き去りにされた男児が遺体となって見つかる事件が発覚したが、訪問した市の職員は「子どもは引っ越した」と考え、対応を打ち切ったという。

On the one hand, we have elderly people who are alive and well, but whose identities we do not know. On the other hand, we have children who we know were born, but we have no idea where they are and what they are up to. The reasons for these unknowns may differ -- one explained by dementia, and the other by irresponsible parents -- but both are emblematic of a tragic state that we humans can find ourselves.
 いまここで生きているのに、身元もわからない高齢者。生まれたことはわかっているのに、いまどこで何をしているのかを誰も知らない子ども。片方が認知症という病気のため、もう一方は無責任な親のためと、理由は違うが、人間として一番悲しい事態に陥っていると考えられる。

During my consultations with patients, though, I realized that while the extent may differ, we can find ourselves in similar states in our everyday lives. One man told me that although he worked for years at the same small company, his boss refused to learn his name. A high school student in a family leading separate lives said that even after a few days away from home, the mother hadn't notice the student's absence. "Oh, were you gone?" she'd asked.
 ただ、診察室にいると、程度こそ違うが同じような状態に陥ることは日常でもあるな、と感じる。ある男性は、小さな会社で何年も働いていたのに、上司がなかなか名前を覚えてくれようとはせず、ずっと「おまえ」と呼ばれ続けた。ある高校生はバラバラの家族の中で暮らし、何日か家を空けても母親に「え、いなかったっけ?」と気づいてもらえないと言っていた。

A Twitter response to a tweet can be uplifting, an acknowledgement of your existence. Conversely, when no one responds, it can fill you with anxiety that no one cares. To exist for years without having one's identity or whereabouts known is to live in a continuous state of others' apathy. Everyone born into this world has the desire to be recognized and cared about. All I can wish for is a speedy resolution to the problem of unidentified men, women and children.
 ツイッターでの小さなつぶやきでも、誰かが「読みましたよ。私も同感です」と反応してくれると、「ああ、私に気づいてくれている人がいるんだ」とうれしくなる。逆に誰からも何の反応もないと「みんな私には無関心なのか」と不安になることもある。所在不明のまま何年もすごすということは、その「みんな無関心」という状況がいつまでも続くということだ。この世に生まれてきたからには誰だって、「あなたのこと、知ってますよ」「いつも気にかけています」と言われて暮らしたいはずだ。身元不明の高齢者、所在不明の児童の問題が一日も早く解決することを祈りたい。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年06月10日 地方版

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:彼らのルールは妥当? /東京

June 22, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Are youth rules on smartphone use appropriate?
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:彼らのルールは妥当? /東京

Some 450 million people worldwide are believed to be users of the free communication app "Line." I recently asked some 100 university students in my classes if they used Line, and all of them said they did.
 世界で4億5000万人が使っているといわれる無料通信アプリ「LINE(ライン)」。大学で二つのクラスで「使ってる人は」と尋ねると、どちらも50人以上の学生の全員が手をあげた。つまり利用率100%だ。

Recently, people have become victims of crimes through the use of Line, and I asked my students what they thought were problems surrounding the application. But most students said they can't think of any problems. As I was not convinced by their answers, I asked some students to talk about incidents related to the use of Line, and a student said, "I was asked to go out on a date for money by a complete stranger via Line." Another student said, "I was in a group chat, but forgot who was in the group and talked ill about a person who was actually a group member."
 最近、このアプリでのやり取りから犯罪に巻き込まれたという事件もあるので「使っていて困る点、危険な点は?」ときいたところほとんどの学生は「特にない」と言う。それでも食い下がって何人かに話をきくと「知らない人から突然、援助交際の誘いがあった」「グループを作ってやり取りをしている中で誰がメンバーだったか忘れて、そこにいた人の悪口を書いてしまった」など、事件やトラブル寸前のような経験をしている人もいることがわかった。

So, how come some people can enjoy conversations via Line while avoiding problems, while others are dragged into crimes using the same application?
 では、どういう人が犯罪に巻き込まれ、どういう人がそれをすり抜け安全なコミュニケーションを楽しんでいるのだろう。

Students told me that they are cautious when using the app. They said they don't respond to Line messages unless they are absolutely sure who the sender is, and they block any unknown users.
 学生たちにさらに話をしてもらうと、危険を回避するために日ごろからかなり警戒していて、完全に誰かがわかる相手から来た連絡以外には「一切こたえない」「すぐにブロックする」という声も多く出た。

I told my students that I politely ask senders who they are when I receive Line messages from people who only use their usernames. "Unbelievable!" "That's too dangerous!" the students said to me. Under their own rules, it is okay to ignore messages sent by users who don't use their real names.
「ニックネームで登録している人から突然、LINEのメッセージが来ることがあって、そういうときには失礼がないよう、一応『どなたですか?』と返事しているんだけど」と私が言うと、学生たちからいっせいに「信じられない!」「危険すぎます!」といった声があがった。「たとえ多少の失礼があっても、フルネームを名乗らずに連絡してくる人は無視してよい」というのが、彼らのルールのようなのだ。

Young people who have been raised with communication tools like the Line app avoid risks carefully and sometimes boldly. From an adult perspective, however, their techniques while using such communication tools may endanger relationships with their friends and families. They may also misunderstand and think that they are close to someone they have never met.
 ものごころついたときからこういったツールを使いこなして友人や家族とコミュニケーションしている若者たちは、ときには大胆にときには慎重に振る舞いながら、便利さと危険回避とのバランスを取ろうとしている。ただ、大人から見ると、一歩間違えば大切な関係が壊れることもあれば、逆に会ったこともない相手との関係を親密と錯覚してしまうこともありそうだ。

I think these types of communication apps will continue to grow, and by no means am I protesting against them. But, I am not sure if rules created by young people when using those apps are appropriate. When I heard a student say, "I can't live without this app," I thought maybe we the adults need to review such rules among young users.
 こういった手軽に誰とでもやり取りできる便利なツールは、これからもどんどん登場するだろう。それを今さら「やめるべき」と言うつもりはない。ただ彼らが作り上げた“使い方のルール”が本当に妥当かどうかは、一度、大人も首を突っ込んで検討してみる必要があるのではないか。「これがなければ生きられない」と無邪気に語る学生たちの顔を見ながら、そんなことを考えた。(精神科医)

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年06月17日 地方版

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:もう少しラクになれば /東京

June 29, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Be easier on yourself
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:もう少しラクになれば /東京

We all live through life with our own preferences. Some people like to eat in the open air, while others dislike it because they think it's dirty. When these preferences grow to the size that they interfere with work or private life, however, that is called "obsessive-compulsive disorder" (OCD).
 私たちはみな、いろいろな「こだわり」を持って生きている。「開放的な屋外で食事をするのは気持ちいい」という人もいれば、「外で食べるなんて不潔できらい」という人もいるだろう。その「こだわり」が過剰になり、生活や仕事に支障がきたされるほどになった場合、それは「強迫性障害」と呼ばれる。

OCD is a common psychological disorder, like depression. A common obsession amongst those with OCD is repeated washing of hands or clothing because of worry that they or their surroundings are covered with germs. Another is repeatedly "checking" on something, like that doors or windows are closed or that gas valves are shut. Sometimes the obsession is an arbitrary rule like "start walking with the right foot" or doing anything to avoid using a particular number. OCD is much more severe than just having strong preferences or believing in good luck charms. In many cases, the person with OCD agonizes because they know what they are doing is unreasonable but they cannot stop.
 強迫性障害は、うつ病などと並んでよくある心の病のひとつだ。その中でもとくに多いのは、自分やまわりが細菌などで汚れているのではと気になり、何度も手洗いや洗濯をしてしまう「洗浄」と、戸締まりやガスの元栓などを繰り返し確かめる「確認」だ。ほかにも「歩き出すときは右足から」といった自分で作ったルールにこだわったり、特定の数字を何としても避けたりする人もいる。強迫性障害の場合、単に「こだわりが強い」「ジンクスを大切にする」といった程度を大きく超えており、本人も「そこまでやらなくてよいのに。でもやらずにはいられない」と苦痛を感じている場合が多い。

These days, it is thought that OCD is caused not just by personality or stress, but by problems with the distribution of brain hormones. Often medicine to correct this distribution is used in the treatment of OCD, and behavioral treatment that involves gradually gaining control over the problem behavior is also said to be effective.
 いまのところ、この強迫性障害は性格やストレスだけが原因ではなく、いわゆる脳内ホルモンの調節障害がかかわっていると考えられている。そのため、治療にはその障害を改善する薬を使うことが多いが、段階を踏みながら問題となる行動をコントロールする認知行動療法も効果的といわれている。

OCD often occurs in children. For a child who insists on bowing 100 times before they go to sleep, often the reason is that they think that if they don't follow that rule, something bad will happen to their family. Even if it seems ridiculous to adults, children often believe such things.
 この強迫性障害はしばしば子どもにも起きる。子どもの場合、「寝る前に100回おじぎをする」といったこだわり行動の背景には、「それをしないと家族に悪いことが起きるから」など「家族を守るため」という理由があることも多い。おとなが「そんなバカな」と思うことでも、子どもは疑うことなく信じてしまいがちなのだ。

Family members should not scold such a child but instead be accepting while inviting them to do something more fun. For example: "Thanks for doing that for everyone, but you can stop partway. Now let's eat." If the family members get annoyed by the behavior, it will only escalate.
 家族は「そんなこと、やめなさい」「意味がないでしょう」としからずに、「みんなのためにやってくれているんだね」などと受け入れ、「でも途中でやめても大丈夫だよ。さあ、ごはんにしよう」ともっと楽しいことに誘ってあげるくらいの“何気なさ”が大切だ。見ている家族のほうがイライラして、いても立ってもいられなくなっては、ますます行動はエスカレートしてしまう。

For children as well as adults, those with OCD tend to be serious, hard workers who are dependable at their jobs. I'd like them to calmly validate themselves, saying, "These preferences make up a unique part of who I am, but if I relax a little I can enjoy life more."
 おとなの場合でも、強迫性障害の人たちは一般にまじめで努力家、仕事などの面では信頼できる実力派が多い。「このこだわりは個性。でももう少しラクになればもっと人生、楽しめるはず」くらいにどっしりかまえて、自分を認めてあげてほしい。(精神科医)

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年06月24日 地方版

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:使用一瞬、依存一生 /東京

July 06, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Addiction recovery can take a lifetime
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:使用一瞬、依存一生 /東京

A man recently drove his SUV onto a sidewalk in Tokyo's Ikebukuro area, leaving a woman dead and seven others injured. The man has admitted to purchasing and smoking a so-called "legal loophole herb," and it is believed that he was under its influence when he caused the crash. What he did is unforgivable.
 東京・池袋で車が暴走し、8人が死傷する事件が起きた。運転していた男性は「脱法ハーブ」を購入して使用していたことを認めており、暴走はその影響と考えられている。許されない話だ。

Although the substance is called an herb, it is no simple plant concoction. These drugs, which are not technically illegal, are made of leaves processed with chemicals, resulting in a product with effects similar to those of stimulants and marijuana. Most of these chemicals were first developed for medical uses including as pain killers for people with cancer or other diseases.
 「ハーブ」という名前はついているが決して植物性のものではなく、覚醒剤や大麻と似た作用のある化学物質を植物のかけらにまぶしたりした加工製品である。それら化学物質の多くはがんの鎮痛など当初は医療用に開発されたものが不法な経路で流出し、加工されて売られているのだ。

Some people try them out thinking they are made of natural ingredients and that they are simply relaxing, but the chemicals with which these leaves are laced are strong. Examples of these drugs' symptoms include hyperactivity, hallucinations, tremors, nausea and disorientation. Repeated use may cause chronic psychological illnesses, and those who become addicted to the substances oftentimes end up destroying their lives. The strength of these loophole drugs and the horror they can cause are incompatible with the deceptively innocuous term "herb."
 あたかもリラックス効果のある安心な天然素材というイメージで手を出す人もいるようだが、含まれる成分は非常に強力だ。摂取してすぐの急性症状としては興奮、幻覚、けいれんや嘔吐(おうと)、意識障害などが起き、頻回の使用で慢性の精神病状態に陥ったり、心身の依存が形成されて手を切れなくなったりして人生が崩壊してしまうケースも少なくない。その強烈さと恐ろしさは一般の「ハーブ」のイメージとはほど遠い。

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has designated over 1,300 chemicals as harmful drugs and bans the use and possession of such substances like marijuana and stimulants. However, the ministry is having a hard time keeping up with new chemicals that evade existing regulations and controlling the circulation of new substances.
 厚生労働省はこれまで1300種以上の化学物質を有害な「指定薬物」として覚醒剤や大麻と同様に所持や使用を禁止しているが、それをすり抜けるかのように新しい化学物質が出回り、取り締まりが困難となっている。

There used to be a road safety ad that went, "It only takes a moment to pay attention, but it takes a whole lifetime to recover from a car accident." When I see patients suffering from the aftereffects of addiction to these "herbs," I'm reminded of that ad and always think, "It only takes a moment to take a drug, but it takes whole lifetime to recover from addiction."
 かつて交通事故撲滅を呼びかけるコピーで「注意一瞬、事故一生」というのがあった。脱法ハーブの後遺症で苦しむ人を見ると、私はいつも「使用一瞬、依存一生」だと思う。

They might have used the hallucinatory herb for only a short time in their lives, but addiction patients must use a lot of energy trying to beat their dependence on the drug. They must pay the price for abusing these loophole drugs, including but not limited to quitting their job due to the substance's aftereffects. In other words, by the time a user regrets taking the drug, it's already too late.
使ったのは人生の中のほんの一時期であったとしても、その人はその後、薬をやめるために多大なエネルギーを使ったり、ぶり返す精神病のような後遺症で仕事もできなくなったり、あまりにも大きな“ツケ”を払わなければならなくなる。「あのとき、誘いに応じて気軽に手を出したばっかりに」と悔やんでもどうにもならない。

You may come across pills and drinks that are labeled as "herbs," "aromatherapy goods" or "supplements." Some people take these substances without thinking very much about it, especially when they come from friends or significant others, possibly worrying that to refuse would endanger these relationships.
 「ハーブ」「アロマ」「サプリ」といった名で「飲んでみない?」と差し出される錠剤や液体。とくに相手が恋人や友人の場合、断ったら人間関係にヒビが入るのでは、と「一度だけなら」と義理で応じてしまう人もいる。

That one sip or one pill may be the beginning of the end of the person's life. I want readers to refuse to take these substances. Make excuses if you have to. Say you have an allergy. If the person offering the pill takes offense, that person does not care about you in the first place. We have to do whatever it takes to prevent "loophole" drugs from spreading throughout our society.
しかし、その最初の一錠が不幸の扉を開けるかもしれないのだ。よくわからないものは「私、アレルギーがあるから」とでも言ってとにかく口に入れないでほしい。それで「なんだ、もう友だちじゃないよ」などと言う相手は、はじめからあなたのことなど大切にしていないのだ。脱法ハーブのまん延は何としても防がなければならない。

(精神科医)
(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年07月01日 地方版

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2014年7月 6日 (日)

土砂災害対策 警戒区域指定で住民守りたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Designating warning zones vital for protection against landslides
土砂災害対策 警戒区域指定で住民守りたい

The seasonal rains have intensified, bringing heavy downpours to various parts of the country, with Nagasaki Prefecture recording its heaviest rainfall in 50 years.
 梅雨前線が活発化し、各地で豪雨が相次いでいる。長崎県では「50年に1度」という大雨に見舞われた。

Keen vigilance against landslide disasters is now a must. To ensure the safety of residents, municipalities must reexamine their disaster prevention measures.
 今後も土砂災害などへの警戒を怠れない。市町村は、住民の安全確保のため、防災体制を再点検してもらいたい。

It is worrying that the designation of warning zones based on the landslide disaster prevention law, which was enforced in 2001, has been delayed.
 気がかりなのは、2001年施行の土砂災害防止法に基づく区域指定が遅れていることだ。

The landslide disaster prevention law makes it mandatory for prefectural governments to designate warning zones—and special warning zones requiring greater caution—after conducting on-the-spot investigations of slopes in danger of collapsing.
 土砂災害防止法は、崩落の恐れがある傾斜地を都道府県が現地調査した上で、警戒区域や、より危険性の高い特別警戒区域に指定するよう定めている。

As for the designated zones, municipalities are obliged to establish an evacuation system for residents and make hazard maps to fully alert residents. If facilities for the elderly or disabled exist within such zones, it is mandatory for municipalities to set a communication system to disseminate disaster information.
 指定を受けた区域については、市町村が住民の避難体制を整備し、ハザードマップも作製して周知することが義務づけられている。区域内に高齢者や障害者の施設などがある場合は、災害情報の伝達手段も定める必要がある。

Prefectural governments’ designation of warning zones could play an important part in preventing regional landslide disasters.
 都道府県による警戒区域の指定は、地域の土砂災害を防ぐ上で、重要なプロセスと言えよう。

However, of the 520,000 spots listed as dangerous by the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry based on topographical maps available until fiscal 2002 and other data, slightly more than 170,000 spots have yet to be designated as warning zones.
 ところが、国土交通省が02年度までの地形図などをもとにリストアップした全国約52万件の危険箇所のうち、17万件余りが、いまだに区域指定に至っていない。

Persuasion efforts crucial

A factor behind the delay in the designation is the difficulty prefectural governments experience in winning over residents around such zones. In many cases, residents showed reluctance to approve designations, saying that, among other reasons, a designation would reduce the real estate value of their houses.
 周辺住民の理解を得にくいことが、指定が進まない要因だ。自宅の不動産価値が下がるなどとして、住民が区域指定に難色を示すケースが少なくない。

If a landslide occurs before scrupulous evacuation plans have been worked out, residents could face even worse devastation. In meetings to be held with residents before a designation, prefectural governments must explain the intent and purpose of the landslide disaster prevention law in minute detail.
 綿密な避難計画が策定されていない状況で、土砂災害が発生すれば、住民の被害が拡大する恐れがある。都道府県は、指定前に開く住民説明会で、法の趣旨を丁寧に説明することが重要だ。

The Fukuoka prefectural government has almost completed the designation of about 17,000 locations as warning zones. In explanation meetings with local residents, the prefectural government presented video footage of landslide disasters and conveyed to the residents the need for warning-zone designation in cooperation with officials of the municipalities concerned.
 福岡県では、約1万7000か所に上る県内の警戒区域の指定をほぼ完了した。住民説明会で土砂災害の模様をビデオ上映し、市町村職員の協力を得て、住民に区域指定の必要性を訴えたという。

Such an endeavor could be used as a reference for other prefectural governments.
 こうした取り組みは、他の都道府県の参考になろう。

A lack of prefectural government officials in charge is also a source of concern. Izu Oshima island of Tokyo, where 39 people were killed or went missing after a debris flow disaster last fall, had not been designated as a warning zone. This is because the metropolitan government had put the designation of island areas on the back burner, citing a manpower shortage as its reason.
 都道府県の担当職員が不足していることも懸念材料だ。昨秋、土石流災害で39人の死者・行方不明者が出た伊豆大島は、警戒区域に指定されていなかった。東京都が人手不足を理由に、島嶼とうしょ部の指定を後回しにしていたためだ。

Prefectural governments are urged to enhance their work efficiency by giving priority to the designation of areas with a high degree of danger, among other measures.
 都道府県には、危険度が高い地域の指定を優先するなど、作業の効率化が求められる。

The landslide disaster prevention law makes it mandatory to review a list of zones for designation every five years. There may be zones where there is new danger of collapse due to residential land development. It is imperative to reflect the up-to-the-minute information meticulously in devising measures against landslide disasters.
 土砂災害防止法は、5年ごとに指定箇所を見直すよう定めている。宅地造成などにより、新たに崩落の危険が生じている地区もあるだろう。最新の情報をきめ細かく土砂災害対策に反映させていくことが肝要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 5, 2014)

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中韓首脳会談 地域の安定損なう「反日共闘」

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China-ROK anti-Japanese campaign threatens to bring regional instability
中韓首脳会談 地域の安定損なう「反日共闘」

China’s intention to drive a wedge into cooperative ties among Japan, the United States and South Korea by wooing Seoul to its side has become more clear than ever.
 韓国を取り込み、日米韓の連携にくさびを打ち込む。そんな中国の狙いが浮き彫りになった。

Chinese President Xi Jinping has visited Seoul for talks with South Korean President Park Geun-hye, and the two leaders confirmed their nations’ “firm opposition” to the development of nuclear weapons on the Korean Peninsula in connection with their policies toward North Korea.
 中国の習近平国家主席がソウルを訪問し、韓国の朴槿恵大統領と会談した。北朝鮮政策で、朝鮮半島での核開発に断固反対する方針で一致した。

It was the first time that a top Chinese leader has visited South Korea ahead of North Korea, a traditional friend of the communist state. Xi played up the impression that China was placing importance on South Korea and that the two nations were forging a cooperative relationship.
 中国の最高指導者が、伝統的友好国の北朝鮮より先に韓国を訪れるのは初めてだ。「韓国重視」と「中韓協調」を演出した。

In an article he contributed to South Korean newspapers just before his visit, Xi said it was essential for the two nations to take joint steps for the security of Asia. The proposal is based on his “Asian security concept,” in which “Asian security must be protected by Asian people.” It is a clear indication that China is trying to exclude the United States from the security framework of Asia.
 習氏は訪韓直前に韓国紙に寄稿し、アジアの安全保障で中韓の共同対処の重要性を強調している。「アジアの安全はアジアの人々が守る」という自らの「アジア安全観」に基づく提案で、米国を排除しようとする意図が明らかだ。

Japan, the United States and Southeast Asian nations are sharply criticizing China for its unilateral attempts to change the status quo in Asia, which have increasingly isolated the nation. Given the situation, Bejing apparently wants to gain Seoul’s cooperation in creating a China-led Asian order through strengthened relations with South Korea, whose economy increasingly depends on that of China.
 アジアでは、一方的な現状変更を試みる中国に対し、日米や東南アジア諸国が批判を強めている。孤立傾向にある中国は、経済面で対中依存を深める韓国との関係を強化し、中国主導の秩序作りへの協力を得たいのだろう。

Limited results

But a joint statement merely said the two nations will regularly hold high-level strategic dialogue on security and diplomatic issues. As South Korea naturally sought to avoid causing cracks in its relations with its ally, the United States, Xi’s diplomatic strategy was not fruitful.
 しかし、中韓共同声明は、「外交・安保上級戦略対話の定例化」と記述するにとどまった。韓国が同盟国・米国との亀裂を避けるのは当然であり、習氏の外交戦略が奏功したとは言えまい。

As for the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank that Xi is proposing, the joint statement only said the two nations will continue talks on the matter. China will not easily realize its ambitions to lead efforts to build a financial order in Asia to counter the Asian Development Bank, which is led by Japan and the United States.
 習氏が提唱する「アジアインフラ投資銀行」についても「継続協議」とされた。日米が主導するアジア開発銀行に対抗し、中国主導の金融秩序を築くという目論見もくろみも簡単には実現しないだろう。

Above all, Japan should be alarmed by the fact that China and South Korea agreed to conduct joint research on materials related to so-called comfort women as spelled out in a supplementary note to their joint statement.
 日本が警戒すべきは、共同声明の付属文書に、いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題に関する資料の共同研究の実施が盛り込まれたことだ。

China has already submitted an application to register materials related to comfort women with UNESCO’s Memory of the World. South Korea is also preparing to make a similar application.
 中国は既に、慰安婦の関連資料について、国連教育・科学・文化機関(ユネスコ)の世界記憶遺産に登録申請している。韓国も、同様の申請を準備中だ。

Of serious concern is the fact that China and South Korea are expanding their joint anti-Japanese campaigns by using historical issues—which they have interpreted for their own convenience—in their efforts to sway international opinion to their sides.
 両国が、自ら都合良く解釈した歴史カードに基づく「反日共闘」を拡大し、国際社会での世論戦を展開することは、日本にとって憂慮すべき事態である。

During his speech at Seoul University, Xi called on the South Korean people to join anti-Japanese campaigns by saying, “Japanese militarists carried out barbarous wars of aggression against China and Korea.”
 習氏はソウル大学での講演で、「日本の軍国主義者は、中韓に対する野蛮な侵略戦争を仕掛けた」などと主張し、韓国国民にも共闘を呼びかけた。

Park was cautious about China’s maneuver to scuttle ties among Japan, the United States and South Korea in the areas of security and finance, but actively responded to China’s calls to bash Japan over historical issues.
 朴氏は、中国による日米韓の分断工作に対し、安全保障、金融両面では慎重姿勢を見せたが、歴史分野では積極的に呼応した。

Park apparently intends to use her anti-Japanese stance to buoy her approval rating, which has dropped due mainly to her administration’s poor handling of the sinking of a ferry in April. Park’s irresponsible move in becoming closer to China has been met with unveiled expressions of concern from the United States.
 旅客船沈没事故などで低下した支持率の回復を図る思惑もあるのだろうが、そうした安易な対中接近には米国も懸念を隠さない。

This is a good time for Park to rethink how important coopera-tive ties are among Japan, the United States and South Korea.
 朴氏は、日米韓の連携の重要性を改めて考える時ではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 5, 2014)

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2014年7月 5日 (土)

6・3制見直し 小中一貫で教育効果高まるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can proposed integrated primary-middle school system produce educational effect?
6・3制見直し 小中一貫で教育効果高まるか

Could a review of the so-called 6-3 system that breaks compulsory education into six years of primary school and three years of middle school work to enhance education?
 小学校6年、中学校3年の「6・3制」の見直しで、教育効果を高められるだろうか。

The Education Rebuilding Implementation Council, a government advisory panel tasked with discussing reform of the country’s educational system, has put together recommendations that center on a shift toward combining primary- and middle-school-level education.
 学制改革を議論してきた政府の教育再生実行会議が、小中一貫校の制度化を柱とする提言をまとめた。

The proposed reform calls for flexible division of the nine years of compulsory education, for example, breaking them into “four, three and two years” or “five and four years” based on the judgments of each municipality.
 市区町村の判断で、義務教育の9年間を「4年・3年・2年」や「5年・4年」など、柔軟に区切れるようにする制度だ。

Recent years have seen the emergence of problems due to newly entering first-year students at middle schools finding it difficult to adjust to changes in the educational environment.
 近年、中学校に入学した生徒が環境の変化になじめない「中1ギャップ」が問題化している。

In addition, some have suggested that it is more effective, in the upper levels of primary school where subjects become more difficult to understand, for teachers to be responsible for individual subjects, as in middle schools, rather than leaving most instruction to homeroom teachers.
 学習内容が難しくなる小学校高学年からは、学級担任が大半の教科を教えるより、中学校のように教科ごとに専門の教師が指導した方が効果的だとの指摘もある。

It is sensible for the panel to pursue instruction in line with students’ levels of comprehension based on the nine-year curriculum set by each municipality’s education board.
 市区町村の教育委員会が9年間を通したカリキュラムを設定し、子供の理解力に応じた指導を可能にする方向性は理解できる。

Integrated primary and middle school education has been already implemented in Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo, and in some other municipalities designated by the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry. In some cases, problematic behaviors such as truancy have decreased and scholastic test results have improved.
 東京都品川区などが、文部科学省から特例校の指定を受け、既に小中一貫教育を実施している。不登校などの問題行動が減少したり、学力テストの成績が向上したりした事例もある。

The education ministry aims to introduce integrated primary and middle school education in fiscal 2016 at the earliest. It is essential to consider the efforts that have already been made as a reference, while moving forward with institutional design.
 文科省は早ければ2016年度からの導入を目指している。これまでの取り組みを参考に制度設計を進めることが重要だ。

A host of challenges

But the challenges remaining to be addressed are many. One is finding a way to deal with cases in which students are unable to adjust to new educational environments after moving to new schools, when teaching methods and pace differ greatly in some municipalities and schools. There is also the question of how to link newly integrated primary and middle schools with existing integrated middle and high schools already in place.
 課題も少なくない。自治体や学校ごとに授業の教え方や進度が極端に異なれば、子供が転校した際に、順応できない恐れがあるだろう。中高一貫校との接続をどう考えるか、という問題もある。

Reexamination of the teacher licensing system would also be an indispensable project. It is necessary to establish new licenses whereby teachers can teach at both primary and middle schools, thereby encouraging exchanges of teachers across the primary-middle school boundary.
 教員免許の見直しは欠かせない。小学校、中学校の双方で指導可能な免許を新設し、教師の相互乗り入れを促す必要がある。

Teachers themselves would be urged to work toward improving and deepening their knowledge of their specialty subjects and honing their teaching skills.
 教師自身にも、担当教科に関する知識を深め、指導力を磨く努力が求められる。

With the introduction of integrated primary and middle schools, some existing schools may be abolished or merged. Heads of municipal governments and municipal boards of education must study the advisability of introducing the proposed system, taking the needs of the parents and guardians of students into consideration.
 小中一貫校の新設に伴い、既存の学校が統廃合されるケースもあろう。各自治体の首長と教委は、保護者のニーズを踏まえて、導入の是非を検討すべきだ。

The implementation council also examined the possibility of beginning compulsory education from age 5 as a measure to further develop children’s abilities. But in its report of recommendations, it was listed as a matter for future study. That decision was perhaps inevitable, given the prospect that securing the ¥260 billion needed yearly to provide free education to 5-year-olds is likely to be impossible.
 実行会議は、子供の能力をより伸ばすため、5歳児からの義務教育も議論したが、提言では将来的な検討課題にとどめた。5歳児教育の無償化に要する年2600億円の財源を確保する見通しが立たない以上、やむを得まい。

Another noteworthy proposal from the panel is the systematization of organizations of higher learning that specialize in vocational training. The change would aim at helping graduates of specialized technical and commercial schools acquire higher levels of expertise and skills.
 提言が、職業教育を専門に行う高等教育機関の制度化を打ち出した点は注目される。工業や商業といった専門高校の卒業生が、より高いレベルの知識や技術を習得することを目的としている。

The education ministry should study measures to help such schools develop as educational institutions that will foster work-ready professionals.
 即戦力となる職業人を育成する教育機関となるよう、文科省は検討を進めてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 4, 2014)

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対「北」制裁緩和 「行動対行動」の原則を貫け

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Adhere firmly to ‘action for action’ principle over N. Korea sanctions
対「北」制裁緩和 「行動対行動」の原則を貫け

The more North Korea acts positively to resolve the issue of abductions of Japanese citizens, the more Japan should offer encouragement suited to that end. This country should adhere strictly and consistently to the principle of “action for action.”
 北朝鮮が日本人拉致問題で前向きな対応を取れば、日本もそれに見合った措置を行う。あくまで「行動対行動」の原則を貫くべきだ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has expressed Japan’s intention to lift some of the country’s unilateral sanctions against North Korea. This is because the Japanese government has put a high value on the framework of the “Special Investigation Committee” Pyongyang has committed to setting up on Friday for the reinvestigation of the Japanese abductees and related issues.
 安倍首相が、北朝鮮に対する日本独自の制裁の一部を解除すると表明した。北朝鮮が拉致被害者らの再調査のため4日に設置する「特別調査委員会」の体制を評価したためだ。

The National Defense Commission, headed by North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, concurrently the first secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea, has given the investigative body the mandate to conduct probes into any of North Korea’s government organizations. The body will reportedly be headed by So Tae Ha, vice minister of the State Security Ministry, who doubles as a counselor in charge of security at the National Defense Commission.
 調査委は、金正恩第1書記をトップとする国防委員会から、北朝鮮の全機関を調査する権限を与えられた。国防委安全担当参事を兼務するソ・テハ国家安全保衛部副部長が委員長を務めるという。

Abe said at a press conference on Thursday that an “unprecedented framework capable of making decisions at the state level will come to the fore” in Pyongyang. If this framework actually works, it will likely be possible to attain the goal of completing the investigations “within a period of one year” as pledged by North Korea.
 首相は「国家的な決断、意思決定をできる組織が前面に出る、かつてない体制ができたと判断した」と語った。仮にこの体制が実際に機能するなら、目標の「1年以内の調査完了」が可能だろう。

In response to Pyongyang’s commitments, Japan will lift restrictions on travel between the two countries and ease restrictions on cash taken from Japan into North Korea as well as remittances to the country. While allowing the entry of North Korean-registered vessels into Japanese ports only for humanitarian purposes, the Japanese government will keep in place the ban on the entry of the Mangyongbong-92 cargo-passenger ship.
 日本は、日朝間の人的往来の規制を解除し、北朝鮮への現金持ち出しや送金の規制を緩める。人道目的の北朝鮮籍船舶の日本入港は認めるが、貨客船「万景峰号」の入港禁止は継続する。

This step is expected to be effective in prompting North Korea to take further constructive measures to handle the pending issues.
 北朝鮮に一層の建設的な対応を促すのに有効だろう。

In addition to known abduction victims and missing Japanese suspected of being abducted by North Korean agents, the investigations will cover Japanese women who remained in the country as wives of North Korean men after going there as part of the North’s movement to repatriate its citizens living in Japan from the 1950s to the 1980s. It has been reported the investigation committee will comprise four subpanels in accordance with the categories of the probe’s multiple objectives.
 調査は、拉致被害者や拉致の可能性のある特定失踪者に加え、帰還事業で北朝鮮へ渡った日本人妻なども対象となる。調査委は対象別に4分科会を設けるという。

Following through on deal

As Abe has said this is “only the start” on a road to a comprehensive resolution of the issues, it is indispensable for the government to scrutinize progress as needed to ascertain whether North Korea is sincere in its efforts to undertake the investigations.
 首相が「これはスタートでしかない」と語ったように、北朝鮮が調査を真剣に履行するよう、政府は随時、進捗しんちょく状況をチェックすることが欠かせない。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga announced the prospect Thursday that Japan will receive the first report on the probes from North Korea sometime from the end of summer to the beginning of autumn this year. It will be necessary for Japan to examine the contents of the report, while taking when necessary such measures as sending an investigation team from Tokyo to Pyongyang and asking North Korea to conduct additional investigations.
 菅官房長官は、今夏の終わりから秋の初めに北朝鮮から最初の報告を受けるとの見通しを示した。報告内容を精査し、調査団を北朝鮮に派遣したり、追加調査を注文したりする必要がある。

Further easing of Japan’s sanctions must of course be contingent on whether North Korea’s investigation activities are deemed successful in producing tangible results. In the event that North Korea fails to act sincerely, the option of Japan rescinding the easing of the sanctions should not be ruled out.
 制裁をさらに緩和する場合は、北朝鮮の調査が具体的な成果を生むことが前提となる。北朝鮮が不誠実な対応をすれば、制裁の復活も排除すべきではない。

What cannot be overlooked in connection with this is North Korea’s launching of ballistic missiles on June 29 into the Sea of Japan just ahead of the latest Tokyo-Pyongyang consultations. The missile firing is in violation of U.N. Security Council resolutions over the matter, and it is only natural that the Japanese government lodged a protest with North Korea over the test launches.
 看過できないのは、日朝協議の前に北朝鮮が弾道ミサイルを日本海に発射したことだ。国連安全保障理事会決議に違反しており、政府が抗議したのは当然である。

While some analysts have argued that the missile launch may have been primarily aimed at discouraging closer ties between China and South Korea, the military provocation by the North will only serve to further deepen the international isolation of Pyongyang.
 ミサイル発射には、中国と韓国の接近をけん制する狙いもあるとされるが、軍事的挑発は北朝鮮の国際的孤立を深めるだけだ。

The abduction problem is undoubtedly a problem that must fundamentally be resolved through Japan’s own efforts to negotiate with North Korea. The Japanese government, however, should inform adequately both the United States and South Korea of the negotiation process to ensure the three countries’ current containment strategy of the North’s nuclear weapons and missile development programs is not adversely affected.
 拉致問題は、基本的に日本が独自に北朝鮮と交渉し、解決すべきものだ。ただ、日本は、その経過を米韓両国にも適切に伝え、核・ミサイル問題の対北朝鮮包囲網を崩さないことが大切である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 4, 2014)

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2014年7月 4日 (金)

核廃棄物処分 「針路なき航海」から脱しよう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Nuclear waste disposal plans must not remain ‘aimlessly adrift’
核廃棄物処分 「針路なき航海」から脱しよう

Deciding on disposal sites for “high-level radioactive waste” that comes from spent nuclear fuel at nuclear power plants is a pressing matter.
 原子力発電所の使用済み核燃料から出る「高レベル放射性廃棄物」の処分場の立地選定は、喫緊の課題である。

Shunsuke Kondo has been appointed president of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), the entity overseeing the selection of the sites and the construction of the disposal facilities. Kondo was previously chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. Eight of NUMO’s top 10 executives were replaced at the start of this month, including the previous president, who left his position before his tenure was up.
 処分場建設を担う原子力発電環境整備機構(NUMO)の新理事長に近藤駿介・前原子力委員長が就任した。任期途中で退任した前理事長を含め、役員10人のうち8人が交代した。

In a report compiled in May, an expert committee of the Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry detailed problems in the lack of progress made in the drawn-out process of selecting candidate sites for disposal facilities since NUMO was established in 2000. The report blasted the process as being “aimlessly adrift on the ocean.”
 経済産業省の有識者委員会は、5月にまとめた報告書で、2000年のNUMO設立以来、処分場の候補地選定が遅々として進まないことを問題視し、「針路なき航海」と厳しく批判していた。

Bringing new faces to the executive lineup was a response to this criticism. For all intents and purposes, the move marks a fresh start. This reborn NUMO must work closely with the government to deepen public understanding of the disposal issue and make progress in selecting sites to host these facilities.
 役員刷新は、これを踏まえたものだ。事実上の出直しである。新生NUMOは、政府と連携し、処分場問題への国民の理解を広げ、選定を前進させる必要がある。

As a professor at the University of Tokyo, Kondo researched nuclear safety topics. When he was head of the Atomic Energy Commission, he visited many parts of the nation to hold talks with residents and local authorities to broaden his knowledge of the disposal facility construction problem.
 近藤氏は、東大教授として、原子力安全に関する研究に携わってきた。原子力委員長在任時には、処分場建設への理解を得るため、各地を訪れ、自治体や住民との対話に取り組んだ。

At a press conference after being appointed to his NUMO post, Kondo indicated he planned to speed up efforts to make progress on this matter. “The nuclear waste problem should be resolved by the generation that created it and has responsibility for it. I won’t leave it for future generations to deal with,” he said. We have high expectations for Kondo’s leadership on this matter.
 就任の記者会見では、「廃棄物の問題は、発生した世代の責任で解決すべきだ。後世に残さない」と、取り組みを加速する方針を示した。指導力に期待したい。

Lessons from abroad

Other nations have compiled plans to bury spent nuclear fuel and the high-level radioactive waste generated when it is disposed about 500 meters underground. By isolating this waste deep underground, its strong radiation can be blocked off for a very long time.
 使用済み核燃料や、これを処理した際に生じる高レベル放射性廃棄物については、各国とも、地下500メートル前後に埋設する方針を掲げている。地下に隔離し、強い放射線を長期にわたって遮る。

Finland and Sweden have already decided on their proposed disposal sites for nuclear waste. The business entities that will handle the disposal have earned the trust of residents in these areas by frequently explaining what the process entails. The governments in these nations also have carefully explained that the disposal sites will be safe and have taken other steps to reassure the public. This proactive support by these governments has been instrumental in getting the wheels turning on this issue.
 フィンランドやスウェーデンでは、既に処分場予定地が決まっている。処分を担う企業体が地域住民への説明を重ねて信頼関係を築いた。政府も、処分場の安全性を丁寧に解説するなど、積極的に支援してきたことが大きい。

The lack of such efforts by the government in Japan is the cause of the long delay in selecting disposal sites here.
 こうした姿勢を欠いたことが、日本の遅れの原因だろう。

Based on the law regarding final disposal of radioactive waste, Japan employs a method of selecting disposal sites from cities, towns and villages that have offered to host such facilities.
 日本では、特定放射性廃棄物最終処分法に基づき、応募のあった市町村の中から処分地を選ぶ方式を採用している。

In 2007, the town of Toyo in Kochi Prefecture came forward as a candidate site to host a disposal facility, but it eventually withdrew its application as opposition to the plan spread among local residents. NUMO and the government were unable to come up with effective support for the town.
 07年に高知県東洋町が候補地として名乗りを上げた際には、町内で反対運動が拡大し、結局、町は応募を取り下げた。NUMOや政府は、町への効果的な支援を打ち出すことができなかった。

In its basic energy plan released in April, the government said the state “will take leadership and strengthen its effort to find proper solutions for final disposal of high-level radioactive waste.”
 政府は4月のエネルギー基本計画で「国が前面に立って処分場選定に取り組む」との方針を示した。

From now on, the government will narrow down the list of possible sites based on geological conditions and other criteria, and revise its method for encouraging municipalities to apply to host disposal facilities.
今後、政府が地質状況などから有望地を絞り込んだうえで、市町村に応募を促す方式に改める。

Many nuclear plants in Japan already have no more room to store spent nuclear fuel.
 国内には、使用済み核燃料が既に満杯状態の原発も多い。

The government should quickly put a framework in place for selecting candidate sites to host final disposal facilities.
 政府は、候補地選定に向けた体制整備を急ぐべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 3, 2014)

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日銀短観悪化 増税ショックを軽視するな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Govt should not underestimate impact of consumption tax hike
日銀短観悪化 増税ショックを軽視するな

The findings of the latest business survey suggest that we should keep a cautious and close watch on economic prospects in the days ahead.
 景気の先行きを、引き続き注意深く見極める必要があろう。

The Bank of Japan’s Tankan quarterly survey for June showed that business sentiment among both large manufacturers and nonmanufacturers deteriorated for the first time in six quarters. The diffusion index for large manufacturers’ current business confidence stood at plus 12, and that of large nonmanufacturers at plus 19, both down from the previous survey in March.
 6月の日銀企業短期経済観測調査(短観)で、景況感を示す業況判断指数は、前回3月調査に比べて悪化し、大企業の製造業が12、非製造業は19となった。どちらも、6四半期ぶりの悪化である。

Business sentiment deteriorated particularly among automakers and retailers, the sectors hit hard by a drop in demand after the last-minute surge prior to April’s consumption tax rate hike.
 4月の消費税率引き上げ前の駆け込み需要と、増税後の反動減で大きな影響を受けた自動車や小売りなどで低下が目立った。

The leading index reflecting business outlook toward September among large manufacturers came to plus 15, a modest three-point improvement over the June outlook, while the same leading sentiment index among nonmanufacturers remained flat.
 9月時点の景気を予想する先行きの指数は、大企業の製造業が6月から3ポイントと小幅に改善し、非製造業は横ばいとなった。

Finance Minister Taro Aso said the nation’s economy “continues to be in a moderate trend of recovery, while keeping the impact of the consumption tax hike to a minimum,” showing the government’s confidence that the economy will weather the tax hike’s effects.
 麻生財務相が「消費増税の影響を最小限に食い止めて、そこそこ緩やかに回復基調が続いている」と述べるなど、政府は増税ショックの乗り切りに自信を見せる。

However, the momentum of the recovery is not so strong that we can allow our guard to fall.
 だが、回復の勢いはさほど強くない。油断は禁物だろう。

Worrisome economic indicators have also emerged, including a marked decline in household consumption. The key to pushing consumption upward is an increase in household income.
 家計消費の大幅な減少など、心配な経済指標も出てきた。消費復活のカギは収入の増加である。

Partly due the urging of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s administration, the pace of wage hikes, negotiated through annual labor-management talks, rose to around 2 percent, which has been a boon for Japanese households.
 安倍政権の要請もあり、大企業の春闘賃上げ率が2%台に乗せたのは好材料と言える。

The consumption tax hike has been passed on to consumers through the prices of goods and services since April, and as a result, prices have risen by around 3 percent. The reality is that the wage hike has not kept pace with the price increase.
ただ、4月から消費税が価格に上乗せされ、消費者物価の上昇率は3%台に跳ね上がった。賃上げが物価上昇に追いついていないのが実情だ。

Wages must grow

The government needs to use policy measures to support the momentum toward an “economy in a virtuous cycle,” in which companies with strong business performance give part of their profits back to employees in the form of wage hikes and increased bonuses, helping to drive overall consumption.
 好業績の企業が賃金やボーナスで従業員に利益を還元し、それが消費を押し上げる「好循環経済」に向けた動きを、政策で後押しすることが求められる。

The government must steadily implement measures included in the new growth strategy recently adopted by the Cabinet, including a reduction in the effective corporate tax rate and regulatory reforms.
 政府は、新たな成長戦略に盛り込んだ法人税実効税率の引き下げや規制改革などの施策を、着実に実行しなければならない。

One cause of concern is the increasingly serious labor scarcity in the construction, restaurant and other industries, forcing construction firms to stop accepting new orders and chain restaurants to temporarily close outlets, among other adverse effects. As reality stands now, this development may put a damper on the recovering economy.
 気がかりなのが、建設や外食などの業種で人手不足が深刻化していることだ。受注見送りや店舗休業などの弊害も広がっている。このままでは、景気回復に水を差す恐れがある。

We should also expedite other efforts such as eliminating the labor market “mismatch,” in which the needs and desires of businesses seeking manpower fail to match those of people looking for jobs.
 人材を求める企業と、職を探す人の希望がすれ違う「雇用のミスマッチ」の解消を急ぎたい。

Labor scarcity is bound to spread through a wide range of sectors of the Japanese economy, parallel to the declining population.
 人口減少に伴い、労働力不足は幅広い業種に広がろう。

The public and private sectors should cooperate on earnest efforts to secure a sufficient labor pool over the medium and long term, for instance by better incorporating more women, elderly people and foreigners into the workforce.
官民が連携し、女性や高齢者、外国人の活用などによる中長期的な労働力の確保策に本腰を入れるべきだ。

In order to steer a private-sector-led economic recovery on a steady track, it is also essential for businesses to make full-fledged investments in plants and capital equipment. We would urge businesses to invest proactively in growing sectors, taking advantage of such measures as the law concerning the strengthening of industrial competitiveness.
 民間主導の成長を軌道に乗せるには、設備投資の本格化も不可欠だ。各企業は産業競争力強化法などの施策も活用し、成長分野への新規投資を積極化してほしい。

The steady resumption of operations at nuclear power plants whose safety has been confirmed, and restoring a secure and stable supply of electricity are essential conditions to establish a firm foundation for sustainable economic growth.
 安全性の確認できた原子力発電所を着実に再稼働し、電力の安定供給を回復することは、持続的な経済成長の基盤を作るために必要な条件である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 3, 2014)

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2014年7月 3日 (木)

集団的自衛権 抑止力向上へ意義深い「容認」

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Constitutional reinterpretation enhances Japan’s deterrent power
集団的自衛権 抑止力向上へ意義深い「容認」

The government has made a historic decision that will reinforce our coordination with the United States and other members of the international community. It is also likely that the decision will contribute to solidifying Japan’s peace and security.
 日米防衛指針に適切に反映せよ
 米国など国際社会との連携を強化し、日本の平和と安全をより確かなものにするうえで、歴史的な意義があろう。

On Tuesday, the Cabinet approved the government’s reinterpretation of the Constitution to allow limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense.
 政府が、集団的自衛権の行使を限定的に容認する新たな政府見解を閣議決定した。

At a press conference that day, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe expressed his resolve to “consolidate Japan’s path as a peace-seeking nation.” He also pledged to establish “a seamless legal framework on national security to protect the lives and daily livelihood of the people.”
 安倍首相は記者会見で、「平和国家としての歩みを、さらに力強いものにする。国民の命と暮らしを守るため、切れ目のない安全保障法制を整備する」と語った。

There have been gaps between the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito over the issue. While the LDP has supported permitting Japan to exercise its right of collective self-defense, Komeito held onto a cautious approach. We would like to praise both parties’ efforts to find middle ground and reach an agreement.
 行使容認に前向きな自民党と、慎重な公明党の立場は当初、隔たっていたが、両党が歩み寄り、合意に達したことを歓迎したい。

Baseless accusations
 ◆「解釈改憲」は的外れだ◆

It is safe to say that Abe’s fiery devotion to the cause, as well as his persistent and unyielding position on the reinterpretation of the Constitution, has made it possible for the ruling parties to overcome difficulties and reach an agreement.
 安倍首相が憲法解釈の変更に強い意欲を示し、最後まで揺るぎない姿勢を貫いたことが、困難な合意形成を実現させたと言える。

Komeito had to take time in building a consensus, including holding talks with its regional organizations, but in the end it was able to reach a responsible decision. We believe Komeito’s experience as a member of the ruling coalition has greatly helped the party reach such untiy.
 公明党は、地方組織を含む党内調整に時間を要したが、責任ある結論を出せたのは連立政権の一翼を担った経験の賜物たまものだろう。

Under the government’s reinterpretation of the Constitution, Japan will be permitted to use the minimum necessary force when an armed attack takes place against a foreign country with which Japan has close relations, and there is a clear danger that the basic rights of the people of Japan will be fundamentally undermined.
 政府見解は、密接な関係にある国が攻撃され、日本国民の権利が根底から覆される明白な危険がある場合、必要最小限度の実力行使が許容されると記した。

The interpretation that Japan “possesses, but cannot exercise” the right of collective self-defense has long stood. Allowing Japan to exercise the right is a major sea change, as it means Japan has overcome a national security problem that has long loomed over the nation.
 集団的自衛権は「保有するが、行使できない」とされてきた。その行使容認に転じたことは、長年の安全保障上の課題を克服したという意味で画期的である。

The reinterpretation does not touch on specific issues, but it will likely enable Japan to deal with all eight example scenarios cited by the government as cases in which the nation should be able to exercise its collective self-defense right. Those scenarios include protecting U.S. vessels under armed attack, minesweeping operations and missile defense.
 今回の政府見解には明記されていないが、米艦防護、機雷除去、ミサイル防衛など、政府が集団的自衛権を適用すべきとした8事例すべてに対応できるとされる。

The reinterpretation has also left rooms for Japan to participate in minesweeping operations authorized by a U.N. resolution under a collective security framework. If the government goes too far in narrowing the scope of the nation’s permissible exercise of the collective self-defense right, it would restrain the activities of the Self-Defense Forces and hollow out the significance of changing the interpretation of the Constitution.
 国連決議による集団安全保障に基づく掃海などを可能にする余地を残したことも評価できる。行使の範囲を狭めすぎれば、自衛隊の活動が制約され、憲法解釈変更の意義が損なわれてしまう。

The reinterpretation follows the core principle of the 1972 government view on the right of collective self-defense and is logically consistent with previous interpretations. It is clear that this reinterpretation was made within a reasonable range.
 新解釈は、1972年の政府見解の根幹を踏襲し、過去の解釈との論理的整合性を維持しており、合理的な範囲内の変更である。

This is not a case of using constitutional reinterpretation where actual amendments to the Constitution are required, and it differs fundamentally from such cases. This case is more a matter of the government making necessary adjustments to previous interpretations that were overly self-restrictive due to conditions in the Diet.
 本来は憲法改正すべき内容なのに、解釈変更で対応する「解釈改憲」とは本質的に異なる。むしろ、国会対策上などの理由で過度に抑制的だった従来の憲法解釈を、より適正化したと言えよう。

The reinterpretation is made based on the Cabinet’s right to an official interpretation of the Constitution. The Diet will play a role in this issue through deliberation of bills related to the reinterpretation, and when the government asks the Diet for approval of plans to exercise the right of collective self-defense. The judiciary also has a voice in the issue through the power of judicial review.
 今回の解釈変更は、内閣が持つ公権的解釈権に基づく。国会は今後、関連法案審議や、自衛権発動時の承認という形で関与する。司法も違憲立法審査権を有する。

Thus the issue will be handled consistently with the Constitution’s principle of separation of powers among the administrative, legislative and judicial branches. It is difficult to understand criticisms asserting that the reinterpretation is “counter to constitutionalism.”
 いずれも憲法の三権分立に沿った対応であり、「立憲主義に反する」との批判は理解し難い。

It is similarly off base to argue that the latest Cabinet decision would pave the way for war, a line of argument propagated by left-leaning and liberal voices. Exercising our nation’s right of collective self-defense does not mean using force to protect any other nation in a situation unrelated to our own defense. The government’s new stance on the right has categorically ruled out our nation’s involvement in military situations such as the Iraq War.
 「戦争への道を開く」といった左翼・リベラル勢力による情緒的な扇動も見当違いだ。自国の防衛と無関係に、他の国を守るわけではない。イラク戦争のような例は完全に排除されている。

Permanent dispatch law needed
 ◆自衛隊恒久法の検討を◆

The government’s revised view on the right has also expanded the range of cooperative international peace activities the SDF will be able to conduct.
 政府見解では、自衛隊の国際平和協力活動も拡充した。

For instance, the revised interpretation has narrowed the scope of a constitutional ban on SDF actions inseparable from the use of force by another country. The Cabinet decision has limited the ban to “activities in combat zones.”
 憲法の禁じる「武力行使との一体化」の対象を「戦闘現場における活動」などに限定した。

The decision has also made it possible for the SDF to conduct armed rescue operations during their involvement in U.N. peacekeeping missions and other overseas missions.

If civilians or foreign troops face an armed attack in areas distant from but accessible to SDF members engaged in such overseas tasks, these personnel will be able to go to their rescue. In such cases, they would be permitted to use weapons in their execution of such duties, under the latest Cabinet decision.
「駆けつけ警護」や任務遂行目的の武器使用も可能にしている。

We believe these changes will enable the SDF to better accomplish international missions such as supply, transport and medical support activities along with U.N. peacekeeping operations.
 自衛隊による他国部隊への補給・輸送・医療支援や、国連平和維持活動(PKO)で、より実効性ある活動が期待できよう。

The Cabinet decision also addresses some issues regarding SDF actions to be taken in what have been described as gray-zone situations, including a potential scenario in which foreign armed groups take control of remote Japanese islands. It expedites procedures for invoking SDF maritime patrol operations and other activities aimed at addressing such situations.
 武装集団による離島占拠などグレーゾーン事態の対処では、自衛隊の海上警備行動などの手続きを迅速化することになった。

We suggest the government consider expanding the list of SDF duties to include territorial patrols, thereby enabling our country to carry out “seamless activities” in the event that the nation’s peaceful situation is subverted by a military contingency.
 さらに、平時から有事へ「切れ目のない活動」を行うため、自衛隊に領域警備任務などを付与することも検討してはどうか。

The government and the ruling parties are set to begin implementing legislative measures to complement the Cabinet decision during this autumn’s extraordinary Diet session. Among those measures are amendments to the Self-Defense Forces Law and the Armed Attack Situations Response Law. It is important to create and refine laws to respond flexibly to a variety of situations.
 政府・与党は秋の臨時国会から自衛隊法、武力攻撃事態法の改正など、関連法の整備を開始する。様々な事態に柔軟に対応できる仕組みにすることが大切だ。

It is also worthwhile to consider establishing a permanent law on SDF dispatch for overseas missions—not only for U.N. peacekeeping missions, as sanctioned under the current legislation.
 PKOに限定せず、自衛隊の海外派遣全体に関する恒久法を制定することも検討に値しよう。

At the end of the year, Tokyo and Washington are scheduled to revise the Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation. The Japanese and U.S. governments must ensure the planned changes to the defense cooperation guidelines properly incorporate changes made to our nation’s defense policies as a result of the latest Cabinet decision. These changes include the newly granted approval for exercise of the right of collective self-defense and the reconsideration of the ban on SDF actions that are inseparable from the use of force by other nations.
 日米両政府は年末に、日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)を改定する予定だ。集団的自衛権の行使容認や「武力行使との一体化」の見直しを、指針にきちんと反映させなければならない。

Public support essential
 ◆国民の理解を広げたい◆

We hope Japan and the United States will work together to deepen their defense cooperation. Japan should increase SDF support for U.S. forces, and U.S. forces should be more significantly involved in the defense of remote islands and other parts of our country.
 自衛隊の対米支援を拡大する一方、離島など日本防衛への米軍の関与を強め、双方向で防衛協力を深化させたい。

Drafting plans for military emergencies and repeating joint military exercises under the new defense cooperation guidelines will also function to shore up the Japan-U.S. alliance and increase the two nations’ combined deterrent potential.
新たな指針に基づく有事の計画策定や共同訓練を重ねることが、日米同盟を強化し、抑止力を高めていく。

Abe’s efforts to lift the self-imposed ban on our nation exercising its collective self-defense right has garnered support not only from the ruling parties, but from opposition lawmakers as well. The idea is endorsed by such opposition members as Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party), Your Party and some members of the leading opposition Democratic Party of Japan. However, the DPJ’s top cadre remains noncommittal about whether to approve the exercise of the right, and has criticized Abe’s initiative in reinterpreting the nation’s fundamental law.
 集団的自衛権の行使容認は、与党のほか、日本維新の会、みんなの党や、さらに民主党の一部も賛成している。民主党執行部は、解釈変更を批判しながら、行使容認の是非は決め切れていない。

With the Cabinet’s decision completed, Abe should take every opportunity—ad-hoc parliamentary sessions that can be convened even during the the Diet’s recess, for example—to explain the significance of ending the ban on the collective self-defense right. It is crucial for the prime minister to make every effort to ensure that the public better understands the true meaning of revising the government’s official stance on the right.
 安倍首相は今後、国会の閉会中審査などの機会を利用し、行使容認の意義を説明して、国民の理解を広げる努力を尽くすべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 2, 2014)

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今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

夜景評論家丸々もとおプロデュース・名古屋テレビ塔60周年記念イベント『光の万華鏡』開催! 一般社団法人夜景観光コンベンション・ビューロー

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2014年7月 2日 (水)

驚きました、ライブチャットでこんなものまで 不動産オンライン内見

インターネットの発達には驚かされることが多いのですが、これもそのうちのひとつです。
インターネットにはライブチャットという無料でつかえる、とても便利な機能があります。
このライブチャットを不動産事業にとりいれた会社はとても先見の明があると感じました。
新築住宅や土地などの不動産物件を探す場合には、まず現地にお出かけすることから始まるというのが常識でした。
これからはちがいます。
この常識がくつがえされるのです。
自宅でPCに接続さえしておれば、ライブチャットを使って不動産販売担当者とチャットが出来、様々な情報を引き出せるシステムなんです。
オンライン内見というシステムなんですが、これは一見の価値がありますね。
さっそくためしてみたいです。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

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オウム菊地被告 テロ関与を重く見た実刑判決

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Lay judges carefully considered role of ex-Aum member in terrorist act
オウム菊地被告 テロ関与を重く見た実刑判決

The lay judges deemed that the defendant bore heavy responsibility for her involvement in a heinous terrorist act.
 凶悪なテロに関与した責任を、裁判員が重く見た結果である。

On Monday, the Tokyo District Court sentenced former Aum Supreme Truth cult member Naoko Kikuchi to five years in prison for her role in the cult’s mail bomb attack on the Tokyo metropolitan government headquarters in May 1995. She had faced charges of assisting attempted murder and violations of the Explosives Control Law.
 オウム真理教による東京都庁郵便爆弾事件で、殺人未遂と爆発物取締罰則違反の各ほう助罪に問われた教団元信者の菊地直子被告に対し、東京地裁は懲役5年の実刑を言い渡した。

This attack came two months after Aum members released deadly sarin nerve gas in the Tokyo subway system. Senior members of the cult sent the bomb to the Tokyo government to disrupt the investigation into Aum’s activities. The bomb was intended to thwart the arrest of cult founder Chizuo Matsumoto, who has since been sentenced to death for his role in crimes committed by Aum. The mail bomb exploded and seriously injured a metropolitan government official who opened it.
 1995年に地下鉄サリン事件を起こした2か月後、当時の教団幹部が、捜査のかく乱を狙って爆弾を都庁に送りつけた事件だ。教祖の松本智津夫死刑囚の逮捕を阻止するのが目的だった。爆発により、都庁職員が重傷を負った。

The ruling quite rightly criticized the attack as “self-righteous and inexcusable.”
 判決が「独善的で許し難い」と批判したのは当然である。

The case hinged on whether Kikuchi was aware her actions 19 years ago were part of the bomb plot.
 裁判で争点となったのは、19年前の菊地被告の認識だ。

Kikuchi has admitted transporting chemicals from an Aum facility in Yamanashi Prefecture to a hideout in central Tokyo. However, she maintained her innocence in this case and claimed she “didn’t think the chemicals would be used to make a bomb.”
 被告は、薬品を山梨県の教団施設から都内のアジトに運んだ事実は認めたが、「薬品が爆弾の製造に使われるとは思わなかった」と無罪を主張した。

The material evidence used to substantiate that the defendant was aware she was taking part in a terrorist act was scant. The memories of those involved in the incident are fading, so prosecutors accumulated testimony given by Aum members including Yoshihiro Inoue, who orchestrated the bomb attack and is now on death row. Prosecutors faced a grueling challenge in proving the facts in this case.
 被告がテロ行為を認識したことを裏付ける物証は乏しかった。事件関係者の記憶が薄れる中、検察は、犯行を主導した井上嘉浩死刑囚らの証言を積み重ねた。難しい立証を強いられたと言える。

Aum still exists

After examining the testimony of Aum’s death row inmates and others together with Kikuchi’s actions and the circumstances inside the cult at the time of the attack, the court found her guilty of assisting attempted murder, but concluded she was not guilty of assisting with the violation of the explosives law.
 判決は、死刑囚らの証言と、当時の教団の状況や菊地被告の行動を照らし合わせた結果、爆発物取締罰則違反のほう助は認めず、殺人未遂のほう助のみが成立すると結論づけた。

In its decision, the court said, “Although we cannot say [the defendant] was aware the chemicals would be used to manufacture explosives, she was aware of the possibility they could be used in an incident that could kill and injure people to protect the cult.” This indicates the lay judges were very careful in determining the facts in this case.
 「爆弾の製造まで認識していたとは言えないが、教団を守るために人を殺傷する事件を起こす可能性は認識していた」という判断からだ。裁判員が慎重な事実認定を行ったことがうかがえる。

Kikuchi was arrested in 2012 after living for 17 years on the run. Kikuchi told the court she refused to turn herself in because she thought she would be “unfairly arrested because of religious oppression.” It appears Kikuchi was unable to completely break free from the cult’s mind control even while she was on the lam.
 菊地被告は17年に及ぶ逃亡生活の末に逮捕された。逃亡理由について、被告は公判で「教団が宗教弾圧を受けていて、不当逮捕されると思った」と供述した。
 逃亡中も教団のマインドコントロールから抜け切れていなかったのではないか。

Aum lives on today after changing its name and splitting into two groups, “Aleph” and “Hikari no Wa.” According to the Public Security Intelligence Agency, these groups have a combined 1,600 followers.
 教団は名称を変え、「アレフ」と「ひかりの輪」として存続し、公安調査庁によると、信徒数は計約1600人に上る。

In recent years, the groups have increasingly tried to actively recruit new members through social media and by masquerading as university club activities. Residents living near their facilities in Tokyo and elsewhere feel ill at ease even today.
 近年は、大学のサークル活動を装ったり、ソーシャル・ネットワーキング・サービスを利用したりして、活発な勧誘活動を展開しているという。教団施設のある東京都内などでは、周辺住民が今なお不安を抱えている。

The appalling crimes committed by Aum stood out because they were committed by many young people who joined the group without feeling any shred of doubt about its activities. Authorities will need to closely watch the cult’s movements and ensure its crimes never happen again.
 多くの若者が疑問を感じることなく入信し、凶悪犯罪に関わったのがオウム事件の特徴だ。教団の動向を監視し、事件の再発防止を図らなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 1, 2014)

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自衛隊発足60年 時代に合った法整備が必要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Legal arrangements needed for SDF to fully perform changing missions
自衛隊発足60年 時代に合った法整備が必要だ

Tuesday marks the 60th anniversary of the founding of the Self-Defense Forces. It is imperative to step up the preparation of legal arrangements that would enable them to perform their roles fully according to the changes of the times.
 自衛隊は1日、創設60年を迎える。時代の変化に応じて拡大してきた役割をきちんと果たせるよう、必要な法整備を急ぐことが大切である。

The past 60 years saw major changes in the government’s interpretation of the Constitution and the nation’s legal system on national security.
 この60年間、自衛隊を巡る政府の憲法解釈や、安全保障法制は、大きく変遷してきた。

In 1946, one year after the end of World War II, then Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida rejected rearmament by interpreting Paragraph 2, Article 9 of the Constitution—which prohibits possession of land, sea and air forces as well as other war potential—as “renouncing war for self-defense as well as the right of belligerency.”
 戦後間もない1946年、吉田茂首相は、戦力不保持を定めた憲法9条2項に関して、「自衛権の発動としての戦争も、交戦権も放棄した」との解釈を表明し、再軍備を否定した。

However, following the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, the government established the SDF in 1954, a move that the United States also requested, following the formation of the National Police Reserve and National Safety Forces. The government established the SDF by presenting a new interpretation of the Constitution that the right of self-defense and the existence of the SDF are recognized by the supreme law. This was a proper decision as an independent state.
 ところが、50年に朝鮮戦争が勃発すると、米国の要請もあり、政府は、警察予備隊、保安隊を経て54年に自衛隊を発足させた。自衛権と自衛隊の存在を認めるという新たな憲法解釈も示した。独立国家として当然の対応だった。

Amid the ensuing confrontation between conservative and progressive elements in the Diet, the SDF continued to be criticized as “unconstitutional” and was not highly regarded.
 ただ、国会での保革対立の下、自衛隊には「憲法違反」との批判があり、評価は高くなかった。

A turning point was the end of the Cold War between Eastern and Western blocs. The SDF began to take on a new mission of international peace cooperation activities against the backdrop of frequent eruptions of regional conflicts.
 転機は、東西冷戦の終結だ。地域紛争が頻発する中、自衛隊は、国際平和協力活動という新たな任務を担うことになった。

After sending minesweepers to the Persian Gulf for the first time in 1991, the SDF took part in U.N. peacekeeping operations in Cambodia and elsewhere. They also engaged in refueling missions in the Indian Ocean and reconstruction assistance in Iraq following the enactment of the special antiterrorism law.
 91年に初めてペルシャ湾に掃海艇を派遣した後、カンボジアなど各地で国連平和維持活動(PKO)に参加した。特別措置法の制定により、インド洋での給油やイラクでの復興支援にも従事した。

We appreciate the SDF’s steadily accumulated international contributions.
 国際貢献の実績を地道に重ねたことを、前向きに評価したい。

Stumbling block

Serving as a constant constraint on the SDF’s international activities was concern over whether they would amount to “an integration of the use of force,” which is banned by the Constitution. The government managed to realize the SDF activities in the Indian Ocean and Iraq by asserting that they would be limited to “noncombat zones,” a piece of last-resort logic that could be understood only domestically.
 自衛隊の国際活動で常に制約となったのは、憲法の禁じる「武力行使との一体化」に当たるかどうかという点だった。インド洋やイラクでの活動は「非戦闘地域」に限定する、という日本独特の苦肉の論理で乗り切った。

After the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake and the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami, the significance of SDF relief activities in disaster-affected areas was recognized.
 95年の阪神大震災や2011年の東日本大震災では、自衛隊の災害派遣の重要性が認識された。

Given North Korea’s nuclear and missile development and China’s continued provocative acts around the Senkaku Islands, the SDF’s peacetime warning and surveillance mission has become even more important.
 最近は、北朝鮮の核・ミサイル開発や、中国による尖閣諸島周辺での挑発行為が続き、平時の警戒監視任務も重みを増している。

The government and ruling parties have been reviewing the constitutional interpretation to make it possible to allow a limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense. This is an indispensable step to buttress the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 政府・与党は今、集団的自衛権の行使を限定容認する憲法解釈の見直し作業を進めている。日米同盟の強化に欠かせない対応だ。

The range of SDF activities that would be regarded as “integration of the use of force” would be limited to action in battlegrounds, thus likely allowing “an urgent rescue mission” to help foreign troops. This will significantly contribute to expanding the SDF’s international activities.
 武力行使との一体化と見なされる範囲は戦闘現場での行為などに限定され、他国部隊などへの「駆けつけ警護」も可能になる見通しだ。自衛隊の国際活動を拡大する上で、大きな意義を持つ。

In addition to the change in constitutional interpretation, establishment of relevant laws is essential to define SDF activities.
 自衛隊の活動には、憲法解釈の変更に加え、関連法の整備が不可欠だ。

The government and ruling parties will tackle legislative steps in an extraordinary Diet session in autumn and onward. 政府・与党は秋の臨時国会以降、着実に取り組むべきだ。

It must be taken to heart that the Constitution will have to be revised in the near future to mention the existence of the SDF explicitly.
 近い将来、憲法を改正し、自衛隊の存在を明記することも改めて胸に刻まなくてはなるまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 1, 2014)

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2014年7月 1日 (火)

国際教員調査 時短は事務作業の見直しから

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Schools should find ways to ease demands on overburdened teachers
国際教員調査 時短は事務作業の見直しから

Japanese teachers work long hours, but have little confidence in their ability to effectively teach students. How can we improve this state of affairs facing teachers?
 日本の教員は勤務時間が長い。指導力への自信がない。この現状をどう改善していくべきか。

According to the Teaching and Learning International Survey by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Japanese middle school teachers work an average of 53.9 hours per week—the longest among the 33 nations and regions surveyed and 40 percent more than the overall average.
 経済協力開発機構(OECD)の国際教員指導環境調査によると、日本の中学教員は1週間に平均53・9時間も勤務している。
 対象となった33の国・地域で最も長く、全体の平均の1・4倍の長時間勤務を強いられている。

Yet the hours Japanese teachers spend teaching classes are short. On average teachers taught for just 17.7 hours, lower than the international average of 19.3 hours.
 ところが授業時間は逆に短い。全体の平均が19・3時間だったのに対し、日本は17・7時間にとどまっている。

The survey results make many of us fear that the crucial task of teaching lessons is being compromised. Earnest efforts are necessary to make teachers work more efficiently and become more skilled in instructing students.
 肝心の学習指導がおろそかになっていないか心配だ。仕事の効率化を進めるとともに、指導の充実を図る必要がある。

Two major factors contributing to these long working hours are the administrative work demanded of teachers at school and time spent on coaching students in club activities. Japanese teachers spend more than half of their hours at school on tasks other than teaching and preparing for lessons—far longer than their counterparts in other nations.
 長時間勤務の大きな要因が、事務作業や部活動などの指導である。授業とその準備以外の仕事が全体の半分を超え、他国に比べて際立って長い。

Japanese teachers spend time working on a wide range of tasks, including but not limited to answering surveys from various organizations, collecting unpaid school meal fees and dealing directly with parents. As a result, many teachers are forced to report to work early in the morning or during holidays to deal with work that has piled up.
 日本の教員は日常的に、各種団体から届く調査への回答作成や、滞納給食費の徴収、保護者への対応など、さまざまな仕事に追われている。たまった仕事を片づけるため、早朝や休日に出勤するケースも多いという。

Time-saving measures

As a first step, teachers’ clerical duties are in urgent need of review. Some schools have been able to reduce administrative workloads considerably by unifying surveys that had been conducted separately by prefectural and municipal governments and introducing uniform document formats. Schools should study these examples.
 まずは、事務作業の見直しが急務だ。県と市町村の双方で実施していた調査を一本化したり、文書の書式を統一したりするだけで、作業量をかなり減らした例もあるという。参考にしてほしい。

It is also possible to lighten teachers’ workloads by encouraging teachers to exchange information via e-mails and by sharing information on computers. Schools should consider increased use of school clerks.
 メールによる情報交換やパソコンを使った情報の共有で、作業時間の短縮も可能だろう。事務職員をこれまで以上に活用することも検討してはどうか。

Efforts should also be made to lighten the burdens of overseeing extracurricular activities by hiring coaches from outside the school.
 部活動についても、外部指導者の活用などで教員の負担軽減を図るべきだ。

The fact that only a minority of teachers had confidence in their teaching ability is a matter of real concern.
 生徒の指導に自信を持っている教員が、少数派だったことも気がかりである。

While more than 80 percent of teachers surveyed globally responded that they were able to make students confident in their academic achievements, slightly under 20 percent of Japanese teachers felt the same way.
 「生徒に勉強ができると自信を持たせる」ことができたとの回答は全体平均で8割を超えたのに、日本は2割弱にとどまった。

Veteran teachers, who were hired in large numbers in the 1970s and 1980s, are now nearing retirement. The current challenge for schools is to find ways to improve the teaching ability of younger teachers, who will be playing major school roles.
 1970~80年代に大量採用されたベテラン教員が退職の時期を迎えている。主力となる若手教員の指導力をいかに高めていくかが大きな課題と言える。

Many teachers have complained that their busy schedules prevent them from participating in seminars that could help them. Boards of education and schools alike should give consideration to teachers’ working schedules.
 多忙で研修に参加できないと訴える教員も多かった。教育委員会や学校は、勤務ダイヤなどの面で配慮してもらいたい。

Another troubling statistic is the percentage of female principals at Japanese schools—a mere 6 percent, the lowest among all nations surveyed.
 日本の女性校長の割合は6%で調査対象国の中で最低だった。

In line with the government’s target of raising the ratio of managerial positions held by women to 30 percent by the end of 2020, schools must work to promote more women to leadership positions.
政府は2020年までに女性管理職の割合を30%とする目標を掲げている。教育現場での女性活用も進めねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 30, 2014)

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社会福祉法人 地域貢献で存在意義を示せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Social welfare service corporations must step up role as local entities
社会福祉法人 地域貢献で存在意義を示せ

Criticism has surged recently against social welfare service corporations for failing to sufficiently fulfill their roles, despite having an easier time engaging in almost the same services as ordinary private-sector companies as a result of such measures as preferential tax treatment.
 税制上の優遇措置などを受けながら、民間企業と同じ事業に安住している。社会福祉法人が、十分に役割を果たしていないとの批判が多い。

To reform social welfare service corporations that run such facilities as nursing homes for the elderly and child care centers, an expert panel of the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has worked out a draft report containing a set of recommendations. The proposed report should be seen as a good opportunity to enhance the quality of their services.
 介護施設や保育所を運営する社会福祉法人の改革に向けて、厚生労働省の有識者検討会が報告書案をまとめた。事業を充実させる契機としたい。

Social welfare service corporations are nonprofit private-sector organizations based on the Social Welfare Law. They number about 20,000 nationwide. While being subject to strict regulations and supervision by administrative authorities, the corporations are entitled to receive preferential treatment in various areas, such as exemption from corporate tax and other public dues, and eligibility for subsidies to improve their facilities.
 社会福祉法人は、社会福祉法に基づく非営利の民間組織で、約2万の法人が存在する。行政による規制や指導監督が厳しい反面、法人税などの免除や施設整備の補助金を受けている。

Bodies authorized as social welfare service corporations have played pivotal roles in the nation’s social welfare programs since the 1950s, but recently an increasing number of businesses and nonprofit bodies from various fields have been entering the field of social welfare services. The environment surrounding social welfare service corporations has been changing drastically.
 1950年代から福祉サービスの中核となってきたが、近年は、同分野への企業やNPOなどの参入が進む。社会福祉法人を取り巻く環境は大きく変化している。

Because of such phenomena as the rapidly aging society and the instability of employment, tasks that cannot be fully handled through the existing government-run social welfare programs have been brought to the fore, such as the need to provide care for elderly citizens living alone and supporting hikikomori youths who have withdrawn from society.
 高齢化の進展や雇用の不安定化により、単身高齢者の見守りや引きこもりの若者の支援など、公的制度では対応しきれない課題も顕在化している。

As things stand, however, few social welfare service corporations have actually been meeting these new challenges in local communities.
 だが、こうした新たな地域ニーズに対応する社会福祉法人は、一部に限られているのが実情だ。

Reexamine mission

The draft report by the health ministry panel has rightly pointed out the need to make it obligatory for social welfare service corporations to engage in activities for the benefit of local communities. It is undoubtedly one of the principal duties of such corporations to address tasks in their fields that cannot be undertaken by profit-pursuing businesses.
 報告書案が、地域貢献活動の義務化を求めたのは、もっともである。利益を追求する企業にはできない分野に取り組むことが、社会福祉法人の本分だろう。

The draft has also deemed it problematic that tokuyo homes, which are operated by social welfare service corporations for elderly people who require around-the-clock nursing care, have amassed as much as ¥300 million on average in profits.
 社会福祉法人が運営する特別養護老人ホームで、平均3億円もの利益を蓄えていることも問題視されている。

It was quite reasonable for the draft report to stress as it did that the raison d’etre of the corporations would be called into question if they fail to make good use of such funds to provide their localities with better welfare services.
 こうした資金を活用して福祉サービスを地域に提供しなければ、存在意義が問われるという報告書案の指摘は、うなずける。

To make their activities more effective for the good of local communities, it is necessary to take such steps as expanding the scale of the corporations and facilitating joint operations by a larger number of corporations.
 地域貢献活動の効率的な実施には、法人の規模拡大や複数法人による共同事業の促進が必要だ。

Worthy of note in this respect are social welfare service corporations in Osaka Prefecture, which have been cooperating with each other by pooling funds to jointly offer counseling support services for people in need. They have also provided people in straitened circumstances with livelihood expenses and food. Their activities can serve as a positive model for other social welfare service corporations.
 大阪府では、複数の社会福祉法人が協力して資金を出し合い、生活困窮者に対する相談支援事業を展開している。生活資金や食料品などの援助も行う。他の地域の参考となろう。

Effective from fiscal 2015, the administration of some publicly run nursing care insurance services will be transferred to city, town and village entities. The law for helping disadvantaged people become self-reliant will also be put into force at the beginning of the next fiscal year, with city, town and village governments taking charge of providing the low-income residents with livelihood counseling and helping them find employment.
 2015年度から、介護保険サービスの一部が市町村の事業に移管される。生活困窮者自立支援法も施行され、市町村が相談や就労支援などを行う。

Social welfare service corporations are expected to be major bodies to be entrusted with such operations. This means that corporations must play even larger roles.
 社会福祉法人は、これらの事業の主要な委託先になると期待されている。果たすべき役割は、ますます大きくなる。

Some chief executives’ practice of treating social welfare service corporations like their exclusive property has become an issue. To ensure public trust, it is essential to enhance the transparency of their operations.
 一部の法人では、理事長による運営の「私物化」が問題となっている。信頼性の確保には、運営の透明性の向上が不可欠だ。

Only half of such corporations have disclosed their financial statements. As stated in the draft report, it is imperative to make it obligatory for the corporations to make them public.
財務諸表を公開している法人は半数にとどまる。報告書案が指摘したように、公開の義務化が急がれる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 30, 2014)

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これはすばらしい!家族アルバム管理ならユーチューブより良いかも

自分だけの動画サイト構築システム を簡単に構築できる時代となりました。
株式会社アジャストが動画サイト構築システムである「ソーシャルキャスト」というのを個人ユーザー向けに提供開始しました。
このソフトウェア、アイデアが実にユニークなんです。
なんたって、自分のサーバーにソーシャルキャストをインストールするだけで、ユーチューブのような感覚で操作できるようになるのがすばらしいです。
例えば、玉石混合、ばらばらのユーチューブ動画情報を、このソーシャルキャストで一括管理することもできるので、プロやマニアでものめりこみそうなソフトですね。

家族アルバム管理ならば、ソーシャルキャストが最適ではないかと感じました。
私が天国に召されても、子供たちはサイトで家族だけで動画を楽しめます。さびしい思いをしなくてすむでしょう。
使い道はあなたしだいの、すばらしいソフトウェアだと感じました。



自分専用の動画サイトが構築できる! 動画サイト構築システム「ソーシャルキャスト」は、個人なら無料で使えます!



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青い街のカードゲームGRUND(グルント)

青い街のカードゲームGRUND(グルント)が面白そうですね。
子供の遊びではなくって、これはかなり知力を要する、知的なカードゲームなんです。
知的といってもマージャンのような技術ではなくって、エリートが知力を振り絞ると言ったところなんです。
大学生には大受けしているようなんですね。
一組わずか¥1,500のカードゲームなんですが、奥が深いです。
このゲーム、元祖はたぶんドイツだと思います。
GRUND(グルント)はドイツ語で裏切りの理由という意味なんです(大学時代ドイツ語を専攻しました)。
組織に忠誠であるべきか、裏切って利益を得るかは、あなたの判断なんですが、最後の審判はこのカードゲーム上でなされます。
人間関係による人生の浮き沈みをもろに体験できる、面白いゲームなんです。



カードゲームの企画・製作・販売を行ってきた同人サークル青い街(所在地:神奈川県横浜市鶴見区、代表:杉岡一樹)を、2014年7月1日(火)に法人化します。



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永久無料の会計ソフトなら「フリーウェイ経理Lite」です

めんどうくさい給与計算は会計ソフトをつかうべきですね。
無料版というのは、あまりみかけませんでした。
この「フリーウェイ経理Lite」ならば、本当に永久無料でつかえるんです。
データ容量に制限がないのが気に入っていますが、利用期間制限がないので永久に使えるという分けなんです。
企業の経営者ならば、給与計算と販売管理ソフトの両方が、ただで使えちゃいます。
この6月30日に、利用者が一万人を超えた、使えるソフトなんです。
クラウド上で使える企業版も用意されていますし、会計事務所とつながる顧問先版もあります。
ずっと無料の会計ソフトは大いに利用価値があります。



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