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2014年7月 5日 (土)

6・3制見直し 小中一貫で教育効果高まるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can proposed integrated primary-middle school system produce educational effect?
6・3制見直し 小中一貫で教育効果高まるか

Could a review of the so-called 6-3 system that breaks compulsory education into six years of primary school and three years of middle school work to enhance education?
 小学校6年、中学校3年の「6・3制」の見直しで、教育効果を高められるだろうか。

The Education Rebuilding Implementation Council, a government advisory panel tasked with discussing reform of the country’s educational system, has put together recommendations that center on a shift toward combining primary- and middle-school-level education.
 学制改革を議論してきた政府の教育再生実行会議が、小中一貫校の制度化を柱とする提言をまとめた。

The proposed reform calls for flexible division of the nine years of compulsory education, for example, breaking them into “four, three and two years” or “five and four years” based on the judgments of each municipality.
 市区町村の判断で、義務教育の9年間を「4年・3年・2年」や「5年・4年」など、柔軟に区切れるようにする制度だ。

Recent years have seen the emergence of problems due to newly entering first-year students at middle schools finding it difficult to adjust to changes in the educational environment.
 近年、中学校に入学した生徒が環境の変化になじめない「中1ギャップ」が問題化している。

In addition, some have suggested that it is more effective, in the upper levels of primary school where subjects become more difficult to understand, for teachers to be responsible for individual subjects, as in middle schools, rather than leaving most instruction to homeroom teachers.
 学習内容が難しくなる小学校高学年からは、学級担任が大半の教科を教えるより、中学校のように教科ごとに専門の教師が指導した方が効果的だとの指摘もある。

It is sensible for the panel to pursue instruction in line with students’ levels of comprehension based on the nine-year curriculum set by each municipality’s education board.
 市区町村の教育委員会が9年間を通したカリキュラムを設定し、子供の理解力に応じた指導を可能にする方向性は理解できる。

Integrated primary and middle school education has been already implemented in Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo, and in some other municipalities designated by the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry. In some cases, problematic behaviors such as truancy have decreased and scholastic test results have improved.
 東京都品川区などが、文部科学省から特例校の指定を受け、既に小中一貫教育を実施している。不登校などの問題行動が減少したり、学力テストの成績が向上したりした事例もある。

The education ministry aims to introduce integrated primary and middle school education in fiscal 2016 at the earliest. It is essential to consider the efforts that have already been made as a reference, while moving forward with institutional design.
 文科省は早ければ2016年度からの導入を目指している。これまでの取り組みを参考に制度設計を進めることが重要だ。

A host of challenges

But the challenges remaining to be addressed are many. One is finding a way to deal with cases in which students are unable to adjust to new educational environments after moving to new schools, when teaching methods and pace differ greatly in some municipalities and schools. There is also the question of how to link newly integrated primary and middle schools with existing integrated middle and high schools already in place.
 課題も少なくない。自治体や学校ごとに授業の教え方や進度が極端に異なれば、子供が転校した際に、順応できない恐れがあるだろう。中高一貫校との接続をどう考えるか、という問題もある。

Reexamination of the teacher licensing system would also be an indispensable project. It is necessary to establish new licenses whereby teachers can teach at both primary and middle schools, thereby encouraging exchanges of teachers across the primary-middle school boundary.
 教員免許の見直しは欠かせない。小学校、中学校の双方で指導可能な免許を新設し、教師の相互乗り入れを促す必要がある。

Teachers themselves would be urged to work toward improving and deepening their knowledge of their specialty subjects and honing their teaching skills.
 教師自身にも、担当教科に関する知識を深め、指導力を磨く努力が求められる。

With the introduction of integrated primary and middle schools, some existing schools may be abolished or merged. Heads of municipal governments and municipal boards of education must study the advisability of introducing the proposed system, taking the needs of the parents and guardians of students into consideration.
 小中一貫校の新設に伴い、既存の学校が統廃合されるケースもあろう。各自治体の首長と教委は、保護者のニーズを踏まえて、導入の是非を検討すべきだ。

The implementation council also examined the possibility of beginning compulsory education from age 5 as a measure to further develop children’s abilities. But in its report of recommendations, it was listed as a matter for future study. That decision was perhaps inevitable, given the prospect that securing the ¥260 billion needed yearly to provide free education to 5-year-olds is likely to be impossible.
 実行会議は、子供の能力をより伸ばすため、5歳児からの義務教育も議論したが、提言では将来的な検討課題にとどめた。5歳児教育の無償化に要する年2600億円の財源を確保する見通しが立たない以上、やむを得まい。

Another noteworthy proposal from the panel is the systematization of organizations of higher learning that specialize in vocational training. The change would aim at helping graduates of specialized technical and commercial schools acquire higher levels of expertise and skills.
 提言が、職業教育を専門に行う高等教育機関の制度化を打ち出した点は注目される。工業や商業といった専門高校の卒業生が、より高いレベルの知識や技術を習得することを目的としている。

The education ministry should study measures to help such schools develop as educational institutions that will foster work-ready professionals.
 即戦力となる職業人を育成する教育機関となるよう、文科省は検討を進めてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 4, 2014)

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