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2014年7月13日 (日)

刑事司法改革 国民の信頼を取り戻す制度に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Investigators should use new methods to regain public trust
刑事司法改革 国民の信頼を取り戻す制度に

The proposals compiled by a Legislative Council committee present investigative authorities with an opportunity to pick up steam in their efforts to win back some of the public trust they lost through the recent spate of scandals involving public prosecutors.
 一連の検察不祥事などで失った国民の信頼を取り戻す契機としたい。

The government council’s special committee was tasked with examining reforms of the criminal justice system, and has compiled a set of proposals for the justice minister, one of which would require investigative authorities to record the entire interrogation process, in certain cases.
 刑事司法改革を議論してきた政府の法制審議会特別部会が、一部の事件で捜査機関に取り調べの全過程の録音・録画(可視化)を義務づける法相への答申案をまとめた。

The Justice Ministry plans to submit relevant bills to the ordinary Diet session next year.
 法務省は来年の通常国会に関連法案を提出する方針だ。

The proposals are intended to prevent false accusations through the adoption of video recordings of interrogations and to enhance investigative capabilities by expanding the scope of cases subject to wiretapping as well as by introducing a system for plea bargaining.
 可視化により、冤罪えんざいの防止を図るとともに、通信傍受の拡大や司法取引の導入で、捜査力の向上にも目配りした内容と言える。

The most contentious issue has been designating which categories of crimes are to be subject to mandatory recording of interrogations. Those cases have narrowed down to crimes tried by lay judges and those subject to independent investigations by prosecutors’ offices.
 最大の焦点だった可視化の対象は、裁判員裁判の対象事件と検察の独自捜査事件に絞られた。

Recording would be required in only about 3 percent of criminal cases. In many such cases, however, the credibility and voluntariness of confessions made during interrogations wind up being contested in public trials.
 対象数は全事件の3%程度にとどまるが、これらの事件では、捜査段階における容疑者の供述の任意性や信用性が、公判になって争われるケースが多い。

Recording interactions between investigators and suspects during questioning is of great significance, in that it will enable an after-the-fact examination of the case to determine whether there was an induced confession or compelled testimony.
 捜査官と容疑者のやりとりを記録することで、供述の誘導や強要がなかったかどうか、事後的に検証できる意義は大きい。

Prosecutors have been introducing recorded interrogations through a process of trial and error in cases handled by lay judges. From October onward, prosecutors will begin voluntary interrogation recording in cases where written statements based on such questioning appears likely to become a focal issue at trial, irrespective of the category of crime.
 検察は、裁判員裁判対象事件などで可視化の試行を重ねている。10月以降は、罪種を問わず、供述内容が争点になりそうな事件でも、自主的に録音・録画する。

Becoming more common

Prosecutors have shifted to a more proactive stance on video recording as the courts have moved toward stricter appraisals of the admissibility as evidence of such statements compiled without recording.
 可視化せずに作成した供述調書の証拠能力について、裁判所が厳しく判断していることが、検察が積極姿勢に転じた背景にある。

The proposals also call for reviews of cases subject to recording when deemed necessary. Lawmakers should examine how police and prosecutors’ offices are carrying out recorded interrogations and should consider possible impacts of recordings on investigations before any conclusions are made regarding a potential expansion in the scope of cases subject to recording.
 答申案は、可視化の対象事件などを必要に応じて見直すよう求めた。対象の拡大に関しては、警察・検察の実施状況や捜査への影響を検証して検討すべきだろう。

Another facet of the proposals is the addition of nine new categories of crimes to the list of investigations subject to wiretapping of phone and e-mail communications.
 一方、電話やメールの通信傍受の対象には、複数犯の共謀が疑われる窃盗や詐欺など9種類の犯罪が新たに加わる。

The range of wiretapping targets has conventionally been limited to four categories of crimes, with a very limited number of actual cases, including those involving drugs or firearms.
従来は薬物・銃器犯罪など4罪種に限られ、実施件数が少なかった。

Also planned for introduction is a plea bargaining system, which would permit prosecutors to refrain from indicting a suspect in return for his or her cooperation, such as providing information on crimes committed by an accomplice.
 容疑者が捜査に協力し、共犯者の犯罪を明らかにすれば、見返りに、容疑者本人の起訴を見送る司法取引も導入される。

It is hoped that the expansion and improvement of these investigative methods will help authorities unravel increasingly sophisticated crimes. Abuse of wiretapping, however, could infringe on people’s privacy. There is also the risk of a deceptive statement obtained through the plea bargaining system leading to false accusations against people who have nothing to do with the crime.
 こうした捜査手法の拡充で、巧妙化する犯罪の解明が進むことを期待したい。ただ、通信傍受が乱用されれば、国民のプライバシーが侵害されかねない。司法取引には、虚偽供述で無関係の人を事件に巻き込む危険がつきまとう。

Both police and prosecutors are required to apply the proposed investigative methods in a circumspect and discreet manner.
 警察・検察には、厳格かつ慎重な運用が求められる。

The proposals also contain a new rule requiring prosecutors to reveal to the defense counsel a list of the evidence they hold prior to a public trial.
 答申案には、公判前に検察の保管証拠の一覧表を弁護側に開示する新ルールも盛り込まれた。

Evidence collected with the use of taxpayer money is not to be monopolized by prosecutors, but is rather public property which should be utilized to reveal the truth of cases being investigated. Fair trials must be ensured by securing the right to a fair defense for the accused person.
 税金を使って集めた証拠は、検察の独占物ではなく、事件の真相究明に役立てるべき公共財だ。被告の防御権を確保して、公正な裁判を実現しなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 10, 2014)

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