« 2014年7月 | トップページ | 2014年9月 »

2014年8月

2014年8月31日 (日)

社説:理研の改革計画 トップの責任どうした

August 29, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Riken reform plan fails to hold top management responsible for STAP scandal
社説:理研の改革計画 トップの責任どうした

Is the Riken research institute's proposed reorganization plan enough to revive the government-backed organization? We cannot help but doubt this.
 これで組織を再生することができるのか、疑問を抱かざるを得ない。
   
Riken has released an action plan for reform that includes the disassembling and rebuilding its Center for Developmental Biology (CDB) -- the site of the research into so-called stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) cells. The plan, formulated following the discovery of irregularities in research papers on the cells, also calls for strengthening of Riken's organizational governance.
 理化学研究所は、STAP細胞の論文不正問題を踏まえ、舞台となった発生・再生科学総合研究センター(CDB)の「解体的出直し」や理研全体のガバナンス(組織統治)強化などを柱とする改革のアクションプラン(行動計画)を公表した。

The research institute says that the reforms are for the sake of society, not itself, and has decided to replace the head of the CDB, Masatoshi Takeichi. However, neither Riken President Ryoji Noyori nor any of the executive directors will be removed. Rather, the only Riken research organization to be reorganized is the CDB, which certainly does not evoke an image of a reborn Riken. More extensive reorganization reaching the top management is therefore necessary.
 「理研のための理研改革」ではなく、「社会のための理研改革」を掲げ、CDBの竹市雅俊センター長は交代させるという。しかし、野依良治理事長を含む理事6人の刷新は見送られた。研究組織の見直しもCDBにとどまる。とても、生まれ変わった理研の姿が浮かぶ内容ではない。理研本部の幹部責任を含め、もっと踏み込んだ改革が必要だ。

In June, a reform committee comprised of outside experts recommended disassembling the CDB and making personnel changes. Based on this, a decision was made to change the name of the CDB and appoint a new head, to be chosen by a committee that will include foreign researchers. Half of the 40 research laboratories at the CDB are also to be transferred to new management, including other Riken research centers.
 外部有識者による理研の改革委員会は6月、CDBの解体や人事刷新を提言した。これを受け、行動計画では、CDBの名称を「多細胞システム形成研究センター(仮称)」と変更し、新センター長は外国人研究者を含む委員会を設けて選考するという。40ある研究室の半分を理研の他のセンターなどに移管する。

Out of consideration for researchers at the CDB who had no part in the STAP cell scandal, the reorganization will not take away jobs from any of the 450 or so CDB researchers, and many of the research labs set to have new management will remain in their current locations for some time. Riken, however, must take care to make its reorganization more than just a "new layer of paint."
 結果的にCDBの研究者約450人の雇用は維持される。多くの研究室の場所も当面は変わらない。STAP問題とは関係のない研究者に配慮した対応だが、看板の掛け替えに終わらせてはならない。

Under the reorganization, the CDB will reconstruct its research programs around programs that involve young and mid-level researchers. A management committee including non-Riken members will also be created to replace the management structure that has existed until now, wherein CDB policy was decided by veteran researchers called "group directors."
 CDBの研究プログラムは若手・中堅を中心とするプログラムを軸に再編・重点化する。さらに、グループディレクターと呼ばれるベテラン研究者が方針を決定してきた運営体制を改め、外部の有識者を含めた運営会議を設けるという。

Having a setup that supports young researchers is important, and we hope to see the proposed arrangements go forward smoothly. A new management structure is, additionally, a natural step. But if the new management is composed of people closely tied to the old management, this won't constitute real change. The matter of who is chosen for the new management, therefore, will be significant.
 若手を応援する体制の構築は大事で、着実に進めてもらいたい。運営体制の刷新は当然だが、仲間内から集めてくるだけでは本当の改革にはつながらない。人選が重要だ。

What we are ultimately unhappy with is the lack of renovation within Riken headquarters' leadership. While a new management strategy committee has been announced with over half of its members being non-Riken, and a post has been created to oversee research ethics education, none of the proposed changes pursue the management responsibilities of the president and executive directors.
 それにしても、釈然としないのは理研本部自身の改革だ。外部有識者を過半数とする経営戦略会議や研究倫理教育責任者の設置などが打ち出されたが、理事長や理事の管理責任を厳しく問うものではない。

President Noyori has called the current executive directors "very capable people," and wants to keep them in place while the reorganization of Riken is carried out. Who, however, can believe that meaningful reforms will occur with the same executives in place who failed to stop the spread of the STAP cell problem?
 野依理事長は「理事は大変有能な人たち」と述べ、現体制で改革を進める考えだが、STAP問題の拡大を防げなかった幹部が居座ったままで改革が進むと誰が思うだろう。

Riken had been on track to receive designation as a "specified national research and development corporation," which would have given it various benefits, before the STAP cell issue came to light and caused lawmakers to postpone debate of the relevant legislation. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, which presides over Riken, should decide whether or not to grant the designation after carefully considering the progress of Riken's reorganization.
 理研は、さまざまな優遇策が認められる特定国立研究開発法人に指定される見通しだったものの、STAP問題で関連法案の国会審議が先送りされた。理研を所管する文部科学省は、改革の進展度合いを見極めた上で、指定の是非を判断すべきだ。

Research misconduct is not a problem limited to Riken's CDB. It is important that all of Japan learn from the STAP cell issue.
 研究不正は理研CDBだけの問題ではない。日本中がSTAP問題から学ぶことが大切だ。

毎日新聞 2014年08月29日 02時35分

| | コメント (0)

ガザ停戦合意 楽観できぬ和平実現への道

The Yomiuri Shimbun
No optimism warranted on prospects of realizing peace in Gaza Strip
ガザ停戦合意 楽観できぬ和平実現への道

It is imperative to seek ways to realize a permanent ceasefire and pursue the road to peace in the Gaza Strip.
 恒久的停戦を実現し、和平への道を探らなければならない。

The Palestinian Islamist group Hamas, which has effective control over the Palestinian autonomous region of Gaza, and Israel have agreed to an open-ended ceasefire after 50 days of fighting.
 パレスチナ自治区ガザを実効支配するイスラム主義組織ハマスとイスラエルが、50日の戦闘の末、ようやく無期限の停戦に合意した。

The death toll has topped 2,100 in Gaza, and most of the victims are civilians, including women and children. The two sides must give top priority to maintaining the ceasefire.
 ガザ地区の死者は2100人を超え、その大半が女性や子供など一般市民だった。双方は、停戦維持を最優先すべきである。

Since fighting started in early July, temporary ceasefires have taken effect several times through Egypt’s mediation, but none lasted for long.
 7月上旬の戦闘開始以来、エジプトの仲介による時限付きの停戦が何度か発効したが、いずれも長続きしなかった。

The recent truce was agreed upon because Hamas developed a heightened sense of crisis after three of its military leaders were assassinated by Israel. On the other hand, Israel had been pressed to bring the conflict to an early end, in light of the fact that the popularity ratings for Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s administration have plummeted due to an increase in the number of victims from the conflict.
 無期限停戦が成立したのは、イスラエルによって軍事部門の幹部3人を暗殺されたハマスが、危機感を強めたためだ。イスラエルにも、犠牲者の増加でネタニヤフ政権の支持率が急落し、早期収拾を迫られていた事情がある。

Following the recent ceasefire accord, Israel relaxed the economic blockade it had been imposing since the Hamas seizure of Gaza in 2007, allowing humanitarian aid and materials for reconstruction work to be transported into Gaza.
 今回の合意を受け、イスラエルは、2007年のハマスによるガザ制圧以来続けてきた経済封鎖を緩和した。人道支援物資や、復旧に必要な建築資材の搬入なども認められることになった。

The U.N. World Food Program has begun to provide food assistance to Gaza.
 国連の世界食糧計画(WFP)は食糧援助を開始している。

Bumpy road ahead

However, a rough road lies ahead for reconstruction of the autonomous region.
 ただ、復旧への道は険しい。

Gaza has suffered destruction on an unprecedented scale. Its economy has been brought to the brink of collapse, with the unemployment rate reaching 50 percent. It will be difficult for Hamas to procure the estimated reconstruction costs of $6 billion on its own. Hamas faces the challenge of finding a way to secure aid from the international community.
 ガザは、前例のない規模で破壊された。失業率が50%に達するなど経済も破綻状態で、60億ドルと見込まれる復旧費用を自力で調達するのは困難だ。国際社会による支援が課題となろう。

There is concern in the United States, Europe and Egypt that if a huge amount of assistance money is provided to Hamas, which calls for the defeat of Israel, it will be misused to beef up its military capabilities.
 欧米やエジプトには、イスラエル打倒を掲げるハマスに多額の援助をすると、戦力増強に転用されかねないと懸念する声がある。

In actuality, Hamas has replenished its rocket artillery and other arms every time clashes with Israel came to a standstill and then resumed attacks.
 実際にハマスは、イスラエルとの衝突が一段落する度に、ロケット弾などの武器を補充し、攻撃を再開してきた。

For an international assistance framework to be created, it is indispensable for the Palestinian Authority, which has formed an interim government with Hamas, to serve as a channel to receive assistance, thereby ensuring transparency in the flow of aid supplies and funds. The political leadership of Mahmoud Abbas, president of the Palestinian Authority, is being put to the test in this regard.
 国際的な支援の枠組みを作るには、ハマスと暫定統一政府を組むパレスチナ自治政府が支援の窓口となり、援助物資や資金の流れの透明性を確保することが欠かせまい。アッバス自治政府議長の政治的指導力が試される。

It was also agreed that Israel and Hamas would enter indirect talks on a permanent ceasefire within a month, with Egypt acting as an intermediary. Starting the negotiations smoothly could be the first step toward achieving peace.
 一方、恒久的な停戦に向けた協議は、エジプトを仲介役とした間接交渉の形で、1か月以内に始められることになった。着実な交渉開始が和平への第一歩となる。

Israel wants to ensure its own national security, while Hamas has asked for a complete lifting of the Gaza blockade and the release of Palestinian prisoners held by Israel. Each of these demands has been left pending, as the two sides have stood firm on their positions. No optimism is warranted regarding the future course of talks.
 イスラエルは自国の安全保障を、ハマスはガザ封鎖の完全解除やパレスチナ囚人釈放などを要求している。いずれも、双方が鋭く対立してきた懸案である。交渉の行方は楽観を許さない。

International efforts—centering on those by Egypt, which has served as an intermediary in the negotiations, and the United States, which can exert influence over Israel—are essential to spur the promotion of mutual concessions by the two conflicting parties.
 仲介役のエジプトや、イスラエルへの影響力を持つ米国を中心に、国際社会が歩み寄りを促す努力を続けることが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 29, 2014)Speech

| | コメント (0)

日本海の津波 短時間での襲来に備えたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Sea of Japan coastal regions must be braced for tsunami onslaught
日本海の津波 短時間での襲来に備えたい

Even after an earthquake that is not very powerful, massive tsunami waves can strike areas on the coast of the Sea of Japan.
 日本海側では、揺れはさほどでなくとも、大きな津波が来る。

Robust disaster preparedness measures must be taken diligently to keep people from being caught off guard by a tsunami calamity.
不意打ちされぬよう、着実な防災対策が求められる。

Of the various types of earthquakes generated at the bottom of the Sea of Japan, which kinds of tremors should be considered likely to trigger a tsunami? The government on Tuesday announced projections regarding the maximum size of tsunami that should be anticipated to strike Sea of Japan coastal regions, and the arrival time of tsunami in each region. This is the first projection of its kind to be made by central government.
 日本海の海底で発生する様々な地震で、どのような津波が襲来するか。政府が、想定すべき津波の最大規模や到達時間を初めて試算し、発表した。

According to the projections, tsunami can occur at heights ranging from four to 12 meters in populous, low-lying areas along the eastern half of the Sea of Japan coastline, from Fukui Prefecture to Hokkaido. On the western half, from the northern part of Kyushu to Kyoto Prefecture, tsunami three to four meters high are said possible. Within the Sea of Japan region, there is an area in Hokkaido that the government estimates could be subject to tsunami as massive as over 20 meters high.
 人口の多い平地部では、北海道から福井県までの沿岸が4~12メートル台、京都府から九州北部が3~4メートル台の津波に襲われる可能性がある。沿岸部全体では、北海道で20メートルを超える地点がある。

All these, however, are nothing other than estimations that have been calculated based on the current progress of relevant studies. There may be tsunami generated by underwater faults that have yet to be discovered. Constant vigilance must be maintained.
 ただ、これらは、あくまで現段階での目安に過ぎない。まだ見つかっていない断層で発生する津波もあろう。警戒は怠れない。

The projections are in line with a law enacted in 2011 for fortifying communities against tsunami disasters, in light of the Great East Japan Earthquake that year. The law makes it obligatory for municipalities facing the coast to strengthen tsunami countermeasures.
 試算は、東日本大震災を踏まえて2011年に制定された「津波防災地域づくりに関する法律」に基づく。沿岸自治体に津波対策の強化を義務づけている。

On the Pacific coast, each municipality has been proceeding with defensive preparations against huge tsunami by considering earthquakes such as those that might focus along the Nankai Trough in the Pacific Ocean.
 太平洋側では、南海トラフ地震などを念頭に、各自治体が巨大津波対策を進めている。

However, in regions along the Sea of Japan, where no confirmed extensive seismic zones exist, there has been considerable variation in approaches to anti-tsunami measures among the 16 prefectural governments concerned, including Hokkaido.
これに対し、広大な震源域がない日本海側では、関係する16道府県の取り組みにばらつきがあるのが現状だ。

Arrival within 1 minute

This compilation of tsunami projections by the central government is of high significance in prompting local entities to devise measures to tackle tsunami hazards.
 今回、政府が津波の試算をまとめたことは、関係自治体の対策を促す上で意義がある。

What is important in mapping out countermeasures is to take into full consideration earthquake and tsunami characteristics peculiar to the Sea of Japan coast.
 対策を講じる際に重要なのは、日本海側の地震、津波の特性を十分に考慮することだ。

Underwater faults in the Sea of Japan are relatively close to coastal areas and are at shallower locations. This means that should a tsunami occur, it could become very large and could arrive at the coast within a short time. According to the projections, there could be tsunami in many areas that could reach the coast within a single minute after an earthquake. Given this, it is of paramount importance to conduct evacuations as swiftly as possible in the event of such a situation.
 日本海の海底断層は沿岸に近く、浅い位置にある。津波が大きくなりやすく、地震発生から沿岸に達するまでの時間も短い。試算によると、到達時間が1分以内という地域が少なくない。迅速な避難が何より大切になる。

To alleviate damage from tsunami disasters, it is necessary for every local entity to work out a hazard map appropriate to accurate assessments of local characteristics. Local municipalities should address the tasks pragmatically in both practical and informative terms, including measures such as improvement of evacuation routes and disaster drills.
 被害軽減のため、地域の実情に合わせたハザードマップを作成すべきだ。避難路の整備や訓練など、ハード、ソフト両面から実践的な取り組みを進めたい。

It has been pointed out in the projections that a tsunami occurring in the sea off a location between Hokkaido and Akita Prefecture could spread extensively because of the influence of undersea geological formations, possibly reaching as far as the Chugoku region.
 北海道から秋田県の沖で発生した津波が、海底の地形の影響を受けて拡散し、中国地方まで到来する可能性も指摘された。

There also are fears that a tsunami occurring in the Sea of Japan could rebound after reaching the coast of the continent, a phenomenon that would cause the tsunami to assault stricken areas in Japan repeatedly. That is to say, vigilance must be maintained even after a single tsunami has subsided.
 日本沿岸の津波が大陸沿岸で跳ね返り、繰り返し被災地に押し寄せる恐れもあるという。いったん津波が引いても、気を緩められないということだ。

Safety arrangements at nuclear power plants are also essential. There are many regions where nuclear power complexes have been located in a concentrated manner on the Sea of Japan coast, such as in Fukui and Niigata prefectures.
 原子力発電所の安全対策も重要である。日本海沿岸には、福井、新潟両県のように、原発が集中立地している地域が多い。

Learning from the Great East Japan Earthquake, power utilities have already made tsunami projections that are more stringent than the latest government projections, working out steps such as construction of seawalls and measures to ensure power sources in the event of immersion during a giant tsunami. Considering the menace of tsunami, the most thorough preparations for ensuring safety are essential.
 電力会社は東日本大震災を教訓に、既に政府試算より大きな津波を想定し、防潮堤の建設や、浸水時の電源確保などの対策を講じている。津波の脅威を考えれば、万全の備えが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 29, 2014)Speech

| | コメント (0)

ウクライナ情勢 ロシアは侵入を直ちにやめよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Russia must stop military incursion into Ukraine’s territory immediately
ウクライナ情勢 ロシアは侵入を直ちにやめよ

It has been revealed that more than 1,000 Russian troops have entered Ukraine’s territory.
 ロシア軍の兵士1000人以上が、ウクライナ領内に侵入していたことが判明した。

The incursion represents a blatant intervention by Russia in Ukraine’s domestic affairs following its annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in March. Such an outrageous action, which trampled on the sovereignty of a neighboring country, should absolutely not be tolerated.
 クリミア半島編入に続く露骨な介入である。隣国の主権を踏みにじる暴挙は、断じて容認できない。

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has released smoking-gun satellite photos of Russian self-propelled artillery units moving in a convoy formation in eastern Ukraine. The photos were reportedly taken on Aug. 21.
 北大西洋条約機構(NATO)は、侵入の「動かぬ証拠」として、ウクライナ領内を移動する露軍の自走砲の隊列をとらえた衛星写真を公開した。撮影日は、今月21日だとしている。

The U.N. Security Council held an emergency meeting at which U.S. and European representatives criticized Russia in chorus. U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Samantha Power said Russia had “outright lied” about its role in Ukraine.
 国連安全保障理事会が緊急会合を開き、欧米各国の代表がロシアを一斉に批判した。米国のパワー大使は会合で「ロシアはウソばかりついてきた」と指摘した。

U.S. President Barack Obama said, “Russia is responsible for the violence in eastern Ukraine” and hinted sanctions against Moscow may be strengthened, which would be quite natural. Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said Japan “will deal with the [Ukrainian] situation appropriately in cooperation with the G-7.”
 オバマ米大統領が、「暴力の責任はロシアにある」と強調し、制裁強化を示唆したのは当然だ。菅官房長官も、「G7(先進7か国)で連携しながら適切に対応していきたい」と述べた。

Nevertheless, Russia has continued to deny the reports on its military advance into Ukraine, saying they are “fake.”
 それでもロシアは、ウクライナ侵入の情報について「でたらめだ」などと否定し続けている。

It is imperative for the international community to cooperate in applying pressure on Russia to halt its unjust interference with Ukraine.
 国際社会は協調してロシアに圧力をかけ、ウクライナへの不当な介入をやめさせる必要がある。

Moscow had argued that Russians supporting pro-Russia armed separatists in eastern Ukraine are “volunteer soldiers” who do not belong to the Russian military.
 ロシアは、ウクライナ東部で親ロシア派武装集団に加勢しているロシア人は、軍に属さない「義勇兵」だと説明してきた。

But it also came to light that Russian troops have been involved in fighting for more than two weeks.
 ところが、ロシア軍の兵士が2週間以上前から戦闘に加担していたことも明らかになった。

Two-faced diplomacy

A member of Russia’s Human Rights Commission has testified that more than 100 Russian soldiers were killed in attacks by Ukrainian troops in the state of Donetsk on Aug. 13. Convoys of trucks carrying ammunition were said to have been attacked.
 ロシアの人権委員会のメンバーは、ウクライナ東部ドネツク州で13日、100人以上のロシア兵がウクライナ軍の攻撃で死亡したと証言した。弾薬運搬中のトラックの車列が攻撃されたという。

This means that Russian troops have been operating on a large scale in Ukraine, a fact that runs counter to Russian President Vladimir Putin’s assertion that the fighting in the eastern Ukraine is “a domestic crisis of Ukraine.”
 ロシア軍がウクライナで大規模に活動していたことになる。ウクライナ東部の戦闘は「ウクライナ内部の危機だ」とするプーチン大統領の主張と、真っ向から矛盾する事実と言える。

Putin conferred with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko Tuesday and said that Moscow “will also discuss any kind of cooperation.” Russia has been expanding its military intervention steadily. At the same time, Putin shook hands with Poroshenko with a smile. Such two-faced diplomacy can never work for long.
 プーチン氏は26日、ウクライナのポロシェンコ大統領と会談し、「いかなる協力についても話し合う」と述べた。笑顔で握手を交わす裏で、着々と軍事介入を進める。そんな“二枚舌外交”が長く通用するわけもない。

The leak of the information about the deaths of Russian troops in Donetsk by the Human Rights Commission, which is under the direct control of the Russian presidential office, shows Moscow has become unable to control information.
 ロシア大統領府直属の人権委から話が漏れたのも、情報統制がとれなくなってきた表れだろう。

The European Union was to discuss additional economic sanctions against Russia during its meeting Saturday.
 欧州連合(EU)は30日の首脳会議で、ロシアに対する追加の経済制裁を協議する方針だ。

If the EU shows a weak-kneed stance toward Russia, on which it relies for supplies of natural gas and other energy sources, this will make Moscow more arrogant and assertive. A resolute stance is called for from the EU.
 天然ガスをはじめエネルギーをロシアに依存する欧州が弱腰の姿勢を見せれば、ロシアをますます増長させよう。毅然きぜんとした対応が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 30, 2014)Speech

| | コメント (0)

概算要求 「選択と集中」で歳出の抑制を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Use ‘selection and focus’ strategy to control growth of govt spending
概算要求 「選択と集中」で歳出の抑制を

Japan’s national debt already tops ¥1 quadrillion. Given the severe financial situation buffeting the nation, it is imperative to put the brakes on swelling state expenditures.
 国の借金が1000兆円超という厳しい財政事情を踏まえ、歳出の膨張に歯止めをかけなければならない。

Total budget requests for fiscal 2015 have exceeded ¥100 trillion, the first time this line has been breached. The figure is significantly higher than the ¥96 trillion allocated for the initial fiscal 2014 budget.
 2015年度予算の概算要求総額が、初めて100兆円を超えた。14年度当初予算の96兆円を大きく上回る規模である。

The government’s goal of achie-ving a primary balance surplus for central and local governments in fiscal 2020 appears difficult to reach, even when revenue accrued from the hike in the consumption tax rate and other factors are taken into account. Given these circumstances, the Finance Ministry must screen budget requests even more strictly to weed out wasteful expenditures.
 20年度までに国と地方の基礎的財政収支を黒字化する政府の目標は、消費増税などを見込んでも達成が難しい状況だ。財務省には、より厳しい査定が求められる。

The government set a rule of capping requests for discretionary policy spending, such as public works projects, at 10 percent below the level of the fiscal 2014 budget.
 政府は、公共事業などの「裁量的経費」の要求上限を、14年度予算より10%低い水準に抑えるルールを設けた。

Meanwhile, a “special spending quota” to be shared among priority policies of the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, such as promoting his economic growth strategy, have been allo-cated about ¥4 trillion. Requests to tap into this quota came in at the upper limit, pushing up the total budget requests.
 一方で、成長戦略の推進など安倍政権の優先課題に重点配分するために設けた4兆円の特別枠に、上限いっぱいの要求が集まり、総額は膨らんだ。

Some requests for money from the special quota were conspicuously old-fashioned, such as for road construction on the pretext of helping to revive regional economies. Such requests need to be vigorously whittled down.
 特別枠には、地方活性化などを名目とした道路建設など、旧来型の要求も目立つ。思い切った絞り込みが求められる。

In some cases, different ministries and the Cabinet Office have made budget requests for similar policies. The Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry and the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry have both sought money for a project to establish regional core cities where hospitals, commercial complexes and other facilities would be concentrated.
 別々の府省から類似の施策が要求されるケースもある。総務省と国土交通省はそれぞれ、商業施設や病院などを集約する地方の拠点都市を設ける事業を要求した。

The Finance Ministry will need to try to eliminate overlaps through its assessment of budget requests, and urge coordination between each ministry and headquarters set up for specific policy issues.
 財務省は査定を通じ、各府省や特定の政策課題のために置かれた本部などに調整を求め、重複の解消を図る必要がある。

Ax dubious projects

Some projects of dubious value appear to have snuck into the requests to use the special spending quota.
 特別枠には、効果に疑問のある施策も紛れ込んでいるようだ。

The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has asked to establish a system that would provide subsidies of about ¥200,000 to companies that draw up plans to make better use of their female employees’ skills and experience. We wonder what sort of meaningful effect this scheme of lavishing money so widely and in such small amounts could have.
 厚生労働省は女性の活用計画を立てた企業に20万円程度の助成金を支給する制度の創設を求めた。広く薄くお金をばらまく仕組みでどんな効果があるのだろうか。

A closer look at budget requests by category reveals a considerable jump in public works projects.
 概算要求を分野別に見ると、公共事業の大幅な伸びが目立つ。

Of course, we have no argument with investing money to protect the lives and assets of the people of Japan through repairs to aging roads and bridges and disaster-prevention measures to prepare for earthquakes, tsunami and landslide disasters.
 むろん、老朽化した道路や橋の改修、地震・津波や土砂災害に備える防災対策など、国民の命や財産を守る投資は大事だ。

However, the costs of public works projects are increasing due to skyrocketing material expenses and higher personnel costs needed to attract workers amid a labor shortage. Slashing nonessential and nonurgent projects through a policy of “selection and focus” has become even more important.
 ただ、人手不足による人件費の上昇や資材費の高騰のあおりを受け、公共事業のコストが増大している。不要不急の事業を大胆に削減する「選択と集中」の重要性は一段と高まっている。

Snowballing social welfare costs show no sign of being reined in. The welfare ministry requested almost ¥32 trillion, which includes a natural increase of almost ¥1 trillion required to meet expenses inherent in a graying society.
 社会保障費の拡大にもブレーキがかからない。厚労省の要求額は高齢化などによる1兆円近い自然増を含め約32兆円に上った。

Social welfare costs soak up almost one-third of government spending. Whether these expenses can be capped holds the key to restoring the nation’s fiscal health.
 歳出の3分の1に迫る社会保障費を抑制できるかどうかが、財政健全化のカギを握る。

In addition to simple efforts such as expanding the use of relatively cheap generic drugs, the government will need to undertake major reforms that will not be pain-free, such as trimming medical and pension benefits. The Council for the Promotion of Social Security System Reform and other entities involved in this issue should speed up talks on such matters.
 割安な後発医薬品の利用拡大など地道な取り組みに加えて、医療や年金の給付削減など、痛みを伴う大胆な改革も避けられまい。社会保障制度改革推進会議などの議論を加速すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 30, 2014)Speech

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月29日 (金)

今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

株式会社HighLab、ゲームアプリ 『ひっぱれ!ネコPingプラネット』提供へ向け事前登録開始! 日本エンタープライズ株式会社

| | コメント (0)

インターネット取引が中心の今、大切なのは取引ツールです

株式投資歴はすでに5年以上になりますが、株式投資で大もうけをするのはなかなか難しいです。
自分が目をつけていた株式でも、ある日突然に株価をがくんと下げる場合だってあるんです。
インターネットを使う株式取引の魅力は、なんといっても手数料が格安だという点なのです。
それから24時間、世界のどこからでも売り買いの注文が出せるのもたまらない魅力ですね。
どうせならば、まだやったことがないNYダウジョーンズの株式投資に打って出てみたくなりました。
日産センチュリー証券 の取引ツールが良いですね。
視覚的に直感的操作が可能なので、これならばリアルタイムで荒稼ぎもまったく夢ではないでしょう。
アメリカはダウジョーンズとナスダックの両方が楽しめます。
イギリスや香港あたりの株式市場も面白そうですね。
楽しみが増えました。



パソコン・スマホで店頭FX・店頭CFDのマルチアセット対応



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

社説:日本海側の津波 避難と減災に本腰を

August 28, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Step up efforts to take countermeasures against Sea of Japan tsunami
社説:日本海側の津波 避難と減災に本腰を

A panel of experts set up by the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry has announced estimates on the height of tsunami generated by major earthquakes that could occur in faults below the Sea of Japan.
 国土交通省の有識者検討会が、日本海の海底断層で発生する大規模地震に伴う予想津波高を公表した。

Up to 23-meter-high tsunami are expected to hit Setana, Hokkaido, while five- to 12-meter-high tsunami are estimated in areas along the eastern to northeastern Sea of Japan coast from Hokkaido to Fukui Prefecture. Some three- to four-meter-high tsunami could hit areas along the western Sea of Japan coast from Kyoto Prefecture to Kyushu.
 北海道せたな町で最大23メートルが予想され、北海道から福井の日本海沿岸の高いところで5〜12メートル、京都から九州北部の高いところで3〜4メートルの津波高になるとの予測が出た。

Although experts do not think there is a seismic source in the Sea of Japan that could trigger a huge temblor, like the Nankai Trough in the Pacific Ocean south of the Japanese archipelago, earthquakes whose focal points are situated on the bottom of the Sea of Japan are estimated to cause higher tsunami despite their smaller seismic scales.
南海トラフのような巨大地震を引き起こす大規模な震源域は日本海側にはないとみられるが、地震の規模の割に津波が高くなるのが特徴だ。

National and local governments are slow to work out countermeasures against Sea of Japan earthquakes as compared with responses to possible temblors in the Pacific Ocean. This is the first time that the national government has estimated the height of tsunami in each municipality along the Sea of Japan coast. By fully utilizing the estimates, the national government and local bodies concerned should take all possible measures to protect residents and their neighborhoods along the Sea of Japan coast from tsunami.
 日本海側の津波対策は、太平洋側に比べて総じて遅れている。日本海に面した市町村ごとの国による津波予測は今回が初めてだ。これを生かし、政府と関係自治体が協力して津波対策に万全を期したい。

Massive tsunami that caused casualties have hit areas along the Sea of Japan coast in the past. The magnitude-7.7 central Sea of Japan earthquake in 1983 caused a tsunami that killed about 100 people, while a tsunami generated by a temblor with a magnitude of 7.8 in the southwest off Hokkaido in 1993 left 230 people dead or missing.
 日本海側でも大きな人的被害を伴う津波が起きている。1983年の日本海中部地震では津波による死者が100人に上り、93年の北海道南西沖地震でも230人の死者と行方不明者が出た。

However, there are far fewer records of earthquakes in the Sea of Japan than those in the Pacific Ocean and little progress has been made on a geological survey on the seabed of the Sea of Japan. Legislation aimed at encouraging local bodies to step up countermeasures against tsunami, which came into effect following the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, requires prefectural governments to estimate the areas that are likely to be submerged by tsunami. However, prefectural governments have previously struggled to make estimates due to a lack of specific assessments of earthquake and tsunami on the Sea of Japan coast. As such, the panel of experts recently conducted analyses.
 だが、日本海側は太平洋側に比べて歴史記録が少なく、地質調査も進んでいなかった。東日本大震災の後に、津波対策強化のために作られた「津波防災地域づくり法」は、津波が陸地のどこまでくるか浸水想定を都道府県が策定するよう定める。だが、日本海側での地震や津波の予測モデルがなかったため、昨年1月から検討会で分析を進めてきた。

Based on data on past earthquakes and the crustal structure, the panel reportedly examined 60 underwater faults from Hokkaido to Nagasaki, assumed that these faults could trigger magnitude-6.8 to 7.9 temblors and then estimated the height of tsunami that could be generated by such quakes.
 過去の地震や地殻構造のデータなどを基に北海道から長崎沖までの60の海底断層を選び、地震の規模はマグニチュード(M)6.8〜7.9と想定し、計算したという。

Experts say such relatively small earthquakes could trigger higher tsunami because these faults below the seabed of the Sea of Japan are relatively shallow. Since the faults are close to the archipelago, tsunami generated by earthquakes occurring in these faults could reach the archipelago in a short period of time. The panel estimates that tsunami waves could hit some areas within a minute after a quake, and that at least 30-centimeter-high waves, which could sweep away people, might hit 82 municipalities within 10 minutes.
 地震の規模の割に津波が高いのは、震源となる海底の断層が浅いためだ。断層の位置も陸地に近く、短時間で津波が到達する。一部地域は地震発生から1分以内に津波が到達し、半数近くの82市町村で、人が流される恐れのある高さ30センチの津波が10分以内に到達する可能性がある。

Based on these estimates, prefectural and municipal governments in areas along the Sea of Japan coast are required to review their disaster-prevention plans. Top priority should be placed on safely evacuating local residents.
 今回の予測を受け、道府県や市町村は防災計画を見直す。最優先は、住民の安全な避難だ。

A panel of experts within the government's Central Disaster Management Council recommended in September 2011 that all regions be rebuilt to make sure that residents can walk to safe locations within about five minutes after tsunami hit.
中央防災会議の専門調査会は2011年9月、津波が発生した場合、原則として歩いて5分程度で安全な場所に避難できるまちづくりを提言した。

The panel made the recommendation on the assumption that a huge earthquake could hit areas along the Pacific coast. However, similar countermeasures should be taken in areas along the Sea of Japan coast. Both national and local governments along the Sea of Japan coast should designate evacuation routes and regularly conduct evacuation drills in preparation for deadly tsunami, while implementing all possible measures to lessen damage caused by such disasters.
主に太平洋側の巨大地震を念頭に置いたものだが、日本海側でも、そうした姿勢で対策に取り組まなければならない。避難路の整備や日常的な避難訓練などの備えを進めたい。あらゆる減災の手立てを尽くすべきだ。

The panel also announced its estimates of the height of tsunami that could hit 11 nuclear power stations along the Sea of Japan coast, but the estimated figures were below those by the plant operators.
 今回、日本海側にある11の原子力発電所ごとの予想津波高も公表されたが、いずれも電力会社の想定を下回った。

Still, there is a possibility that the estimates could change as seismological research progresses. As such, it is only natural that authorities should strictly examine the safety of each nuclear plant.
それでも地震の研究が進めば、想定が変わることも十分にあり得る。厳しい目で安全審査を進めるのは当然だ。

毎日新聞 2014年08月28日 02時40分

| | コメント (0)

道徳の教科化 思いやりの心を培う授業に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
New subject of moral training should nurture children’s thoughtfulness
道徳の教科化 思いやりの心を培う授業に

It is important to ensure that the proposed idea of introducing moral training as a school subject will result in substantial improvement in the quality of our nation’s ethical education.
 教科化を契機に、道徳教育を充実させることが大切である。

An subcommittee of experts at the education ministry’s Central Council for Education has basically adopted a report proposing that the current “moral training hour” at primary and middle schools be upgraded to a “special subject.” The new subject would use education ministry-authorized textbooks but not grade students numerically.
 中央教育審議会の専門部会が、小中学校の「道徳の時間」を「特別の教科」とするよう求める報告案を大筋で了承した。検定教科書を導入する一方で、点数による評価はしない新たな教科である。

The Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry hopes to introduce the new subject in fiscal 2018 at the earliest, after revising its official teaching guidelines and laying down criteria for screening moral education textbooks.
 文部科学省は、学習指導要領の改定や検定基準の作成を行った上で、早ければ2018年度からの実施を目指す。

As circumstances stand today, classes for moral training are not part of the ministry’s regular curriculum. Some schools tend to pay little heed to the importance of offering moral training, as shown by their practice of switching such lessons to Japanese language, arithmetic and mathematics classes. The idea of making moral training a subject is intended to rectify this situation.
 現在、道徳は正規の教科でないため、学校によっては、国語や算数・数学の授業に振り替えるなど、軽視するケースも見られる。教科化はこうした状況を改善するのが狙いである。

It is very meaningful for children to be encouraged to learn social rules and develop a sense of thoughtfulness toward others, as they are certain to play a leading role in shaping our country’s future. Some critics have said that making moral training a subject is tantamount to forcing certain values on students. Such criticism must be dismissed as pointless.
 将来を担う子供たちが、社会のルールを学び、思いやりの心を培う意義は大きい。道徳の教科化には、「特定の価値観の押しつけにつながる」といった批判もあるが、的外れと言うほかない。

The latest report cited “the frailties of people” and “the courage to confront difficulties” as examples of topics to be taken up in the new subject, reflecting the fact that school bullying is becoming even worse nowadays. It also proposed addressing contemporary issues such as the morals to be observed when using information on the Internet.
 報告案は、学校でのいじめが深刻さを増していることを踏まえ、「人間の弱さ」や「困難に立ち向かう強さ」を、取り上げるテーマとして例示した。ネットを利用する際の情報モラルなど、今日的な課題も扱うよう提案している。

The question is what should be done to improve the quality of moral training lessons. Teachers will not gain a favorable response from children if they only read out from a textbook.
 問題は授業の質をいかに向上させるかだ。教師が教科書を読み上げるだけの授業では、子供たちの心には響くまい。

Imaginative ideas needed

One of the proposals put forward in the report focused on school bullying and other problems involving students. The report suggested encouraging students to think about what to do by having them role-play such scenarios. It also proposed getting children to debate a single issue to the fullest. We find it reasonable for the proposal to emphasize the need to come up with imaginative ideas about how to give moral training lessons.
 いじめやトラブルの場面を設定し、子供たちに役割を割り振って、とるべき行動を考えさせる。一つの課題を徹底的に討論させる。そうした工夫の必要性を報告案が指摘したのはうなずける。

The introduction of the new subject is certain to test teachers in terms of their instructional skills. However, the status quo is hardly promising. In the teacher training courses offered by colleges and universities, there are only a few lectures on moral education. Therefore, many teachers remain unsure about their teaching methods.
 教師の力量が問われるが、現状は心もとない。大学の教員養成課程では道徳に関する講義の時間が少なく、指導方法に自信を持てない教師が多いからだ。

Moral training lessons would be conducted by homeroom teachers as they are well acquainted with students. Such teachers should not be left to their own devices or become complacent about how to conduct moral education. With this in mind, the principle of each school should take responsible steps to ensure this does not occur.
 道徳の授業は、児童・生徒と身近に接する学級担任が担当する。担任任せにして、独り善がりの授業が行われるような事態を招いてはならない。各校の校長には、責任ある対応が求められる。

One focus of attention is examining what kinds of standards should be set for screening textbooks, as well as how to assess the achievements accomplished by each student.
 今後の焦点は、教科書検定基準と、子供の評価方法の検討だ。

Full rein must be given to the originality and ingenuity of private-sector textbook publishers, to ensure that the contents of their textbooks are worth reading. At the same time, however, it is necessary to lay down screening criteria conducive to securing the ideological neutrality of the contents and attaining a proper balance in other aspects of the details.
 読み応えのある内容にするため、民間の教科書会社の創意工夫を生かすのは大事だが、政治的中立性など記述のバランスに目配りした基準作りは欠かせない。

In conducting moral training lessons, it is not appropriate to use scores to grade students’ achievements.
Moral education differs from other subjects in which students are assessed through tests and other scores. Classes for moral training are intended to improve their mental attitude.
 内面的資質を育てる道徳には、一般の教科のような点数評価はそぐわない。

Given this, the latest report is correct in saying that teachers should describe in writing the attitude of each student toward the lessons and his or her accomplishments.
報告案が示したように、授業に取り組む姿勢や成果を文章で記述する方式が適切だろう。

We hope the education ministry will set specific guidelines for that purpose, to provide teachers with some illuminating information.
文科省は現場の参考になる具体的な指針を示してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 28, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

原発政策 「重要電源」支える工夫が要る

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Means must be worked out to revive nuclear power generation
原発政策 「重要電源」支える工夫が要る

The establishment of a stable power supply system through medium- and long-term utilization of nuclear energy is being sought.
 原子力発電を中長期的に活用し、電力の安定供給体制を確立することが求められる。

An Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry panel of experts is now discussing the nation’s nuclear power policy. Its main theme is setting the usage ratio of nuclear power to all energy sources.
 経済産業省の有識者会議で、原発政策に関する議論が進められている。全電源に占める原発比率をどのように設定するかが最大のテーマとなる。

In a basic energy plan adopted by the Cabinet in April, the government called nuclear power “a fundamental and important base energy source.”
 政府は、今年4月に閣議決定したエネルギー基本計画で、原発を「重要なベースロード電源」と位置づけた。

On the other hand, the government has also presented a policy of minimizing the ratio—which stood at 30 percent of the overall energy mix before the nuclear crisis at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in 2011—while determining how much nuclear energy must be secured in the future.
 一方、原発事故前は3割だった原発比率を「可能な限り低減させる」とし、「確保していく規模を見極める」との方針を示した。

Yet the government’s current stance on the use of nuclear power is too vague in its content. The fuel costs of nuclear power generation are lower than those of other energy sources, and nuclear power generation also creates no carbon dioxide emissions. It is an essential energy source for maintaining stability in the people’s lives and ensuring economic growth.
 これでは、原発活用の中身があいまい過ぎる。原発は燃料費が安く、発電中に二酸化炭素を出さない。国民生活の安定と経済成長に不可欠な基幹電源だ。

The government needs to set a realistic target for an energy mix comprising nuclear, thermal and renewable sources, while taking into account the economy and the stability of nuclear power use—on the assumption that safety is assured—and the impact on the global environment.
 政府は、安全確保を前提に経済性と安定性、地球環境にも配慮し、原子力、火力、再生可能エネルギーの電源構成について、実現可能な目標を定める必要がある。

The problem is that there is no prospect of nuclear power plants being restarted, due to a delay in safety examinations by the Nuclear Regulation Authority.
 問題は、原子力規制委員会による原発の安全審査が遅れ、再稼働のメドが立たないことだ。

It is difficult to draw up any numerical targets for the energy mix as long as there is no estimate of approximately how many nuclear reactors can resume operation, at least for the time being, under the new regulatory standards for safety.
新たな規制基準のもとで当面、何基程度の原発を運転できるか見通せないと、電源構成の策定は難しい。

Safety examinations by the NRA must proceed without delay and those nuclear power plants whose safety has been confirmed must smoothly return to operation. The government has a responsibility to explain in detail to local governments and communities hosting nuclear plants the safety and the necessity of restarting plants.
 規制委の安全審査を遅滞なく進め、安全性の確認ができた原発を着実に再稼働すべきだ。政府は、安全性と再稼働の必要性を地元に丁寧に説明する責任がある。

N-plant could disappear

Should the principle of decommissioning nuclear reactors after 40 years of operation be applied strictly while no new nuclear plants or reactors are being constructed, there will be no nuclear power plants operating in this country in 2049. Renewal of aged nuclear plants and reactors is an important task.
 原発を新増設せず、運転開始から40年で廃炉にする原則を厳格に適用すれば、2049年に国内の原発はゼロになる。古くなった原発の更新は重要な課題だ。

Electric power companies have also been faced with the growing burden of additional safety measures. The key to a stable power supply lies in enabling utilities to continue operating their nuclear power businesses in the long term.
 電力会社は安全対策などの負担増にも直面している。原発事業を長期的に継続できるようにすることが、安定供給のカギとなる。

The government has proposed to the expert panel its idea of establishing a system under which a standard price is set on electricity generated at nuclear plants, which would guarantee a certain level of revenue to power companies.
 政府は一案として、原発で発電した電気に基準価格を設け、一定の収入を保証する制度を有識者会議に提示した。

Under the system, utilities would be assured of a stable revenue source even if the rate-cutting competition among rivals intensifies due to the liberalization of electricity charges or other factors. Guaranteed revenues are expected to help make it possible for power firms to recoup the costs of building new nuclear reactors, which are expected to come with a price tag of ¥400 billion each. There are also such ideas as having the costs of decommissioning reactors and disposing of spent nuclear fuel covered by revenue generated through the standard pricing system.
 電力料金の自由化などで値下げ競争が激化した場合でも安定収入が得られ、1基4000億円とされる原発建設費の回収見通しを立てやすくなるという。廃炉や使用済み核燃料処理の費用を、基準価格の収入で賄う案もある。

The government is said to have come up with the ideas by referring to the framework in which a guaranteed price for electricity was adopted last year in Britain. If realized, it should also prove effective in helping utilities renovate nuclear plants and build new reactors or plants.
 英国で昨年導入された仕組みを参考にしている。実現すれば、原発の更新や新増設を後押しする効果もあろう。

In the United States, there is a system under which the government guarantees up to 80 percent of the debt that utility companies incur for nuclear plant construction. It is important for the government to study in detail both the possible merits and challenges presented by these cases abroad and adopt a system suited for Japan.
 米国には原発建設のために電力会社が負った債務の最大8割を政府が保証する制度がある。こうした海外の事例のメリットや課題を詳細に検討し、日本に適した制度とすることが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 28, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月28日 (木)

社説:避難者自殺判決 東電の責任厳しく指摘

August 27, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Ruling on nuclear evacuee suicide holds TEPCO accountable
社説:避難者自殺判決 東電の責任厳しく指摘

The Fukushima District Court ordered Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) to pay some 49 million yen in damages to the family of a 58-year-old woman who killed herself after she was forced to evacuate due to the Fukushima nuclear disaster, dealing a hard blow to the utility.
 福島第1原発事故に伴う避難生活中に自殺した58歳の女性をめぐる裁判で、慰謝料など約4900万円を遺族に賠償するよう福島地裁が東京電力に命じた。東電にとって厳しい判断が示された。

It is not uncommon for accountability for suicide to be contested in the courts. Corporations have faced tough rulings in recent years for suicides induced by overwork. And it is amid such a climate that a Fukushima court tackled head-on and recognized a causal link between the stress of evacuation and suicide.
 自殺をめぐる責任の所在が司法の場で争われることは少なくない。近年、過労自殺などで企業側に厳しい判断も出ている。そういった中で、原発事故による避難生活のストレスと自殺の関係が正面から争われ、判決は因果関係を明確に認めた。

While the ruling applies to an individual case, it is bound to have a significant impact on other lawsuits and settlement talks regarding the nuclear disaster.
 個別事例での判断とはいえ、原発事故をめぐる他の訴訟や和解交渉に与える影響は少なくないだろう。

The deceased woman, who had been evacuated from the Fukushima Prefecture town of Kawamata, was at her home for a temporary visit in July 2011 when she killed herself. Her husband and three children brought the damages suit against TEPCO.
 女性は、原発事故後の2011年7月、当時、計画的避難区域に指定されていた福島県川俣町の自宅に一時帰宅した際、自殺した。訴えたのは、女性の夫と子供3人だ。

The nuclear disaster had forced the woman to leave the town where she'd grown up and live in evacuation facilities. She had to live away from her children, and became unemployed when the chicken farm where she'd worked was shut down. The close ties she had with her neighbors, with whom she used to share vegetables, was also lost. The court ruled that these stressors, which arose in quick succession in a short period of time, had caused the woman's depressive state.
 原発事故により、女性は生まれて以来ずっと住んできた故郷を離れ、避難生活を余儀なくされた。子供と別居し、働いていた養鶏場の閉鎖で仕事も失った。野菜を融通し合うなど密接な近隣住民とのつながりも失った。短期間に次々と襲ったこうしたストレスが女性を「うつ状態」に至らしめたと判決は認定した。

The woman had suffered from insomnia and had been receiving outpatient treatment for psychosomatic disorder since before the disaster. TEPCO cited this fact as an indication of "the individual's fragility," denying responsibility for the woman's suicide.
 女性には、震災前から不眠などの症状があり、心身症と診断され、通院治療を受けていた。東電側は、「個体側の脆弱(ぜいじゃく)性」として、こうした事情を指摘し、責任を争っていた。

The court, taking the woman's pre-existing condition into consideration, recognized that 80 percent of her suicide was due to stress caused by the nuclear disaster and calculated the compensation amount accordingly.
 判決は、この点も考慮しつつ、自殺の要因の8割は原発事故によるストレスと認め、賠償額を算定した。

The presiding judge also said that TEPCO should have been able to foresee that if radioactive materials spread across a wide area, residents would be forced to evacuate, and that such displaced residents could develop depression or commit suicide from the stress.
 いったん放射性物質が広範囲に飛散すれば、地域の居住者が避難を余儀なくされ、ストレスを受けてうつ病などを発病したり、自殺者も出たりすることを東電は当初から予見可能だったとまで判決は踏み込んだ。

Among evacuees, there are those who are susceptible to stress and those who are less so. It is unacceptable to write victims off as "fragile." Understandably, the ruling has shown consideration for those who are especially vulnerable in disasters.
 避難生活を送る人の中には、ストレスに強い人も弱い人もいる。脆弱性といった言葉で切り捨てることは許されない。判決が示した災害弱者への目配りは理解できる。

An alternative to lawsuits in resolving conflicts surrounding the nuclear disaster is the dispute resolution process through the government's Nuclear Damage Compensation Dispute Resolution Center.
 原発事故をめぐっては、訴訟以外の紛争解決法として、国による原子力損害賠償紛争解決センターの和解仲介手続き(原発ADR)がある。

The center pursues TEPCO's accountability not only for suicides but various other cases.
こうした場で、自殺に限らずさまざまな観点から東電の責任が問われている。

There is a wide range of thinking on what constitutes the appropriate range of compensation for the claims of damages raised by residents.
被害の訴えに対し、どう賠償をするか。あるべき賠償の範囲についての考え方もさまざまだ。

Regardless, TEPCO, having caused the disaster, must listen carefully to the voices of disaster victims and compensate amounts comparable to the damage that has been done.
 いずれにしろ、被害者の声に真摯(しんし)に耳を傾け、被害に見合った賠償に応じることが、原発事故を起こした東電にとっては原点になるはずだ。

In Fukushima Prefecture, the number of those who have died from suicide and other causes related to the 2011 earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster has surpassed 1,670 -- greater than the number of those in the prefecture who died as a direct result of the quake and tsunami. We need further debate on how the families of those people should be compensated.
 福島県では、自殺を含む震災関連死の死者数が1670人を超え、地震や津波で亡くなった直接死を上回る。こうした人たちへの賠償のあり方についてもさらに議論が必要だ。

毎日新聞 2014年08月27日 02時32分

| | コメント (0)

「イスラム国」 凶暴な武装集団の跳梁許すな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Barbaric Islamic State militant group must be stamped out
「イスラム国」 凶暴な武装集団の跳梁許すな

The international community should take every possible action to eradicate the barbaric Islamic State militant group.
 凶悪な武装集団の掃討に向け、国際社会はあらゆる手を打つべきだ。

There seems to be no end in sight to the Sunni Islamist group’s increasing influence in Iraq and Syria. The Islamic State is reported to have forced Syrian President Bashar Assad’s forces to withdraw from an air force base in the north of the country, setting its sights on capturing Aleppo, the largest city in that area.
 イスラム教スンニ派過激派組織「イスラム国」のイラク、シリアでの勢力拡大が止まらない。シリア北部で、アサド政権軍を空軍基地から撤退させ、北部最大の都市アレッポ攻略も視野に入れたという。

The Islamic State has been increasing its combat potential with funds obtained through such nefarious means as the seizure of oil fields and kidnapping for ransom. On the other hand, the militant group has been carrying out a skillful campaign to attract combatants from around the world who hold radical beliefs. The number of Islamic State militants total about 15,000, according to some observers.
 「イスラム国」は、油田の強奪や誘拐などで不当に得た資金で戦闘能力を高める一方、巧みな宣伝活動で、過激思想に染まった戦闘員を世界中から集めている。勢力は約1万5000人に達したとの見方もある。

The group is guilty of mass slaughter and sexual assault in areas under its control. It recently beheaded an American who had not been heard of since he was kidnapped in Syria about two years ago, and released a chilling video on the Internet showing the execution. A Japanese man has also been captured by the group, arousing concern for his safety.
 支配地域では、虐殺や性的暴行を繰り返している。約2年前にシリアで消息を絶った米国人男性を処刑し、その模様をネットで流した。日本人男性も拉致され、安否が心配されている。

The international community faces the pressing task of eliminating this barbaric group.
 残虐極まりない組織の跳梁ちょうりょうをこれ以上許さないことは、国際社会にとって喫緊の課題と言える。

In early August, the United States launched air strikes on the Islamic State in some areas of Iraq. This achieved a certain measure of success in hurting the group. However, the Islamic State, which is trying to expand its influence through cross-border activities, has shifted its main area of operations to Syria, a move leading to the American’s execution.
 米国は8月上旬から、イラク国内に限定して「イスラム国」への空爆を実施し、一定の効果を上げた。しかし、国境をまたいで勢力圏を広げる「イスラム国」は、シリア側に活動の重点を移し、米国人の犠牲者も出た。

The United States has said the purpose of its air attacks is to protect its own people, indicating that it is prepared to conduct a similar military campaign in Syria as one of its options.
 米国は、自国民を守ることを空爆の目的に掲げており、シリア側での空爆も選択肢に入った。

U.S. faces dilemma

Assad’s government is poised to permit U.S. air strikes on the militant group in Syria if Washington agrees to hold consultations to reach a bilateral consensus prior to military operations.
 シリアのアサド政権は、米国が事前調整の手続きを取ることを前提に、空爆を容認する構えだ。

However, launching air strikes puts the United States in a quandary. Doing so will help Assad remain in power at a time when the United States is at odds with his country. This will force President Barack Obama to make a difficult decision on how to deal with the situation.
 だが、米国にとっては、空爆が対立するアサド政権の存続を利するジレンマがある。オバマ大統領は難しい判断を迫られよう。

The United States and European nations intend to supply weapons to Iraq’s Kurdish troops and the Free Syrian Army, an armed Syrian dissident group opposed to the Islamic State. The move is intended to deal a blow to the Islamic State by supporting its enemies.
 欧米各国は、「イスラム国」と戦っているシリア反体制派武装組織「自由シリア軍」とイラクのクルド人部隊に武器を供与する方針だ。敵対勢力にてこ入れし、打撃を与える作戦である。

However, there is concern the Islamic State may gain the upper hand in its fight with its opponents, a development that could result in the Islamist group acquiring a large number of weapons that have been supplied to the troubled region.
 心配なのは、「イスラム国」が戦闘を優位に進め、結果的に、紛争地域に出回った大量の武器を手にしてしまうことだ。

The great increase in the Islamic State’s power is believed to be attributable to massive funding from wealthy supporters in oil-producing countries. The international community needs to uncover the whole truth behind this and shut off the militant group’s source of funds.
 「イスラム国」が強大化している背景には、産油国の富裕層などによる多額の資金供与があるとされる。国際社会は、こうした実態を徹底的に解明し、資金源を断つ必要がある。

Immediate measures must also be taken to stop the group from recruiting members from around the world. One of the tasks in this respect is to remove video footage promoting the Islamic State on the Internet, a task necessary to prevent the further spread of radicalization.
 要員集めの封じ込めも、急がなければならない。過激思想の拡散を防ぐため、ネットに流れた「イスラム国」の宣伝映像の丁寧な削除などが課題となろう。

There is an increasing number of cases in which figures involved in terrorist activities in the Middle East and elsewhere return to the United States, European and other nations. It is extremely important to keep a close eye on them and track their movements.
 中東などでテロに関与した人物が、欧米などへ帰国する例が目立ってきた。厳重な監視と摘発が極めて重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 27, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

慰安婦問題 史実踏まえて新長官談話を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Govt should issue new, fact-based statement on comfort women
慰安婦問題 史実踏まえて新長官談話を

The latest move represents a call, in effect, on the government to revise the statement by former Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono on wartime “comfort women,” toward the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II next year.
 戦後70年に向けた「河野談話」の事実上の見直し要請である。

The Liberal Democratic Party’s Policy Research Council on Tuesday submitted a proposal to current Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga, calling on the government to issue a new statement on comfort women through Suga.
 自民党政務調査会は、いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題に関する新たな内閣官房長官談話の発表を求める申し入れ書を、菅官房長官に提出した。

There has been a misunderstanding, spread widely throughout the international community, that a large number of women were forcibly taken away by the Imperial Japanese Army to serve as “sex slaves.” The Kono statement is a factor in that misunderstanding.
 第2次大戦中に日本軍が多くの慰安婦を「性奴隷」として強制連行したとの誤解が、国際社会に広がっている。その要因の一つが河野談話である。

Suga is said to be negative toward issuing a new statement. But he should take the LDP’s call to heart and seriously consider it.
 菅氏は新談話に消極的だというが、自民党の要請を重く受け止め、前向きに検討すべきだ。

The statement, issued in 1993 by the Cabinet of Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa through Kono, expressed the government’s apologies and remorse to former comfort women.
 河野談話は、宮沢内閣時代の1993年に元慰安婦へのおわびと反省の意を表したものだ。

The statement said “at times, administrative/military personnel directly took part in the recruitments.” This expression can be construed to mean military and administrative personnel were involved in the forcible taking away of women.
慰安婦募集について「官憲等が直接これに加担したこともあった」と、軍などによる強制連行があったかのように記している。

Yet there have so far been no confirmed documents to prove the forcible taking away of comfort women.
 しかし、強制連行を裏付ける資料は確認されていない。

A governmental panel of experts in June compiled a report on an investigation into the drafting of the statement.
 有識者による政府の検討会は6月、河野談話の作成過程に関する報告書をまとめた。

It revealed that the Japanese and South Korean governments had coordinated closely over expressions regarding “coercion” in the recruitment, with Seoul calling for modification, saying that the statement must be one whose value could be recognized by the people of South Korea.
韓国側が「韓国国民から評価を受け得るものでなければならない」と修正を求めるなど、日韓両政府が表現を調整した実態が明らかになった。

Verification key

In light of these findings, the council criticized the then government for releasing the statement to the world “as a product of political negotiation without going through a verification process.” It is reasonable for the council to point out that the then LDP-led administration should be held heavily responsible.
 これを踏まえ、申し入れ書は、「検証作業を経ずに『政治的すり合わせの産物』としての談話を世界に発出した」と批判した。「当時の自民党政権の責任は重い」と指摘したのは、もっともだ。

The council, in its proposal, also regards news articles carried by some news media as problematic, saying that they have repeatedly spread falsehoods that aggravated relations between Japan and South Korea. This apparently refers to the series of articles on wartime comfort women run by The Asahi Shimbun.
 申し入れ書は、「事実に基づかない虚偽を繰り返し喧伝けんでんし、日韓関係を悪化させた」として、「一部報道機関」の記事を問題視した。朝日新聞の慰安婦報道を指したものだろう。

The Asahi had repeatedly carried articles since 1982, citing the false testimony of a man named Seiji Yoshida, including his statement that many Korean women were “hunted out” on Jeju Island during the war.
 朝日新聞は、82年以降、韓国・済州島で戦時中に多くの慰安婦を「狩り出した」などとする吉田清治氏の虚偽の証言を、繰り返し記事にした。

On Aug. 5, the Asahi at long last retracted its articles concerning Yoshida’s testimony, but it is clear that the articles stirred up anti-Japan sentiment in South Korea, influencing the environment in which the Kono statement was released.
 今月5日の紙面で、ようやく吉田証言に関する記事を取り消したものの、一連の報道が韓国の反日世論をかき立て、河野談話の伏線となったことは間違いない。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has made clear his policy of leaving the Kono statement as it is, probably as part of his big-picture judgment that bilateral relations could be aggravated further.
 安倍首相は、河野談話を継承する方針を明らかにしている。日韓関係のこれ以上の悪化などを憂慮しての大局的判断なのだろう。

Yet the release of a new government statement on the issue would be significant for passing down correct history both at home and abroad, with next year seeing the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II and the 50th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic ties between the two countries.
 だが、戦後70年と日韓国交正常化50年の節目となる来年に向け、新談話の発表は、国内外に正しい歴史を伝える上で意義がある。

Nonetheless, it is also a fact that the honor and dignity of a large number of women were hurt during the war, even though there was no forcible taking away of comfort women.
 強制連行はなかったにせよ、戦時中に多数の女性の名誉と尊厳が傷つけられたことも事実だ。

As the LDP has advocated, the government should transmit to the world the information concerning comfort women based on historical facts.
 自民党が提言しているように、史実に基づいた慰安婦問題の情報を世界に発信していきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 27, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月27日 (水)

社説:サッカーとバナナ 人種差別を根絶しよう

August 26, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: J.League should adopt zero tolerance toward racism
社説:サッカーとバナナ 人種差別を根絶しよう

It's not their fault but bananas have become a symbolic sign of racism. We must eradicate all sorts of discrimination from soccer stadiums and society.
 バナナが悪いわけではない。バナナが人種差別の象徴的記号となってしまっていることを私たちは知らなければならない。そして、あらゆる差別をスタジアムと社会から根絶しなければならない。
   
During a J.League game between Yokohama F. Marinos and Kawasaki Frontale at a stadium in Yokohama on Aug. 23, a teenage Marinos fan sitting behind the Marinos goal waved a banana toward the pitch. It was just after a Brazilian player with Frontale failed to score a goal and was about to turn back.
 横浜市で23日に行われたサッカーJ1の横浜F・マリノス−川崎フロンターレ戦で、横浜マの10代後半の男性サポーターがピッチに向けてバナナを振る行為があった。川崎のブラジル出身の選手が相手ゴールに攻め込んだが得点できず、引き揚げようとした時、ゴール裏のスタンドにいた男性がバナナを振った。

During questioning by Marinos' officials, the teenager explained that he was aware of his act of provocation but that it wasn't aimed at any particular player. His explanation underscores a lack of awareness against discrimination, which the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) and the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), as well as soccer leagues across the globe, have been trying so hard to eliminate from stadiums.
 横浜マの事情聴取に対し、男性は「挑発行為はしたが、特定の選手に向けたものではない」と説明したという。この言葉には、国際サッカー連盟(FIFA)や欧州サッカー連盟(UEFA)、各国リーグが根絶に取り組んでいる差別に対する意識の希薄さが表れている。

Throwing bananas onto the pitch carries the connotation of calling someone a monkey and is a well-known means of racial discrimination. Since African footballers started to play in the European leagues in the 1970s, there has been a spate of discriminatory incidents involving bananas. Those incidents represent the dark side of racial and ethnic diversity.
 バナナをピッチに投げ入れるなどの行為は「お前はサルだ」という意味で、人種差別の常とう手段だ。欧州では1970年代以降、アフリカ生まれの黒人選手らがプレーするようになり、バナナによる差別行為が頻発した。多民族化、多人種化が引き起こした負の側面と言えよう。

During a Spanish league game in April, a banana was thrown onto the pitch at the feet of FC Barcelona player Dani Alves as he was about to take a corner. The Brazilian national team player picked up the banana, peeled it and ate it, and then kicked the ball as if nothing had happened.
 スペインリーグでは4月、バルセロナに所属するブラジル代表の選手がコーナーキックを蹴ろうとした時、足元にスタンドからバナナが投げ込まれた。その選手はバナナを拾って皮をむき、食べた後、何事もなかったかのようにボールを蹴った。

Such a humorous reaction to an act of discrimination sparked worldwide compassion, prompting not only fellow soccer players but also the Italian prime minister to be photographed peeling a banana and then post it on Facebook and other social media. Unfortunately, however, there is an endless stream of similar acts of discrimination in Europe.
 差別に対してユーモアを交えた行動で応じたこの行為は世界中の共感を呼び、選手だけでなく、イタリアの首相もバナナの皮をむいて写真に納まり、フェイスブックなどで発信した。だが、残念ながら欧州では同様の行為が絶えない。

In the J.League, the Urawa Reds were penalized with an unprecedented game behind closed doors after its supporters displayed a racist banner reading "Japanese Only" at Saitama Stadium in March. Urawa's management was criticized for leaving the banner unaddressed until after the game while some spectators had raised questions about it.
 Jリーグでは3月、浦和のサポーターによって人種差別横断幕「JAPANESE ONLY(日本人以外お断り)」が埼玉スタジアムに掲げられ、浦和に史上初の無観客試合が科された。観客から指摘を受けながら、クラブ側が試合終了まで放置したことも問題だった。

Lessons and reflections from that incident may have led to the Marinos' quick reaction to the latest incident. The club decided to impose an indefinite ban on the teenager later the same day, and the Marinos' president reported the incident as an "act of discriminatory provocation" to J.League Chairman Mitsuru Murai on Aug. 25. The J.League is poised to impose sanctions on the Marinos at an early date.
 この反省と教訓が今回、横浜マの素早い対応につながったと言えるだろう。その日のうちに男性に対し無期限の入場禁止処分を下すことを決め、週明けの25日には社長がJリーグに出向き、村井満チェアマンに「差別的挑発行為」と報告した。Jリーグは早期に制裁を科す方針だ。

What takes place at soccer stadiums represents the realities of society. The J.League should take this incident as an opportunity to send out a message to society that discrimination is totally intolerable and demonstrate its spirit of "zero tolerance" to racism and discrimination, following the footsteps of FIFA and other organizations.
 スタジアムと社会はつながっている。差別は絶対に許さないというメッセージを社会に発信する契機ととらえ、JリーグはFIFAなどにならい、「ノートレランス(非寛容)」の精神で臨むべきだろう。

毎日新聞 2014年08月26日 02時30分

| | コメント (0)

全国学力テスト 適度な競争が好結果を生んだ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Competition brings improvement in national school achievement test
全国学力テスト 適度な競争が好結果を生んだ

Regions that previously produced poor grades were showing significant academic improvement, which may be the fruit of nationwide achievement tests for children.
 成績の振るわなかった地域で、学力の向上が目立った。全国学力テストの成果の表れだろう。

The Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry released the results of the test it conducted in April this year.
 文部科学省が4月に実施した全国学力テストの結果を公表した。

The test has been implemented since the 2007 school year for primary school sixth-graders and middle school third-year students to measure the basic understanding and applied skills of Japanese language and arithmetic or mathematics.
 全国学力テストは、小学6年生と中学3年生の全員を対象に、国語と算数・数学の基礎的な知識と応用力を測るため、2007年度から実施されている。

Under the administration of the Democratic Party of Japan, the tests were conducted in the 2010 and 2012 school years by selecting about 30 percent of primary and middle schools nationwide. But from the last school year, all primary and middle schools have been required to participate in the test.
 民主党政権時代には、10年度と12年度に約3割の小中学校を抽出して行われたが、昨年度からは全員参加方式に戻った。

This time around, sixth-graders in Okinawa Prefecture showed outstanding improvement. They have no lowest-ranking subjects according to prefecture-by-prefecture data. They rank within the top 10 on the basic understanding of arithmetic.
 今回、成績アップが目立ったのは、沖縄県の小6だ。全国最下位の科目がなくなり、算数の基礎問題ではトップ10に入った。

The sixth-graders in Shizuoka Prefecture, previously ranked lowest on their basic understanding of Japanese language in the 2013 school year, recovered to almost the average national level this year.
 昨年度、小6国語の基礎問題で最下位だった静岡県も、ほぼ全国平均に回復した。

These municipalities that once had poor results are emphasizing classes where students express their opinions in writing.
 こうした自治体では、児童生徒に、自分の考えを文章にまとめさせる授業に力を入れている。指導力向上のための研修会に参加する教師も増加した。

The teachers are also increasingly participating in training sessions to improve their teaching skills and are even interacting with those in high-ranking prefectures such as Akita and Fukui to gain insight into their teaching methods.
 成績上位の秋田県や福井県などの教師との交流を通じて、指導方法を学ぶ試みも進んでいる。

Detailed results available

Education ministry analysis indicates that such efforts to improve teaching methods raise the general level of academic ability. The change could also be the result of full participation in the national achievement test, which has produced moderate competition.
 文科省は、指導改善の取り組みが、学力の底上げにつながっていると分析している。全員参加の全国学力テストが、適度な競い合いを生み出した結果と言えよう。

However, in general, both sixth-grade primary school students and third-year middle school students have a consistent tendency to be weak in applied skills, such as proving a problem using figures and expressing writers’ intentions with sentences.
 ただ、小6、中3とも、図形の証明や、書き手の意図を文章で表現するような応用問題を苦手とする傾向が続いている。

Based on the latest national test results, we hope each municipality will strive further to improve teaching abilities while referencing a collection of ideas for classes that the education ministry plans to distribute to primary and middle schools in September.
 今回のテスト結果を基に、文科省が来月配布する授業のアイデア例などを参考に、指導力の一層の向上を図ってもらいたい。

For the latest test, municipal boards of education were able to release school-by-school results.
 全国学力テストについては、今回から、自治体の教育委員会が学校別成績を公表することが認められるようになった。

But to prevent promoting the grading of schools and inviting excessive competition, the education ministry has urged each municipality to announce not only numerical results, such as the average percentage of questions answered correctly, but also analyses of the test results and how academic abilities can be improved.
 文科省は学校の序列化や過度な競争を招かないようにするため、平均正答率などの数値だけでなく、分析結果や改善方法を併せて公表するよう求めている。

The Japan Teachers’ Union opposes the revelation of the numerical results because the grading of schools is inevitable and will cause children excessive stress. But is that really so?
 日教組は数値を示せば、序列化は避けられず、子供に過度なストレスを与えると反対するが、果たして、そうだろうか。

At what point are children suffering setbacks in learning? What measures should be taken to improve their academic abilities? Sharing common views between teachers and students’ guardians on the basis of the test results will enhance the understanding of how school education should be conducted on the side of the guardians.
 子供たちはどのようなところで学習につまずいているのか。学力アップには、どのような対策が必要なのか。テスト結果から、教師と保護者が共通の認識を持つことで、学校教育に対する保護者の理解が進むはずだ。

Most municipal boards of education are said to be cautious about publicly releasing school-by-school test results. The education ministry needs to make the merits of releasing the test results more widely known.
 大半の教委はまだ、学校別成績の公表には及び腰だという。文科省は、公表のメリットを周知していく必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 26, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

広島土砂災害 安否確認と被災者支援を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Safety confirmation, aid to Hiroshima disaster survivors must be expedited
広島土砂災害 安否確認と被災者支援を急げ

The death toll from the ground disaster in the city of Hiroshima has topped 50, with more than 20 people still reported missing.
 広島市で発生した土砂災害は、死者が50人を超える大惨事となった。行方不明者も依然、20人以上を数える。

Confirming the safety of the missing people and assisting disaster survivors must be carried out as quickly as possible.
 一刻も早い安否確認と被災者の支援が求められる。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who inspected the disaster-stricken area Monday, said the government will designate the massive mudslides as a disaster of extreme severity requiring special financial support. “The government will make all-out efforts to search for the missing people,” he said. Abe also presented plans to launch a disaster victim assistance team and accelerate efforts to help victims rebuild their livelihoods. These plans must be carried out steadily.
 25日に現地を視察した安倍首相は、激甚災害指定の方針を示し、「行方不明者の捜索に政府一丸となって全力を尽くす」と語った。被災者支援チームを発足させ、生活再建支援を加速させる考えも示した。着実に実行してほしい。

The search for the missing people has continued in the disaster area amid bad weather. Heavy rain is forecast to hit a wide area, including the city of Hiroshima, in the week to come.
 現地では、悪天候の中、行方不明者の捜索が続く。今後1週間は、広島市を含む広い範囲で強い雨の恐れがあるという。

The Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry has begun to install wire-fixed sensors near the top of the debris flows. The sensors are designed to sound an alarm should the wires be cut if a landslide occurs.
 国土交通省は、土石流の発生場所の上流に、土砂崩れが起きるとワイヤが切れて危険を知らせるセンサーの設置を始めた。

Police and the Self-Defense Forces have assigned their personnel to higher ground to keep watch for additional cliff collapses. Helicopter surveillance is also continuing.
 警察や自衛隊は、高台に監視員を配置して、再度の崖崩れなどを警戒している。ヘリコプターによる監視活動も続けている。

The search for missing people must be conducted in such a way as to ensure a secondary disaster does not occur.
 二次災害に見舞われぬよう、細心の注意を払いながら、捜索活動にあたってもらいたい。

Appropriate action

The Hiroshima municipal government on Monday disclosed via the media and its website personal information about the missing people, including their names, addresses and ages, which had been obtained from Hiroshima prefectural police. This is an appropriate action.
 広島市は25日になって、広島県警から提供を受けた行方不明者の氏名や住所、年齢といった情報を報道機関やホームページを通じて公表した。適切な判断である。

The city previously considered such information as personal and refrained from releasing it. However, this caused a situation in which the number of missing people differed among the police, city and fire station.
 市は、これまで個人情報であることを考慮して、公表を控えていた。しかし、警察と市、消防が把握する不明者数が食い違うなど、混乱が生じた。

The city’s personal information protection ordinance stipulates that such information can be provided when there is no other way to protect people’s lives and assets in times of disaster. An expert said, “Disclosure has validity during search and rescue operations when there is no time to lose.”
 広島市の個人情報保護条例は、災害時に人命や財産などを保護する上で、やむを得ない場合には、個人情報を外部に提供できると規定している。専門家は「救助・捜索は一刻を争う状況で、公表には正当性がある」と指摘する。

Some of the missing people possibly took refuge at relatives’ homes and could not be contacted. Public disclosure may be one way to determine who is missing.
 行方不明者の中には、親類宅に避難するなどして、連絡が取れない人も含まれる可能性がある。情報の公表は、人的被害の全容把握に資することになろう。

About 1,600 disaster survivors have been forced to live in evacuation centers, such as gymnasiums. There is a high risk of heatstroke and other diseases occurring at these centers, which do not have air conditioners. Meticulous health care management is imperative.
 約1600人の被災者は、体育館などで避難所生活を余儀なくされている。エアコンのない避難所では、熱中症などの危険が高い。きめ細かい健康管理が必要だ。

The mental burdens evacuees now carry are heavy as they have no privacy, making mental care by the Disaster Psychiatric Assistance Team, among others, essential.
 プライバシーが確保できないため、精神的な負担も重いのではないか。「災害派遣精神医療チーム」(DPAT)などによる心のケアが大切になってくる。

The Hiroshima municipal government has begun accepting applications from survivors who lost their homes for public housing units. Construction of temporary houses and acquisition of private rental apartments will also have to be studied.
 広島市は、自宅を失った被災者向けに、公営住宅の入居受け付けを開始した。仮設住宅の建設や、民間アパートの借り上げなども検討課題となるだろう。

Measures to support the survivors must be carried out depending on their circumstances.
 被災者の実情に応じた支援が欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 26, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月26日 (火)

社説:震災避難者数 国は一元管理に責任を

August 25, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Earthquake disaster refugees falling through cracks of gov't negligence
社説:震災避難者数 国は一元管理に責任を

This matter goes right to the root of disaster recovery support.
 復興支援の根幹にかかわる。

The Reconstruction Agency is now churning through data to come up with a new figure for the number of people made refugees by 2011's Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami and nuclear meltdowns after finding that central and local government estimates were well off the mark.
東日本大震災に伴う国や自治体の避難者数把握が不正確だったことが判明、復興庁は再集計を進めている。
   
What's especially surprising about the massive miscount is the sloppy handling of relevant data, which is the very basis for disaster recovery policy.
 復興支援を進めるうえで基本となるデータ管理がおそまつだったことに驚く。

We call on the government to consider a uniform management policy for all data on its support for long-term evacuees, and thereby prevent those who fled the Fukushima nuclear disaster of their own accord from being cut out of the assistance loop.
国は原発事故の自主避難者らが支援情報から遠ざけられないよう、避難の長期化に対応した情報一元管理の方策を検討すべきだ。

One case of a poorly managed refugee estimate happened in Saitama Prefecture.
 避難者数把握が不正確だったのは埼玉県のケースだ。

The prefectural government only counted people using prefectural and municipal temporary housing as disaster refugees, and only did regular recounts in a few cities and towns.
同県はこれまで県や県内の市町が無償提供している仮設住宅の入居者のみを避難者として集計、一部市町にしか定期的な照会をしていなかった。

That the true number was quite a bit more was discovered when a local citizens' group pointed out that the prefecture's disaster refugee count seemed too low.
 県内の支援団体から人数が過少ではないかとの指摘などがあり、把握漏れがわかった。

The Saitama Prefectural Government stated that there were 2,640 evacuees from the 2011 disasters living within its jurisdiction as of June this year.
県は6月時点で避難者数を2640人としていたが、

Simply toting up all the refugees living in municipalities in the prefecture, however, apparently showed there were possibly more than 5,000 evacuees within Saitama Prefecture's borders.
県内全市町村に照会した人数を単純に合算すると避難者数は最大で5000人を超す可能性があるという。

Why the discrepancy?
 なぜ、こんなことが起きたのか。

In May 2011, about two months after the magnitude 9.0 earthquake hit Japan's northeast, the Cabinet Office asked prefectural governments to total up the number of disaster refugees in their jurisdictions based on the type of place they were staying in.
震災発生後の2011年5月、内閣府は避難場所のタイプ別に避難者数を確認するよう都道府県に要請していた。

Actually confirming these numbers proved difficult in practice, however, and in July 2012 Saitama Prefecture told the central government that it would stop counting evacuees receiving direct housing assistance from the Fukushima Prefectural Government and other sources.
だが、実際には確認作業は難しく埼玉県は12年7月、福島県などから直接借り上げ住宅の支援を受けて埼玉にいる避難者らは除いて集計する考えを国に伝えていた。

For its part, the central government failed to set comprehensive standards for counting evacuees, suggesting that the lowball number of refugees is the result of a mutual failure to communicate.
その後国側から避難者数の基準は徹底されず、双方の意思疎通も欠いたため今回の事態を招いたとみられる。

It's quite possible that Saitama Prefecture is not the only government body miscounting its refugee population.  こうした把握漏れは埼玉に限らない可能性がある。

Reconstruction Agency figures for July this year put the number of refugees at 247,233 nationwide.
復興庁が7月に集計した全国避難者数は24万7233人だが、

However, the agency has asked all the prefectures for a recount that includes "voluntary" nuclear disaster evacuees. 同庁は原発事故に伴う自主避難者も含めるなどの見解を示したうえで避難者数の再確認を都道府県に通知した。

Standing here in the summer of 2014, you could say this is too little, too late, but then it also goes without saying that double-checking evacuee figures is a necessary step.
遅きに失したとはいえ、万全を期すのは当然だ。

There are in fact two running counts of nuclear disaster refugees; one by the Reconstruction Agency, and one based on the number of evacuees from 13 municipalities in eastern Fukushima Prefecture.
 原発事故による避難者に関しては復興庁集計とは別に福島県東部13市町村からの避難者に限っては原発避難者特例法の制度に従い、

The latter is the basis for assistance under the special law on nuclear disaster refugees, and most of these evacuees have filed assistance claims with the local governments where they now live.
ほとんどは移転先の自治体に届け出て同法に基づく支援を受けているとみられる。

What this figure does not include, however, are people who left their homes in Fukushima Prefecture on their own recognizance, for whom there is no support system.
だが自主避難者はこうした支援の枠組みがないため、

As such, these evacuees are not even informed of available support measures.
支援情報から疎外されるおそれがある。

Efforts must be made to make sure these people are not overlooked.
目配りを欠かさず把握に努めるべきだ。

Right after the March 2011 disasters, the government briefly considered allowing refugees to list a "second address" on their resident certificates, but the idea was dropped due to legal difficulties.
 震災直後、政府内には避難した被災者のため住民票の「第2住所」を検討する議論があったが法制上困難として見送られた。

In April 2011, the government set up a "national evacuee information system" to allow refugees to report their own status.
このため11年4月に自己申告の「全国避難者情報システム」の運用を始めたが

The information on the system, however, soon proved to be out of kilter with reality, and it is no longer used for nationwide evacuee number estimates.
実態と違いがでたため同システムによる全国集計は現在、行われていない。

The true number of people who remain disaster refugees more than three years after that terrible March day is unknown, lost in the cracks of government negligence.
 制度の谷間に落ちる形で避難者数の把握が行き届かないのは行政の怠慢である。

To ensure that recovery assistance is delivered smoothly to those who need it, the government has a responsibility to set standards and expand the activities of existing support systems to their maximum potential. It must come up with good ideas, and fast.
きめ細かい支援のためにも政府は責任ある基準を示し、既存システムを最大限活用するなど一元管理に知恵を絞るべきだ。

毎日新聞 2014年08月25日 02時32分

| | コメント (0)

水中遺跡調査 沈没船は何を教えてくれるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
What historical secrets lie hidden within sunken ships around Japan?
水中遺跡調査 沈没船は何を教えてくれるか

Surveying and exploring sunken ships on the seafloor off Japan’s coasts could reveal new historical facts and information. We think more efforts should be made to research such underwater wrecks and sites.
 日本沿岸の海底に眠る沈没船を調査すれば、新たな史実が分かるかもしれない。「水中遺跡」の研究にもっと力を入れるべきではないか。

About 500 such sites have been confirmed in Japanese waters.
 日本国内では、約500か所で水中遺跡が確認されている。

On the seabed off Matsuura, Nagasaki Prefecture, lie the remains of a military vessel thought to have sunk during the Mongolian invasions of Japan in the 13th century. It was discovered three years ago by a research group from the University of the Ryukyus. Items including spherical fragmentation bombs, which were drawn as “tetsuhau” (grenades) in “Moko Shurai Ekotoba,” illustrated narratives of the Mongolian invasions, were found at the site and recovered.
 長崎県松浦市沖の海底には、13世紀の元寇げんこうの際に沈没したとされる軍船がある。琉球大学の研究グループが3年前に発見した。「てつはう」として「蒙古襲来絵え詞ことば」に描かれた球状のさく裂弾なども見つかり、引き揚げられた。

The sea area near this site is home to what is known as the Takashima Kozaki site. This was the first submerged site in Japan to be registered as a national historic site. Furthermore, underwater exploration of the area was conducted this summer.
 周辺海域は、鷹島神崎遺跡と呼ばれ、水中遺跡としては初めて国の史跡に指定された。今夏も付近で水中探索が行われている。

The Cultural Affairs Agency plans to use the achievements and results of this research in future surveys of underwater ruins and sites. It has launched an exploratory committee of scholars to oversee this task. We have high hopes that there are outstanding developments in store.
 文化庁は、ここでの実績を今後の水中遺跡調査に生かす考えだ。有識者による検討委員会も発足させた。成果に期待したい。

The Seto Inland Sea is the final resting place for the Iroha Maru, the ship carrying Sakamoto Ryoma that collided with a ship run by the feudal Kishu domain during the final days of the Tokugawa shogunate. Furnishings thought to have been used in the ship’s cabins have already been retrieved from the site.
 瀬戸内海には、幕末に坂本龍馬が乗船し、紀州藩の船と衝突した「いろは丸」が沈んでいる。船室で使用されていたとみられる調度品などが既に回収された。

Chinese ceramics from about the 13th century have been found in the sea near Ojikajima island, which is one of the Goto Islands that are part of Nagasaki Prefecture and have served as key traffic lane on the sea route to China from ancient times.
 古代から中国への海上交通路の要衝だった長崎県五島列島・小値賀おぢか島の近海では、13世紀ごろの中国の陶磁器が見つかった。

Despite such examples of the historically significant items under the sea, in actuality most submerged sites around Japan have been left untouched.
 こうした例はあるものの、ほとんどの水中遺跡が、未調査のまま放置されているのが実態だ。

Funding main problem

Underwater archaeology is the study of sunken ships and ancient cities that have sunk below the surface of the sea, a field that can provide insight into the levels of craftsmen’s skills and technology, as well as into people’s ways of life at the time. Since the end of World War II, this discipline has mostly developed in Europe and the United States.
 沈没船や水没した古代都市などを調査し、当時の技術水準や人々の暮らしぶりなどを探る水中考古学は、第2次大戦後に欧米を中心に発達した。

In recent years, advances in sonar, remotely controlled cameras and other technologies have helped researchers learn even more about what lies under the sea. Japan lags behind many other countries when it comes to underwater archaeology and needs to strengthen its foundation in the field.
 近年は、水中音波探知機や遠隔操縦カメラなどの進歩に伴い、より多くのことが分かるようになった。諸外国に比べ、立ち遅れている日本の水中考古学の基盤整備を進めていく必要がある。

The greatest obstacle to this is funding. Surveying underwater reportedly costs about 10 times as much as examining ruins on land, so finding the cash for such projects is daunting. In many cases, local governments and research institutes play a central role in conducting such surveys.
 ネックとなっているのは、陸上遺跡の10倍はかかるとされる調査費の調達である。調査は、多くの場合、自治体や研究機関が主体となって実施されている。

However, underwater surveys can, on occasion, run up bills of hundreds of millions of yen. Such exorbitant costs have probably given organizers of many potential projects cold feet. To conduct surveys of ruins with historical value, financial support from the central government is essential.
 だが、調査費は時として億単位にもなる。二の足を踏むケースは多いだろう。歴史的な価値のある遺跡の調査については、資金面での政府の支援は欠かせまい。

Japan also will need to nurture more underwater archaeology experts.
 水中考古学の専門家を養成していくことも重要だ。

Japan is a member of the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea. The convention states for objects of an archaeological and historical nature “particular regard” will be “paid to the preferential rights of the State or country of origin, or the State of cultural origin.” There will likely be cases in which the examination of foreign ships that sank in waters near Japan will require coordination with the nation from which the ship came.
 日本も加盟する国連海洋法条約は、海中の遺跡について、「文化上の起源を有する国の優先的な権利に特別な考慮を払う」ことを求めている。日本近海に沈む外国船の調査では、関係国との調整が必要となるケースもあるだろう。

The first task for the government will be sorting out and examining the various issues involved in the survey of underwater wrecks.
 政府には、水中遺跡調査に関わる様々な課題を整理することが、まずは求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 25, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

サイバー対策 政府の防護態勢強化が急務だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Govt must urgently beef up measures to protect nation from cyber-attacks
サイバー対策 政府の防護態勢強化が急務だ

The number of cyber-attacks directed at government organizations has been increasing at an alarming rate. In some cases, information related to such fields as space development has been stolen.
 政府機関を標的にしたサイバー攻撃が急増している。宇宙開発関連の情報などが流出したケースもある。

The government must do everything it can do to strengthen protection measures against cyberattacks.
 防護態勢の強化に、政府は全力を挙げねばならない。

According to an annual report the government released last month, there were 5.08 million cases of illegal access to government organizations’ computer networks in fiscal 2013. This figure is five times the level in the previous fiscal year.
 政府が先月に公表した年次報告によると、2013年度の政府機関に対する不正アクセスは、約508万件に上った。前年度の5倍にも増えている。

A majority of the cases are considered to be cyber-attacks aimed at stealing important government information. Many are believed to have come from abroad, from places such as China.
 不正アクセスの大半は、重要情報を盗み取ろうとするサイバー攻撃とみられる。攻撃の多くが中国など海外から発信されている。

During the period from August to September last year, many advanced persistent threat (APT) attacks were made on central government bodies including the ministries of finance; foreign affairs; economy, trade and industry; and the agriculture, forestry and fisheries.
 昨年8~9月には、財務、外務、経済産業、農林水産などの中央省庁を狙った標的型サイバー攻撃が相次いだ。

Such attacks plant computer viruses on specific websites, and infect the networks of targeted organizations only when the organizations’ staff browse the tainted websites.
ウェブサイトにウイルスを仕込み、標的とした組織の職員がそのサイトを閲覧した場合にのみ感染させるタイプだった。

APT attacks have also been spreading to include independent administrative institutions, or government-affiliated research institutes, especially those relating to space exploration and nuclear power studies. This is a profoundly serious situation.
 攻撃対象は、宇宙や原子力関連の独立行政法人などにも広がっている。深刻な状況である。

In 2011, the United States defined the cybersphere as the “fifth battlefield,” in addition to land, air, sea and space, and said it would not rule out the option of retaliatory strikes in the event of a serious cyber-attack. Washington views cyber-attacks as a grave problem affecting national security.
 米国は11年、サイバー空間を陸海空と宇宙に次ぐ「第5の戦場」と位置づけ、深刻なサイバー攻撃には報復も辞さない方針を打ち出した。サイバー攻撃を安全保障上の重要問題と捉えている。

Enact cyber-attack law promptly

In May this year, the U.S. Justice Department indicted five Chinese military officers on charges of hacking U.S. companies’ computers to steal trade secrets.
 今年5月には、米企業にサイバー攻撃を仕掛け、機密情報を盗んだとして、米司法省が中国軍所属の5人を起訴した。

The Japanese government set a goal of bolstering its ability to counter cyber-attacks in December last year as part of national security strategy, but there can be no denying that this nation lags in tackling the problem.
 日本政府も昨年12月、国家安全保障戦略でサイバー攻撃への対応能力の強化を掲げたが、取り組みの遅れは否めない。

The Information Security Policy Council (ISPC) chaired by the chief cabinet secretary is currently the key government body in handling cyber-attacks.
 政府内で現在、サイバー攻撃に対処する司令塔となっているのは、官房長官が議長を務める「情報セキュリティ政策会議」だ。

But even when government ministries and agencies are subject to cyber-attacks, ISPC is not empowered to demand relevant information from them.
 だが、省庁がサイバー攻撃を受けても、政策会議は、その省庁に情報提供を強制する権限はない。

As a result, investigations into the causes of cyber-attacks are not conducted promptly.
迅速な原因究明が進まないという問題点がある。

It is extremely important to strengthen the ISPC’s powers.
 司令塔機能を高めることが、重要な課題である。

The government plans to upgrade the ISPC to a “cybersecurity strategy headquarters” as early as fiscal 2015.
政府は、政策会議を15年度にも「戦略本部」に格上げする方針だ。

The planned headquarters will be able to force ministries and agencies to provide relevant information if attacked.
攻撃された省庁には情報提供を義務づける。

These steps have been incorporated into a cyber-attack countermeasures bill that was jointly submitted to the latest ordinary Diet session by the ruling coalition parties of the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito, as well as the Democratic Party of Japan and other opposition parties.
 こうした内容は、自民、公明両党と民主党などが先の通常国会に共同提出し、継続審議となっているサイバー攻撃対処の法案にも盛り込まれている。

The envisioned legislation should be enacted swiftly in the forthcoming extraordinary session of the legislature this autumn.
臨時国会で法整備を急がねばならない。

Cyber-attacks targeted at companies that are vitally important to the nation’s economic activities, such as those in the financial and power generation sectors, have also been surging.
 金融、電力など経済活動の中枢を担う企業へのサイバー攻撃も増えている。

Japan is highly likely to be a target for cyber-attacks in the years leading up to the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympic Games, which have drawn attention from around the world.
世界の目が集まる20年の東京五輪に向け、日本は攻撃の標的になりやすい状況にある。

It is vital for the public and private sector to work together to prepare to combat security breaches, by addressing such tasks as developing the currently insufficient human resources for information security.
 不足する情報セキュリティーの人材育成など、官民が一体となった備えが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 25, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月25日 (月)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:招きたくない監視社会 /東京

August 24, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Publically shaming criminals online is going too far
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:招きたくない監視社会 /東京

Recently, a comic store generated controversy with a threat to publically release the image of a shoplifter's face who was caught on a security camera stealing an expensive figurine. The store first released an image of the shoplifter with his face pixelated and threatened to remove the pixilation if the person did not return the figurine by a certain day.
 漫画専門店で売り物の高価なフィギュアを万引きした男性。監視カメラでとらえられており、映像のネット公開をめぐって議論が起きた。店側はまずモザイクつきの写真をネットにアップし、期日までに返却に来なければモザイクをはずすと呼びかけたが、

In the end, at the urging of police, the store did not remove the pixilation. However, in on-the-street interviews on television shows, many people gave the opinion that the pixilation should have been removed, to help deter future shoplifters.
結局、警察の指導などにより公開は見送った。情報番組の街頭インタビューなどでは「再犯防止のためにも公開すべきだったのでは」といった厳しい声も目立った。

Crime is said to be overall on the decline, but shoplifting numbers refuse to fall. Perhaps lacking awareness that what they have done is a crime, some shoplifters supposedly take a defiant attitude, saying, "As long as I return it, there's no problem, right?"
 犯罪は全体としては減る方向にあると言われるが、万引きはいっこうに減少しない。犯罪という自覚がないのか、店側が見つけても「返せばいいんだろう」と開き直るケースもあるとのことだ。

Some small retailers are supposedly affected quite badly by shoplifting, so it is not a problem that can be overlooked.  経営に大きな支障が出る小売店もあるというから、見逃せない問題だ。

However, we must be careful about the idea that a store can set up its own "punishment," by for example threatening to release a photo of a shoplifter's face.
とはいえ、店側が「監視カメラの映像をネットで公開します」など独自の“罰”をもうける動きには慎重にならなくてはならない。

In this day and age, using the Internet one can easily find all kinds of information about a person -- their name, their address, their place of work.
It can lead to ruining a person's standing in society.
とくにこの時代、ネットを使えば名前、自宅、職場などが簡単に特定され、その人の社会的生命が断たれるほどのダメージを与えることにもなりかねない。

While the theft in the recent case was of a very valuable item, is it right for stores to be able to decide that when the value of shoplifted merchandise is over some particular amount it warrants a public release of the shoplifter's photo?
今回、盗まれたのはとても高価な品だったが、映像の公開か非公開か、その境目の金額までをはたして店が決めてよいものか。

Sometimes on the Internet, people will release photos of criminals, taken while they happened to be nearby.
 ネットでは、問題を起こした人の写真や名前など個人情報を公開することを「さらす」と呼ぶ。

"This person is a groper," they may write, releasing a photo on a site such as Twitter.
「これが痴漢です」などと居合わせた人が写真を撮り、ツイッターなどで「さらす」こともある。

I feel that more and more, the reaction to this public exposure is not "that's going too far," but "they deserve it."
それに対し「やりすぎだ」という声より「さらされて当然」と肯定する声のほうが大きくなりつつあるのを感じる。

Of course, no matter the reason, there is no excuse for breaking the law or other rules.
 もちろん法律などで決められているルールを破るのは、どんな理由があろうとも許される行為ではない。

But I also think that stores -- who are not police -- should not come up with and deal out their own "punishments." しかし、警察以外の個人や店の手により、どんな“罰”を加えても許されるというのは違うと思う。

While public exposure on the Internet is not a direct punishment like a fine or prison sentence, it is in some ways a heavier punishment.
ネットで「さらす」行為は罰金や懲役といった直接的な制裁ではないが、ある意味でそれ以上の重さを持っているともいえる。

According to police statistics, recently many shoplifters are people 65 and over.
 警察の統計によれば、最近は65歳以上の高齢者の万引きの増加が目立つそうだ。

Maybe, having retired or no longer having any family, they think, "I have nothing left to lose, so I don't care who you report me to.
仕事を退職していたり家族がおらずひとり暮らしだったりで、「もう失うものはないから、誰に報告してくれてもいいですよ。

You're going to put my face out on the Internet? I don't care." If so, it is a sad situation.
ネットで顔を“さらす”? ああ、かまいませんよ」という心境なのだろうか。それも寂しい話だ。

I hope that we do not become a world where people are always observing each other, quick to photograph and expose other people on the Internet the moment they do something wrong.
 お互いが監視し合い、怪しい行動を取ったらすぐに写真を撮って公開。これが当然、という世の中にならないことを願いたい。

(精神科医)
(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年08月19日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

関空運営権 利便向上へ民間の力生かそう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
2 Kansai airports’ privatization must lead to improved convenience
関空運営権 利便向上へ民間の力生かそう

Can having the private sector take charge of managing airports improve their convenience?
 空港の運営を民間が担うことで、利便性の向上をどう実現していくかが問われよう。

New Kansai International Airport Co., wholly funded by the central government, has launched procedures to sell the rights to operate two airports it owns: Kansai Airport and Osaka Airport, also known as Itami Airport.
 国が全額出資する新関西国際空港会社が、関西空港と伊丹空港の運営権売却に向けた手続きをスタートさせた。

The concession sale plan is designed to enable private companies to acquire the management rights of the two airports for 45 years without transferring the government ownership of such facilities as passenger terminals and runways.
 空港ビルや滑走路など施設の所有権は移さず、両空港を45年間にわたって運営する権利を外部に譲渡する計画という。

Bidding will begin in October this year, with the completion of a sales contract with the successful bidders scheduled for autumn next year at the earliest.
今年10月に入札を開始し、来秋にも売却先と契約を結ぶ予定だ。

The planned sale of the management rights is a new approach to improving the operations of the airports through introduction of private-sector funds and managerial know-how. The goal of the concession sale plan—boosting the quality of public infrastructure, or social overhead capital, through avoiding fiscal burdens—is reasonable.
 運営権売却は、民間の資金とノウハウを導入し、空港経営の改善を目指す新たな手法である。財政負担を避けつつ、公共インフラ(社会資本)の質を高めようとする狙いは理解できる。

The government has announced plans to sell operating concessions of airports as part of the nation’s growth strategy, pursuing the goal of selling the management rights of six airports by the end of fiscal 2016.
 政府は成長戦略の一環として空港の運営権売却を掲げ、2016年度末までに6空港での実施を目指している。

Sendai Airport has already announced guidelines for applications concerning the sale of its management rights, while Fukuoka Airport and Hiroshima Airport are also preparing for their privatization.
すでに、仙台空港が運営権売却に関する募集要項を発表しており、福岡、広島の両空港なども検討を進めている。

Success or failure of the envisioned sale of Kansai and Osaka airports will serve as a test of the prospects for the sale of airports’ operation concessions.
 関空、伊丹の成否は、今後の運営権売却の試金石となる。

About 150 companies and other organizations, including financial institutions and trading houses at home and from abroad, took part in a briefing session that New Kansai International Airport Co. held earlier this month, indicating a high level of interest in the concession sale plan.
 新関空会社が今月開いた説明会には、金融機関や商社など国内外から約150の企業・団体が参加し、関心の高さを裏付けた。

¥2.2 trillion too expensive

Firms managing airports overseas are also reported to be interested in buying the management rights of the two Kansai airports, citing such reasons as the wealth of tourism resources in the Kansai region and rising civil aviation demand in Asia. It is likely that multiple Japanese companies and foreign firms will formulate consortiums to take part in the bidding.
 関西圏の観光資源の豊富さやアジアの航空需要の高さを理由に、購入に意欲を示す海外空港の運営会社もあるという。複数の日本企業や外資が連合を組んで入札に参加することが想定される。

One concern is the colossal price sought for Kansai Airport: ¥2.2 trillion over a period of 45 years if no advance payment is made.
 気がかりなのは、関空側の提示した売却額が巨額なことだ。前払い金ゼロの場合、45年間の支払総額は2兆2000億円に上る。

The airport company says this will be easy enough to pay if the concession holder secures the company’s current level of profits.
 新関空会社は、現状程度の利益を上げ続ければ、支払いは十分可能だと説明する。

Analysts from such industries as the real estate business, however, have pointed out that the price sought by the airport company is excessive compared to prices of airports in foreign countries, which they say are priced mostly at levels equivalent to several hundreds of billions of yen.
だが、不動産業界などには、数千億円が相場とされる海外の空港に比べて高すぎるといった声もある。

In addition, the division of roles to be played by the three airports of Kansai, Osaka and Kobe remains ambiguous, making it unclear whether a concession holder could obtain stable earnings over a long term.
 関空、伊丹、神戸の「関西3空港」の役割分担もあいまいで、長期にわたって安定した収益を上げられるかどうか不透明だ。

The government, the sole shareholder of New Kansai International Airport Co., should fulfill its responsibility to present a convincing account of where its airport policy is headed.
 新関空会社の株主である国は、空港政策の方向性をきちんと説明する責任があろう。

In numerous cases, airport operations by private-sector companies have proved successful, leading to large increases in the number of airport users attracted by such steps as expansion of the airports’ commercial facilities.
 海外では、民間企業による経営が奏功し、商業施設の拡充などで集客数を大幅に増やしたケースも少なくない。

But there have also been failures. In Argentina, for example, airport operations have gone into the red after their management was privatized, resulting in increases in financial burdens on their users and declines in the quality of services.
 一方、民間が運営に乗り出した後に赤字に陥り、利用者の負担増やサービスの低下を招いたアルゼンチンのような失敗例もある。

Selling the management rights to the private sector in a way that is detrimental to airport users would be the completely wrong approach. In selecting winning bids, the government must be very careful in scrutinizing the managerial capabilities and the feasibility of business plans of potential concession holders.
 民間への売却が利用者に不利益をもたらしては本末転倒だ。売却先の経営能力や事業計画を精査して選定することが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 24, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

健康寿命 「元気で長生き」を目指したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Elderly must enjoy healthy long life without need for nursing care
健康寿命 「元気で長生き」を目指したい

A major challenge facing the nation at a time when its population is rapidly aging is to ensure that elderly people can maintain their day-to-day lives for as long as possible, dispensing with the need to receive nursing care.
 高齢になっても、介護を必要とせず、自立して生活できる期間をできるだけ延ばしていく。超高齢社会へ向けた大きな課題である。

In early August, the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry released the 2014 edition of its annual white paper, which focused on the goal of expanding the healthy life span so that the nation can be transformed into a long-lived, healthy society.
 厚生労働省が今月公表した2014年版の厚生労働白書は、「健康長寿社会の実現に向けて」をタイトルに、「健康寿命の延伸」をメインテーマに掲げた。

Healthy life expectancy refers to the number of years that people can continue to live their daily lives independently, uninterrupted by health problems and without having to receive the help of family members or others.
 健康寿命は、健康上の問題で日常生活が制限されず、家族などの手を借りることなく暮らせる年数のことだ。

In 2010, the healthy life span of the Japanese stood at 70.42 for men and 73.62 for women, both marking the world’s highest levels. The figures have been increasing year by year.
日本では、2010年時点で男性70・42歳、女性73・62歳と世界最高水準にあり、年々延びている。

However, these figures compare poorly with the average life expectancy—80.21 for men and 86.61 for women in 2013. This shows there is a disparity of about 10 years between the healthy life span and the average life expectancy among both Japanese men and women.
 ただし、平均寿命(13年)の男性80・21歳、女性86・61歳と比較すると、いずれも10歳前後の開きがある点に留意すべきだ。

The gap represents how long men and women will be highly dependent on nursing care and medical services. It is widening due to a greater increase in the average life expectancy compared to that of the healthy life span.
 この差は、介護や医療への依存度が高くなる期間を意味する。健康寿命より平均寿命の延びが大きいため、拡大する傾向にある。

It is necessary to shorten the period for which people need nursing and medical care, a task essential for enabling elderly people to live fulfilling, independent lives. If aged persons do not become bedridden and can live in good health for an extended period, the medical and nursing-care expenses they incur will likely be significantly reduced.
 できる限りこの期間を短縮することが、高齢者一人一人の生活を充実させるために欠かせない。寝たきりにならず、健康に過ごせる期間が延びれば、医療・介護費の抑制効果も期待できる。

The government has said the goal of making Japan a nation of healthy and long-lived people is a pillar of its growth strategy.
 政府は、健康長寿の実現を成長戦略の柱とも位置づけている。

In its strategy for health preservation and medical improvement adopted at a Cabinet meeting in July, the government said it would pursue the target of increasing the healthy life expectancy by more than one year by the end of 2020. The government hopes to nurture healthcare businesses that support elderly people’s efforts to lead long healthy lives, and promote such services and operations overseas, an endeavor conducive to economic growth.
 7月に閣議決定した「健康・医療戦略」では、20年までに健康寿命を1歳以上延ばす目標を打ち出した。「元気で長生き」を支える健康・医療関連産業を育成して、海外展開を促し、経済成長につなげたい考えだ。

An increase in the number of healthy elderly people is also expected to help secure workers and contribute to the promotion of volunteer activities.
 元気な高齢者の増加は、労働力の確保やボランティアの活性化にもつながるだろう。

Battle lifestyle illnesses

To increase the healthy life span, it is important for individuals to take preventive measures against lifestyle-related illnesses even while they are still working. Various complications can occur from diabetes, high blood pressure and other diseases associated with one’s lifestyle habits, which can easily lead to a need for nursing-care services in old age.
 健康寿命を延ばすには、現役時代から生活習慣病の予防を心がけることが大切だ。糖尿病や高血圧などは、様々な合併症を引き起こし、要介護状態を招きやすい。

It is also necessary for local government and business corporations to play an active role in improving the health of local residents and employees. Measures must include promoting better lifestyle habits and raising the percentage of people receiving medical checkups.
 自治体や企業も、住民や社員の生活習慣の改善や、健康診断の受診率向上などの健康作り対策に積極的に取り組む必要がある。

A good case in point is the Shizuoka prefectural government. The local government is promoting what it calls a “health mileage program” under which local residents are awarded points according to their medical checkup and daily physical exercise records. When a resident has collected a certain number of points, he or she is entitled to receive complimentary services at shops participating in the program.
 静岡県は、健診の受診や日々の運動実績をポイント化し、一定以上になると協力店で優待サービスを受けられる「健康マイレージ」事業を行っている。

Meanwhile, Tanita Corp., a Tokyo-based measurement equipment manufacturer, has adopted a system in which pedometers are distributed to all its employees, requiring them to record how many steps they take every day. Employees who score high in this daily practice receive awards for their accomplishments.
 計測器メーカーのタニタは、歩数計を全社員に配って計測を義務づけ、ランキング上位者を表彰する制度を設けている。

We hope measures will be taken to achieve the intended goal in a manner that fits the realities of each community and company.
 地域や会社の実情に合った対策を進めてもらいたい。

It is also important to provide elderly people with more opportunities to play an active role in society. If they make contributions to society through work and community service, elderly people will find their lives to be fulfilling and are unlikely to need nursing care.
 高齢者の活躍の場を広げることも重要だ。仕事や地域活動で社会に貢献することは、生きがいになり、介護予防に役立つだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 24, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月24日 (日)

社説:広島土砂災害 検証尽くして教訓導け

August 23, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Learning a lesson from Hiroshima landslides
社説:広島土砂災害 検証尽くして教訓導け

The number of residents reported missing following major landslides in northern Hiroshima in the predawn hours of Aug. 20 has significantly increased, threatening to make the disaster the worst of its kind in recent years when combined with the confirmed death toll.
 広島市北部で20日未明発生した土砂崩れの行方不明者が大幅に増え、犠牲者と合わせると近年では最悪の土砂災害となる恐れが強まった。
   
Initially seven people were reported missing, but a little over 24 hours later that figure climbed to over 50. The discrepancy in the numbers reported missing comes from police and local municipalities using different methods to confirm the safety of residents.
 行方不明の人数が当初の7人から24時間以上たって50人超に増えたのは、住民の安否情報の確認方法が自治体と警察との間で違っていたためだ。

The difficulty that officials face in fully grasping the extent of the damage indicates how severe the disaster is.
被災状況の把握すら困難な厳しい状況であることを示している。

With rain continuing to fall intermittently, rescuers are desperately searching for the missing while remaining on alert against secondary damage. All efforts should be exhausted in search and rescue operations, with priority put on saving human lives.
断続的に雨が降り、2次災害を警戒しながらの捜索活動が続く。人命を最優先に力を尽くしてもらいたい。

Amid ongoing power and water outages in the disaster-hit areas, an increasing number of residents have been forced to take shelter at public facilities.
 被災現場は停電や断水が続き、避難所で暮らす住民が増えている。

Local municipalities are urged to pay close attention to residents' needs so that volunteers can provide adequate support.
ボランティアを受け入れる自治体は、的確な支援ができるよう住民の要望をきめ細かく聞き取ってほしい。

Hiroshima Prefecture has the most spots vulnerable to sediment disaster in Japan.
 広島県は土砂災害危険箇所が全国で最も多いが、

However, the designation of warning zones under the Act on Sediment Disaster Countermeasures for Sediment Disaster Prone Areas has not come fast enough.
土砂災害防止法の警戒区域指定は遅れていた。

The residential areas that suffered damage in the latest landslides were prone to disasters due to their proximity to mountains, but most of them had not been designated as sediment disaster-prone areas.
被災現場は山裾に住宅地が広がり、災害の恐れのある地域だったが、ほとんどが未指定だ。

Financial and manpower shortages have reportedly hampered the progress of field surveys, while residents are reluctant to have land designated as being disaster-prone, fearing that their property values will be downgraded.
財政難や人員不足で現地調査などの作業が進まないという。不動産価値の低下を住民が懸念し、理解を得にくいことも要因だ。

Nevertheless, it is serious that such an immense disaster hit areas that had not been listed as being disaster-prone.
 だが、指定されなかった地域で甚大な災害が起きたことを重く受け止めなければならない。

If more damage like this arises, criticism that the disaster was a man-made calamity could intensify.
今後も同じような被害が出れば、「人災」という批判が強まりかねない。

The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism is urged to review the operation of the law and promote the designation of areas prone to sediment disaster as such.
国土交通省は指定促進のために運用を見直し、

If reviews alone are insufficient, legislative revisions need to be deliberated in the Diet.
それでも不十分ならば国会で法改正を議論する必要がある。

The city of Hiroshima has acknowledged that its evacuation advisory came too late, and is poised to review the standards for issuing such advisories.
 広島市は避難勧告の遅れを認め、発令基準を見直す。

Memories of the landslide disaster on Izu Oshima Island in October last year, when an absence of an evacuation advisory or order resulted in many casualties, remains fresh in our minds.
昨年10月の土砂災害で東京都大島町(伊豆大島)が避難勧告・指示を出さず、多くの犠牲者が出た。

The central government subsequently notified municipalities across the nation to issue evacuation advisories without fearing that they might turn out to be unnecessary.
そのため政府は、空振りを恐れず勧告を出すよう自治体に通知したが、

The government should fully reassure municipalities about the directive once again.
改めて徹底すべきだ。

It is difficult and dangerous for residents to evacuate at night, but the risks could be lowered in some cases if people moved to the upper floors of buildings.
 夜間の避難は難しく危険もつきまとうが、建物の高層部に逃げる垂直避難であれば危険度は低い。

In the Hiroshima disaster, a family found their way to safety by evacuating upstairs to the second floor of their home. 今回の災害でも1階から2階に移り全員が無事だった家族がいた。

Residents in disaster-prone areas should regularly discuss how to act in the event of a disaster and make steadfast preparations.
災害の危険性が高い地域の住民は、日ごろから災害時の行動を話し合い、備えを万全にしておいてほしい。

In the wake of the torrential rain that hit the Kii Peninsula in September 2011, leaving 82 people dead and 16 missing, the Wakayama Prefectural Government created guidelines for issuing evacuation advisories.
 82人が死亡し16人が行方不明となった2011年9月の紀伊半島豪雨を受けて、和歌山県は避難勧告を出すモデル基準を作った。

The guidelines require avoidance of ambiguous expressions.
あいまいな表現を避け、

They also require the use of numerical criteria such as accumulated precipitation so residents can make an objective judgment.
累積雨量など数値基準を使って客観的に判断できるようにした。

In the Hyogo Prefecture town of Sayo, where flooding from a typhoon five years ago left 18 dead and two missing, the town office introduced a monitoring system in which residents living near rivers report water levels and other relevant information, based on which the town office decides whether to issue evacuation advisories.
5年前の台風による水害で20人の死者・行方不明者が出た兵庫県佐用町は、河川付近の住民から水位などを報告してもらうモニター制度を導入し、発令の判断に活用している。

We should take note of such system improvements grounded in lessons learned from tragedies.
痛ましい体験を教訓とした制度改善例を参考にしたい。

In the Hiroshima disaster, the cause and background factors of the extensive damage should be thoroughly verified so we can utilize the information in future measures.
 今回の土砂災害でも被害が拡大した原因や背景を徹底的に検証し、そこから得た教訓を今後の対策に生かしていくことが極めて重要だ。

毎日新聞 2014年08月23日 02時33分(最終更新 08月23日 09時39分)

| | コメント (0)

検察の再犯対策 高齢・障害者に福祉の支援も

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Help for elderly, disabled recidivists crucial for rehabilitation into society
検察の再犯対策 高齢・障害者に福祉の支援も

Public prosecutors are working to rehabilitate elderly people and people with intellectual disabilities who repeat relatively minor crimes, such as shoplifting and skipping out on restaurant bills, to help them rejoin society.
 万引きや無銭飲食など比較的軽微な犯罪を繰り返す高齢者や知的障害者の社会復帰支援に、検察が力を入れている。

In cooperation with welfare experts, prosecutors are trying to secure places at welfare facilities for such people, as well as seeking to get their indictments suspended or receive suspended sentences in court.
 福祉の専門家と協力して、福祉施設などの受け入れ先を確保した上で、起訴猶予にしたり、執行猶予付きの判決を求めたりする取り組みだ。

Preventing repeat offenses is important to protect the public’s safety. It is understandable that prosecutors are exploring ways to achieve this in keeping with suspects and defendants’ circumstances, instead of just sending them to prison, thereby encouraging them to regain their footing in society.
 国民生活の安全を守るために、再犯を防ぐことは重要である。服役させるだけでなく、容疑者や被告の状況に応じた再犯防止策を模索し、社会内での立ち直りを促そうという狙いは理解できる。

Since January last year, the Tokyo District Public Prosecutors Office has recruited social welfare workers as part-time employees to help prosecutors with specific assistance measures.
 東京地検では昨年1月から、社会福祉士を非常勤職員として採用し、担当検事に具体的な支援方法を助言してもらっている。

For example, an elderly man arrested on suspicion of shoplifting was placed in a nursing home after a suspended indictment, as he was suspected of suffering from dementia. More than 350 people have received welfare assistance and medical treatment in the past 1½ years without serving prison terms.
 例えば、万引きで逮捕された高齢の男性は、認知症が疑われたため、起訴猶予にして介護施設に入所させた。この1年半で、350人以上が、刑務所に収容されず、福祉や医療の支援を受けた。

In Nagasaki, Otsu and elsewhere, panels comprising psychiatrists and other experts investigate the degree of disability of each defendant and compile reports that district public prosecutors can refer to when they seek penalties. Sendai and 19 other district public prosecutors offices cooperate with local probation offices and help probation officers find places for suspects to live after they are released.
 長崎や大津などでは、精神科医らでつくる委員会が被告の障害の程度を調べ、地検がその報告書も参考に求刑などを決める。仙台など20地検は地元の保護観察所と連携し、保護観察官が容疑者の釈放後の住居探しにあたっている。

Such endeavors are an attempt to take advantage of welfare networks and expertise.
 福祉のネットワークや専門的知見を生かす試みと言えよう。

No end to repeat offenses

The driving force behind these efforts is the seemingly endless number of repeat offenses committed by the elderly and mentally disabled.
 背景には、高齢者や障害者の再犯が後を絶たない現状がある。

According to a Justice Ministry white paper on crime, the number of elderly persons serving prison terms has been continually increasing, with the figure for 2012 more than five times that seen 20 years before. More than 70 percent of the prisoners were repeat offenders.
 法務省の犯罪白書によると、刑務所に入所する高齢者はほぼ一貫して増えており、2012年は20年前の5倍を超えた。その7割以上が再犯者だった。

A survey of inmates suspected to have mental disabilities shows they served 3.8 prison terms, on average, and some of them had been imprisoned more than five times.
 知的障害の見られる受刑者を抽出調査したところ、平均の入所回数は3・8回で、5回以上入所しているケースも目立った。

It is hard to say that serving time in prison has led to rehabilitation in such cases. If they have no place to live and work and no prospects for their lives after completing their jail terms, released prisoners will repeat crimes and end up being jailed again.
 こうした人たちは、刑務所での服役が更生に結びついているとは言い難い。刑期を終えても、居場所がなく、生活の見通しも立たないと、再び犯罪に手を染め、刑務所に逆戻りしてしまう。

Severe punishments must be imposed for heinous crimes, but depending on the case, it could be an effective public safety measure to treat elderly offenders or those with intellectual disabilities from a welfare standpoint.
 凶悪事件の犯罪者には、厳しい刑罰を科さなければならない。ただ、事案によっては、福祉的な観点を取り入れた処遇を用意することも、治安対策上、有効な手法の一つだろう。

Welfare assistance for repeat offenders would have the additional benefit of preventing the overcrowding of prisons and reducing the costs of operating them.
 刑務所の過剰収容を抑え、コストを削減できる側面もある。

However, much remains to be done to sufficiently implement welfare assistance. The Justice Ministry and prosecutors offices must cooperate with the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry and local governments to increase the number of welfare facilities that can accept repeat offenders.
 課題は、受け皿が十分に整っていない点だ。法務・検察は厚生労働省や自治体と連携し、協力施設を増やす努力が欠かせない。

The prosecutors must also examine the effects of welfare assistance to verify that recipients can be rehabilitated and that such steps deter repeat offenses.
 福祉の支援を受けた人がきちんと更生し、再犯の抑止につながったのか。検察には、効果の検証も求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 23, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

自衛隊海外派遣 恒久法制定は有力な選択肢だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Govt, ruling parties should consider permanent law on dispatch of SDF
自衛隊海外派遣 恒久法制定は有力な選択肢だ

Is it time to stop resorting to the enactment of special measures laws to allow the Self-Defense Forces to be dispatched after a serious situation has erupted overseas?
 外国で重大事態が発生した後、特別措置法を制定して自衛隊を派遣する手法には、終止符を打つ時ではないか。

A proposal is being floated within the government and the ruling parties to enact a permanent law regarding the overseas dispatch of the SDF.
 政府・与党内で自衛隊海外派遣に関する恒久法を制定する案が浮上している。

The move is meant to address the need to enact relevant legislation to deal with the expansion of the SDF’s logistical support for U.S. and other forces, which became possible with the Cabinet approval in July of the government’s new constitutional interpretation that allows limited exercise of right of collective self-defense.
 集団的自衛権の行使を限定容認する新たな政府見解が7月に決定された結果、自衛隊の後方支援活動の拡大などが可能になり、関連法整備が必要になったためだ。

During intensive interpellation in the House of Councillors, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe hinted at his positive stance on permanent legislation, saying the government would consider “whether to have a permanent law or special measures laws” regarding the SDF’s international peace cooperation activities.
 安倍首相も参院の集中審議で、自衛隊の国際平和協力活動の関連法整備について「一般法(恒久法)か特別措置法かといった形態を含めて検討する」と述べ、恒久法制定に前向きな考えを示した。

Two special measures laws have been enacted in the past in connection with the overseas dispatch of the SDF.
 自衛隊の海外派遣の特措法は、過去に2本ある。

One was the counterterrorism special measures law enacted after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, which allowed the SDF to take on refueling missions in the Indian Ocean.
2001年の米同時テロ後、インド洋での給油活動の根拠となったテロ対策特措法と、

The other was the 2003 special measures law on assisting with the reconstruction of Iraq, which made it possible for the SDF to engage in air transportation missions and such humanitarian activities as supplying water.
イラクでの給水など人道支援活動や空輸活動を可能にした03年のイラク復興支援特措法だ。

Both laws were enforced over fixed periods and have since expired.
 いずれも時限法で目的が限定されており、今は失効している。

If the Diet enacts comprehensive permanent legislation instead of revising the International Peacekeeping Activities Cooperation Law and other pertinent laws, it will be not necessary to enact special measures laws in response to pressing situations, thereby allowing the swift, flexible dispatch of the SDF abroad.
 今回、国連平和維持活動(PKO)協力法など個別法の改正にとどめず、包括的な恒久法を制定すれば、事態に応じて特措法を整備する必要がなくなり、迅速で機動的な自衛隊派遣が可能となる。

The enactment of permanent legislation would be a promising step to help put the Abe administration’s strategy of “proactive contribution to peace” into action.
 安倍政権の「積極的平和主義」を具体化するため、恒久法の制定は有力な選択肢となろう。

SDF activities expanded

The government’s new interpretation limits the definition of activities constituting “integration with the use of force”—banned under the Constitution—to SDF logistical and other activities at locations where battles are actually taking place.
 新見解は、憲法が禁じる「武力行使との一体化」の対象を、戦闘現場での自衛隊の後方支援などに限定した。

This has made it possible for SDF personnel to rescue foreign troops that are under attack, if the foreign country agrees.
受け入れ国の同意があれば、他国軍などに対する「駆けつけ警護」も可能にした。

Both measures are significant in expanding and improving the SDF’s international peacekeeping activities, as well as enhancing their effectiveness.
 いずれも、自衛隊の国際平和協力活動を拡充し、その実効性を高める上で重要な意義を持つ。

Thus far, the SDF’s activities have been limited to noncombat zones, a concept that the world will not accept.
 従来、自衛隊の活動は、国際的に通用しない概念である「非戦闘地域」に限定されていた。

Until now, even if a foreign military asked for SDF rescue operations, Japan had no option but to decline or go to the site to assess the situation and resort to the emergency step of using arms for self-defense if SDF personnel were in danger.
 他国軍に救援を要請されても、断るか、様子を見に行き、自分たちが危険になった段階で正当防衛で武器を使用するという非常手段で対応するしかなかった。

After the Self-Defense Forces Law was revised in 2006, international peacekeeping cooperation activities became a primary duty of the SDF.
 06年の改正自衛隊法で国際平和協力活動が自衛隊の本来任務に格上げされ、

In 2008, the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito considered permanent legislation but failed to reach an agreement and gave up on having the Diet enact such a law.
08年には自民、公明両党が恒久法を検討したが、合意に至らず、断念した。

The government’s new interpretation is a prime opportunity to enact permanent legislation.
今回の新見解は恒久法制定の格好の機会だ。

Such legislation would help the government put together and present an overall picture of the SDF’s international activities.
 恒久法は、自衛隊の国際活動の全体像を整理し、明示する効果も持つ。

It is necessary to put such activities into two categories—those conducted with and those conducted without a resolution by the U.N. Security Council—and restrict SDF dispatch abroad through such measures as requiring prior Diet approval.
国連安全保障理事会決議がある場合と、ない場合を分けた上で、実際の派遣には国会承認などの歯止めをかける必要がある。

We urge the government and the ruling parties to positively consider permanent legislation.
 政府・与党は、恒久法について前向きに検討してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 23, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月23日 (土)

社説:女性管理職6.6% 異次元の対策が必要だ

August 22, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Implement new steps to boost ratio of women in managerial posts
社説:女性管理職6.6% 異次元の対策が必要だ

Achieving the government's goal of increasing the ratio of women to those in managerial positions to 30 percent by 2020 appears to be extremely difficult, as was shown by a government survey.
 はなはだしく道険し、である。

The results of a survey released by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry shows that women accounted for only 6.6 percent of those in managerial posts at the division chief-level and above in fiscal 2013.
 厚生労働省が発表した2013年度雇用均等基本調査によると、管理職(課長相当職以上)に占める女性の比率は6.6%にとどまった。

There is no sign of an improvement in the situation.
30%とした政府目標の達成期限(20年)が間近だというのに、隔たりは大きいままだ。

One cannot help but wonder whether efforts to address the issue should be left to the discretion of individual companies. Since the government of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe places top priority on encouraging women to play an active role in society among its policy measures, it should work out an unprecedentedly bold action plan that is not bound by a traditional mindset.
 しかも、後退こそあれ、改善はほとんど見られない。このまま、企業の自助努力に任せていてよいだろうか。女性の活躍を最重要政策の一つに掲げる安倍政権である。従来の発想から抜け出た「異次元」の行動計画がここにこそ必要だろう。

It is globally infamous that Japan lags behind many other countries in women's advancement in society.
 不名誉なことだが、日本における女性の社会進出の遅れは、世界的に有名だ。

A report issued by the U.S. Congress features measures Japan has taken to encourage women to assume important positions in society as part of "Abenomics," an economic policy mix promoted by the Abe administration. The report also shed light on specific problems that have blocked women from participating in Japanese society in the economic and political fields.
最近では米議会の調査報告書がアベノミクスと女性政策を取り上げ、経済、政治分野で女性の参加が進まない問題に焦点を当てた。

Are there any changes in Japanese companies' awareness of the roles that women should play?
 では、当事者である日本の企業に意識の変化は見られるだろうか。

Only about 20 percent of the companies surveyed by the ministry answered that they have taken positive action to eliminate the gap in job opportunities between men and women, declining from the last two years when the ratio was over 30 percent.
 厚労省調査では、格差の解消を目指した積極的な取り組み(ポジティブ・アクション)を行っていると回答した企業の割合が約20%しかない。30%を超えていた過去2年よりかえって悪化した。

What is worse, 63 percent of the companies responded that they have no intention of taking any specific measures to that end, as compared with 54 percent in fiscal 2012.
逆に「今のところ取り組む予定はない」の回答が12年度の54%から63%に増えている。

Moreover, reasons cited by surveyed companies for not making any effort to narrow the gap between men and women would certainly stun the public.
 さらに、取り組まない理由にあぜんとさせられる。

Some companies said they are developing human resources regardless of their gender, some other businesses replied that women are already playing an active role in their organizations, while others answered that there are too few women in their workplaces.
「男女にかかわりなく人材を育成しているから」「すでに女性は十分活躍しているから」「女性が少ない、あるいは全くいないから」−−。

These answers suggest that the companies do not view the current situation as problematic.
現状を特段、問題視していない姿が透けて見える。

Many employers claim that they have difficulties finding women with the required ability and experience although they are willing to appoint women to important positions, a reason cited by the largest number of surveyed companies as to why they do not actively appoint female employees to managerial posts.
 一方、女性を起用するにやぶさかではないが、能力や経験を伴った人材がいない、というのも女性管理職が少ない理由としてよく耳にする。

The survey results have raised questions as to whether companies are truly enthusiastic about recruiting hidden talent and whether male managers truly have enough expertise or experience.
厚労省の調査でもこれがトップだった。しかし、企業は本気になって、人材を発掘しようとしているだろうか。男性の管理職は能力や経験が伴った人ばかりなのだろうか。

While the government is seeking to enact new legislation to encourage companies to take action to hire and appoint women to important posts, the business world has taken the stance that efforts toward that end should be left to the discretion of each individual company.
 政府は新法を作って、企業に積極的な行動を促そうとしているが、「経営の自主性に任せてほしい」というのが経済界の基本姿勢である。

However, it would be too optimistic to expect employers who have even failed to grasp the situation of their own companies to spontaneously try to appoint women to managerial positions.
だが、現状をさほど問題と認識していない、あるいは自社の実態を把握すらしていない経営者の自主性に期待するのは楽観的過ぎというものだ。

Many business operators argue that a radical system like one in Norway, under which companies that fail to appoint women to at least 40 percent of their executive positions must be disbanded, does not fit in with Japanese culture.
 役員の4割以上を女性にしない企業は最終的に解散処分となるノルウェーのような急進的制度は日本の文化になじまない。

If the business world sticks to its opposition to making it mandatory to ensure women account for a certain percentage of board members or managers, companies should take unprecedentedly bold measures to demonstrate that they are truly enthusiastic about promoting women to key positions.
そんな声が多い。義務化に反対するのなら、企業は、前例のない大胆な行動で本気度を証明すべきだ。

The chairman and 18 vice chairmen of the Japan Business Federation (Keidanren) are all men.
 ちなみに、経団連の会長と副会長18人は全員が男性である。

Japan's largest business organization has never appointed women to any of these top positions.
女性の就任は一度もない。

Keidanren should appoint women to high-ranking posts, such as chairman and vice chairmen, as a symbolic example of the business world's efforts to appoint women to key posts.
象徴的な例として、正副会長や委員長ポストに女性を起用する計画を示してはどうか。

毎日新聞 2014年08月22日 02時31分

| | コメント (0)

宇宙基本計画 安全保障の強化へ改定を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Basic space plan must be revised swiftly to strengthen national security
宇宙基本計画 安全保障の強化へ改定を急げ

To cope adequately with rapid changes in situations surrounding Japan, a review of the country’s space strategy is essential.
 日本を取り巻く情勢の変化に的確に対応するには、宇宙戦略の見直しが不可欠である。

The Committee on National Space Policy, an advisory body to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, has put forward a set of proposals calling for the government’s Basic Plan on National Space Policy to be revised to place priority on national security.
 政府の宇宙基本計画について、安倍首相の諮問機関「宇宙政策委員会」が、安全保障分野を主軸に据えた内容に改定するよう提言した。

China’s high-pressure maritime advances have become a menace to the security of countries in Asia. Continued vigilance is also required against North Korea’s missile launches and nuclear weapons development program.
 中国の強引な海洋進出は、アジア諸国の脅威となっている。北朝鮮のミサイル発射や核開発への警戒も怠れない。

As things stand, the committee is reasonable in its assertion of “a need for more effective use of various types of satellites in such fields as Self-Defense Forces troop operations, information gathering and analysis, maritime surveillance, data communication and positioning technology.”
 こうした現状を踏まえれば、提言が「自衛隊の部隊運用、情報の収集・分析、海洋監視、情報通信、測位といった分野で、各種の人工衛星の活用を図る必要がある」と明記したのは妥当だろう。

The basic national space policy plan is worked out based on the Basic Space Law. The current plan, decided in January last year, is problematic in its lack of specific measures on ensuring Japan’s security.
 基本計画は、宇宙基本法に基づいて策定される。現行の計画は昨年1月に決まったが、安全保障の具体策が十分に盛り込まれていないという問題点がある。

Toward the end of last year, the National Security Council declared a policy of exploitation of space for the national security field. In May this year, the Japanese and U.S. governments reached an agreement to strengthen bilateral cooperation in this field. A revision of the basic plan, which is deficient in this respect, is urgently needed.
 国家安全保障会議(NSC)は昨年末、安保分野への宇宙利用を方針に掲げた。日米両国は今年5月、この分野での連携を強化することで合意した。不備のある基本計画の改定は急務である。

Japan’s information-gathering satellites, which currently number four, are of pivotal importance for national security. The four-satellite system is said to lack the flexible capability to boost the accuracy of ground surveillance activities and swiftly grasp movements of objects such as vessels at sea.
 現在、安保関連の宇宙利用の中心は、4基の情報収集衛星だ。地上監視の精度や、海上の船舶の動向などを迅速に捉える機動力が不足している。

Increase quasi-zenith satellites

The quality and quantity of information-gathering satellites must both be enhanced.
 情報収集衛星の機能を質、量ともに高めなければならない。

For surveillance activities, acquisition of high-precision positioning information using space technology is also important. Only the global positioning system (GPS) run by the United States is currently reliable for this purpose.
 監視活動には、宇宙技術による高精度の位置情報取得も大切になる。現状で頼りになるのは、米国が運用している全地球測位システム(GPS)だけだ。

The national space policy committee’s proposals highlight the need to improve Japan’s own positioning system in preparation for the possibility of the GPS being destroyed in an attack. Specifically, the committee suggests increasing the number of Japan’s quasi-zenith satellites from the current one to seven, which the panel said would make it possible for Japan to carry out surveillance of all regions around the clock on its own.
 提言は、これが攻撃されて機能を喪失した場合に備え、自前の測位システムを充実させる必要性を指摘した。具体策として、「準天頂衛星」を現行の1基から、独自の24時間運用が可能になる7基体制に増やす案を挙げた。

The committee also proposed launching a project to develop early warning satellite technology capable of detecting foreign missiles as soon as they are fired.
 他国のミサイル発射を即時に探知する早期警戒衛星の技術開発にも着手すべきだと提言した。

These space technologies are of key significance as deterrence against potential threats from abroad, but their materialization involves colossal amounts of money. It will therefore be necessary to clarify priorities in revising the basic plan.
 こうした宇宙技術は潜在的脅威への抑止力として重要だが、具体化には巨費を要する。基本計画の改定に当たっては、優先順位をつけることが求められよう。

To ensure that the nation’s space technology is maintained and to nurture space-related industries and experts, it is also vital to continue to conduct space exploration and rocket development. In addition, whether to continue Japan’s participation in the operation of the International Space Station is an important question to consider.
 宇宙技術を維持し、関連産業や技術者を育てるには、宇宙探査やロケット開発を継続することも欠かせない。国際宇宙ステーションへの参加を継続するかどうかも、重要な検討課題である。

The Liberal Democratic Party proposed creating a “Space Agency” and integrating space-related budgetary appropriations. Discussions on the matter should be deepened from the standpoint of making more effective use of limited revenue sources relevant to the matter.
 自民党は、政府に「宇宙庁」を新設し、関連予算を一元化することを提案している。限られた財源を効率的に活用する観点から、議論を深めたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 22, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

水道老朽化 ライフラインの危機は深刻だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Steadily renew aging waterworks to maintain vital lifelines for nation
水道老朽化 ライフラインの危機は深刻だ

Superannuated waterworks must be steadily renewed to maintain vital lifelines for the nation.
 古くなった水道設備の更新を着実に進め、生活に不可欠なライフラインを守らねばならない。

Municipalities cannot avoid the task of replacing aging water supply facilities.
 水道の老朽化対策は、自治体にとって逃げることのできない課題と言える。

The nation’s water service facilities were built during intensive construction from the 1950s to the ’70s. Almost all of them have been operated by local governments and public corporations.
 日本の水道は、1950~70年代に集中的に整備が進められた。そのほとんどを、地方自治体や公営企業が運営している。

Their service life is set at 40 years under the law, but in actuality it is not rare for water pipes to see continued use for 50 to 60 years due to delays in repair work.
 法定耐用年数は40年と定められているが、実際には改修が追いつかず、50~60年間も使い続けている水道管も珍しくない。

Water pipes installed about 50 years ago burst in various districts of the country in June. In Otsu, tap water supplies to 12,000 households became muddy, while in Kitakyushu sidewalks caved in as underground soil was washed away by the water that leaked from ruptured pipes.
 今年6月には各地で、約50年前に敷設された水道管が破裂する事故が相次いだ。大津市では1万2000世帯の水が濁り、北九州市では漏れた水で地下の土が流され、歩道が陥没した。

To prevent such problems, it is essential to systematically repair and renew facilities.
 こうしたトラブルを防ぐには、計画的に設備の補修や更新を実施することが重要である。

According to a white paper on water resources compiled by the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry in August, the current annual renewal costs for waterworks nationwide are slightly less than ¥800 billion. However, this figure is expected to balloon to more than ¥1 trillion 15 years from now as superannuation progresses further.
 国土交通省が8月にまとめた水資源白書によると、全国の水道設備の更新費用は現在、年間8000億円弱だが、老朽化がさらに進む15年後には1兆円規模に膨らむ見込みという。

In contrast, the amount that municipalities can spend on renewing facilities is expected to decline, as revenues from water rates will fall due to a decline in the population. In about 10 years, it will become impossible for them to raise the funds necessary for renewal.
 一方、自治体が更新投資に使える資金は、減っていくと予想している。人口減少とともに水道の料金収入が目減りするためで、あと10年ほどで、更新投資の必要額を賄えなくなる計算だ。

Shortage of funds, manpower

Some water utilities with weaker finances, such as those in underpopulated areas, will no longer be able to maintain their facilities and will find it difficult to continue operations without help.
 過疎地など財政基盤の脆弱ぜいじゃくな水道事業者の中には、設備を維持できず、自力での事業継続が困難になるところも出てこよう。

It is necessary to enhance the efficiency and reinforce the foundations of their operations, through such measures as introducing systems in which neighboring municipalities integrate their water supply operations to achieve service over a wide area.
 隣接する自治体が水道事業を統合する「広域化」などにより、経営の効率化と基盤強化を図ることが求められる。

Local governments and residents must seriously examine how to secure fiscal resources to renew waterworks.
 水道更新のための財源確保について、自治体と住民は今から真剣に検討する必要がある。

There have been moves to increase water rates to make up for fund shortages. The Mito municipal government decided on a 7.9 percent rate hike in April, while the Chichibu municipal government in Saitama Prefecture announced a plan in May to raise rates by a whopping 17.5 percent.
 更新費用の不足を補うため、料金を値上げする動きも出てきた。水戸市は今年4月、7・9%の値上げに踏み切ったほか、埼玉県秩父市も5月に17・5%の大幅な料金アップの方針を表明した。

Rate hikes will deal a blow to residents’ livelihoods. Efforts must be made to limit their financial burdens as much as possible.
 ただ、値上げは住民の生活に打撃となる。料金負担をできる限り抑える努力も要る。

Municipalities must maintain a clear, detailed grasp of their facilities’ superannuation and carry out repair work efficiently. Detailed inspection and maintenance work will likely help prolong the life of facilities.
 自治体が老朽化の進み具合をきめ細かく把握し、効率的に改修を進めることが大事だ。丁寧な点検と補修により、設備の長寿命化を図ることも有効だろう。

Another concern is the difficulty securing sufficient manpower. The number of local government employees and others in charge of water supply services has dropped by about 30 percent in the past 15 years. The shortage of experienced technicians is particularly serious, making it difficult to deal with the superannuation of facilities.
 心配なのが人材難だ。水道事業に携わる自治体などの職員は、この15年で約3割も減った。特に熟練技術者の不足は深刻で、老朽化への対応を困難にしている。

The use of information technology in inspections must also be widely adopted.
 IT(情報技術)を活用した点検作業の普及も推進したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 22, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)広島土砂災害 検証究めて命を守れ

August 22, 2014
EDITORIAL: Hiroshima landslides show need to review disaster response plans
(社説)広島土砂災害 検証究めて命を守れ

Massive landslides caused by heavy rainfall engulfed wide areas in northern parts of Hiroshima, leaving dozens of people dead or missing.
 広島市北部の土砂災害で多くの犠牲者が出た。

The disaster is reminiscent of the mudslides that killed 32 people in Hiroshima Prefecture 15 years ago and prompted the central government to enact the landslide disaster prevention law.
広島県では15年前、32人が犠牲になる豪雨があり、国が土砂災害防止法を制定するきっかけになった。

It is deeply deplorable that lessons learned from the tragedy in 1999 have not been effectively applied.
その教訓が生かされなかったことは痛恨の極みだ。

Much of the areas where landslides occurred this time have not been designated as special caution areas under the law. The Hiroshima municipal government advised evacuations only after the disaster started unfolding. A secondary landslide occurred in a disaster-hit area, killing a firefighter who was engaged in rescue work.
 今回、土砂が崩れた場所の多くは、法に基づく警戒区域に指定されていなかった。広島市が避難を勧告したのは災害発生後。現場では二次崩壊が起き、消防署員が亡くなった。

An exhaustive investigation should be carried out to learn why the landslides caused so many casualties and so much damage.
 なぜこんなことになったのか。徹底した検証が必要だ。

It was in the hours before dawn on Aug. 20 that cumulonimbus clouds, or dense towering vertical clouds associated with thunderstorms and heavy precipitation, formed quickly, triggering torrential rainfall exceeding 100 mm per hour.
 積乱雲が急に発達し、1時間100ミリを超す猛烈な雨になったのは未明だった。

It should be noted that cumulative rainfall is a crucial factor for mudslide disasters. In Hiroshima, total precipitation since early August had been more than three times greater than average. The local meteorological observatory issued a mudslide warning before the rainfall peaked.
とはいえ、土砂災害は、累積の降水量が大きく影響する。広島市では今月上旬以降、降水量が平年の3倍強。豪雨がピークを迎える前に、気象台から土砂災害警戒情報は出ていた。

In addition, the nature of the soil in Hiroshima is known to be unstable and vulnerable to mudslides.
 ただでさえ広島は地質がもろい。

With many residential areas located close to the foothills, Hiroshima Prefecture has more high-risk areas for landslides than any other prefecture.
山すそに近い住宅地が多く、県内の土砂災害危険箇所の数は全国一だ。

A senior official of the Hiroshima municipal government said there were faint expectations that the rainfall would soon taper off. But the government was apparently too optimistic.
広島市幹部は「(雨が)収束するのではとの淡い期待があった」と言うが、認識が甘すぎた。

Every year, around 1,000 landslide disasters take place in Japan. In October 2013, huge mudflows caused by a typhoon claimed 39 lives on Izu-Oshima island off Tokyo.
 日本では毎年1千件前後の土砂災害が起きている。昨年10月は東京・伊豆大島で土石流が発生し、39人が犠牲になった。

There have been signs that torrential rain occurs more frequently than in the past. Experts suspect that global warming is causing the trend.
猛烈な雨も増加傾向にあり、温暖化の影響が疑われている。

The risk of natural disasters is rising. It is clearly necessary to enhance systems to protect the lives of people during these calamities.
 災害リスクは高まっている。命を守る網の強化が必要だ。

In areas struck by landslides in Hiroshima, many people have said they were not aware of the danger. Local governments have created and published hazard maps showing levels of natural hazards for areas. But people tend to think their areas are safe.
 広島の被災地では「危険だと思っていなかった」という声が相次いだ。自治体はハザードマップをつくって公表しているが、住民はえてして「自分のところは大丈夫」と思いがちだ。

More meticulous and effective efforts should be made to make local residents aware of the risks they are facing.
よりきめ細かく、危険性を周知していく必要がある。

In the cases of Izu-Oshima and Hiroshima, the rain intensified late at night, causing delays in the responses by the local governments.
 伊豆大島や広島のケースでは、雨が夜更けに強まったことが自治体の対応を鈍らせた。

Needless to say, natural disasters can occur at any time, day or night. Swift actions based on weather forecasts must be made when there is the possibility of a disaster.
当然ながら災害は昼夜関係なく起こる。気象予測に合わせた、早め早めの備えが肝心だ。

Kumamoto Prefecture in the last fiscal year launched a new disaster response program focused on “preventive evacuations,” which can be instructive for other local governments.
 熊本県が昨年度から始めた「予防的避難」が参考になる。

The prefectural government developed the program after heavy downpours in the early morning hours caused casualties in July 2012.
 12年7月の未明の豪雨で犠牲者が出た反省から、

Under the program, when heavy nighttime rainfall is expected, local governments set up evacuation sites in the evening and call for voluntary evacuations.
夜間に大雨が心配される場合は、自治体が夕方から避難所を設け、自主避難を呼びかける。

When Typhoon No. 8 struck Japan in July, some 5,000 people in Kumamoto Prefecture actually took shelter under the program. Even if an evacuation later turns out to have been unnecessary, such actions are meaningful because they make people more conscious of the risks.
今年7月の台風8号の時は、県全域で約5千人が実際に避難した。空振りはあっても、住民の危機意識を高める効果が期待できよう。

To boost our own safety during natural disasters, we should do what we can during normal times.
 私たち自身の心がけも重要だ。

We can, for example, learn more about the geographical and geological features of the area where we live, such as the existence of a nearby hill and a river. And we can think about what we should do during torrential rain.
裏山がある、小川がある。そうした周辺の特性を理解し、大雨の時はどう行動するかをあらかじめ考えておく。

Such self-help efforts by individuals do a lot to reduce casualties from actual disasters.
一人ひとりがそうした自助努力を積み重ね、命が奪われる事態をなくしていきたい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 22

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月22日 (金)

一目でわかるプログラマーの日常(おしごと)

なんとまあ、これは一目瞭然ですね。
文章で表現するのも大好きなんですが、こうしてLINEスタンプ(プログラマーの日常)  として表現されると、そのお仕事が一発で理解できます。
スタンプを注意深く観察して気がつくことは、楽しいことよりも苦しいことが多いということです。
楽しいことは全体の数パーセントに過ぎないのではないかと感じました。
それだけに、長い時間苦労して、新しいプログラムの開発にこぎつけたときの喜びがひとしおなんでしょうね。
将来プログラマーを目指している人たちは必読ではないでしょうか。
わずか数パーセントの充実した時間のために、命をかける人もいるのですね。



LINEクリエイターズスタンプ第一弾販売開始!
ソフトウェア開発者必見「プログラマーの日常」スタンプ



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

社説:広島の土砂災害 救援活動に全力挙げよ

August 21, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Landslide disaster shows need for better prevention measures
社説:広島の土砂災害 救援活動に全力挙げよ

Torrential rain has triggered a series of landslides in northern Hiroshima, crushing houses and leaving many residents dead and some others missing.
 局地的な豪雨に見舞われた広島市北部で土砂崩れが発生し、住宅が押しつぶされるなどして多くの死者・行方不明者が出た。

Police, firefighters and Self-Defense Forces (SDF) personnel are desperately searching for and rescuing survivors. 警察や消防、自衛隊による救助・救援活動が急がれるが、

However, they must take care to prevent a secondary disaster as a firefighter lost his life during search and rescue operations.
救助中の消防隊員が犠牲となり、2次災害に注意しながらの作業となる。

The government should put its utmost efforts into restoring disaster-hit areas and extending assistance to affected residents.
政府は被災地の復旧や住民支援に全力を挙げてほしい。
   
Typhoon Halong, this year's 11th, brought heavy rain mainly to western Japan earlier this month.
 今月に入って、西日本を中心に台風11号による大雨が続いた。

A rain front hovering along the Japanese archipelago has since repeatedly brought rain and loosened the ground. その後も前線が日本列島上空に停滞し、度重なる雨で地盤は緩んでいる。

Therefore, even a small amount of rain could trigger a landslide, and maximum caution needs to be exercised.
わずかな雨でも土砂災害が起きる恐れがあり、今後も厳重な警戒が必要だ。

In just over a three-hour period early on Aug. 20, northern Hiroshima saw rainfall that exceeded the average amount of rain that falls throughout all of August.
 広島市北部で20日未明の3時間に平年の8月1カ月分の雨量を大きく上回る雨が降った。

The Hiroshima Local Meteorological Observatory issued a warning of record-breaking rain over a short period around 3:45 a.m., and the Hiroshima Municipal Government issued an evacuation recommendation about half an hour later. 広島地方気象台は記録的短時間大雨情報を発表し、その約30分後に広島市が避難勧告を出した。

By that time, however, some landslides had already occurred and local residents had alerted emergency services. しかし、既に土砂崩れが発生し、住民からの通報が相次いでいた。

Therefore, the local government's response was too slow.
行政の対応は後手に回った。

It is essential to thoroughly scrutinize why local authorities failed to issue an evacuation recommendation or order before the disaster occurred.
 なぜ被害が発生する前に避難指示や勧告を出せなかったのか。徹底的に検証し対策を講じる必要がある。

The landslides occurred in a district where mountains were developed into residential areas.
 被災現場は山間部を切り開いて宅地開発が進められた地域だ。

The ground in extensive areas of Hiroshima Prefecture is composed of decayed granite covered with thin surface soil. 広島県には風化した花こう岩の上を薄い表土が覆う地質が広がり、

Therefore, if rainwater accumulates in these areas, slopes are prone to collapsing.
雨で水がたまると斜面は崩れやすくなる。

In the latest disaster, it is believed that rain that had fallen over the past few weeks accumulated in the soil, making the ground fragile, and that a massive amount of rain that hit the area over a short period triggered mudslides.
今回も、これまでの雨が土壌にたまり、短時間に大量の雨が降ったことで土石流などが発生したとみられる。

In June 1999, torrential rain that hit residential areas in the city of Hiroshima and surrounding areas left 31 people dead and another missing.
 1999年6月には広島市などの住宅地で31人が死亡し1人が行方不明になる集中豪雨があった。

Following the disaster, the Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Law was enacted.
この災害を受けて制定されたのが土砂災害防止法だ。

In accordance with the legislation, prefectural governments are supposed to conduct a survey on areas prone to landslides and other sediment disasters and designate vulnerable locations as caution zones.
 法に基づき、都道府県は土砂災害危険箇所を調査した上で警戒区域や危険性のより高い特別警戒区域に指定する。

Municipal governments are required to work out evacuation plans and draw up maps clearly showing caution zones.
市町村は避難体制を整備し、警戒区域を示す地図を作製、周知する。
ソフト面の対策を充実して住民の安全と生命を守るのが狙いだ。

There are many areas prone to sediment disasters in Hiroshima Prefecture.
 広島県は危険箇所が多いが、

However, local bodies' efforts to ensure the safety of residents in vulnerable areas have made little progress as it takes a long time to conduct a detailed survey on disaster-prone locations.
調査に時間がかかることなどから作業が進まず、

The majority of areas hit by the latest landslides were not designated as caution zones.
今回の被災現場も大半が指定されていなかった。

Local governments should take flexible measures such as prioritizing the designation of high-risk locations as caution zones.
危険度の高い地域の指定を優先するなど臨機応変の対応が求められる。

A nationwide survey conducted by the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry shows that there are some 520,000 locations vulnerable to sediment disasters, but one-third of these have not been designated as caution zones.
 全国的に見ても、国土交通省の調査で危険箇所は約52万カ所に上るが、3分の1は未指定で、作業は遅れている。

This is attributable partly to local residents' resistance to the designation of their neighborhoods as such for fear that the value of their land would decline.
指定されれば不動産価値が下がると住民が懸念し、理解を得にくいことも要因とされる。

However, since landslides could cause huge damage, it is necessary to patiently explain the purpose of the law to residents of high-risk areas to convince them of the need for such warnings.
だが土砂災害の被害は甚大だ。住民に法の趣旨を丁寧に説明する必要があるだろう。

There have been a growing number of local downpours in recent years.
 近年、局地的な豪雨が各地で増えている。

Any kind of serious natural disaster could hit anytime and anywhere in Japan where there are numerous mountains and rivers.
山地や河川の多い日本では、いつどこでどんな自然災害が起きてもおかしくない。

All local governments must work out disaster prevention measures based on a wide diversity of scenarios without being bound by stereotypes.
これまでの常識にとらわれず、幅広く事態を想定した災害対策が全国すべての自治体に求められる。

毎日新聞 2014年08月21日 02時33分

| | コメント (0)

中国WTO敗訴 不当な輸出規制を是正せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China’s unfair rare earth export restrictions must be rectified
中国WTO敗訴 不当な輸出規制を是正せよ

The World Trade Organization’s latest ruling on China’s strict limits on rare earth exports confirms its principle that restrictions imposed by one country exclusively seeking to protect its own interests violate global trade rules.
 自国の利益を優先した資源の輸出規制は国際的なルールに反する。その原則が確認された。

The world trade body recently arrived at its final conclusion that China’s rare earths export restrictions and related actions are a violation of WTO agreements. This finalized Beijing’s loss of the case.
 世界貿易機関(WTO)は、中国政府によるレアアース(希土類)の輸出規制などが、WTO協定に違反するとの最終判断を下し、中国の敗訴が確定した。

China should accept the WTO’s decision and immediately rectify its unfair export restrictions.
 中国は今回のWTO決定に従い、不当な輸出規制を直ちに是正すべきである。

Rare earths are used in such high-tech products as high-performance motors for hybrid automobiles and smartphones. China is the world’s largest producer of such valuable raw material, accounting for more than 90 percent of global production.
 レアアースはハイブリッド車の高性能モーターやスマートフォンなどに使われる貴重な素材で、中国は世界シェア(占有率)の9割超を占める最大の生産国だ。

China greatly lowered its rare earths export ceiling in 2010. Beijing has also introduced export duties on rare earths and some rare metals.
 中国は2010年にレアアースの輸出枠を大幅に削減した。一部のレアメタル(希少金属)とともに輸出税も導入している。

In 2012, Japan, the United States and the European Union joined hands in bringing a case before the WTO, insisting these Chinese actions were violating WTO agreements.
 日本と米国、欧州連合(EU)は、こうした措置がWTO協定に違反するとして、12年に共同で提訴していた。

China defended its rare earths export restrictions, arguing they aimed to protect the environment and conserve natural resources. Despite its export restrictions, however, China has continued to supply rare earths to its own domestic manufacturers. Beijing has clearly been giving preferential treatment to domestic corporations in the supply of rare earths.
 中国は審査で「環境や天然資源を守るための規制だ」などと反論したが、輸出制限の一方で、国内企業への供給は従来通り続けてきた。自国産業を優遇していたのは明らかだろう。

Given the circumstances, the WTO had every reason to fully accept the assertions put forward by Japan, the United States and the EU to the effect that China’s export restraints were a protectionist move.
 WTOが、輸出規制は保護主義的な措置だとする日米欧の主張を全面的に認めたのは当然だ。

Taming the tiger

In the past, China has continued to exploit its natural resources as leverage to exert diplomatic pressure on other nations.
 中国はこれまで、自国の資源を外交的な圧力をかける手段としても利用してきた。

In 2010, for instance, Beijing temporarily suspended rare earths exports to Japan amid heightened tensions between the two countries that arose after a Chinese fishing boat struck two Japan Coast Guard vessels in waters off the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture.
 10年に尖閣諸島沖で中国漁船が衝突事件を起こし、日中関係が緊張した際は、レアアースの対日輸出を一時停止した。

Such conduct violates the WTO’s fundamental rules, including a ban on the discriminatory treatment of a given nation.
 こうした行為は、特定国に対する差別的な扱いの禁止など、WTOの基本原則に反する。

China joined the WTO in 2001. Since then, the country has reaped the benefits of free trade to achieve high economic growth. Beijing should take its obligations to heart as an economic power and adhere to global trade rules.
 中国は01年にWTOに加盟し、自由貿易の恩恵を享受しながら高い経済成長を遂げてきた。経済大国としての責任を自覚し、ルールを順守すべきだ。

Japan cannot help but continue to rely on imports for rare earth and nearly all other scarce resource supplies. It is important to ensure that export restrictions by other countries do not deal a serious blow to our nation’s economic activities.
 日本は今後も、レアアースをはじめ希少資源のほとんどを輸入に頼らざるを得ない。外国による輸出規制などで、経済活動が深刻な打撃を受けないようにすることが重要である。

The Japanese government and business circles have taken steps to secure their rights and interests tied to rare earth supplies, including an attempt to increase the number of nations that can sell such raw material to Japanese manufacturers. Further action should be taken to achieve that goal.
 日本の政府と業界はレアアースやレアメタルについて、調達先の多様化のほか、資源権益の確保などを進めてきた。さらなる取り組みが求められる。

Recycling should also be promoted to extract valuable materials from used electronic devices, as well as the development of substitutes for rare earths.
 使用済みの機器から有用な資源を抽出するリサイクルの促進や、レアアースの代替品の開発などに力を注ぐことも大切だ。

We hope the government and the private sector will join forces to create the necessary technologies, despite our disadvantage as a resource-poor nation. Japan’s handicap in this respect could be used as a springboard to step up efforts.
 「資源小国」の逆風をバネに、官民を挙げて技術開発を加速してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 21, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

広島土砂災害 生かされなかった過去の教訓

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Failure to learn from past disasters contributed to landslide tragedy
広島土砂災害 生かされなかった過去の教訓

A massive volume of dirt and sediment swept down valleys and engulfed many homes.
 谷を流れ下った大量の土砂が、多数の住宅をのみ込んだ。

Before dawn on Wednesday, torrential rain that pounded parts of Hiroshima city triggered debris flows and cliff collapses in more than 10 locations. About 40 people have been confirmed dead, and several others remain missing. It is a harrowing disaster.
 局地的豪雨に見舞われた広島市内の10か所以上で20日未明、土石流や崖崩れが発生した。約40人の死亡が確認され、行方不明者もいる。痛ましい災害だ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who had been on summer vacation, quickly returned to the Prime Minister’s Office and ordered more Self-Defense Forces personnel to the affected areas to conduct search and rescue operations for victims of the tragedy.
 夏休み中だった安倍首相は急きょ、首相官邸に戻り、被災者の救命・救助にあたっている自衛隊の増員などを指示した。

A firefighter engaged in a rescue mission at the scene also died when he became buried under the mud. We hope the police, firefighters and the SDF take care to avoid being caught in secondary disasters while doing everything in their power to search for the missing people.
 現地では、救助活動中の消防隊員も犠牲になった。警察や消防、自衛隊は、二次災害に注意を払いつつ、不明者の捜索に全力を挙げてもらいたい。

According to the Japan Meteorological Agency, Asa-Kita Ward in Hiroshima city was inundated by more than 200 millimeters of rain in the three hours to 4:30 a.m. Wednesday. This is 1.5 times the amount of rainfall the area gets for the whole of August in a normal year. This huge amount of rainwater swept away dirt and trees, and then poured into residential areas at the foot of hills in the ward.
 気象庁によると、広島市安佐北区では、20日午前4時半までの3時間雨量が200ミリを超えた。例年の8月1か月間の1・5倍の降水量だった。大量の雨水が、土砂と樹木を巻き込みながら、山裾の住宅地に流れ込んだ。

Experts have pointed to the fragile geological features peculiar to Hiroshima as one reason why the damage was so extensive. The ground on which many homes were built is a kind of compacted granite scree known in Japanese as “masado.”
 甚大な被害が出た原因として、広島特有のもろい地質が指摘される。花こう岩が風化し、堆積した「まさ土」の上に、多くの住宅が建てられている。

About 32,000 locations in Hiroshima Prefecture are designated as being at risk from landslides. That is the highest figure for any other prefecture in Japan by a significant margin. Hiroshima, more than any prefecture, needed to routinely prepare for such a disaster.
 広島県内の土砂災害危険箇所は3万2000か所に上り、都道府県の中で突出して多い。日頃からの備えが、どこよりも求められていたと言えるだろう。

Warnings too late

In June 1999, a similar disaster, including cliff collapses, in Hiroshima city killed 20 people. This prompted the enactment of the Sediment Disasters Prevention Law in 2001.
 広島市では1999年6月にも、今回のような崖崩れなどが発生し、20人が死亡した。この災害をきっかけに、土砂災害防止法が2001年に施行された。

Under this law, prefectural governments must examine areas vulnerable to landslides and other sediment disasters, and designate areas at risk as “special caution” or “caution” zones. Municipal governments are obligated to compile hazard maps showing areas at risk. The development of residential areas is restricted in special caution zones.
 防止法は、都道府県が、危険箇所を調査した上で、警戒区域や特別警戒区域に指定し、市区町村がハザードマップを作製するよう義務付けている。特別警戒区域では、宅地開発が規制される。

However, many of the areas affected by Wednesday’s landslides had not been categorized as requiring caution. There have been claims that the designation of zones at risk could not keep up with the workload due to a personnel shortage. It is regrettable that the law did not function as expected.
 だが、今回の被災地域の多くは警戒区域に指定されていなかった。人員不足で指定作業が追いつかないとの証言もある。防止法が機能しなかったのは残念だ。

The Hiroshima city government issued evacuation orders and advisories to residents at 4:15 a.m. Wednesday and later. By this stage, the mudslides had apparently already occurred. The city government has acknowledged the delay in issuing the evacuation warnings was the result of “mistakes in analysis of the rainfall.”
 広島市が住民に避難指示・勧告を出したのは、20日午前4時15分以降だった。既に、土砂災害が発生していたとみられる。市は「雨量の分析を誤った」と、発令の遅れを認めた。

Be that as it may, even if evacuation orders and advisories had been issued properly, evacuating in the dark as pounding rain falls also has its dangers.
 ただ、適切に避難指示・勧告が発令されても、豪雨と暗闇の中での避難は、危険が伴う。

It is important that all municipalities, not just Hiroshima, consider how they can safely evacuate residents during disasters that occur in the middle of the night and in the hours before dawn.
 広島市に限らず、夜間や未明に発生した災害での避難の在り方は、重要な検討課題である。

These heavy downpours were caused by warm, moist air from the south that flowed into a stationary front over the Sea of Japan. This weather pressure pattern will reportedly continue for a while. Vigilance against further disasters must be maintained, especially in western Japan.
 今回の豪雨は、日本海にある前線に、南の暖かく湿った空気が流れ込んだことが原因だ。この気圧配置はしばらく続くという。西日本を中心に、警戒を怠れない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 21, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)「アナ雪」人気 生きにくさを超えて

August 21, 2014
EDITORIAL: 'Frozen' craze in Japan mirrors women’s struggle to break glass ceiling
(社説)「アナ雪」人気 生きにくさを超えて

In the current dog days of summer, somewhere in this country someone is singing “Let It Go,” the well-known

signature song of “Frozen,” a Disney computer-animated musical fantasy that has become a box office blockbuster.
 きょうもどこかから、「ありのままの♪」の歌声が聞こえてくる。すっかり耳になじんだディズニー映画「アナと雪の女王」(アナ雪)の主題歌

だ。

Released in March in Japan under the title “Ana to Yuki no Joo” (Anna and the Snow Queen), "Frozen" is the tale of

two sister princesses. Elsa is the queen who has the magic power to turn things into ice, while Anna is her younger

sister who does not have any special powers, but is possessed of a cheerful spirit.
 物を凍らせる力を持つ孤独な姉エルサと、特別な力はないが快活な妹アナ。2人の王女を主人公にしたこの映画の人気が止まらない

Since its release in Japan, “Frozen” has attracted nearly 20 million moviegoers and has raked in 25.3 billion yen ($245

million) in ticket sales. It has become Japan’s third-highest-grossing film of all time, following “Spirited Away," which

earned 30.4 billion yen, and “Titanic,” which grossed 26.2 billion yen.
 3月の日本封切り以来の観客は2千万人に迫り、興行収入は253億円。「千と千尋の神隠し」(304億円)、「タイタニック」(262

億円)に次ぐ歴代3位になった。

More than 2 million DVDs and Blu-ray discs of “Frozen” have been sold since they were released last month. Sales of

the CD soundtrack have reached 900,000 copies.
 先月発売されたDVD・ブルーレイの売り上げは200万枚を超え、サウンドトラックCDも90万枚に達したという。
 破格のヒットである。

The princess fantasy film is a staple of Disney movies. Depicting a world of snow and ice with breathtaking artistry,

"Frozen" is enjoyable to a wide range of ages.
 「アナ雪」は、ディズニーらしい、お姫様もののおとぎ話。雪と氷の世界が美しく描かれ、幅広い世代が楽しめる。

“Let It Go” has gained enormous popularity. Countless videos showing someone singing the song have been

uploaded to the YouTube video-sharing site.
特に主題歌が愛され、動画サイト「ユーチューブ」には、膨大な数の歌う映像が投稿されている。

A Twitter survey has found that the number of tweets about this movie has been far larger than those about other hit

films, with the buzz about "Frozen" in the Twittersphere lasting far longer.
 ツイッターでは、この作品を話題にしたツイートが他のヒット映画と比べて格段に多く、長期間にわたってつぶやかれているという調査もあ

る。

A huge number of people have found themselves feeling a strong desire to sing the song and tell others how they

have been inspired by the movie. They have used the Internet to communicate and connect with others who also

identify with the movie.
 歌いたい。触発された思いを伝えたい。そんな、映画に参加する気持ちがネットを介して広がり、共有されている。

“Frozen” has been a global hit as well, but its box-office sales in Japan have been second only to those in North

America, where it was created, and on a different order of magnitude from those in other countries.
 世界でヒットしている「アナ雪」だが、地元北米をのぞけば興収は日本がトップで、他の国々より一桁多い。

It is notable that in addition to families with children, a large number of adult women have watched the film in Japan,

according to the distributor.
配給元によると、家族連れに加え、大人の女性客が多いのが特徴だという。

One of the co-directors of “Frozen,” Jennifer Lee, is the first female director of a Walt Disney animated feature film.

She also wrote the film's screenplay.
 ディズニー長編アニメ初の女性監督が手掛けたこの作品で、

In the movie, Elsa and Anna overcome their difficulties on their own instead of waiting for a knight on a white horse

to come to their rescue. Elsa sings the theme song when she decides to stop restraining herself and start using her

special power freely.
主人公姉妹は「白馬の王子様」を待たず、自分で困難を乗り越える。エルサが主題歌を歌いあげるのは、それまで抑えていた力を存分にふるう場面だ。

Japanese audiences have responded strongly to a movie in which the heroine sings a song about “being herself.”
 ヒロインが「ありのままの自分になる」と歌う映画に、日本社会は強く反応した。

This must have something to do with the reality of this society, where women face various obstacles, big and small, in

their lives.
それは、女性たちが生きるうえで、大小様々な障害にぶつかっている現実と無縁ではないはずだ。

While the movie was showing in Japan, a string of incidents happened to underscore the difficulties facing women.
 この映画の公開中も、女性の生きにくさを映す事件が頻発した。

While the Abe administration has pledged to boost the status of women in the economy as part of its growth strategy,

a babysitter who was hired by a single mother to take care of her two children was arrested after one of the children,

a 2-year-old boy, was found dead in the babysitter's apartment.
政権が成長戦略として女性「活用」を唱える一方、働く母親が仕方なく預けた幼い命が奪われたり、

There were also scandals concerning sexist remarks hurled against female members of the Diet and a local assembly.

国や地方議会で女性差別ヤジが問題になったり。

In a Mie Prefecture-sponsored meeting to promote gender equality, male business leaders uttered sexist remarks,

with one saying women are simply beneath men in terms of social standing.
三重県の女性の活躍推進会議では「女は下」発言もあった。

In order to change this environment, it is necessary for us to pay attention to each of the problems involved, voice

our opinions and make efforts to eliminate them.
 こうした環境を変えるため、一つ一つの問題を見逃さず、声を上げ、取り除く努力を重ねたい。

We need to take a fresh look at flaws in our social systems and keep questioning various prejudices against women.
社会の仕組みを見直し、偏った意識を問い続けよう。

Such efforts are crucial for building a society where women, and men as well, can have a fulfilling life.
女性が、そして男性も、伸びやかに生きられる世の中を目指して。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 19

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月21日 (木)

社説:原子力小委 動画非公開は教訓軽視

August 20, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Nuclear policy committee shows disregard for Fukushima lessons
社説:原子力小委 動画非公開は教訓軽視

One of the most important lessons we've learned from the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant disaster is that the closed nature of the nuclear power industry led us to underestimate the dangers of nuclear reactors.
 福島第1原発過酷事故の大きな教訓は、原子力関係者の閉鎖的な体質が原発の危険性の過小評価を招いたことだ。

The industry tuned out sound criticism from outside sources, largely influencing the government's policy and risk assessment.
外部からの健全な批判を受け入れず、それが国の政策にもリスク評価にも大きく影響してしまった。

We must put this lesson to good use by making the policymaking and risk assessment process public and raising information transparency.
この教訓を生かすには、政策決定やリスク評価の過程を、できる限り公開し、情報の透明性を高めることが重要だ。
   
The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) -- established after the onset of the Fukushima disaster -- streams video of its meetings and press conferences live, and the footage is also available for viewing online after the events take place.
 事故後に設置された原子力規制委員会は、委員会そのものや記者会見を動画でライブ中継し、終了後もネット上で公開している。

A Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) deliberative council that reviewed the government's basic energy policy does the same.
国のエネルギー基本計画を検討した経済産業省の審議会も同様だ。

Such arrangements not only allow debate to extend to outside experts, it also serves to raise awareness and interest among the general public.
外部の専門家の間にも議論を広げるだけでなく、一般の人の関心を高める手段としても評価できる。

However, the Nuclear Energy Subcommittee of METI's Advisory Committee on Natural Resources and Energy, which has been holding meetings since June, accepts silent observers but does not publicly broadcast its meetings.
 ところが、6月から開催されている経産省・総合資源エネルギー調査会の「原子力小委員会」は、傍聴は認めるものの、動画による公開はしていない。

Some subcommittee members have demanded that the meetings be broadcast, but as of the fourth meeting held Aug. 7, no video had been made available.
委員からは繰り返し公開を求める声が上がっているが、今月7日に開催された第4回会合でも実現されていない。

The subcommittee was established for the purpose of deliberating specific policies in the nuclear energy field based on the Basic Energy Plan approved by the Cabinet in April.
 この小委は4月に閣議決定されたエネルギー基本計画に基づき、原子力分野の具体的方針を検討する目的で設置された。

Topics under discussion include reconstruction and revival in Fukushima, reduced dependence on nuclear energy, human resource development and nuclear fuel cycle policy.
福島の復興・再生や原子力依存度の低減、人材育成、核燃料サイクル政策などがテーマとなっている。

Such discussions will have a great bearing on what the country decides for its energy mix.
その議論は各電源の割合を示すエネルギーミックスの決定にも関係してくる。

With the subcommittee debating topics that will dictate Japan's nuclear policy, transparency of its discussions is crucial.
 まさに、今後の具体的な原子力政策を左右する会議であり、透明性を高めて議論することが欠かせない。

Some may argue that allowing silent observers to watch from the visitors' gallery and the release of the minutes are sufficient.
 一般傍聴や議事録公開で十分という主張があるかもしれない。

But those who can actually attend the meetings comprise a tiny percentage of the general public.
だが、開催日に会場にこられる人は国民の一握りに過ぎない。

Overviews of the meetings are released within a week or so of each meeting, but they do not indicate who said what. 1週間程度で議事要旨は公開されるが、発言者が誰かわからない。

It takes about a month before the minutes are released, by which time the next meeting has already taken place.
議事録が出るまでには1カ月近くかかり、その間に次の会合が開催されているのが実情だ。

This state of affairs prevents the public from closely following the deliberation process.
 これでは、国民が議論の過程を追うことができない。

Some have proposed a compromise of providing audio broadcasts of the meetings, but such broadcasts fail to provide a complete picture, since it's difficult to identify who has the floor at any given time.
音声だけの公開という妥協案もあるようだが、誰が発言しているかがわかりにくく、情報がそぎ落とされてしまう。

The subcommittee chair, Itaru Yasui, has cited the uneasiness some members would feel in voicing their views if the meetings were to be broadcast via video.
 動画非公開の理由について小委の委員長は「意見を言いにくい人がいる」と述べている。

However, nuclear energy policy is an important matter bearing on Japan's post-Fukushima energy policy.
しかし、原子力政策は原発事故以降の日本のエネルギー政策の行方に関わる重要事項だ。

It's a matter of great interest to the public.
国民の関心も高い。

If indeed the subcommittee's members feel they can't be honest if their meetings are broadcast, then perhaps there's a lack of understanding about the significance of the meetings and the importance of their transparency.
ここで「動画中継されたら本音が言えない」とすれば、この会議の重要性についても、議論の透明性についても、理解が不足しているのではないだろうか。

At its fourth meeting, the subcommittee recognized the importance of making its meetings public, saying that it would "discuss how to improve the situation."
 第4回の会合で事務局は、公開の重要性を認めた上で「そのための手立ての改善を検討したい」と述べている。

We hope the subcommittee will modify its policy and move ahead with video broadcasts of their meetings.
早急に方針を改め、動画公開を進めてほしい。

毎日新聞 2014年08月20日 02時40分

| | コメント (0)

ウクライナ情勢 撃墜の真相究明へ停戦を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Efforts to achieve a ceasefire must be stepped up in Ukraine
ウクライナ情勢 撃墜の真相究明へ停戦を急げ

It has been over a month since a Malaysia Airlines plane carrying 298 people was shot down above eastern Ukraine on July 17, but little progress has been made in getting to the bottom of what really happened. The situation is cause for grave concern.
 ウクライナ東部で298人乗りのマレーシア航空機が撃墜されてから、1か月が過ぎた。
 しかし、事件の真相究明は進んでいない。極めて問題である。

Early this month, Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte withdrew an international investigation team the Netherlands leads from Ukraine, saying it was impossible to ensure the team’s safety.
 国際調査団を主導するオランダのルッテ首相は、「安全が確保できない」として、8月上旬以降、調査団を撤収させている。

Fierce fighting continues to rage between armed pro-Russia rebels and Ukrainian military forces around the rebel-controlled crash site and the nearby cities of Donetsk and Lugansk. The death toll, including civilians, is now greater than 2,000.
 親ロシア派武装集団が掌握する撃墜現場や、周辺のドネツク、ルガンスク両市で、武装集団とウクライナ軍が激しい戦闘を続けているためだ。死者は一般市民を含めて2000人を超えたという。

Malaysian authorities say an investigation into the downing is less than halfway completed. Many bodies have yet to be recovered, and many of the recovered bodies have yet to be identified, according to reports.
 マレーシア当局者は、調査の進捗しんちょく状況を「半分以下」と説明する。犠牲者の身元特定は難航し、未回収の遺体も多いとされる。

The results of investigations, including an analysis of the black boxes recovered from the wreckage of the aircraft, will be released no sooner than early September. However, there is serious concern over how much will be revealed regarding the matter.
 ブラックボックスの解析を含めた調査結果は、9月初旬にも公表される予定だが、真相にどこまで迫れるのか、懸念される。

In order to resume the investigations and stop the further killings of civilians, the Ukrainian military and the armed rebels should try to bring about a ceasefire as quickly as possible.
 調査を再開させるとともに、民間の死者がこれ以上出るのを避けるため、ウクライナ軍と武装集団は早期の停戦を図るべきだ。

However, there is deep-rooted mutual distrust between two camps: the United States and European countries, on which the Ukrainian government relies, and Russia, which provides support to the armed rebels.
 ウクライナ政府が頼みとする欧米と、武装集団を支援するロシアとの相互不信は根深い。

Sense of distrust

The United States and other countries said the civilian plane was mistakenly attacked by rebels with a surface-to-air missile, presenting satellite photos and other materials as evidence. Russia, for its part, has been adamant that the passenger plane was accidentally shot down by Ukrainian military aircraft.
 米国などは、武装集団が誤って民間機を地対空ミサイルで攻撃したと指摘し、衛星写真などの証拠も示した。これに対し、ロシアは、ウクライナ軍機による誤射だと主張し続けている。

The crux of the distrust the United States and European countries have toward Russia is the fact that Russian President Vladimir Putin’s government—which unilaterally annexed the Crimean Peninsula this spring—has continued behind-the-scenes military interventions in eastern Ukraine, jolting the pro-Europe government of Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko.
 欧米の不信の根底には、クリミア半島を一方的に編入したプーチン露政権が、水面下でウクライナ東部への軍事的な介入を続け、親欧的なポロシェンコ政権を揺さぶってきたことがある。

A senior leader of the rebel group has announced they were joined by 1,200 fighters who were trained in Russia for extended periods, as well as many tanks and armored vehicles.
 武装集団の幹部は、ロシアで長期間訓練された戦闘員1200人と多数の戦車や装甲車が武装集団に加わったと発表した。

Russia has sent massive amounts of food, medicine, generators and other humanitarian aid to eastern Ukraine, a move believed to be aimed at expanding its sphere of influence.
 ロシアは、ウクライナ東部向けに、大量の食料や医薬品、発電機などの人道支援物資を送った。この援助も、自らの影響力の拡大が目的と見られている。

“We are going to do everything within our power to end the military conflict as soon as possible,” Putin said last week, referring to a ceasefire in eastern Ukraine.
 プーチン大統領は先週、ウクライナ東部の停戦に向けて「できることはすべてやる」と語った。

If he really believes that, Putin should put his words into action. The Russian president must make earnest efforts to persuade the rebels into agreeing to a ceasefire and cooperating with the international investigation team.
 それなら行動で示すべきだ。武装集団を本格的に説得し、戦闘停止と国際調査団への協力を実現させなければならない。

The impact of sanctions the United States and European nations imposed in late July has been steadily spreading in the Russian energy and financial sectors.
 欧米が7月末に発動した対露経済制裁の影響は、ロシア国内のエネルギーや金融分野で着実に広がりつつある。

While maintaining this pressure on Russia, countries concerned should hold repeated talks with Moscow to bring about a breakthrough toward realizing a stabilized Ukraine.
 この圧力を維持しつつ、ロシアとの協議を重ねて、ウクライナの安定化に向け、事態の打開を図ることが重要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 20, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

福島原発汚染水 リスク減へ知見を結集したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Knowledge, talent must be utilized to tackle radioactive water problem
福島原発汚染水 リスク減へ知見を結集したい

Efforts to contain water contaminated with radioactive substances at the crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant are progressing at a snail’s pace.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の汚染水対策が遅々として進まない。

At present, dealing with radioactive water is the overriding issue in resolving a series of problems following the nuclear crisis at the power plant. We urge the government and Tokyo Electric Power Co., the power plant’s operator, to strengthen their efforts to contain contaminated water.
 事故収束に向けた当面の最重要課題だけに、政府と東電は取り組みを強化せねばならない。

Contaminated water is increasing by 300 to 400 tons a day, as underground water continues to flow into wrecked reactor buildings and mixes with highly radioactive water used to cool reactor cores.
 汚染水は1日300~400トンのペースで増えている。損傷した原子炉建屋に流れ込む地下水が、炉心を冷却する高濃度の汚染水と混じり、汚染されるためだ。

About 1,000 tanks are being used to store radioactive water on the grounds of the Fukushima power plant. However, the tanks are nearing their capacity of 550,000 tons. TEPCO plans to expand the capacity to more than 800,000 tons by the end of this fiscal year, but the contaminated water is expected to exceed even this amount before long. There is also a greater risk of water leaking as the number of tanks increase.
 敷地内には約1000基の貯蔵タンクがある。汚染水は既に、貯蔵可能量の55万トン近くに達している。東電は今年度中に80万トン超に増やす方針だが、遠からず足りなくなるだろう。タンクが損傷して汚染水が漏れるリスクも増す。

In May, TEPCO began pumping untainted groundwater from wells near mountains and releasing the water into the sea in what was dubbed the “groundwater bypass program.” But this effort failed to curb the increase of contaminated water as much as expected. The seriousness of the current situation cannot be understated.
 対策として、東電は5月から地下水バイパスを開始した。建屋の山側にある井戸から、汚染される前の地下水をくみ上げ、海に放出している。だが、期待されていたほど汚染水の増加を抑えられていない。深刻な状況である。

Earlier this month, TEPCO announced it would take the additional measure of pumping groundwater from wells around the power plant—known as subdrain pits—and discharging the groundwater into the sea after confirming its safety.
 東電は今月、建屋のそばにある「サブドレン」と呼ばれる別の井戸からも地下水をくみ上げ、安全性を確認したうえで、海に流す追加策を公表した。

Local fishermen have expressed concern that the measure may raise new fears about the safety of marine produce. The government and TEPCO should try to gain their understanding by sincerely explaining about the safety of the measure.
 漁業関係者は、放出による風評被害を懸念している。政府と東電は、安全対策を丁寧に説明し、地元の理解を得るべきだ。

Technical difficulty looms

Another concern is the huge amount of highly radioactive water—11,000 tons—that has leaked and now remains in underground tunnels near the coast. The Nuclear Regulation Authority has pointed out there is a high risk of this water leaking into the sea and causing other problems.
 事故の際に漏出した高濃度汚染水が、海岸脇の地下坑道に残っていることも心配だ。1万1000トンにも上る量で、原子力規制委員会は「(海洋汚染などの)リスクが大きい」と指摘している。

Simply pumping the highly radioactive water out of a tunnel will not work, as it would soon be replaced by more contaminated water flowing in from reactor buildings. TEPCO has tried to freeze water in a section connecting the tunnel to a reactor building, but the attempt failed. The company needs to come up with another method of stopping water from flowing into the tunnel.
 そのままくみ上げれば、建屋側から新たな汚染水が流入してしまう。東電は、流入部で水を凍らせ、止水を試みてきたが、うまくいかなかった。別の手法による止水を急ぐ必要がある。

The failure proves the technical difficulty of dealing with contaminated water by freezing it.
 今回の失敗は、凍結の技術的な難しさを浮き彫りにした。

Currently, a project of freezing subsurface soil under reactor buildings to create an ice wall to prevent the flow of underground water is making headway. This project is considered a trump card in dealing with contaminated water. TEPCO should use all of its technical know-how to smoothly implement the project.
 現在、建屋周辺の地下に「凍土遮水壁」を築いて地下水の流入を封じる工事が進んでいる。汚染水対策の切り札とされる。土木工事のノウハウを結集し、着実に作業を進めてもらいたい。

Ensuring the stable operation of Advanced Liquid Processing System water decontamination devices is also essential. If high-level purification work becomes feasible, processing radioactive water and releasing it into the sea may be an important option in dealing with this problem.
 汚染水を浄化する装置「ALPS」を安定的に稼働させるのも重要な課題である。高度な浄化が可能になれば、汚染水を処理して海に放出することが有力な選択肢となるのではないか。

On Monday, the government established the Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation, an organ tasked with supervising decommissioning work and measures to deal with contaminated water from a technical standpoint.
 廃炉作業や汚染水対策を、技術的な観点から監視・指導する政府の「原子力損害賠償・廃炉等支援機構」が18日に発足した。

The government and TEPCO must utilize a wide range of information and talent both in Japan and abroad to tackle the radioactive water problem.
 国内外の幅広い知見、人材を有効に活用し、汚染水対策を前に進めることが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 20, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)生活保護 外国人の扱い法律で

August 20, 2014
EDITORIAL: How to treat nation's foreign residents a burning issue
(社説)生活保護 外国人の扱い法律で

When foreign residents who are in Japan legally fall into financial hardships, what sort of safety net should be there to ensure that their basic needs are met?
 日本が受け入れた外国人が経済的苦境に陥ったとき、最低限の生活ができるセーフティーネットはどうあるべきか。

In a lawsuit on whether foreign nationals who are permanent residents in Japan qualify for benefits under the Public Assistance Law, the Supreme Court on July 18 ruled that they do not qualify, overturning the Fukuoka High Court's ruling that they do.
 最高裁は先月、永住資格を持つ外国人に生活保護を受ける権利があるかどうかが争点になった訴訟で「法律に基づいて生活保護を求める権利はない」という判断を下した。永住外国人にも生活保護を受ける権利があるとしていた福岡高裁の判断を覆した。

Taking effect in 1950, the Public Assistance Law applies to "all Japanese people who are in financial difficulties," provided the individuals possess Japanese nationality. The top court's ruling was based on this provision, plus the fact that no legal amendment has been made since 1950 to apply this law to non-Japanese as well.
 1950年に施行された今の生活保護法は、その対象を「生活に困窮するすべての国民」と定め、日本国籍を持つことを条件にしている。この規定や、その後も外国人に対象を広げる法改正が行われていないことなどが、最高裁判決の理由だ。

In reality, however, foreign permanent residents are already entitled to public assistance benefits. A directive issued in 1954 by the then-Health and Welfare Ministry proclaimed, "For the time being, foreign nationals who are in financial difficulties are to be protected in accordance with the Public Assistance Law." Although the government in 1990 restricted the beneficiaries to permanent residents and foreign citizens of Japanese ancestry, the government's treatment of cases involving needy foreign residents in Japan has remained effectively unchanged to this day.
 もっとも、事実上、永住外国人は生活保護の対象になっている。旧厚生省が54年に出した通知で「当分の間、生活に困窮する外国人を生活保護に準じて保護する」ことを認めたためだ。90年に永住外国人や日系人などに対象が限定されたものの、こうした行政の扱いは今も変わっていない。

In terms of strict interpretation of the law, the Supreme Court's decision is quite understandable. And it would be an overreaction to fear that the public assistance will not be provided to foreign permanent residents, because all the Supreme Court did was refute the right of foreign citizens to challenge the government when the latter withholds public assistance. In no way did the top court invalidate the current administrative procedures for dealing with needy foreigners.
 今の法律を前提にすると、最高裁の判決は理解できるし、今後、永住外国人が保護の対象ではなくなると見るのは考え過ぎだろう。最高裁は、行政が生活保護を認めなかった時に争う権利を認めなかっただけで、今の行政の扱いを否定したわけではないからだ。

The same issue was debated when Japan joined the U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees in 1981, because this treaty required all signatory nations to accord legally-recognized refugees the same treatment as their own nationals. And any revision to the Public Assistance Law was deemed unnecessary at the time, given that foreign residents were already eligible for public assistance benefits in effect.
 この問題は、81年に難民条約に加入するときにも議論された。条約が合法的な難民に対しては自国民と同じ扱いをするよう求めていたからだ。このときは、事実上生活保護の対象になっているとして法改正が見送られた。

That said, however, it does not mean that the present situation requires no change. Foreigners can never be fully certain what to expect, as most cases are left to the discretion of local administrative authorities.
 だからといって、現状のまま何もしなくてもよい、ということにはならない。行政の判断に大きく依存する現状では、不安定さがつきまとう。

Also, the government needs to define more clearly who are eligible for public assistance benefits. Under the current application of the law, it does not apply to foreigners who come to Japan to work.
 保護の対象も課題だ。今の運用では、働くことが目的で入国する外国人は対象外となる。

But should this still be the way to go even when Japan starts accepting foreign workers in more fields than now, such as in nursing care, construction and housekeeping? This is definitely a matter to consider, now that the pros and cons of importing foreign labor are being debated in earnest amid the shrinking of the Japanese population.
 しかし、今後、介護や建設、家事労働など、これまでより幅広い分野で外国人を受け入れることになったときも同じでいいのか。人口減に直面して、外国人の活用が盛んに議論されている中での新たな課題である。

While we obviously need to eliminate illegal aliens and others who are here to abuse the public assistance system, we must also establish a good safety net for foreign residents if we are to rely increasingly on foreign labor.
 不法滞在者や生活保護目当ての人が排除されるような仕組みを構えるのは当然としても、労働力として外国人を受け入れるならば、セーフティーネットも同時に考えるべきだ。

The Supreme Court ruling is a cue for us to start thinking seriously about determining by law how our country should treat foreign residents.
今回の判決を契機に、外国人の扱いをきちんと法律で定めることを検討するべきではないか。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 20

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月20日 (水)

奨学金の滞納増 所得に応じた返済で負担軽く

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Ways should be found to lessen student loan repayment burden
奨学金の滞納増 所得に応じた返済で負担軽く

Student loans play an important role in realizing equal opportunity in education. It is vital for such loans to become more convenient for students and for economic assistance to be expanded.
 教育の機会均等を実現する上で、奨学金の果たす役割は大きい。使い勝手を良くして、学生の経済的支援を充実させることが肝要である。

With regard to the government’s student loans extended through the Japan Student Services Organization (JASSO), an expert panel of the education ministry has proposed the introduction of a system in which a loan can be repaid according to the recipient’s postgraduate income.
 政府が独立行政法人・日本学生支援機構を通じて貸与している奨学金について、文部科学省の有識者会議が、「所得連動返還型制度」の導入を提言した。

Unlike the current system, in which a loan recipient pays back the loan at a fixed amount every month, under the proposed system recipients could change the amounts in accordance with their annual, post-graduate income. To lessen the burden of repayment, the amount will be set lower for a low-income earner, with the amount rising as the annual income increases.
 毎月、定額を返済する現行制度と異なり、大学卒業後の年収に応じて返済額を変えられるのが特徴だ。負担を和らげるため、低収入の人には少ない返済額を設定し、年収が上がれば額を増やす。

The new system can be called a flexible framework of student loan repayment as it takes into consideration the financial situation of student loan recipients.
 奨学生の経済状況に配慮した弾力的な仕組みと言えよう。

More students are receiving government loans because of increasing university tuition fees and other factors. About 40 percent of university students obtain loans, either interest-free or interest-bearing. The scale of the government loan project totals as much as ¥1.2 trillion annually.
 政府の奨学金の利用者は、大学の授業料の上昇などを背景に増えている。無利子と有利子を合わせて、大学生の約4割が利用している。事業規模は年間約1兆2000億円にも上る。

Those who obtain loans are obliged to repay them in the future. For example, if a student borrows an interest-free loan totaling about ¥2.6 million over four years during college, the student is supposed to make a monthly repayment of ¥14,400 over 15 years.
 奨学金を借りた学生は、将来にわたって返済義務を負う。例えば、大学4年間で約260万円を無利子で借りると、月1万4400円を15年かけて返す。

Due to the expanded employment of nonregular workers and the difficulty for finding jobs in recent years, however, many postgraduate students are failing into arrears. In fiscal 2012, 330,000 people fell behind in their payments, with the amount in arrears totaling ¥92.5 billion. Should such a situation remain unaddressed, the government’s student loan system may be seriously affected.
 しかし、近年、非正規雇用の拡大や就職難を背景に、返済金の滞納が増えている。2012年度には33万人が計925億円を滞納した。こうした状況を放置すれば、奨学金制度が揺らぎかねない。

Falling into arrears

Some people in arrears reportedly were unaware of their repayment obligation until they received a notice of overdue payment. Such people must not forget that if they do not repay their loans, future generations may be affected.
 滞納者の中には、支払いの督促を受けてから初めて返済義務を知った人もいるという。返済金が次世代の奨学金の原資になっていることを忘れてはならない。

If it becomes a regular state of affairs for a borrower to fall behind in payments, the name of the borrower will be registered with a personal credit information organization, which may create an obstacle for that person to use credit cards. In some cases, borrowers fail to pay back their loans, prompting the JASSO to call on their relatives or gurantors to pay back the loans for them.
 滞納が恒常化すると、個人信用情報機関に氏名が登録され、クレジットカードなどの使用に支障が生じる。本人が返済できず、保証人の家族が機構から支払いを迫られるケースもある。

We hope the introduction of the new system will lead to a decline in the failure to repay loans. The Education, Science, Sports and Culture Ministry assumes the JASSO will be able to keep tabs on the annual income of loan recipients in their postgraduate years with the so-called My Number system—under which people will be given identification numbers—to be launched in fiscal 2016.
 新制度の導入が、滞納の減少につながることを期待したい。文科省は、16年から運用開始となる共通番号制度により、機構が卒業後の所得を把握できるようになることを想定している。

Yet there are many details that need to be discussed further.
 ただ、検討すべき点も多い。

If the repayment period becomes longer under the new system, for instance, there is the likelihood that the total amount repaid becomes greater than under the current system for those who have interest-bearing loans. There is also a question of how to deal with a situation in which a recipient’s annual income does not rise as anticipated.
新制度では、返済期間が延びるため、有利子奨学金の利用者を対象にすると、返済総額は従来より増える可能性がある。賃金が上昇しなかった場合の対処も課題だ。

With regard to the government’s student loans, there are strong calls for establishing a grant-in-aid scholarship, which requires no repayment. However, the government’s fiscal situation remains tight.
 奨学金を巡っては、返済する必要がない給付型奨学金の創設を求める声が根強くあるが、政府の財政状況は厳しい。

Graduate students with excellent scholastic achievements are exempted from paying back student loans. We should extend such supportive measures to undergraduates, despite the tight fiscal situation.
 現在、特に優れた成果を残した大学院生に認められている奨学金の返済免除を学部の学生にも広げるなど、限られた財源の中で、学生を支える対策を考えたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 19, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

夏の電力供給 火力頼みはそろそろ限界だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Continued reliance on thermal plants not viable for stable power supply
夏の電力供給 火力頼みはそろそろ限界だ

Severe late summer heat and a rise in power consumption usually overlap at the time of year following the end of the Bon holiday period.
 お盆明けは例年、厳しい残暑と電力消費の増加が重なる時期である。

With no nuclear power plants in operation this summer, what we do now is crucial for surviving the heat. Power companies must take all possible measures to ensure stable power supply.
 原子力発電所の稼働がゼロの夏を無事に乗り切るための正念場だ。電力各社は安定供給に万全を期してもらいたい。

The balance of supply and demand for electricity is severe this summer centering on western Japan. Especially in the service areas of Kansai Electric Power Co. and Kyushu Electric Power Co., the surplus supply capacity when demand reaches its peak is no more than 3 percent, the minimum level said necessary to prevent a sudden blackout. This illustrates exactly how serious the situation is.
 今夏の電力需給は西日本を中心に厳しい。特に関西電力と九州電力の管内は、需要のピークに対する供給余力が、不測の停電を防ぐ最低ラインとされる3%しかない。まさにギリギリである。

The demand for electricity has been held at lower levels than in usual years in western Japan, where a lot of rainfall has been recorded so far this year. But no optimism is warranted for future prospects.
 これまで西日本は雨が多く、例年より電力需要が抑えられてきたが、油断は禁物だろう。

The stoppage of power generation due to trouble at thermal power plants, which have been substituting for suspended nuclear plants, is of particular concern. This summer has already seen more than 20 such cases, double the figure for the previous year.
 懸念されるのが、原発を代替している火力発電所の故障停止などだ。今夏は既に全国で20件を超え、前年から倍増している。

Twenty percent of the nation’s thermal power plants are superannuated facilities that have been operated for more than 40 years. So it is hardly remarkable for trouble to occur at any time at these plants.
 火力発電所の2割は運転開始から40年以上を経過した老朽設備で、いつ故障が起きてもおかしくない状況と言える。

For example, a thermal power station of Kansai Electric, which first fired up 40 years ago, has suffered malfunctions of many of its antiquated parts. The plant reportedly has managed to continue operating thanks to repairs on Saturdays and Sundays or at night, when power demand is lower.
 例えば、操業開始から40年たった関電の火力発電所では、古くなった部品の不具合が多く、電力需要が少ない土日や夜間に補修作業を行うことで、何とか運転を継続しているという。

The possibility of a catastrophic power outage brought on by a number of thermal power plants, which have been maintaining operations on a tightrope, cannot be ruled out.
 こうした綱渡りの操業を続ける火力発電所が多い中で、トラブルが同時多発すれば、突発的な大停電を引き起こす可能性は否定できないだろう。

Overoptimistic thinking

It is too optimistic to think that stable power supply is possible without relying on nuclear power generation at all.
 原発ゼロでも電力の安定供給が維持できていると考えるのは、あまりに楽観的過ぎる。

Ultimately, it is indispensable to restart nuclear reactors smoothly after their safety is confirmed. The Nuclear Regulation Authority should carry out safety checks of nuclear plants without delay while the government must make efforts to win over the local residents and governments concerned about the restarting of nuclear reactors.
 やはり、安全性が確認された原発の再稼働を円滑に進めることが欠かせない。原子力規制委員会は原発の安全審査を遅滞なく進め、政府も再稼働に地元の理解を得るよう努めるべきだ。

These matters must be urgently tackled while also enhancing a system for carrying out the nationwide interchange of power.
 同時に、全国規模で電力を円滑に融通し合う体制を充実させることも急務である。

The balance of supply and demand for power is adjusted by major utilities individually within their service areas. In the event of a power supply shortage, they exchange power with each other.
 電力需給は、大手電力会社が自社の管内で調整し、どうしても足りない場合は、他社との間で電気を融通し合っている。

An institution to promote power supply management over wider areas will start operation next April as a control tower to conduct power interchange more efficiently.
 電力融通をさらに効率的に行うための司令塔として、「電力広域的運営推進機関」が来年4月に業務を開始する。

It is vital for the new organization to establish an effective management system to prevent an electric power shortage crisis from occurring due to a lack of cooperation among the utilities.
 各電力間の連携不足で電力危機を起こさぬよう、実効性のある運用体制とすることが重要だ。

Power interchange between eastern and western Japan, which use different power supply frequencies, is made possible via frequency-conversion facilities.
 電気の周波数の違う東日本と西日本の間の電力融通は、周波数変換設備を通じて行っている。

The current conversion capacity stands at 1.2 million kilowatts. But this is considered insufficient to cope with emergencies. The electric power industry plans to boost the capacity to 2.1 million kilowatts by fiscal 2020. This plan must also be firmly promoted.
 現在の変換容量の120万キロ・ワットでは、緊急時に対応し切れない恐れがあり、電力業界は2020年度までに210万キロ・ワットに増強する計画だ。これも着実に進める必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 19, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)WTOの意義 無差別いかす柔軟さを

August 19, 2014
EDITORIAL: WTO should be more flexible to establish new global trade rules
(社説)WTOの意義 無差別いかす柔軟さを

With cross-border interactions in the modern world of globalization increasing at a dizzying pace, international efforts to develop rules governing such activity often fail to keep up with reality.
 国境を越えて影響を及ぼし合うグローバル化の深化に、ルール作りが追いつかない。

One typical example of this challenge facing the world in the 21st century is the World Trade Organization’s struggle to reach an agreement on new global trade rules.
そんな21世紀の現実を映し出す典型的な例がある。世界貿易機関(WTO)だ。

During a WTO ministerial meeting held late last year, member nations agreed to adopt a package of “trade facilitation” measures, such as simplifying customs clearance. But opposition from India and some other countries blocked the adoption of these measures by the July 31 deadline.
 昨年末の閣僚会合で、通関業務の簡素化などの「貿易円滑化」について協定を結ぶことに合意していた。しかし、インドなど一部の国の反対で、期限としていた7月末までに協定を結べなかった。

This development has further blighted the already bleak prospects for the Doha Development Round (DDA) of multilateral trade talks under the WTO, which started in 2001.
 この結果、2001年に始まった多角的貿易交渉(ドーハ・ラウンド)の先行きが見えなくなった。

The DDA has managed to remain alive by muddling through many crises. Negotiators have prevented its collapse by narrowing the scope of areas for negotiations and taking other steps.
これまで何度も行き詰まっては、対象分野を絞るなどして何とか継続してきた。

But efforts to keep the round of talks going have apparently reached their limit.
それもいよいよ限界である。

Meanwhile, a growing number of countries have been seeking to reach free trade agreements with their trading partners. This trend is threatening to relegate the WTO to a secondary role in trade liberalization.
 その一方で、自由貿易協定(FTA)が広がっている。自由貿易の主役をWTOから奪うかの勢いだ。

The problem with FTAs is that these deals on abolishing or lowering tariffs are discriminatory, applied only to the countries involved. Other nations are denied the benefits of the agreements.
FTAの協定国同士は互いに低い関税率を享受できても、それ以外の国は対象外で差別的な取り扱いを受けてしまう。

The WTO, in contrast, adopts the principle of nondiscrimination to ensure that agreements for free trade are applied equally to all participating countries.
 WTOは「すべての国に対する無差別の自由化」をうたう。

Here lies the primary significance of the WTO, which has not lost its relevance despite the proliferation of FTAs.
そこに意義があるし、FTA花盛りの今もWTOの存在価値は失せてはいない。

The number of WTO member countries and regions has increased to 160 from 128 when it was formed in 1995. In addition, more than 20 countries are currently going through the process of attaining WTO membership.
実際、1995年の発足時、128だった加盟国・地域は現在、160に増えた。今も20カ国以上が加盟に向け手続き中だ。

The WTO has also proved itself to be an effective mechanism for settling trade disputes among countries.
 貿易をめぐる紛争解決の場としても、実績をあげている。

Earlier this month, the WTO upheld a ruling that China violated trade rules with restrictions on the export of rare earth minerals or metals, supporting the claim made by Japan, the United States and the European Union. It is far from easy for countries involved in such disputes to settle them on their own.
例えば、中国によるレアアースなどの輸出制限について今月、WTO協定違反だという日米欧の主張が認められた。こうした争いを当事者間の交渉で解決するのは容易ではない。

Even so, the credibility of the WTO will be undermined if it continues failing to work out new trade rules fit for the times.
 それでも、時代に即したルール作りに失敗し続ければ、WTOへの信頼も揺らいでしまう。

One of the major reasons for the WTO’s struggle to conclude negotiations is its unanimity principle, which requires decision-making by consensus among all members. This rule can be described as democratic, but it is usually a formidable challenge to build consensus among 160 countries with different interests.
 交渉がまとまらない理由の一つは、全会一致を意思決定の原則にしていることだ。民主的とは言えるが、利害が異なる160の国の意見はなかなか一致しない。

What is noteworthy is an approach that allows an agreement to come into force when participants representing a certain percentage of world trade accept it. Unlike an FTA, such an agreement is open to all countries.
 注目したいのは、一定の国の賛同で協定を結ぶ方式だ。こちらはFTAと異なり、すべての国に参加の扉を開いている。

The WTO adopted this approach for its agreement on reducing tariffs on information technology products, which was signed in 1996 by 29 countries and separate customs territories.
The WTO Information Technology Agreement required approval by a minimum of WTO members that represented 90 percent of global trade in the sector for the pact to take effect.
 WTOではIT製品の関税引き下げについて、この方式をとっている。具体的には、29の国・地域が96年に合意し、参加国・地域のIT製品貿易が世界の90%を超えた時点で発効することとした。

As the number of signatory countries increased, the agreement came into force in 1997. Now, 78 countries and territories are party to the agreement, representing 97 percent of global IT trade.
参加国が増えて協定は97年に発効。現在は78の国・地域が参加し、世界のIT貿易の97%をカバーしている。

The WTO should expand the scope of such flexible decision-making methods as part of its efforts to establish new trade rules swiftly.
 WTOは柔軟な意思決定方式を広げ、新たなルール作りを急ぐべきだ。

There are a number of areas that are crying out for new global trade rules, such as investment and electronic commerce.
投資や電子商取引など対応すべき分野は多い。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 19

| | コメント (0)

社説:無戸籍の人 法を見直し抜本救済を

August 19, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Time to aid residents without family records
社説:無戸籍の人 法を見直し抜本救済を

In Japan there exist a number of adults who have been left without family register records because their parents have failed to register their births. The government does not have a grasp of the situation, and the exact number of such people remains unknown, but private support groups receive roughly 100 inquiries a year.
 出生届が出されず、戸籍がないまま成人した人たちがいる。国は実態を把握しておらず、具体的な人数は不明だが、民間支援団体には年間100件もの相談がある。

Recently, the Ministry of Justice sent notification to regional legal affairs bureaus across the nation and initiated its first investigation into the problem. It is wrong for children to be left struggling in society simply because their parents, dealing with particular circumstances, failed to submit birth notifications. We hope the ministry's investigation will be the first step in providing relief.
法務省はこのほど、全国の法務局に通知し、初めての実態調査に乗り出した。親の事情で出生届が出せず、そのしわ寄せを子供が受けるのはおかしい。調査を救済の一歩にしてもらいたい。
   
The problem has been partially fuelled by a stipulation in the Civil Code that when a woman gives birth, the person who was the woman's husband at the time she was pregnant is deemed to be the father. Any child born within 300 days of a divorce, therefore, is presumed to be the child of the woman's former husband.
 無戸籍の人が生まれる背景には、民法のきまりがある。子供を産んだ母親が妊娠した時の夫を父親とする「嫡出推定」の規定だ。離婚後300日以内に生まれた子供も「前夫の子」と推定される。

Because of this, if a woman flees her husband due to violence or other such reasons, and meets another man and gives birth without first settling her marriage relationship, it is apparently not uncommon for that woman to refrain from registering the child's birth.
 このため、夫の暴力などが原因で逃げ出した妻が、婚姻関係の解消ができないまま別の男性と知り合い、出産した場合、出生届を出さないことが少なくないとされる。

There are also times when a woman gets pregnant with another man's child before her divorce is finalized, and after the child is born takes measures to avoid her former husband being registered as the father under the 300-day rule.
 また、離婚の成立前に夫以外の男性との間で妊娠した女性が出産後、「300日規定」を理由に前夫の子供とされるのを避ける場合もある。

Of course, such problems can be overcome through arbitration and court rulings, but it is often a great burden for each side to meet face to face.
 もちろん、調停や裁判で解決できるが、そうした場で相手と顔を合わせること自体が大きな負担になる。

If a person has no family register, they cannot prove their age. Accordingly, they cannot vote, and are unable to obtain a driver's license or a passport. There are apparently a significant number of people who are also unable to obtain resident cards.
 戸籍がなければ、年齢の証明ができず、選挙権が認められない、運転免許やパスポートも取得できない。無戸籍の人の中には、住民票もない人が少なくないようだ。

This leaves them in a worse situation, in which they are left out from being notified about entry into public schools while their families remain ineligible to receive administrative services and benefits, such as child welfare allowances.
そうなれば、公立学校への就学案内が届かなかったり、児童手当など行政サービスが受けられなかったりという実生活上の不利益はさらに大きい。

It is possible for local bodies to create resident cards at their own discretion even if a person does not have a family register, but this fact has not been sufficiently publicized.
 住民票は、戸籍がなくても自治体の判断で作成が可能だが、そうしたことが十分に周知されてこなかったのは確かだ。

The Ministry of Justice is said to be seeking the cooperation of municipalities in its investigation. We hope that it will release its findings.
法務省は、市区町村にも調査への協力を求めるという。調査結果はぜひ公表してもらいたい。

The Justice Ministry also sent out notification encouraging local officials to explain the administrative services that people without family register records can access under certain conditions.
 法務省は、無戸籍の人が一定の要件で受けられる行政サービスについて説明を尽くすよう通知もした。

Naturally, a careful explanation of the procedures is necessary, but the ministry should also think about drastic legal revisions that prevent people being left without family register records.
もちろん、手続きの丁寧な説明は必要だが、無戸籍の人を生まない抜本的な法律の見直しを考えるべきだ。

In today's society, divorce and remarriage have increased, and family relationships are often complicated.
 現代社会では、離婚や再婚も増え、家族関係が複雑化している。

Violence toward spouses has also risen, with some 50,000 incidents recorded each year.
配偶者による暴力も増加し年間5万件に上る。

In such circumstances, it is hard to say that the Civil Code stipulations on presuming paternity fit in with the times.
そうした中で、妊娠時の夫を父とする嫡出推定の規定が時代に合っているとは言い難い。

Just last month, cases that questioned paternity on the grounds of DNA tests were heard in a Supreme Court appeal and presumed paternity emerged as a focus of the hearings. Four of the five justices submitted individual opinions stating a need for legislation.
 先月、DNA型鑑定をめぐって父子関係を争い、嫡出推定の規定が焦点になった訴訟の上告審で、5人中4人の最高裁裁判官が個別意見で法整備の必要性に言及したのは記憶に新しい。

In 2007 the Tokyo Bar Association drafted a revision to the Civil Code under which presumed paternity would not apply if the space for the father's details was left blank when registering the child's birth, releasing this draft as a statement of its position.
 東京弁護士会は2007年、戸籍の父欄が空白の出生届が出された場合、嫡出推定が及ばないとする民法改正試案をまとめ、意見書として公表した。

The Legislative Council of the Ministry of Justice should begin full-scale deliberation of such methods discussing ways to presume paternity of a child.
こうした方法を含め、父親の推認法について法制審議会などの場で本格的に議論すべきだ。

毎日新聞 2014年08月19日 02時31分

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月19日 (火)

これからのトークはこうでなっくっちゃね Fivetalk

あたらしいかたちのチャットアプリFivetalk のご紹介です。
無料でダウンロードできるこのチャットアプリはちょっと変わっています。
驚いたのは動くメッセージカードが送れることなんです。
専用お絵かきソフトがついているのでアルバムの写真にだっていろんなデコができます。
写真とデコを一体化すると、すごく効果的な表現できることが多いのです。
文字だけよりも写真、写真だけよりも写真プラスデコといった感じなんですが、使っていただければすぐわかります。
全部無料というのが気に入りました。
こちらのは、スタンプだって絵文字だって動かすことができるんです。
楽しいですよ。
子どもから大人、高齢者まで楽しく遊べる気軽なソフトなんです。



株式会社HighLab、無料チャットアプリ 『Fivetalk』100万ダウンロード突破記念!



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

不登校増加 サポート態勢の充実が大切だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Enhanced support system urgently needed to stem school absenteeism
不登校増加 サポート態勢の充実が大切だ

The figure stands at 119,617. This is the number of primary and middle school students across the country who were absent from school for 30 days or more in fiscal 2013 for reasons other than health or economic hardship. It represents the first increase in six years, and is up 7,000 from the previous year.
 11万9617人――。昨年度、不登校で30日以上学校を休んだ小中学生の数だ。6年ぶりに増加に転じ、前年度より約7000人増えた。

Among middle school students, this worked out to one in 37 being chronically absent. Statistically speaking, one student was absent from every homeroom. This is obviously an alarming situation.
 中学生では37人に1人の割合だった。数字上は、クラスに1人が不登校ということになる。心配な状況である。

The number of long-term absentees was brought to light in a basic school survey recently conducted by the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry.
 文部科学省の学校基本調査で判明した。

A growing number of students are becoming unable to go to school for such reasons as difficulty in forming human relations or the inability to follow healthy waking and sleeping patterns, according to the ministry.
人間関係の構築が苦手だったり、生活のリズムが崩れたりして、登校できなくなる子供が増えているという。

In many instances before a student becomes absent for a long time, there is reportedly a “latent period” in which their short-term absences increase. To respond effectively, teachers must cooperate with parents to ascertain students’ concerns, so they can detect early signs of a student starting to avoid school.
 不登校になる前には、多くの場合、短期の欠席が増える「潜在期間」がある。教師が不登校の兆候を早期に見極め、家庭と連携して生徒の心情を把握することが、対策を講じる上で重要だ。

Sharing information between teachers and school counselors, who are experts in child psychology, is also essential.
 児童心理の専門家であるスクールカウンセラーなどとの情報共有も欠かせない。

Bullying can be a reason for students to stop going to school.
 いじめが不登校の原因となっているケースもあるだろう。

Since the suicide of a middle school boy because of bullying in Otsu in 2011, an increasing number of parents seem to believe their children should not have to go to school if it means enduring bullying. This may be a factor behind the rise in students’ absences in the latest survey.
 大津市のいじめ自殺事件を契機に、「いじめに苦しんでまで、学校に行かなくてもいい」と考える親が増えたようだ。それも不登校増加の要因の一つではないか。

Survey results favorable

Both parents and teachers should respect and support children’s feelings, instead of trying to force them to attend school. Naturally teachers must give firm guidance to students who bully others.
 親や教師には、登校を無理強いするよりも、子供の気持ちを尊重して支える姿勢が求められる。無論、教師は加害生徒を厳しく指導する必要がある。

Ever since the 1990s, when student absenteeism rose sharply, there has been a growing number of facilities to help young people who do not want to go to school, such as adaptation guidance classes run by municipal governments at about 1,300 locations across the country and private-sector “free schools” for children who avoid school or are unable to go to school for various reasons.
 不登校が急増した1990年代以降、自治体が開設する約1300か所の適応指導教室や、民間のフリースクールなど、不登校生の受け皿となる施設が増えた。

The adaptation guidance classes, which are operated outside schools, aim to get children back in school. Current and former teachers tutor students and they are helped by counselors.
 学校外に設けられている適応指導教室では、学校への復帰を目指し、カウンセリングと並行して、教師や元教師が勉強を教える。

The free schools run by private-sector groups or nonprofit organizations offer greater freedom for students. Students are allowed to learn at their own pace, engaging in such activities as cooking and caring for animals together with classmates and facility personnel, with the aim of connecting with other people.
 民間やNPOが運営するフリースクールは、もっと自由度が高い。学習ペースも生徒が自分たちで決め、級友やスタッフとの調理、動物の世話などを通して、人とのつながりを回復させていく。

A system exists under which school principals can count attendance at these facilities as days of attendance at the students’ former schools. Effective use of this system should be encouraged.
 こうした施設に通った期間についても、学校長の判断で、元の学校に登校したと見なす仕組みがある。有効に活用したい。

The education ministry last month released findings from a follow-up survey about students who were absent in their third year at middle school. The survey examined their situations five years later, and found that 85 percent went on to high schools or other schools.
 文科省は先月、中3当時に不登校だった生徒に対する5年後の追跡調査の結果を発表した。85%が高校などに進学し、

This was a significant improvement from results in a similar survey 13 years ago.
13年前の調査結果より大幅に改善していた。

The good results likely reflect the achievements of the adaptation guidance classes and free schools. The government’s Education Revitalization Council last month proposed studying the advisability of using public funds to extend financial support to free schools.
 適応指導教室やフリースクールの成果の表れだろう。政府の教育再生実行会議は先月、フリースクールに対する公費支援を検討するよう提言した。

To help absent students become able to learn again together with their friends at school, arrangements should be made that are suited to their individual circumstances.
 不登校生が再び学校の仲間と一緒に学べるよう、一人ひとりの事情に応じたサポートが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 18, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

燃料電池車 エコカーの選択肢が広がる

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Production of fuel-cell vehicles will offer more eco-car options
燃料電池車 エコカーの選択肢が広がる

Will moves by Toyota Motor Corp. and Honda Motor Co. to market fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) herald the beginning of the spread of what is dubbed the “ultimate eco-friendly car”?
 「究極のエコカー」と言われる燃料電池車の普及が進むきっかけとなるだろうか。

Toyota will start selling its FCV model this fiscal year, while Honda will introduce a model sometime next year.
 トヨタ自動車が今年度中に、ホンダは来年に、それぞれ燃料電池車の市販に踏み切ることになった。

The price of an FCV, which was about ¥100 million 10 years ago, is expected to fall to around ¥7 million. The government is reportedly considering offering subsidies of between ¥2 million and ¥3 million to FCV buyers. We welcome efforts to make FCVs affordable to consumers in Japan, ahead of any other nation.
 約10年前に1台1億円とされた価格は、700万円前後に下がる見通しだ。政府は、購入代金を200万~300万円程度補助する制度を検討しているという。世界に先駆け、個人でも手の届く価格を実現することを歓迎したい。

FCVs are powered by electricity generated through the chemical reaction between hydrogen fuel and oxygen in the air and supplied to their engines. Like electric vehicles (EVs), FCVs do not emit carbon dioxide.
 燃料電池車は、空気中の酸素と燃料の水素を反応させて電気を起こし、モーターで走る。電気自動車(EV)と同様、走行中に二酸化炭素を排出しない。

FCVs are capable of further reducing the burden on the environment, even when compared with EVs, which use electricity generated in thermal and other types of power plants.
 火力を含めた発電所で作った電気を使うEVより、さらに環境への負荷を小さくできる。

With a full tank, the FCV can travel about 700 kilometers, more than three times farther than EVs. FCVs also have a short refueling time—about three minutes—while EVs need at least 30 minutes to by fully recharged.
 水素を満タンにすれば、約700キロ・メートル走れる。EVの3倍以上の距離だ。EVが急速充電でも30分程度かかるのに対し、水素の補給は約3分と短時間で済むことも強みである。

When production of state-of-the-art FCVs starts in earnest, the ripple effect will likely be felt by many industries. Both the government and private sector must cooperate to ensure FCVs are widely used.
 先端技術を集めた燃料電池車の生産が本格化すれば、幅広い産業へ波及効果が期待できる。普及には、官民の連携が必要だ。

However, a considerable number of hurdles remain.
 ただ、課題も少なくない。

Obstacles must be overcome

The government and the relevant industry plan to establish hydrogen fuel stations for FCVs at 100 locations across the nation next fiscal year—a number that will be much more inconvenient for FCV users than drivers of gasoline-run vehicles, which can be refueled at about 40,000 gas stations in this country.
 政府や業界は、燃料電池車に水素を補給する水素ステーションを来年度中に全国で100か所とする計画だが、約4万か所のガソリンスタンドよりかなり不便だ。

As construction of a hydrogen fuel station is costly at about ¥400 million, four times of that of a gas station, it remains to be seen if construction of the stations can be completed as planned.
 建設費が約4億円と、ガソリンスタンドの4倍以上も高いため、計画通りに整備が進むかどうかも不透明である。

Although the government has a system to provide as much as ¥280 million to subsidize a station, many operators are reluctant to build these kinds of stations as they have a hard time forecasting future demand for hydrogen fuel.
 政府が1か所あたり最大2・8億円の補助金を支給する制度もあるが、需要が見通せず、二の足を踏む業者が多いという。

As things stand now, the cost of fuel for FCVs is about 50 percent more expensive than that of gasoline-driven vehicles.
 燃料費も現状ではガソリン車の1・5倍程度かかる。

It is essential to lower the construction cost of hydrogen fuel stations, utilize hydrogen from abroad, which is less expensive than domestically available hydrogen, and make other cost-cutting efforts.
 水素ステーションの建設費の低減や、国内よりも安価な海外の水素の活用など、コスト削減の取り組みが求められる。

Hybrid vehicles (HVs) using gasoline dominate the eco-car market mainly because they are convenient to refuel, but the drawback lies in their dependence on a fossil fuel.
 エコカー市場では、ガソリン燃料を使うハイブリッド車(HV)が、給油の便利さもあり、圧倒的な優位に立つが、化石燃料に依存する欠点を抱えている。

Although they have the disadvantage of traveling a short distance per charge, EVs have the advantage of easy recharging at home and the low cost of using electricity as fuel.
 EVは走行距離が短い弱みがある一方、家庭で手軽に充電でき、燃料費にあたる電気代も安いといった長所がある。

After the entry of FCVs into the market begins in earnest, the three types of eco-cars will share the market by taking advantage of each vehicle’s merits. It is important for automakers to compete vigorously in development and propagation of eco-cars to sharpen Japan’s industrial competitive edge.
 燃料電池車の本格参戦を機に、3種類のエコカーがそれぞれの長所を生かしてすみ分けることになろう。開発・普及でしのぎを削り、日本の産業競争力の強化につなげることが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 18, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

社説:内部告発者保護 不利益扱い防ぐ制度に

August 18, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Strengthen system to protect whistleblowers
社説:内部告発者保護 不利益扱い防ぐ制度に

Many of those who have blown the whistle on wrongdoing involving their colleagues or employers have complained that they have been dismissed or transferred to unimportant divisions.
 勤務している会社や役所の不正を知って内部告発したら、解雇や閑職に追いやられた。そんな訴えが後を絶たない。

The Whistleblower Protection Act came into force eight years ago, but the spirit of the legislation has not been sufficiently respected. The system to protect whistleblowers needs to be reinforced by amending the law or taking other effective measures to prevent those who try to correct an injustice from being treated unfavorably.
 内部告発者を不利益に扱うことを禁じる公益通報者保護法が8年前に施行されたが、法の趣旨が十分に行き渡っているとはいえない。不正を正そうとした人が損をする本末転倒が生じないよう、法改正などによる制度の強化が必要だ。

The law is aimed at protecting workers, including public servants, who blow the whistle on criminal activities they witness at their workplaces to their employers or administrative organs. The Consumer Affairs Agency that enforces the law is hearing the views of experts and those who have experience of blowing the whistle in an effort to grasp the situation of whistleblowing and consider challenges that must be overcome.
 公務員を含む労働者が勤め先での犯罪行為を事業者や行政機関などに内部告発しても保護されることをうたったのが同法だ。所管する消費者庁は現在、内部告発の実情把握と課題検討のため、関係者から意見聴取を進めている。先日は内部告発を理由に不利益処分を受けたとして裁判で争った人たちから意見を聞いた。

The agency has recently interviewed those who have sued their employers for being unfavorably treated at their workplaces in retaliation for blowing the whistle on wrongdoing. One of the victims, an anesthetist who worked at a public hospital, notified high-ranking officials of his workplace that a dentist who had no license as an anesthetist was anesthetizing patients and that a fatal blunder had occurred. However, he was relieved from his post and forced to resign from the hospital. He also blew the whistle to the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry. But the ministry dismissed his complaint on the grounds that "the Whistleblower Protection Act does not apply to retirees" and that "it is prefectural governments that are authorized by the law to receive complaints from whistleblowers and issue recommendations to or take punitive measures against offenders."
 そのうち公立病院で働いていた麻酔科医は、資格のない歯科医が麻酔をしていることや死亡事故が起きていることを病院幹部に内部告発したが、業務から外され退職を余儀なくされた。さらに厚生労働省に内部告発したが「公益通報者保護法は退職者には適用されない」「法が通報先として認める処分・勧告権限のある行政機関は県になる」との理由で受け付けてもらえなかったという。

These examples have demonstrated that whistleblowers are not being protected despite the legislation. The anesthetist requested that clauses providing punishment against employers that treat whistleblowers unfavorably and requiring administrative organizations to respond to whistleblowers in an appropriate manner be added to the law.
 あぜんとするが、内部告発者が守られていない現状を象徴する例だ。意見聴取に麻酔科医は「不利益な取り扱いをした事業者への罰則導入や内部告発を受けた行政機関の適正な対応の義務付け」を要望した。

The Whistleblower Protection Act prohibits employers from dismissing or demoting employees or cutting their wages in retaliation for blowing the whistle on wrongdoing, but has no punitive clause against violators. Therefore, whistleblowers who have been treated unfavorably by their employers have no choice but to sue their employers to have the damage redressed.
 法は内部告発を理由にした解雇や降格、減給などを事業者に禁じているが、罰則規定はなく、不利益を受けた人は裁判に訴えない限り泣き寝入りになる。

The results of a survey that the Consumer Affairs Agency released last year show that 7 percent of whistleblowers or those who consulted their bosses or administrative organs about wrongdoing at their workplaces have been dismissed, and 21 percent have been unfavorably treated or harassed.
消費者庁が昨年公表した内部通報・相談経験者への調査では、解雇された人は7%、不利益を受けた人と嫌がらせを受けた人はともに21%(複数回答)に上った。

Critics have expressed fears that the introduction of punitive clauses could encourage workers to blow the whistle with evil intent. However, some form of punishments should be introduced against businesses and administrative organs that violate the law.
罰則導入は悪意の告発を増やすと懸念する声もあるが、実態を考慮すれば、違反した事業者には何らかのペナルティーを科すことを検討すべきだ。

Problems involving administrative bodies that receive complaints from whistleblowers should be addressed. In at least one case, an administrative organization leaked the name of an employee who blew the whistle and the details of the worker's complaint to the company involved, allowing the firm to unfairly punish the whistleblower. As such, there have been calls for a clause to ban administrative bodies from leaking such information.
 内部告発を受ける行政機関側の問題も見過ごせない。告発者の名前や告発内容が行政機関から事業者に筒抜けになり不利益処分を招いたケースがあり、漏えいを禁止する規定を法に新設するよう求める声もある。

There have been calls for the establishment of a third-party body to receive complaints from whistleblowers as administrative bodies often share a mutual interest with businesses. These opinions are worthy of consideration.
 行政機関は事業者と利害が一致して当事者になりうるとの不信感が根強い。そのため告発を受け付ける別の窓口として独立した第三者機関の設置を要望する人もおり、こうした意見にも耳を傾けてほしい。

Whistleblowers tend to be viewed by their colleagues or employers as traitors.
 内部告発者は、ややもすると組織の中で「裏切り者」とのそしりを受けかねない。

However, whistleblowing conducted in a fair manner could save the organizations they work for from an unfortunate predicament, and therefore whistleblowers should be protected.
しかし、正当な告発は組織の窮地を救う手がかりになる可能性があり、守るべき存在である。

毎日新聞 2014年08月18日 02時32分

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月18日 (月)

辺野古海底調査 移設工事を粛々と進めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Govt must ensure preparation work for Futenma transfer goes smoothly
辺野古海底調査 移設工事を粛々と進めたい

It is important for the government to make steady progress in carrying out the work necessary to relocate the functions of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture, in keeping with relevant legislation.
 政府は法律に基づき、移設工事を着実に進めることが重要である。

The Defense Ministry has started preparations for a drilling survey aimed at exploring the nature of the submarine geology in waters along the seashore of the Henoko area in Nago in the prefecture, the location to which the Futenma functions are to be transferred.
 米軍普天間飛行場の移設先の沖縄県名護市辺野古沿岸部で、防衛省が、海底地質を調べるボーリング調査の準備作業を始めた。

In the ongoing preparation work, marker buoys have been laid to encircle a survey spot within the contiguous no-trespassing coastal area off the U.S. Marine Corps’ Camp Schwab in Nago, which the ministry greatly expanded in June. A floating platform to be used in the geological survey has also been assembled.
 6月に大幅に拡大した米軍キャンプ・シュワブの常時立ち入り禁止水域内で、調査地点を囲む形でブイ(浮標)を設置した。調査を行う台船も組み立てた。

The latest move came after the government attempted to carry out a similar drilling survey in waters off the Henoko area in 2004. The government had to suspend that survey after failing to take effective measures to prevent offshore sabotage by groups of people opposing the Futenma relocation project. The mistake should never be repeated.
 政府は2004年にも辺野古沖でボーリング調査を試みたが、移設反対派の海上での妨害行為に有効な手が打てず、調査を中止した。同じ轍てつを踏んではならない。

In conducting the upcoming survey, the government intends to ensure that the Japan Coast Guard clamps down on any attempts by antirelocation residents and others to enter the restricted zone. To this end, the government will treat such conduct as violations of the Laws for Special Measures Concerning Criminal Cases, which complement the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty.
 今回は、反対派が禁止水域に侵入した場合、日米安全保障条約に基づく刑事特別法違反として、海上保安庁が取り締まる方針だ。

Given that Japan is a nation governed by law, there is every reason to eliminate unlawful obstructive behavior.
法治国家である以上、違法な妨害行為の排除は当然である。

The JCG should adopt all possible measures to keep watch on any obstructive conduct and guard the survey by using all the personnel, patrol boats and rafts it will need to achieve that objective. It is also important for the JCG to closely cooperate with the Defense Ministry, the police authorities and other relevant organizations in this respect.
 海保は、必要な人員や巡視船・ボートなどを動員し、万全の警戒・警備態勢をとる必要がある。防衛省や警察など関係機関と緊密に連携することも大切だ。

In March last year, the ministry filed a request with Okinawa Gov. Hirokazu Nakaima for permission to conduct land reclamation work along the coast of the Henoko area under the Public Waters Reclamation Law. This came after the ministry had obtained the consent of Nago’s fishing cooperative, which holds the fishery rights in the area in question.
 防衛省は昨年3月、公有水面埋立法に基づき、辺野古沿岸部の埋め立てについて、漁業権を持つ名護漁協から同意を取り付け、仲井真弘多知事に申請した。

In December, the ministry gained approval from the prefectural government, which had examined the environmental preservation and other measures stipulated in the request.
環境保全措置などに関する沖縄県の審査を経て、12月に承認を得た。

Survey must go ahead

All this means that procedures necessary for the start of the submarine geological survey have been properly completed, with endorsement gained from many people who will be affected. Given this, the ministry must proceed with the survey as required.
 法律上、必要な手続きは適切に実施しており、多くの関係者の理解も得ている。防衛省は粛々と工事を進めなければならない。

Nago Mayor Susumu Inamine, an opponent of the Futenma transfer project, is poised to use various measures to hinder work to build an alternative facility in the Henoko area. The mayor reportedly intends to refuse to approve the construction of a material storage facility, on the strength of his authority to control the use of a nearby fishing port, for instance.
 移設に反対する名護市の稲嶺進市長は、付近の漁港の使用許可権限を盾に、資材置き場の建設に応じないなど、工事を阻む構えを見せる。

With this in mind, the ministry must devise measures to cope with the situation by, for example, securing a material storage site somewhere else.
防衛省は、別の場所に資材置き場を確保するなどの対策を講じることが欠かせない。

When the planned alternative installation is put in place, U.S. military aircraft are scheduled to fly over an offshore area in the region. This arrangement will ensure that the impact on local residents, including the risk of an accident and noise pollution, is far smaller than that felt around the Futenma facility, which lies in a residential area.
 辺野古の代替施設では、米軍機は主に海上を飛ぶ予定だ。市街地にある普天間飛行場に比べて、事故の危険性や騒音など周辺住民への影響が格段に小さくなる。

The project to relocate the Futenma functions to Henoko is highly significant in that it will serve to achieve two key purposes: reducing the burden of hosting U.S. bases that is shouldered by people in the prefecture and maintaining the deterrent potential of the U.S. military presence in this country.
 辺野古移設の実現は、沖縄県全体の基地負担の軽減と米軍の抑止力維持を両立させる観点から、大きな意義がある。

In November, an Okinawa prefectural gubernatorial election will be held. The incumbent, Nakaima, has already announced his bid to seek a third four-year term.
 11月には沖縄県知事選が行われる。仲井真知事は既に、3選出馬を正式に表明している。

Naha Mayor Takeshi Onaga is also expected to run as an opponent of the relocation project. Another probable contender is Mikio Shimoji, a former postal reform minister, who has said he will put the controversy to a prefectural referendum if elected governor.
 辺野古移設に反対する翁長雄志・那覇市長と、移設の賛否を県民投票で問うとする下地幹郎・元郵政改革相も出馬する見通しだ。

The reclamation law does not include a provision by which prefectural governors are authorized to cancel previously granted approval. We hope the project to transfer the Futenma functions to Henoko will be carried out without fail. This is essential for preventing renewed turmoil in the prefecture and in the Japan-U.S. relationship.
 公有水面埋立法に、知事が埋め立て承認を取り消す規定はない。沖縄や日米関係を再び混乱させることがないよう、辺野古移設は確実に実現したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 17, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

北方領土演習 ロシアの挑発は看過できない

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Provocative Russian military games in northern territories unforgivable
北方領土演習 ロシアの挑発は看過できない

Nothing other than an act of provocation has taken place in the Russian-held northern territories, the biggest of the issues pending between Tokyo and Moscow, and we categorically oppose the Russian action.
 日露間の最大の懸案である北方領土を舞台にした挑発行為であり、断固として容認できない。

Russia has carried out military exercises with about 1,000 soldiers taking part on the islands of Kunashiri and Etorofu off Hokkaido, and the Kuril Islands.
 ロシアが国後、択捉両島や千島列島で、1000人規模の軍事演習を実施した。

Many attack helicopters and military vehicles were reportedly involved in the war exercises. Full-fledged war games in the northern territories are said to be the first since July 2010.
多数の攻撃用大型ヘリコプターや軍用車両が参加したという。北方領土での本格的な演習は2010年7月以来とされる。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has criticized the exercises as “totally unacceptable,” while the Foreign Ministry has lodged a strict protest with Russia’s charges d’affaires ad interim in Tokyo. These responses are undoubtably reasonable.
 安倍首相は「到底受け入れることはできない」と批判し、外務省は駐日ロシア臨時代理大使に厳重抗議した。当然の対応である。

The Soviet Union illegally seized the four islands off eastern Hokkaido, which are an inherent part of Japan’s territory, in 1945 immediately after World War II. They have been illegally held ever since. Russia’s unilateral action of holding military exercises in the disputed areas—the focal point in the long-standing territorial negotiations between the two countries—will have a profound, negative impact on trust in the bilateral relations.
 日本固有の領土である北方4島は、1945年の終戦直後からソ連に不法占拠されてきた。長年にわたる日露領土交渉の係争地における一方的な軍事演習は、両国間の信義を大きく傷つける。

Problematic in particular is the fact that Russia issued a statement on Wednesday that rejected Japan’s protest against the military maneuvers, saying, Russia “can choose by itself where to hold military exercises within its own territory.” Russia had taken no account of Japan’s demand in advance that the exercises be canceled.
 特に問題なのは、ロシアが、日本の抗議に対し、「ロシアは軍事演習を行う場所を自国領内で独自に決定できる」と拒絶する声明を発表したことだ。日本の事前の中止要求も無視している。

During the exercises, Russian President Vladimir Putin made a visit to the Crimean Peninsula in the southern part of Ukraine. This makes us suspicious that the military drills this time may have been designed to stress Moscow’s stance never to budge even an inch on territorial issues as was the case with Crimea, which Russia annexed forcibly in March.
 ロシアのプーチン大統領は演習と同時期に、ウクライナ南部のクリミア半島を訪問した。今回の演習には、3月に編入を強行したクリミアと同様、領土問題では一切譲歩しない姿勢を強調する狙いがあるのではないか。

Strategic diplomacy needed

A machine-gun and artillery division comprising about 3,500 soldiers has been stationed on Kunashiri and Etorofu islands, and it has been modernizing its equipment in recent years. This is part of the “Russification” attempts in the northern territories. Japan must work tenaciously to prod Russia into using self-restraint over the matter.
 国後、択捉両島にはロシア軍の機関銃・砲兵師団約3500人が駐留し、近年、装備の近代化を進めている。北方領土の「ロシア化」の一環だ。日本はロシアに粘り強く自制を促す必要がある。

Also notable is the possibility that a Mistral-class amphibious assault ship, which Moscow will purchase from France, will be deployed to Russia’s Pacific Fleet.
 ロシア極東軍には、フランスから購入する予定のミストラル級強襲揚陸艦が配備される可能性が指摘されている。

Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera, during a meeting with his French counterpart at the end of July, urged France to cancel the sale of the amphibious assault vessel. The government should continue such diplomatic efforts.
小野寺防衛相は7月末の日仏防衛相会談で、強襲揚陸艦の売却中止を求めた。こうした外交努力も続けたい。

Russia, for its part, has reacted adversely to Japan’s support for anti-Russia sanctions by the United States and European countries over the Ukrainian situation.
 ロシアは、ウクライナ問題を巡る米欧の対露制裁に日本が同調していることに反発している。

Following Japan’s decision on Aug. 5 to pursue a set of additional sanctions against Russia, including a freeze on the assets in Japan of Russian government officials and others, Russia took the countermeasure of postponing a consultative meeting of foreign vice ministerial officials that was scheduled toward the end of this month.
 日本が今月5日にロシア政府関係者らの日本国内資産凍結などの追加制裁を決めると、ロシアは、今月末の日露外務次官級協議を延期する対抗措置をとった。

Moscow, however, has exempted Japan from a ban on farm product and fisheries imports, targeting only the United States and Europe. This has been deemed a tactic presumably aimed at disrupting ties between Japan and the United States and European nations.
 一方、米欧からの農水産物輸入を禁じたが、日本は対象外とした。日本と米欧の分断工作だろう。

Because of the military exercises this time, further stagnation of Tokyo-Moscow relations is most likely inevitable. The prospects for realizing a visit to Japan by Putin this coming autumn, which the two countries have agreed upon, have become even slimmer.
 今回の演習により、日露関係の一層の停滞は避けられまい。両国が合意している今秋のプーチン大統領の来日も、実現が一段と厳しい状況になった。

It is very important for Japan not to waver in the face of Russia’s attempt to put this country off balance, but rather to maintain the stance of keeping cooperative relations with the United States and European countries.
 大切なのは、日本がロシアの揺さぶりに動じず、米欧との協調を維持することだ。

The government must engage in strategic diplomacy to never allow Russia’s infringement on any country’s territorial sovereignty or attempts to change the status quo by force.
力を背景とした領土の侵害や現状変更を許さない戦略的外交を展開すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 17, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)食料の確保 自給率一辺倒をやめよ

August 18, 2014
EDITORIAL: Food security policy should be more diversified
(社説)食料の確保 自給率一辺倒をやめよ

Japan’s food self-sufficiency rate for fiscal 2013 stood at 39 percent on a calorie basis, remaining unchanged for the fourth consecutive year. There is no prospect for the rate to rise to 50 percent, a key goal set by the government for its food security policy.
 昨年度の食料自給率は39%(カロリー換算)で、4年続けて横ばいだった。政府が目標とする50%への道筋は、全く見えないのが実情である。

On a calorie basis, even Japanese-raised beef is not regarded as a 100 percent domestically produced food if the cattle have been raised on imported feed.
 カロリー換算では、国産牛でも飼料を輸入に頼れば「100%自給」ではなくなる。

Japanese consumers have become highly price-conscious, while many Japanese farm products are priced much higher than imports. Given this reality, it is probably not wise to treat the self-sufficiency rate on a calorie basis as a vital indicator of food security.
消費者が安さを求め、価格では海外産に太刀打ちできない品目が少なくない現状を考えると、カロリー換算の数値を絶対視することは賢明だろうか。

It is certainly important for the government to make efforts to increase domestic food production. But the government could end up spending huge amounts of money on ineffective policies if it focuses too much on raising the self-sufficiency rate.
 国内での生産をできるだけ増やそうとする姿勢は大切だが、自給率の引き上げにこだわりすぎれば、効果の乏しい政策に巨費を投じることになりかねない。

A case in point is the policy of encouraging farmers to give up growing rice and switch to wheat and soybeans as part of the acreage-reduction program to lower domestic rice production.
その代表例は、コメの生産調整(減反)とセットで進めてきた麦や大豆などへの転作奨励策だろう。

The idea is to reduce rice production in response to sagging domestic rice consumption while trying to raise the food self-sufficiency rate by using surplus rice fields to grow crops that the nation buys from other countries in large amounts.
 減り続けるコメの消費に合わせて生産を絞る。余った田んぼで輸入頼みの作物を作れば、自給率も上がる。

At first glance, this seems to be a sound idea. Under this approach, however, state subsidies to rice farmers switching to growing other crops tend to keep rising while the cost effectiveness of the measure remains unclear.
 一見合理的だが、「費用対効果」があいまいなまま、転作補助金は膨らみがちだ。

In fact, domestic production of wheat and soybeans has failed to increase significantly in the face of competition from cheaper imports. The total acreage of deserted farmland has kept increasing.
安い外国産に押される麦や大豆の生産は頭打ちで、現に耕作放棄地は増え続けている。

The government has decided on a major change in its rice policy. Under the new policy, a farmland control organization set up in each prefecture will be used to promote consolidation of rice fields and lower production costs. The government will terminate the acreage reduction program in four years.
 政府はコメ政策を転換すると決めた。県ごとに置く機構を通じて田の集約と生産コスト削減を進め、4年後には国は減反から手を引く。

The new policy will still be based on the same principle of adjusting production to demand.
 それでも、需要に合わせて作るという考え方はそのままだ。

The government plans to encourage farmers to grow rice to be used as livestock feed instead of growing wheat or soybeans. But this approach could end up creating a new inefficient subsidy-based program.
麦や大豆から家畜に食べさせる飼料用米に力を入れる方針だが、非効率な補助金行政が温存されかねない。

The acreage reduction program has distorted Japanese rice production toward high-end crops that are delicious but pricey. Farmers should be encouraged to do more to produce lower-priced rice as well.
 減反政策がもたらした「おいしくて高級」に偏ったコメ作りを多様化し、「より安く」も追求する。

Boosting the price competitiveness of rice will expand Japanese rice exports and help protect the foundation of domestic production. The government should step up farm policy efforts focused on these goals, especially for rice, the nation’s staple food.
競争力を高めることが輸出への道を開き、国内生産の基盤を守ることにつながる。主食であるコメを中心に、そうした取り組みを進めるべきだ。

It is also vital to strengthen Japan’s relations with major food producing countries to secure stable supplies while reducing food losses caused by disposal and leftovers.
 海外からの調達が安定するよう相手国との関係を強め、廃棄や食べ残しによる「食品ロス」を減らすことも欠かせない。

From this point of view, it is notable that the economic partnership agreement Japan and Australia signed in July includes a provision that commits the two nations to make efforts not to introduce and maintain export restrictions.
 その意味で、日豪経済連携協定(EPA)に「輸出規制を新設・維持しないよう努める」といった規定を盛り込んだことは注目に値する。

The government should try to secure a similar promise from other exporting countries of agricultural, livestock and fisheries products.
豪州以外の農畜水産物の輸出国からも同様の約束を取り付けてほしい。

Japan’s annual food losses have been estimated by the government to be 5 million to 8 million tons, roughly the same amount as annual rice production.
 食品ロスは政府の推計で年500万~800万トンとされ、コメの生産量にも匹敵する。

There are many steps that can be taken immediately to reduce food losses. The retail industry, for example, can contribute to the cause by changing its practice of rejecting food products when the period until the best-before date is not long enough. Families, for their part, can improve their dietary habits.
賞味期限から逆算して商品の受け取りに厳しく臨む小売業界の慣行を見直し、家庭での食生活を改めるなど、ただちに取り組めることは少なくない。

Efforts to ensure food security should be more diversified, instead of being focused solely on raising the food self-sufficiency rate.
 食の確保は、自給率頼みでなく、多角的に考えたい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 17

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月17日 (日)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:お母さんの夏休み /東京

August 17, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Mothers and homemakers need a summer break, too
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:お母さんの夏休み /東京

Schools are out for the summer, and it's around the time of the season when people working for companies are taking time off either all at once, or in shifts.
 学校は夏休みの真っ最中、会社勤めの人も一斉にあるいは順番に休みを取る時期だろうか。

It's been a bit more cheerful than usual during consultations, where when asked if they're planning to take a summer vacation, many will answer with something like, "Yes, I'm finally going to be visiting Okinawa."
診察室でも「夏休み、取れそうですか」「はい、念願の沖縄でゆっくりします」といった会話が増え、いつもより、なんとなくなごやかなムードだ。

But there are people for whom summer is more challenging than usual: mothers and homemakers.
 そんな中、「夏休みはたいへんです」とため息をつく人たちもいる。一家の主婦“お母さん”だ。

I've heard a woman say that she's filled with gratitude for hot school lunches when she has to make three meals a day for her children during summer break. Another homemaker said that her husband's sister's family was planning to stay with her family over the summer, which meant she was going to have to cook for seven people every day. 「子どもが夏休みなので、3食しっかり作らなければならないんです。給食はつくづくありがたい」「夫の姉一家が夏休みでわが家に滞在することになり、7人分の食事の準備が待ってます」といった話が出る。

Children and men may get a break from school or work, but often the kind of work many women are tasked with -- such as caring for elderly relatives -- does not allow for any time off. Visiting husbands' families during an extended break can also be tough on women, too.
あるいは、子どもや夫は夏休みでも妻が担っている介護に休みはなかったり、夫の実家への里帰りのストレスで調子を崩したりと、主婦や母の夏休みは何かとたいへんなのだ。

I used to know a married woman suffering from depression who went with her children to visit her parents during the Bon festival in August.
 かつて、うつ病を患いながら育児や家事をがんばっていた女性がお盆に子どもと自分の実家に帰省したことがあった。彼女はふだんは夫の実家のそばに住み、何かと苦労しながら生活していた。

She said that her parents, whom she hadn't seen in a while, had aged more than she'd expected.
 久しぶりに会った両親は、記憶の中の姿よりかなり老いていたという。

She was brooding over such dark thoughts when her parents said to her, "Go upstairs and lie down, there's a futon out for you. We'll keep the kids occupied, and wake you when dinner's ready. Sleep as long as you'd like." Her parents must have had stories to tell, things they wanted to discuss with her, but instead, they urged their exhausted daughter to rest.
「もうそんな年なんだな」と切ない気持ちになっていた彼女に両親は言った。「さあ、2階に布団を敷いてあるから、早く行って寝なさい。孫は私たちが相手しておくし、夕食ができたら起こしてあげるから、ゆっくり眠ればいい」。いろいろ話したいこと、頼みたいこともあったかもしれないのに、両親は疲れているであろう娘に「からだを横にしなさい」と言ったのだ。

"I was so grateful. My parents understood that I didn't need any extravagant meals or invitations to go out here and there, but to rest without any distractions," she said.
 「ありがたいですよね。ごちそうを次々出されたり、あちこちに出かけようと言われたりするより、私が望んでいるのは何も心配せずにゆっくり休むこととわかっているんですよね、親は……」。

The woman slept like a log for the majority of the two days she was there, and missed plans to go shopping with her parents and to visit relatives.
2日間の滞在中、彼女はまさしく泥のように眠り続け、帰省前に予定していた両親との買い物や親戚へのあいさつも何もできなかった。

"We were barely able to talk, and I'm sure my parents missed that, but they sent me off with smiles saying, 'Come back anytime to rest.'" As the woman recalled the scene, her eyes welled up with tears.
「ほとんど会話もできず、両親も心残りだったとは思うのですが、『また休みにおいで』と笑顔で送り出してくれました」と振り返る彼女の目には、感謝の涙が浮かんでいた。

If "don't worry about us, take care of yourself first," is what loving parents say, then are parents who abuse their children thinking first and foremost about themselves?
 「私たちのことはいいから、まずはゆっくりしなさい」。そんな言葉をかけてくれるのが“愛情深い親”なのだとしたら、子どもを虐待する親たちは「まず自分たちのことを」と考える人たちなのか。

To all the children and fathers or husbands across the country: this year, why not say to your mother or wife, "Make sure you take a summer break, too"?
そして全国の子どもたちやお父さん、今年はお母さんに「自分の夏休みを取ってね」と言ってあげてはどうだろう。

(精神科医)
(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年08月12日 地方版
〔都内版〕

| | コメント (0)

社説:8・15と日中韓 「歴史の衝突」回避せよ

August 16, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Japan must avoid conflict with China, S. Korea over historical perception
社説:8・15と日中韓 「歴史の衝突」回避せよ

Japan commemorated the 69th anniversary of the end of World War II on Aug. 15 without resolving its conflicts with China and South Korea over historical perceptions and territorial issues. This is indeed regrettable.
 69回目の終戦記念日を、私たちは日中、日韓の歴史認識や領土を巡る対立を解消できないまま迎えた。極めて残念なことだ。

In some ways, changes in the power balance in East Asia stemming from the rise of China have created friction, but the leaders of the three countries are largely responsible for the conflicts.
 対立の背景として、中国の台頭に伴う東アジアのパワーバランス(力関係)の変化が摩擦を生み出している面もあるが、3カ国の指導者の責任も大きい。

There are signs that Japan's bilateral relations with China and South Korea are beginning to improve as Japan-China and Japan-South Korea foreign ministerial talks have recently been held. These moves should lead to fundamental improvement in Tokyo's ties with Beijing and Seoul.
最近、日中、日韓それぞれに外相会談が開かれるなど、ようやく関係改善の兆しが出てきている。この流れを大事にしたい。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe refrained from visiting Yasukuni Shrine, where Class A war criminals are enshrined along with the war dead, on Aug. 15 this year. Instead, he sent a close aide to make a ritual offering to the shrine as president of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), while Internal Affairs and Communications Minister Yoshitaka Shindo and two other Cabinet ministers paid a visit to the shrine. The Chinese Foreign Ministry has issued a statement criticizing the prime minister and the three Cabinet ministers' acts.
 安倍晋三首相は終戦記念日の15日、靖国神社への参拝を見送り、自民党の萩生田光一総裁特別補佐を通じて党総裁として私費で玉串料を奉納した。閣僚では新藤義孝総務相ら3人が参拝した。中国外務省は、閣僚の参拝や首相の玉串料奉納を批判する談話を発表した。

Prime Minister Abe's decision not to visit the shrine on the anniversary of the war's end is appropriate. The last war was a reckless war of aggression. The prime minister apparently made the decision out of diplomatic considerations. The prime minister should not, however, visit the shrine where Class A war criminals -- or war leaders -- are enshrined in the first place.
 首相の参拝見送りは妥当な判断だ。先の大戦は無謀な侵略戦争である。首相は外交的配慮から参拝を見送ったのだろうが、そもそも戦争指導者のA級戦犯がまつられた神社に首相が参拝すべきでない。

It is necessary to put an end to the controversy and diplomatic rows over the pros and cons of the prime minister and other high-ranking government officials visiting the shrine. Now is the time to seriously explore the possibility of separating war criminals from the war dead enshrined at Yasukuni or building a non-religious national memorial for the war dead, which has previously been discussed within the LDP.
 靖国参拝の是非を巡る論争や外交的対立に終止符を打とう。自民党内でもかつて議論されたA級戦犯の分祀(ぶんし)や、新たな国立追悼施設の建設について、再び議論をおこし、真剣に検討すべき時だ。

For the second consecutive year, Abe stopped short of mentioning responsibility for Japan's wartime aggression in Asia or pledging not to wage war again, which could invite misunderstanding among Asian countries.
 また首相は全国戦没者追悼式の式辞で、昨年に引き続き、アジア諸国に対する加害責任や「不戦の誓い」に触れなかった。アジア諸国から誤解を招きかねない。

In a speech marking the anniversary of Korea's liberation from Japanese colonial rule, South Korean President Park Geun-hye urged Japan to take proactive measures to settle the issue of so-called "comfort women" that can satisfy the victims by next year -- the 50th anniversary of the normalization of bilateral diplomatic relations.
 一方、韓国の朴槿恵(パククネ)大統領は15日、日本の植民地支配からの解放を祝う「光復節」式典の演説で、来年の日韓国交正常化50周年までに、元慰安婦が納得できる解決策を示すよう日本政府に努力を求めた。

There is still a wide perception gap between Japan and South Korea over the issue. While Seoul is demanding that Japan admit the government's responsibility for conscripting Korean women to serve as comfort women for Japanese soldiers during the war, Tokyo has taken the position that the issue of compensation has been legally settled.
 慰安婦問題では、韓国が国の責任を認めるよう求めているのに対し、日本は戦後補償問題は法的に解決済みとの立場で、隔たりは大きい。

It is necessary for Japan and South Korea to lead international efforts to settle the comfort women issue from the viewpoint that it is an issue of women's individual rights in wartime rather than just a bilateral issue.
 日韓両国が、慰安婦問題を2国間だけの問題ととらえるのでなく、戦時下の女性の人権という広い視野に立ち、国際的な取り組みを主導することも必要だろう。

Japan should discuss with South Korea what Tokyo can do in terms of its humanitarian and ethical responsibility. South Korea should also refrain from excessively criticizing Japan and show its readiness to play a constructive role in settling the issue.
 日本は人道的・道義的責任の観点から、さらに何ができるか、韓国とよく話し合うべきだ。韓国にも過剰な対日批判を慎み、問題解決に向けた建設的な姿勢を示すよう求めたい。

China should also refrain from using the history of Japan's wartime aggression to paint Japan as the bad guy on the international stage, or take any other provocative action in bilateral territorial disputes.
 そして中国にも、歴史問題を日本批判の国際的な宣伝材料にすることや、領土を巡る挑発的行為をやめるよう求めたい。

The leaders of the three countries must try to avoid any conflict over historical perceptions or nationalism-fuelled clashes, and work toward improving relations as we approach 2015, which marks the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II.
 3カ国の指導者は、歴史認識やナショナリズムの衝突を回避するよう努めなければならない。8月15日にそのことを改めてそれぞれの胸に刻み、戦後70年に向けて関係改善につなげてほしい。

毎日新聞 2014年08月16日 02時31分

| | コメント (0)

イラク首相退陣 過激派排除へ勢力を結集せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
New Iraqi premier must gather forces to remove radical Islamic insurgents
イラク首相退陣 過激派排除へ勢力を結集せよ

Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki’s relinquishment of his post must be used as an important step toward eliminating the Sunni Islamic State radical group that has been expanding its sphere of influence in northwestern Iraq.
 イラク北西部で勢力を拡大するイスラム教スンニ派の過激派組織「イスラム国」の排除へ、重要な一歩としたい。

Maliki has decided to step down and declared his support for Haider al-Abadi, vice speaker of the Iraqi parliament, who has been nominated as his successor. Maliki had lost credibility at home and abroad as he was devoted to protecting his own position while unable to deal with the crisis of his country’s divisions.
 イラクのマリキ首相が退陣を決断し、新首相に指名されたアバーディ国民議会副議長への支持を表明した。マリキ氏は、イラク分裂の危機に対処できないまま、自己保身に走り、内外の信用を失っていた。

During about eight years in office, Maliki concentrated power among his Shiite allies, provoking strong distrust from Sunnis and Kurds. He eventually became unable to obtain cooperation in forming a government for his third term.
 約8年間の執政で自らの支持基盤のシーア派を偏重した結果、スンニ派やクルド人の強い不信を買い、ついには3期目の組閣への協力も得られなくなった。

The secession of Sunni factions from the Maliki administration was a factor behind the expansion of the Islamic State. It is commendable that a major hurdle in the way of national reconciliation, which is indispensable for overcoming the crisis, has been removed with Maliki’s resignation.
 マリキ政権からのスンニ派などの離反が、「イスラム国」の伸長を許した一因である。マリキ首相の退陣で、国難の乗り切りに不可欠な国民融和の大きな障害が取り除かれたことは、評価できる。

Like Maliki, Abadi is a Shiite, but his politics are relatively moderate, and he is said to be practical-minded. Reconciliation with the Sunnis and Kurds must be realized as quickly as possible.
 アバーディ氏は、マリキ氏と同じシーア派出身だが、政治色が比較的薄く、実務家肌とされる。スンニ派やクルド人との融和を早急に実現する必要がある。

The first task for Abadi is to establish a cabinet of national unity by an early September deadline. To this end, it is necessary for the new prime minister to put forth a stance of breaking away from Maliki-style politics so as to secure the cooperation of the Sunnis and Kurds. It is essential to unite various political forces under his leadership.
 最初の課題は、9月上旬の期限までに挙国一致内閣を樹立することだ。そのためには、スンニ派やクルド人の協力が得られるよう、マリキ流の政治と決別する姿勢を打ち出す必要がある。各政治勢力の結集を図ることが肝要だ。

Intl support secured

In addition to the United States and Europe, such countries as Japan, Iran and Saudi Arabia have joined hands to support Abadi. This is because they have judged that backing the new Iraqi government is crucial to cope with the threat of Islamic State militants.
 米欧や日本、イラン、サウジアラビアなどは、アバーディ氏支持で足並みをそろえた。「イスラム国」の脅威に対処するには、新体制作りを一致して支えることが重要だと判断したからだ。

The Islamic State has fought alongside Sunni tribes and remnants of the former Saddam Hussein regime that tried to topple the Maliki administration. Joined also by radicalized young people from abroad, the Islamic State has reportedly increased its membership to about 10,000. It is feared that the threat of terrorism will spread globally if the group is left unchecked.
 「イスラム国」は、マリキ政権打倒を狙ったスンニ派部族やフセイン旧体制残党と共闘している。過激思想に感化された国外の若者も加わり、勢力は約1万人にも上るという。放置すれば、テロの脅威が世界へ拡散しかねない。

It is necessary to weaken the Islamic State by severing its links to Sunni tribes through political approaches by Sunni leaders.
 スンニ派幹部による政治的働きかけで「イスラム国」とスンニ派部族などとの連携を断ち切り、勢力を弱体化させねばならない。

Limited U.S. air strikes in the areas around its consulate general in Arbil, northern Iraq, have produced certain results, including blocking the advance of Islamic State insurgents and rescuing some minority Yazidis.
 米国は限定的な空爆で、米総領事館のある北部アルビル周辺への「イスラム国」の侵攻の足止めや、少数派ヤジーディ教徒の一部救出など、一定の成果を上げた。

The U.S. military plans to maintain a policy of air strikes in Iraq for at least several weeks and has started supplying arms to the Kurds. However, there are limits to the effects of restricted air raids. It is imperative to fully support and rebuild Iraq’s military security forces, which are on the brink of collapse.
 米軍は、空爆態勢を数週間以上も維持する方針で、クルド人勢力への武器供与も始めた。だが、限定空爆の効果には限界がある。崩壊寸前のイラク軍治安部隊を本格的に支援し、再建すべきだ。

It is essential to provide assis-tance for refugees who are said to total 700,000 in the Kurdish autonomous region of northern Iraq alone. From a humanitarian standpoint, Japan should study effective aid measures in cooperation with the United States and Europe.
 イラク北部のクルド自治区だけで70万人に上るとされる避難民への支援も重要だ。人道的観点から、日本も米欧と連携し、効果的な支援を検討したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 16, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

朴大統領演説 対日関係は「慰安婦」だけか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan, S. Korea share concerns beyond ‘comfort women’ issue
朴大統領演説 対日関係は「慰安婦」だけか

We seriously question the appropriateness of South Korean President Park Geun-hye’s pursuit of unilateral concessions from Japan on the issue of so-called comfort women. This unbending stance should be altered to allow for more flexible diplomacy if an improved Japan-South Korea relationship is to be built.
 いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題で日本に一方的な譲歩を求め続ける、硬直的な考え方は、いかがなものか。日韓関係を改善するためには、より柔軟な外交姿勢が必要である。

In her speech Friday at a ceremony marking the 69th anniversary of Korea’s liberation from Japan’s colonial rule, Park said it was necessary for the two nations to make efforts to heal the wounds from the past, stressing the importance of settling historical issues. She also reiterated her criticism of the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, saying certain Japanese politicians are hurting and pulling apart the hearts of people in both nations.
 韓国の朴槿恵大統領は、日本の植民地支配からの解放を記念する「光復節」式典で演説した。
 日韓関係について、「両国間に残っている過去の傷を癒やす努力が必要だ」と語り、歴史問題の解決の重要性を指摘した。「日本の一部の政治家たちは両国民の心を裂いて、傷つけている」とも述べ、安倍政権を重ねて批判した。

The fact that she made a stronger demand than before for Japan to address the comfort women issue should not be overlooked. Park said the bilateral relationship would certainly develop if the two nations properly settle this issue, a remark made to urge Tokyo to take specific steps.
 看過できないのは、慰安婦問題への取り組みを従来以上に強く要求したことだ。朴氏は「この問題を正しく解決すれば、韓日関係が堅実に発展する」として、日本に具体的措置を求めた。

Her remarks were made as if the settlement of the comfort women issue were an absolute prerequisite for improving bilateral ties. Her stance is questionable.
 慰安婦問題の解決が日韓関係改善の絶対条件であるかのような発言であり、疑問である。

Immediately after her inau-guration in February last year, Park started putting importance on historical issues with Japan. In a ceremony in March this year to mark Korea’s 1919 uprising against Japan’s colonial rule, Park referred to the necessity of solving the comfort women issue. By doing so, she made clear her anti-Japan stance of putting top priority on the issue.
 朴氏は昨年2月の就任直後から歴史問題を重視してきた。今年3月の独立運動記念式典でも、慰安婦問題の解決の必要性に言及するなど、この問題を最優先する反日姿勢を鮮明にしている。

Japan’s gesture spurned

It is unreasonable to demand that only Japan compromise on the issue, considering relevant developments in the past.
 だが、過去の経緯を考えれば、慰安婦問題で日本だけに譲歩を要求することには無理がある。

The issue of colonial-era reparations, including individual rights to claim compensation, was legally settled when Japan and South Korea normalized diplomatic relations in 1965. Despite that, the Japanese government established the Asian Women’s Fund to provide “atonement money” and carry out other projects for former comfort women in order to fulfill its moral responsibility.
 個人補償を含む植民地時代の請求権問題は、1965年の日韓国交正常化時に法的に解決済みだ。それでも、日本政府は道義的な責任を果たすため、アジア女性基金を設立し、元慰安婦への償い金支給などの事業を実施した。

The South Korean government hailed the fund’s establishment, but the projects did not progress as intended in the face of rising public opinion in South Korea that sought for Japan to take legal responsibility over the issue.
 韓国政府は基金設立を評価したが、その後、日本の法的責任を追及する韓国世論が高まり、事業はあまり進展しなかった。

Although it would be extremely difficult for Japan to do more in terms of humanitarian measures, Park has taken it upon herself to insist on the settlement of the issue, impeding fence-mending between the two nations.
 日本側が更なる人道的措置を取ることが極めて困難な中、朴氏があえて慰安婦問題にこだわり続けているため、日韓関係の修復が難しくなっている。

In her Friday speech, she also said the two nations must build future-oriented relations of friendship and cooperation toward next year, which will mark the 50th anniversary of the two nations’ normalization of diplomatic relations. If this is really what she wants, perhaps she should stop making the settlement of the issue a precondition for a bilateral summit meeting.
 朴氏は演説で、日韓国交正常化50周年の来年に向けて「未来志向的な友好協力関係を築かなければならない」と語った。本気でそう考えるなら、慰安婦問題の解決を日韓首脳会談の前提条件に掲げることをやめるべきではないか。

It would be realistic for Japan and South Korea to seek specific ways to settle the issue with both sides coming steps closer, while building a relationship of trust through repeated dialogues between the political leaders.
 政治指導者が対話を重ね、信頼関係を築く中で、日韓双方が歩み寄る形で問題解決の具体策を模索することが現実的だろう。

In South Korea, an increasing number of people are questioning the current state of their nation’s diplomatic policy toward Japan, which is stalled due to the comfort women issue, and calling for cooperation with Japan over North Korean and economic policies.
 韓国でも、最近、慰安婦問題が原因で停滞する対日外交を疑問視し、北朝鮮政策や経済分野での連携を求める意見が増えている。

We wonder if such calm opinions have reached her ears.
 朴氏の耳には、こうした冷静な声が届いていないのだろうか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 16, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)日本と韓国 国交半世紀に向かって

August 16, 2014
EDITORIAL: Wise decisions needed from Abe and Park to ensure good ties
(社説)日本と韓国 国交半世紀に向かって

On Aug. 15, the anniversary of the end of World War II, prayers were said across Japan for the repose of the souls of the war dead.
 8月15日の終戦の日、日本は戦没者の追悼に包まれた。

In neighboring South Korea, the day was commemorated as the anniversary of the country’s liberation from Japanese colonial rule.
 隣の韓国は、植民地支配から解放された「光復節」だった。

In an Aug. 15 ceremony to mark “Liberation Day,” South Korean President Park Geun-hye referred to next year’s 50th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea and said, “Now, both South Korea and Japan have to work to develop a future-oriented, friendly and cooperative relationship.”
 きのうの式典で朴槿恵(パククネ)大統領は、日韓が来年、国交正常化50年を迎えることにふれ、「未来志向的な友好協力関係に進まねばならない」と訴えた。

In particular, she stressed that resolution of the “comfort women” issue would promote the development of firmer bilateral ties. “I have high hopes for the wisdom of Japanese political leaders and expect them to make a decision,” she said.
 中でも慰安婦問題が解決されれば関係が進むとし、「日本の政治指導者たちの知恵と決断を期待する」と呼びかけた。

It's about time the two countries took steps to ensure they have a brighter future together. While Japan needs to make a sincere response to the long-festering issue, Park should also boldly show “wisdom and decisions.”
 両国が未来を見すえて行動を起こすときであることは間違いない。日本の誠実な対応とともに、朴氏自身も「知恵と決断」に踏み込むべきである。

There can be no solution that is rated as perfect by either country. Any proposal to resolve the issue is bound to provoke complicated reactions from both sides, comprised of both positive and negative responses.
 どちらか一方が百点満点と評価できる解決はありえない。どんな方策を選ぼうとも、両国の間には、評価と反発とが入り組む複雑な反応が生まれることは免れない。

But it is the mission of political leaders engaged in diplomacy to find a point at which both sides can compromise so as to settle the issue from a broad perspective. The relationship between the two neighboring countries must not be allowed to remain as frosty as it is now.
 だが、そのむずかしい着地点を探しだし、大局的な視座に立った解決を図ることこそが、外交をつかさどる政治の使命である。冷え切った隣国関係がこのままでいいはずがない。

Earlier this month, The Asahi Shimbun ran special coverage on the issue of comfort women in which it corrected some errors in its past reporting while pointing out that this is essentially an issue of universal human rights.
 朝日新聞は今月、慰安婦問題について特集を組んだ。過去の報道の誤りをただすとともに、慰安婦問題の本質は普遍的な人権の問題であることを示した。

At comfort stations set up with the involvement of the Japanese military, many women were forced to provide sex to soldiers. Their dignity as women was degraded. There is no denying these historical facts.
 日本軍が関与して作られた慰安所で、多くの女性が兵士の性の相手を強いられた。女性の尊厳が著しく傷つけられた。その史実は否定できない。

Successive Japanese governments have recognized responsibility for this dark chapter in the nation’s history. Japan has made a certain degree of effort to sort out the issue. For instance, it created the Asian Women’s Fund to provide compensation to former comfort women in the 1990s, although Seoul refused to accept the measure.
 負の歴史に対する責任の認識は、日本の歴代政権もしっかり共有してきた。90年代の「アジア女性基金」の設立など一定の努力をしたが、韓国側が受け入れを拒んだ。

Even though the issue had grown complicated, the two governments came close to an agreement to break the diplomatic impasse two years ago. The agreement would have resulted in an apology from Japan’s ambassador to South Korea to the victims and granted them aid financed by Japan’s state budget.
 こじれた問題とはいえ、両政府は2年前、打開する合意案に近づいていた。日本の大使が被害者らにおわびし、国家予算による支援などをする案だった。

But the deal fell through as Japanese politics entered a period of flux. But this shows that serious efforts by political leaders on both sides could open the door to a solution to this sticky issue.
 その合意は日本の政局の流動化で霧散してしまった。だが、政治が真剣に取り組めば、道は開けることを示している。

Last week, the 22nd Korea-Japan Forum was held in Fukuoka, which brought together experts and politicians from both countries.
 両国の識者や政治家が集まった「日韓フォーラム」が先週、福岡で開かれた。

The participants discussed a range of issues, including the situation where the current political deadlock between the two countries is beginning to negatively affect their economies and tourism industries.
政治の膠着(こうちゃく)が経済や観光にも暗い影を落とし始めている問題も論じられた。

In the area of national security, cooperation between Japan and South Korea, two leading democracies and free market economies in the Western Pacific, is vital for effective international efforts to deal with North Korea and ensure stability throughout Asia.
 安全保障面では、北朝鮮への対応や、アジア全体の安定化のためにも、西太平洋を代表する民主主義経済大国である日韓の連携は不可欠だ。

As long as the leaders of the two countries remain unable to hold an official summit and build healthy bilateral ties, they cannot hope to lay out a convincing vision for the future of Asia.
 首脳同士会うこともできず、健全な隣国関係を築けない両国の指導者が、アジア地域全体の未来を描けるはずもない。

We strongly hope that Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and Park will provide true political leadership to change the situation now before the landmark anniversary in the history of the bilateral relationship next year.
 安倍首相と朴大統領は、節目の年を前にした今こそ、真のリーダーシップを見せてほしい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 16

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月16日 (土)

毎日新聞、千の証言

毎日新聞、千の証言
これは毎日の力作だと思います。感動しました。
最初読んだのは英文記事です。
日本語ページで検索して原文をみつけました。
'What was that war all about?': Ex-Japanese soldier recalls a year in the Philippine jungle
いったいあの戦争はなんだったのか? 元軍人がフィリピンのジャングル生活に思いをはせる(スラチャイ訳)

英文記事
http://mainichi.jp/english/english/features/news/20140815p2a00m0na017000c.html

日本語記事
http://mainichi.jp/shimen/news/20140815ddm001040139000c.html
http://mainichi.jp/shimen/news/20140815ddm041040126000c.html

'What was that war all about?': Ex-Japanese soldier recalls a year in the Philippine jungle
いったいあの戦争はなんだったのか? 元軍人がフィリピンのジャングル生活に思いをはせる(スラチャイ訳)

SHIRAKAWA, Fukushima -- Eishiro Wada carefully opens the old, dark blue notebook. It's no larger than a business card, and looks like it might fall apart just by looking at it. Inside, sentences written in blue fountain pen roll out across the pages.

"My eyes are too old to read this anymore," says the 92-year-old Wada, chuckling. On this particular page are the words, "Dragonflies, mice, snails, earthworms; I ate everything and anything." The little book is Wada's diary from nearly seven decades ago, and in it are the tales of the Imperial Japanese Army veteran's year hiding in the Philippine jungle, unaware that World War II had ended.

Wada was born to a farming family here in Shirakawa, Fukushima Prefecture. After finishing elementary school (which was as far as compulsory education went in prewar Japan), he went to work in an aircraft factory in Kanagawa Prefecture. Though there was a conscription system, Wada did not wait to be drafted, volunteering for the army in 1942.

He was trained as an airfield signals operator and posted to northern Manchuria, but was redeployed in 1944 to the town of Cotabato on Mindanao in the southern Philippines -- just as the American-led Allied forces were closing in. He still has the farewell letter he wrote to his parents when he left Manchuria, in full expectation he would not return to Japan alive.

"I will die to destroy America and Britain, for Japan," the letter says. Looking at it now, Wada points out that his younger self had added the radical for "beast" to the kanji characters for the United States and Britain, "because at that time they were monsters."

In April 1945, 10 months after the Imperial Japanese Navy had been badly defeated in the Battle of the Philippine Sea but still four months before Japan would surrender, the Japanese commander at Cotabato dissolved his units under fierce American attacks. Wada, 23 at the time, sent out the last message.

"I cried," he wrote in the diary. "I cried, and my hand shook as I touched the telegraph key for the last time." The message he tapped out went, "Enemy units of unknown strength have, on the morning of April 18, Year 20 of the Showa Era, begun landing operations (on Mindanao)."

Wada says he truly believed at that moment that Japan would turn things around and win the war, "but I'd have to be patient until that happened." He then smashed his cipher machine, burned his codebooks and fled into the jungle with eight other soldiers. The small band walked aimlessly through the dark forest for days on end. Wada was carrying some dry rice, but the men couldn't cook it because they'd run out of matches to light a fire.

"We ate the rice raw. We shot a monkey and ate that raw, too," the diary records. Snakes and lizards joined the monkey on the soldiers' jungle menu. What they didn't have, however, was salt, and Wada began to show signs of malnutrition. He was also running a high fever from a bout of malaria, yet he walked on. If he'd stopped moving, the other men would have left him behind to become some forest creature's dinner.

One among the group, a private first-class, became too sick and weak to carry on. The soldiers abandoned him to the jungle, and he never reappeared. "We assume he's dead," the young Wada wrote. Later, another soldier, a very young signals operator, shot himself through the throat. Eventually, there were only two men left, and one of them was Wada.

The two men said to each other every day, "I'd die for a meal of white rice and miso soup right about now." One morning, as Wada was trying to give water to his prostrate companion, he thought to himself, "I'm no longer a man of this world. I've become cold-hearted." A little later, he was alone, and thought he'd be following his comrades into death before long. He stayed in one spot for several days, but then decided he had to keep walking.

Sometime later, Wada ran into a man calling himself "Kato," a Japanese civilian living in the area.

"Mr. soldier, sir," the man said to him, "please come and help me."

Kato had married a local woman and put down roots on Mindanao. Attacks by guerrillas fighting the Japanese had forced Kato to flee his home with his three children, however, and the family was now roaming from place to place. Kato did, however, have matches, and Wada shared his first meal of cooked rice in a long time with the man. But Kato had already been in bad shape when Wada ran into him, and he died a few days later, leaving two daughters and a son. Wada's diary records the eldest as 14 years old. Her name was Nobuko.

Wada could not leave the kids behind. He and the children found a jungle hut and moved in. Wada says that Nobuko took good care of her siblings, and the four spent probably more than six months together. They hunted using a rifle taken from a dead Japanese soldier, and were very careful with when and how they lit their fires, worried that they'd be discovered by American troops.

One morning in May 1946, Wada heard voices coming from the jungle. It was a U.S. Army unit sent to secure the surrender of Japanese holdouts. Wada raised his rifle and grabbed a hand grenade, ready to blow himself up on the spot. Then, among the Americans, he spotted a familiar face; one of his former army comrades. Wada knew then that the war was over and Japan had lost, and he was momentarily paralyzed by the realization.

Living in his jungle hut with the three Kato kids, Wada had no way of knowing that World War II was over, though he had noticed that the skies had emptied of enemy aircraft. However, even in the jungle hell that devoured eight of his fellow soldiers, Wada had believed down to the bone that Japan would regain its feet and go back on the offensive. That belief shattered the moment he saw the U.S. troops and their Japanese companion, and Wada suddenly wondered what he'd been thinking, what he'd been waiting for all this time. He broke down in tears.

Wada gave himself up and was sent to a POW camp on Leyte Island in the central Philippines. When he had regained his strength, he was sent back to Japan. It was December 1946, and his family was surprised to see him. They'd received a notice from the army saying he'd been killed in action; shot through the head, specifically.

Back on Mindanao, the nine men who went into the jungle had sworn to visit the families of any one of them who did not survive. Wada kept that promise, traveling to the homes of the eight men across Japan, from Mie to Niigata prefectures. Their parents greeted him with tears, and Wada found he hadn't the heart to tell them what the jungle was really like or how their boys had died.

"He confronted the enemy, and was killed in battle," Wada told each family in turn.

The story of Wada's year in the Philippine jungle did not end with these sad visits, however. In November last year, he got a call he'd never expected.

Wada hadn't talked about the war for many, many years, but the person on the other end wanted to know all about his experiences. Why? "For that girl you met back then," said the caller, a representative of an organization backing the citizenship claims of stateless people born to Japanese parents. The call was about Nobuko, full name Inia Nobuko Kato, now 80.

Nobuko's father had been a Japanese man who worked as a carpenter and in farming. Her mother, a native of Mindanao, had died young from disease. Then her father had died in the jungle. She had no citizenship, and had lived her life in poverty.

Nobuko had always thought of herself as Japanese and wanted to claim citizenship. However, she had no proof her father had been from Japan, leaving her to build a case out of memories and witness statements. On Aug. 7, 2013, Nobuko arrived in Japan with the financial backing of the support organization.

"I'm very thankful for the chance to come to Japan since my father is no longer in this world," she said upon her arrival at Narita International Airport, dabbing at her tears and clutching her mother's Buddhist mortuary tablet, which she says was made by her father.

She thought that the Japanese soldier from the jungle, the man named "Wada," would remember her father, and give her the proof she needed of his nationality. Depending only on Nobuko's dim recollections of this Wada, the support organization began their search. The group finally found Wada three months later, and made that November call.

In January this year, the Tokyo Family Court accepted Nobuko's citizenship claim, and Wada's testimony was one of the centerpieces of her case.

"There's no way I'd forget her. She was a lovely girl, and very reliable," Wada says, looking at a photo the Mainichi snapped of Nobuko at Narita Airport in April. "She's got so many wrinkles now!"

Wada says that Nobuko was all skin and bones when he'd first met her. He wrote about it in his little blue diary. "She's suffered a lot over the years, hasn't she?" he goes on. Nobuko's brother and sister had both passed away before her citizenship case was heard.

As Wada passes his finger over the blue kanji characters in his diary, he mutters to himself over and over, "What was that war all about?" He says he'd like to meet Nobuko again one day, but realizes they are both old folks now, and that wish may not come true.

August 15, 2014(Mainichi Japan)

| | コメント (0)

社説:8・15と戦争 記憶の継承の担い手に

これは驚きました。
毎日の英文翻訳が格段に進歩!
英語学習でつかえます。
(スラチャイ)

August 15, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Pass on lessons of war to future generations
社説:8・15と戦争 記憶の継承の担い手に

The Aug. 15 anniversary of the end of World War II is the anniversary of surrender for Japanese people.
 終戦記念日の8月15日は、正確には敗戦の日である。

Japan, which invaded China and launched a surprise attack on the United States, was defeated exactly 69 years ago, although Japanese leaders said all 100 million Japanese were prepared to die an honorable death.
中国を侵略し、米国を奇襲攻撃した日本は、69年前のこの日、一億玉砕を叫びながら万策尽き果て、降伏した。

This reckless war left 3.1 million Japanese nationals dead. In all of Asia, the number of victims is believed to surpass 20 million.
無謀な戦争による犠牲者は、日本人だけで310万人、アジアでは2000万人以上にのぼるとされる。

Every August, many newspapers run articles featuring the war.
 8月になると、新聞に戦争を振り返る特集が増える。

This tendency is occasionally ridiculed as journalism limited to August.
夏だけの「8月ジャーナリズム」とやゆされたりするが、

However, on Aug. 15 each year it is an indispensable ritual to quietly mourn war victims both in Japan and overseas and deeply consider war and peace.
8・15が巡ってくるたび、内外の死者を静かに追悼し、戦争と平和について深く思いを致すのは、欠かせない儀礼である。

 ◇人を人でなくすもの

Next year marks the 70th anniversary of the end of the war.
 来年は戦後70年の節目だ。

Those born after the war account for 80 percent of all Japanese nationals, and an overwhelming majority of those who experienced the war are in their 80s to 90s.
戦後生まれの日本人が人口の8割を占め、戦争をじかに知る人は、大半が80代から90代の高齢者である。

The memory of the war is gradually fading among Japanese people, and there are tendencies to regard wars as if they were games and describe the last war in a nostalgic tone.
国民の記憶の中で戦争が風化し、戦争をゲーム感覚で考えたり、戦争への郷愁を口にしたりする風潮さえも、見受けられるようになった。

No time should be wasted.
 残された時は少ない。

It is an urgent task to hand over the memory of the war to future generations to prevent a recurrence of the same mistakes.
戦争の記憶の継承は、未来を再び過たせないための、喫緊の課題だ。

Even those who did not experience World War II can visualize the war through the words of those who experienced the tragedy and through literary works featuring the war.
 戦争を知らない世代でも、戦争体験者の語る言葉や書き残したもの、文学作品などを通じ、戦争の姿を思い描くことはできる。

Novelist Shohei Ooka channeled his experience of the last war into literary works, such as "Furyoki" ("Taken Captive: A Japanese POW's Story") and "Leyte Senki" ("The Battle of Leyte Gulf").
 フィリピンでの戦争体験を「俘虜記」「レイテ戦記」などの文学に昇華させた大岡昇平は

In his book, "Sendo" ("War"), published by Iwanami Shoten Publishers, he wrote, "As a soldier and someone who experienced the war, I'd like to talk forever about how tragic war is."
「兵士として、戦争の経験を持つ人間として、戦争がいかに不幸なことであるかを、いつまでも語りたい」と書いた(「戦争」岩波現代文庫)。

It is important for each and every member of the public to respect his resolve and to pass on how stupid wars are to future generations.
その心情を受け止め、一人一人が記憶の継承の担い手となって、戦争の愚かさを伝えていくことが大切だ。

Former Okinawa Gov. Masahide Ota, who fought in the war as part of student mobilization, has collected photos of various wars in the world and reminded the public of the cruelty of wars.
 学徒動員で沖縄戦を戦った元沖縄県知事の大田昌秀さんは、世界のさまざまな戦争の写真を集め、その残虐さを告発してきた。

Ota inserted photos of a soldier being beheaded, a child who was stabbed in the stomach, a charred woman and other cruel scenes into a book titled, "Ningen-ga Ningen-de Nakunaru Toki" ("When humans become non-humans").  首をはねられる兵士、腹を裂かれた子供、焼け焦げた女性。目を背けたくなるような写真の数々を「人間が人間でなくなるとき」という題の記録集にまとめた大田さんは、

In the book, Ota writes, "It is necessary to confirm that we, individuals, cannot only be easily turned into 'non-humans' depending on the situation, but can also turn others into non-humans."
次のように記している。「私たち個々人は、時と場合によっては、自らが容易に『非人間化』されてしまう存在であるばかりでなく、他人をも非人間化してしまう存在だということを確認する必要がある」

Wars are nothing but absurdity that turn humans into non-humans and madness that tramples down the dignity of lives.
 戦争は、まさに「人間を人間でなくす」不条理であり、命の尊厳を踏みにじる狂気である。

The novel, "All Quiet on the Western Front," authored by German novelist Erich Maria Remarque, known for his antiwar literature and works describing World War I, ends after notifying its readers of the death of protagonist Paul Baeumer.
 第一次世界大戦を描いた反戦文学として名高いレマルクの「西部戦線異状なし」は、主人公のドイツ人志願兵パウル・ボイメルの死を、読む者に知らせて終わる。

Remarque, a World War I veteran, wrote in the work's last scene that it was so quiet and calm on the western front that a command post had nothing to say but "All quiet on the western front. There is nothing to report."
 ドイツ出身で、自ら第一次大戦に従軍した作者レマルクは、最後の場面を「その日は全戦線にわたって、きわめて穏やかで静かで、司令部報告は『西部戦線異状なし、報告すべき件なし』という文句に尽きているくらいであった」(新潮文庫版・秦豊吉訳)と描写した。

This year marks the 100th anniversary of the beginning of World War I. Up to 15 million people are believed to have died in the war. In other words, in the history of that war, there are 15 million people who perished and were buried, just like Baeumer.
 第一次大戦の開戦から今年で100年。死者は最大で1500万人とされている。ボイメル志願兵も、歴史の片隅に埋もれていった、1500万分の1人だった。

In the Pacific War, a massive U.S. airstrike on Tokyo left 100,000 people dead on a single night.
 太平洋戦争では、米軍の東京大空襲により、一晩で10万人が犠牲になった。

The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed over 200,000 people.
原爆は広島、長崎で20万人以上の命を奪った。

There were numerous other air raids on Japanese cities.
ほかにも無数の都市爆撃があった。

Poet Zenmaro Toki composed a poem that reads, "There were reportedly hundreds, or even thousands of abandoned bodies. None of them had two lives."
土岐善麿は、日中戦争をこう詠んだ。「遺棄死体 数百といひ数千といふ いのちをふたつ もちしものなし」

 ◇加害の責任も忘れず

Tens of thousands, or even hundreds of thousands of precious lives could be lost instantly in any war.
 かけがえのない「生」の集積が、何万、何十万の犠牲である。

Having a rich imagination of such a tragedy can lead to true mourning of the war dead.
その想像力を持つことが、戦死者を追悼するという行為である。

If so, we must keep in mind that a massive number of Asian people fell victim to the Japanese military in the last war.
 であるなら、日本軍の犠牲になった、おびただしい数のアジアの死者も忘れてはならない。

The victims of the Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War are spread throughout Asia.
 日中戦争、太平洋戦争の犠牲者はアジア全体に広がる。

There is no difference between countries and regions in the degree of absurdity and cruelty of war.
戦争の不条理と戦死の痛ましさに、国境はない。

Such being the case, it is the duty of Japan, which caused immeasurable human suffering and damage to property in Asia, to equally mourn Japanese and other war victims.
内外の死者を等しく追悼する誠実さを身に備えることは、アジアに計り知れない人的、物的被害を与えた日本の、当然の務めだ。

Any war causes a rift between countries involved and instills feelings of hate.
 戦争は、国と国を長きにわたって不和にし、憎しみの感情を植えつける。

While those who wage war tend to forget their memory of causing damage to their victims, the victims keep their memory of suffering forever.
加害の記憶がともすれば忘れられがちなのに対し、被害の記憶はずっと残る。

Japan's deep-rooted row with China and South Korea over the interpretation of history involving Japan's wartime atrocities has raised questions as to how countries that wage war and victims should hand over their bitter memories to future generations.
中国や韓国との根深い歴史対立は、加害者と被害者が、それぞれの歴史の記憶をどう継承していくかの摩擦でもある。

How to remember what has historically happened may differ from country to country. But a conflict over the matter must not cover up the tragedy of war.
 歴史の記憶の仕方は、国によって異なるかもしれない。だが、その対立が、戦争の悲惨さを覆い隠すことになってはならない。

Ongoing discussions on reinterpreting the war-renouncing Constitution to open the way for Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense have called into question the pros and cons of using force.
 今、集団的自衛権の論議で、武力行使のあり方が問われている。

There are wars to counter acts of aggression and unavoidable wars that must be fought for humanitarian purposes. 戦争には侵略に対抗する戦争も、人道支援が目的の、やむをえない戦争もある。

Having a military deterrence is necessary to maintain peace.
軍事的抑止力を持つことは、平和のためにも必要だ。

However, wars cause cruel bruises and leave a negative legacy to countries involved and their people, regardless of how they start or end.
 ただし、どのように始められ、どのように終わったとしても、戦争は国家と国民にむごたらしい傷と、負の遺産をもたらす。

This is the reality of any war.
それが戦争の現実である。

The phrase, "use of force," should not be easily mentioned without deeply thinking about its meaning.
武力行使という言葉は、深く考えないままに、安易に使われるべきものではない。

Almost everyone throughout the world certainly hopes that they will not experience a tragedy similar to World War II.  二度とあのような戦争は経験したくない、というのが、ほとんどの国民の願いだろう。

Each and every member of the public should keep in mind the ugliness and cruelty of war in discussing how to ensure peace.
平和を論ずるにあたっては、戦争の醜さと残酷さを、常に原点に置きたい。

毎日新聞 2014年08月15日 02時30分

| | コメント (0)

(社説)戦後69年の言葉 祈りと誓いのその先へ

August 15, 2014
EDITORIAL: Japan needs meaningful language, not demagogic words, to discuss Aug. 15
(社説)戦後69年の言葉 祈りと誓いのその先へ

On the first Saturday of August, a demonstration was staged in Shibuya, one of Tokyo’s most vibrant shopping areas, where demonstrators repeatedly shouted, “Senso hantai” (No war), under a blazing sun.
 8月最初の土曜日、東京・渋谷で行われたデモ。「戦争反対」のコールが炎天下に響く。

Over the past 69 years, we have been able to safely assume that when Japanese talk about war, they most likely refer to the world war that ended on Aug. 15, 1945, with Japan’s defeat. When that is not the case, we have been able to say that the topic is probably a tragic incident that is happening somewhere outside Japan.
 この69年間、日本において戦争といえば、多くは1945年8月15日に敗戦を迎えた過去の大戦のことであり、そうでなければ、世界のどこかで起きている悲惨な出来事だった。

On July 1, however, the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe formally decided to change the government’s interpretation of the Constitution to make it possible for Japan to exercise its right to collective self-defense. As a result, war is no longer something that happened in the distant past or that can only happen far away from this nation.
 だが7月1日、集団的自衛権の行使容認が閣議決定され、戦争は過去のものでも、遠くのことでもなくなった。

WAR AND JAPAN’S CURRENT SITUATION
 ■戦争と日本の現在地

There was no national consensus on the radical security policy change. We neither heard the government make a convincing case for supporting the move nor received a request from the government for our opinions about the policy shift.
 国民的合意があったわけではない。合意を取り付けようと説得されたことも、意見を聞かれたこともない。

Japan has been transformed from a country that never fights a war to a country that can go to war. This has been done by a limited number of people who have used far-fetched arguments to unilaterally change the way the government interprets certain words and discusses certain issues.
ごく限られた人たちによる一方的な言葉の読み替えと言い換えと強弁により、戦争をしない国から、戦争ができる国への転換は果たされた。

The speeches Abe delivered on Aug. 6 in Hiroshima and on Aug. 9 in Nagasaki, two special dates and places for Japan and humankind, were almost identical to his addresses at the same occasions last year. Not only that, he gave the cold shoulder to an atomic bomb survivor who told him that his argument for collective self-defense was not convincing. The prime minister bluntly replied, “It’s just a matter of opinion.”
 安倍首相は8月6日の広島、9日の長崎という日本と人類にとって特別な日の、特別な場所でのあいさつを、昨年の「使い回し」で済ませた。そればかりか、集団的自衛権に納得していないと声をかけた被爆者を「見解の相違です」と突き放した。

When significant differences in opinions arise about important issues, politicians should provide explanations to narrow the gaps with the public.
 見解の相違があるのなら、言葉による説得でそれを埋める努力をするのが、政治家としての作法である。

Abe, however, failed to make such efforts concerning either the state secrets protection law or the issue of Japan’s collective self-defense. After the decisions were made and the actions were taken, he just repeated that he would make efforts to win public support for these controversial policy initiatives through explanations.
ところが首相は、特定秘密保護法も集団的自衛権も、決着後に「説明して理解を得る努力をする」という説明を繰り返すだけ。

Abe doesn’t even try to conceal his contempt for the people with whom sovereign power resides.
主権者を侮り、それを隠そうともしない。

The estimated average life expectancies of Japanese men and women in the year the war ended with Japan’s defeat were 23.9 and 37.5 years, respectively. Now, the various valuable things this nation obtained at huge costs are being threatened.
 男性23・9歳。女性37・5歳。敗戦の年の平均寿命(参考値)だ。多大な犠牲を払ってようやく手にしたもろもろがいま、ないがしろにされている。

How has Japan drifted to such a situation?
 なぜ日本はこのような地点に漂着してしまったのだろうか。

An essay written by philosopher Shunsuke Tsurumi and published in 1946 offers some insights. It was titled “Kotoba no Omamori-teki Shiyoho ni Tsuite” (About the talismanic use of words).
 哲学者の鶴見俊輔さんが、敗戦の翌年に発表した論文「言葉のお守り的使用法について」に、手がかりがある。

“As long as politicians try to appeal to popular opinion with speeches and gobbledegook full of talismanic words without explaining their opinions in clear, concrete terms while the people readily adapt themselves to the astute way the politicians use talismanic words without trying to figure out what they really mean in a cool-headed manner, as long as this convention continues, the possibility remains that the kind of shady politics that was seen during the wartime will revive in some years.”
 「政治家が意見を具体化して説明することなしに、お守り言葉をほどよくちりばめた演説や作文で人にうったえようとし、民衆が内容を冷静に検討することなしに、お守り言葉のつかいかたのたくみさに順応してゆく習慣がつづくかぎり、何年かの後にまた戦時とおなじようにうやむやな政治が復活する可能性がのこっている」

TALISMANIC WORDS AND GOVERNMENT
 ■お守り言葉と政権

Talismanic words here mean words used by the powers that be in a demagogic manner or by ordinary people to protect themselves. Examples of such words used during the war are “kokutai” (national polity), “hakko ichiu” (the whole world under one roof) and “yokusan” (supporting the imperial rule). After the end of the war, these words were replaced by “democracy” and “freedom,” which were imported from the United States.
 お守り言葉とは、社会の権力者が扇動的に用い、民衆が自分を守るために身につける言葉である。例えば戦中は「国体」「八紘一宇(はっこういちう)」「翼賛」であり、敗戦後は米国から輸入された「民主」「自由」「デモクラシー」に変わる。

Using such words without knowing what they exactly mean is making what Tsurumi called “talismanic use” of words.
 それらを意味がよくわからないまま使う習慣が「お守り的使用法」だ。

Words that are originally intended as mere rhetorical flourishes gradually acquire influence while being frequently used and eventually become so powerful that they can be used effectively to silence criticism. There was, for instance, a situation during the war where the word “kokutai” forced people into tame submission even when their interests were harmed. Talismanic use of words leads people into undesirable situations before they know it.
当初は単なる飾りに過ぎなかったはずの言葉が、頻繁に使われるうちに実力をつけ、最終的には、自分たちの利益に反することでも、「国体」と言われれば黙従する状況が生まれる。言葉のお守り的使用法はしらずしらず、人びとを不本意なところに連れ込む。

When Abe began to advocate what he calls “proactive pacifism,” some people must have been unsure about what he meant and suspicious about what he intended to do.
 首相が、「積極的平和主義」を唱え始めた時。意味がよくわからず、きな臭さを感じた人もいただろう。

While people felt hesitant about criticizing any form of “pacifism,” Abe advertised this term internationally during his overseas trips. He then started claiming that he had won international support for his “proactive pacifism” in an attempt to create a fait accompli.
だが「平和主義」を正面から批判するのはためらわれ、そうこうしているうちに、首相は外遊先で触れ回り、「各国の理解を得た」と既成事実が積み上がる。

As it turned out, this vague concept of “proactive pacifism” was used as a slogan to replace Japan’s three long-established, highly restrictive principles regarding arms exports with the new “three principles concerning transfers of defense equipment.” Not surprisingly, this term is mentioned three times in the Cabinet’s statement endorsing Japan’s use of its right to collective self-defense.
果たして「積極的平和主義」は、「武器輸出三原則」を「防衛装備移転三原則」へと転換させる際の理屈となり、集団的自衛権行使容認の閣議決定文には3度出てくる。

Other examples include “toward a beautiful country,” “a departure from the postwar regime” and “Abenomics.”
 美しい国へ。戦後レジームからの脱却。アベノミクス――。

How should Japanese people, as sovereign members of society, respond to this administration of “talismanic words?”
 さあ、主権者はこの「お守り言葉政権」と、どう組み合えばいいのだろうか。

NEW LANGUAGE FOR AUG. 15
 ■8・15を、新たに

During the Aug. 9 ceremony to mark the 1945 atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Miyako Jodai, who delivered a speech as the representative of hibakusha, said, “The initiative to allow Japan to use its right to collective self-defense that is now under way is an outrageous act of trampling on Japan’s Constitution.”
 「今、進められている集団的自衛権の行使容認は、日本国憲法を踏みにじった暴挙です」

 9日、長崎での平和祈念式典。被爆者代表として登壇した城臺美彌子(じょうだいみやこ)さんがアドリブで発した、腹の底からの怒りがこもった言葉が、粛々と進行していた式典の空気を震わせた。

These words, which Jodai uttered on the spur of the moment, reflected her profound anger about what is happening and charged the air at the ceremony, which was proceeding quietly.
 ぎょっとした人。ムッとした人。心の中で拍手した人。

Some people were taken aback by her words, while others were offended. There were also people who applauded her in their minds. Her words provoked strong emotions, whether they were sympathy or antipathy, and stood in sharp contrast to the prime minister’s “recycled speech.”
共感であれ反感であれ、他者の思考を揺さぶり、「使い回し」でやり過ごした首相を照らす。

The episode demonstrated the power that words can have.
 まさに言葉の力である。

On the day when the anti-war demonstration was held in Shibuya, people were apparently shaken by what the demonstrators said. A woman glared at the protesters and said in disgust: “I don’t see the point of what you are doing. Just go to vote.” Her friend, who was walking beside her, just shrugged it off with a bitter smile.
 デモ隊が通り抜けた渋谷でも、揺さぶられている人たちがいた。隊列をにらみつけ、「こんなことやる意味がわかんない。ちゃんと選挙行けよ」と吐き捨てる女性を、隣を歩く友人が苦笑いで受け止める。

There was also a couple who mimicked the “No war” chanting of the demonstrators and rolled about laughing.
「戦争反対」とデモのコールをまねて笑い転げるカップル。

The rally at least created a slight crack in daily life.
日常に、ささやかな裂け目が生じた。

The only way for us to avoid being hypnotized by talismanic words is to voice our own words based on our own thinking, not those borrowed from others, and make them heard.
 お守り言葉に引きずられないためには、借り物ではなく、自分の頭で考えた言葉を声にし、響かせていくしかない。

We should be able to talk in our own plain language about what kind of society we want to live in and what happiness means to us.
どんな社会に生きたいのか。何を幸せと思うのか。自分なりの平たい言葉で言えるはずだ。

Aug. 15 is supposed to be a day to quietly mourn for the war dead. In recent years, however, it has become a day filled with patriotic utterances.
 8月15日は本来、しめやかに戦没者を悼む日だった。しかし近年は愛国主義的な言葉があふれ出す日に変わってしまった。

We need to find our own words to commemorate Aug. 15, which should be neither a day of silence nor a day of noisy demagogy.
静寂でも喧噪(けんそう)でもない8月15日を、私たちの言葉で、新たに。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 15

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月15日 (金)

終戦の日 平和国家の歩みを堅持したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Anniversary of war’s end sees Japan still committed to path of peace
終戦の日 平和国家の歩みを堅持したい

◆集団的自衛権で抑止力高めよ
Today, Aug. 15, marks again the anniversary of the end of the war.
 今年も、「終戦の日」を迎えた。

This is the day we renew our pledge of peace and our determination not to engage in war, while also quietly paying tribute to the memory of those who died in World War II.
 先の大戦の戦没者を静かに追悼するとともに、平和と不戦への誓いを新たにする日である。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s administration decided in July on a new constitutional interpretation that acknowledged the country’s limited ability to exercise the right of collective self-defense.
 安倍政権は7月、集団的自衛権の行使を限定的に容認する新たな政府見解を決定した。

In connection with this, Mayor Tomihisa Taue of Nagasaki expressed “anxiety and apprehension” in the Peace Declaration of Nagasaki on the 69th anniversary of the atomic bombing of that city on Aug. 9, stating that “the rushed debate over collective self-defense has given rise to the concern that this principle [of pacifism] is wavering.” Others are also averse to the government’s reinterpretation of the Constitution, making such claims as that the new government view could “pave the way for Japan to again take part in a war.”
 これに関連し、長崎市の田上富久市長は「長崎平和宣言」で、「平和の原点がいま揺らいでいるのではないか、という不安と懸念」に言及した。ほかにも、「日本が戦争に参加する道を開く」などと新見解に反発する声もある。

Govt not seeking war
◆「戦争する国」は曲解だ

The new government view, however, is by no means an attempt to make it easier for Japan to take part in a war. On the contrary, it is aimed at minimizing that possibility by strengthening the Japan-U.S. alliance and Japan’s cooperation with the international community to enhance the nation’s deterrent against war.
 だが、新見解は無論、戦争に参加するためのものではない。逆に、戦争の可能性を極小化するため、日米同盟と国際連携を強化し、抑止力を高めることが目的だ。

The security environment surrounding Japan has been deteriorating rapidly in recent years. North Korea has been pushing ahead with nuclear weapons and missile development programs, while China has been bolstering its armaments and repeatedly conducting self-righteous maritime advances. The menace of international terrorism has also been surging.
 日本の安全保障環境は近年、急速に悪化した。北朝鮮は核・ミサイル開発を続け、中国は軍備を増強し、独善的な海洋進出を繰り返す。国際テロの脅威も増した。

It is urgent for this nation to firmly establish a system capable of coping effectively with new security situations.
 新たな情勢に的確に対応できる防衛体制の確立が急務だ。

During the 69 years since the war’s end, Japan has seen the benefits of peace and prosperity, having never attacked any other country or been subject to invasion from abroad.
 日本は戦後69年間、他国に攻撃を仕掛けることも、海外から侵略されることもなく、平和と繁栄を享受してきた。

Peace cannot be maintained simply by chanting the slogan, “Let’s defend Article 9 of the Constitution.”
 「憲法9条を守る」と唱えるだけでは、平和は維持できない。

It is of major significance that this country, in the years after the war, founded the Self-Defense Forces and built up its defense capabilities in a manner suited to changes in the times, while concluding the Japan-U.S. security treaty and steadily strengthening the bilateral ties of the alliance.
 自衛隊を創設し、時代に応じた防衛力を整備する一方、日米安保条約を締結し、同盟関係を着実に強化してきたことが大きい。

Although no SDF personnel have been killed in war, more than 1,800 have so far died in the line of duty from such causes as accidents and illness. We must always remember that Japan’s security is ensured through the inconspicuous day-to-day efforts of the SDF.
 戦死者こそ出ていないが、公務中の事故や病気などで殉職した自衛官はこれまで、1800人を超す。日本の安全が、自衛隊の日々の地道な活動に支えられていることを忘れてはなるまい。

When the Japan-U.S. security treaty came under revision in 1960, emotional objections erupted based on the claim that Japan would be drawn into war, splitting public opinion in two.
 1960年の安保条約の改定時には、「戦争に巻き込まれる」といった情緒的な反対論が噴出し、国論を二分する騒動となった。

It has been historically proven, however, that the Japan-U.S. alliance functioned effectively both during the Cold War between East and West, when there was a military threat from the Soviet Union, and under the fluid circumstances in East Asia after the Cold War ended.
 だが、ソ連の軍事的脅威が存在した東西冷戦中も、冷戦終結後の流動的な東アジア情勢下でも、日米同盟が有効に機能してきたことは、歴史が証明している。

The Japan-U.S. alliance is now acknowledged by many countries as “a public asset” needed for the stability of Asia.
 日米同盟は今、アジアの安定に欠かせない「公共財」として、多くの国に認知されるに至った。

The government used the SDF in a restrained way in the initial days of its existence, but has since expanded its role in stages to include such fields as international peacekeeping activities. This progress by Japan as a peace-loving country ever since the war’s end has been highly praised by the international community.
 当初は、自衛隊を抑制的に運用していたが、徐々に国際平和活動などに役割を拡大した。そんな戦後日本の平和国家の歩みは、国際社会に高く評価されている。

The approval of limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense is an extension of such peacekeeping efforts by Japan and has been supported and hailed by most countries other than China and South Korea. This fact is extremely significant.
 集団的自衛権の行使容認は、その延長線上にあり、中韓両国を除く、大半の国に支持、歓迎されている。その事実は極めて重い。

The change in the government’s constitutional interpretation has made it possible for the SDF to protect U.S. warships and missiles from attack. Measures will be worked out to handle contingencies in various situations. Through repeated drills, the ability to seamlessly respond in every situation from peacetime to emergencies will be maintained. Such endeavors will enhance the effectiveness of deterrence.
 憲法解釈の変更で、米艦防護やミサイル防衛などが可能になる。様々な事態に備え、有事の対処計画を立案する。訓練を重ね、平時から有事まで、切れ目のない対処能力を保持する。そうした努力が抑止力の実効性を高める。

Inflammatory arguments
◆扇動的な「徴兵制」論議

Some people have made inflammatory claims that the change in the interpretation of the Constitution will lead to a revival of the prewar conscription system. They contend this will happen due to difficulties recruiting SDF personnel because they will be told to go to war, but this is a specious assertion.
 解釈変更には、「戦前の徴兵制の復活につながる」との扇動的な批判が一部にある。「戦争に行けと言われるため、自衛官が集まらなくなるから」というのは、曲論にほかならない。

A military draft is prohibited outright by the Constitution. Like its principles of pacifism and an exclusively defensive posture, this tenet will never change. The reinterpretation of the Constitution was restricted in order to maintain the spirit of the nation’s top law. The government must explain these points in detail to the public.
 そもそも憲法は徴兵制を否定している。平和主義や専守防衛と同様、この原則に一切変更はない。解釈変更を限定的にしたのも、憲法の精神を堅持するためだ。政府は、こうした点を国民に丁寧に説明することが求められる。

It is essential for Japan to remain a country that the United States can trust and that is worthy of being protected.
 今後、大切なのは、日本が、米国にとって信頼でき、守るに値する国であり続けることだ。

If the Maritime Self-Defense Force does not take any action when U.S. warships are attacked in the Sea of Japan, the bilateral alliance might collapse. The action one takes when someone is in need determines whether one is a true friend.
 日本海で米軍艦船が攻撃された際、海自が傍観しているようでは、同盟は崩壊しかねない。相手が助けを要する時の行動こそが、真の友人かどうかの試金石となる。

It is also indispensable for Japan to play a role commensurate with its national strength in such fields as U.N. peacekeeping operations, based on the Abe administration’s strategy of “proactive contribution to peace.”
 安倍政権の「積極的平和主義」に基づき、日本が国連平和維持活動などで国力にふさわしい役割を果たすことも欠かせない。

Improve security environment
◆安保環境を改善せよ

Japan’s contributions to improving the world’s security environment through such efforts as reducing hotbeds of terrorism and preventing conflicts would be directly linked to its own security. Such endeavors would also lead to Japan becoming a country worth being protected by the international community.
 テロの温床を減らし、紛争を予防するなど、世界の安全保障環境の改善に対する日本の貢献は、自国の安全に直結する。国際社会にとって、日本が守るに値する国になることにもつながる。

The government’s new constitutional interpretation limits the range of what would amount to “an integration of the use of force,” which is banned under the Constitution, and enable urgent rescue missions by the SDF to help foreign troops. It is highly significant for the SDF to take a more active part in building peace.
 新たな政府見解は、憲法が禁じる「武力行使との一体化」の範囲を限定し、他国部隊への「駆けつけ警護」も可能にした。自衛隊がより積極的に平和構築に関与する意義は大きい。

It is also essential for Japan as a pacifist nation to step up its diplomatic activities. Japan must reinforce cooperation with countries concerned to establish a system that will not allow the status quo to be changed through force and will try to resolve disputes peacefully based on international law.
 平和国家としての外交活動の強化も重要だ。「力による現状変更」を許さず、国際法に基づいて問題を平和的に解決する体制作りに向け、関係国と連携を深めたい。

Based on the new constitutional interpretation, it is crucial to beef up deterrence by making military and diplomatic strategies function as two wheels on the same cart.
 新見解を踏まえて、軍事と外交を「車の両輪」として機能させ、抑止力を強めることが肝要だ。

This is the only way to ensure that Aug. 15 remains the only date on which we commemorate the anniversary of a war’s end.
 それこそが、8月15日以外に、新たな「終戦の日」を作ることを防ぐ道となろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 15, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

「傷痕も、痛みも、腫れもないEDの根本的解決方法をご存知ですか?」世界30カ国以上、4,000人以上の衝撃(波)治療実績 銀座みゆき通り美容外科にて、勃起不全衝撃波治療装置:ED1000を導入!  銀座みゆき通り美容外科

| | コメント (0)

(社説)子供とネット 仲間の輪をもっと広く

August 14, 2014
EDITORIAL: Online relationships a very one-sided thing
(社説)子供とネット 仲間の輪をもっと広く

There must be many parents in Japan who lament the time their children spend on smartphones while they could be doing other things during the summer break.
 せっかくの夏休みなのに、うちの子はスマホばっかりいじって……と気をもんでいる親も多いだろうか。

The education board of Kasuga city in Fukuoka Prefecture this summer called for a ban on children using their smartphones at night. The board is concerned that Internet addiction could disrupt the children's daily routine.
 この夏、福岡県春日市など複数の教育委員会が「夜間スマホ禁止」を呼びかけた。ネット依存による生活リズムの乱れを心配してのことだ。

Adults tend to think that children who get hooked on Internet surfing have trouble developing normal relationships with others. But that is not necessarily the case.
 ネットにはまるのは、現実世界で人間関係を築くのが苦手な子。大人はそう考えがちだが、必ずしもそうではない。

Most children use the Internet to communicate with friends and acquaintances, such as classmates and other members of their school clubs, after the school day is over.
 大半の子は、ネットの中でも学級や部活動など昼間の仲間とつながっている。

The Internet offers children the opportunity to stay in touch with their pals all the time, no matter where they are. Many children are unable to stop their online communications with friends because they fear doing so will damage their friendships. The problem, then, is that these children are stuck in a "Catch-22" situation.
24時間どこにいても、つながることができてしまう。友人に気を使うあまり会話を打ち切れない。むしろ、人間関係が過剰になっていることが問題なのだ。

There have also been cases in which exchanges on Line and other messaging applications led to serious incidents like suicides caused by bullying, or even murder.
 通信アプリLINEなどでのやり取りから、いじめ自殺やけんか殺人に発展する。そんな事件もときどき起きている。

For many children, the greatest risk posed by their online communications is not the possibility of encountering strangers with nefarious intent, but rather pressure from their usual friends to conform.
 多くの子にとって、ネット利用で危険が切実なのは「見知らぬ大人」との遭遇より、「いつもの仲間」の同調圧力だ。

Most Japanese high school students and about half of all junior high school students have their cellphones or smartphones, according to a survey by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Since each device is the private property of the individual, it is difficult to enforce a ban or restrict the possession of smartphones in trying to deal with the problem.
 総務省の調べでは、高校生は大半、中学生も半数が携帯電話やスマホを持っている。個人で持つ物でもあり、禁止や制限では対処しきれない。

The Internet is like the automobile. Most adults drive. While driving entails the risk of an accident, and cars are often used in carrying out crimes, the automobile is basically a tool that enriches people’s life. The Web has made it easier for junior and high school students to interact with people of different schools, ages and areas.
 ネットは車に似ている。いずれ大人になれば大半の人が使うものだし、事故や事件の危険はある一方、基本的には生活を豊かにしてくれる。中高生らも学校や学年、地域の垣根を超えた交流活動がしやすくなった。

This being the case, perhaps parents should make greater efforts to help their children learn how to avoid potential dangers while using the Internet. We suggest that each family should establish certain rules, such as making children use their smartphone in the living room while everybody else is present.
 ならば、少しずつ使いながら安全な使い方を身につけさせる工夫を各家庭でしたい。「スマホは居間で使う」と親子で約束するのもいい。

Some experts advise parents to use the same messaging applications and social networking sites as those used by their children. Doing so will help parents understand the risks involved and allow them to set an example to their children on where the line should be drawn in revealing private information or expressing personal thoughts and feelings.
 親もわが子と同じ通信アプリや交流サイトを使ってみては、と勧める専門家もいる。注意すべき点がわかる。ネットでどこまで自分をさらし、ぶつけてよいか手本を示す意味もある。

Children feel they are under enormous pressure to gain acceptance from those they view as their peers. Despite this desperation to be accepted, peer pressure often comes into play and some children end up being ignored and excluded by the group.
 同調圧力とは、いわば身内でいる限りは優しくする心性だ。身内でないとみなせば途端に排除や無視をする。

Sadly, this kind of narrow-mindedness is not uncommon in our society. Adults also display this same tendency.
残念ながら大人も含め、そういう不寛容さは社会に根強くある。

Children need to develop relations with others outside their schools and clubs to avoid being confined to their usual circle of friends and trying to live up to the expectations of others.
 いつもの仲間の輪の中に閉じこもって、それだけに振り回されないためには、学校や部活と違う知り合いを作り、もう一つの世界をもつのがいい。

We urge children to value their private lives and focus more on their own interests.
それには自分の生活を大切にすること、いい意味でわがままになることも必要なのだろう。

Children need to understand that it is a healthy part of a relationship to disagree with others. It doesn't mean disrespect.
 なにより、違うと思うことは「違う」と言っても、相手を否定したことにはならない。

It all comes down to whether families and schools can help children develop this understanding.
家庭や学校で、きちんとそう教えられるかどうか。結局はそこにかかっているに違いない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 14

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月14日 (木)

限定正社員 雇用の「二極化」を是正したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Division between temporary, regular employment should be addressed
限定正社員 雇用の「二極化」を是正したい

Regular workers on the corporate payroll are afforded employment security, despite often being required to work overtime and accept job relocation. Meanwhile, nonregular employees are poorly paid in many cases, and their employment status is unstable.
 残業や転勤は多いが安定している正社員と、低賃金で身分が不安定な非正規社員――。

There is a pressing need to rectify the current situation in which corporate employees have been sharply divided into these two types.
二極化した雇用形態を是正することが急務である。

One promising measure is more widespread adoption of a proposed system by which people could be hired as regular employees whose job duties, work locations and labor hours are clearly defined. Earlier, a Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry panel of experts put together a set of guidelines to be followed by business corporations in adopting the envisaged system.
 対策の一つとして期待されるのが、職務や勤務地、労働時間を限って雇用する「限定正社員」制度の普及だ。厚生労働省の有識者懇談会は、この制度を企業が導入する際の指針をまとめた。

This system would not define the period of employment, just as no such term is specified for ordinary permanent workers. This means the position of workers in the new category would be more stable than that of limited-term nonregular employees.
 限定正社員は、一般の正社員と同様に雇用期間を定めない採用形態だ。有期雇用の非正規社員より身分が安定している。

Work locations and some other working conditions would also be clearly defined. This would naturally involve a gap in the treatment and job security given to the new type of regular employees compared to conventional regular workers. Nonetheless, employees under the new arrangement would still be able to receive pay raises and promotions.
勤務地などが限られている分、処遇や雇用保障の面で一般正社員との差はあるが、昇給や昇進は可能だ。

The system signifies an effort to create a broader diversity of regular employment arrangements. It would accommodate changes in the status of workers from temporary to regular employment. The scheme would also provide greater opportunities for women to play an active role in corporate activities by granting regular employment status to those who must limit their work hours and locations because of childcare, for example. There is good reason to seek wider spread of the system.
 多様な正社員の形態を設け、非正規社員からの転換の受け皿にする。育児などで働く時間や場所に制約がある人も正社員になれるようにして、女性が活躍できる機会を増やす。限定正社員の導入を広げる狙いは妥当だろう。

The system is also expected to provide various advantages for corporations. It would help companies secure the talented personnel they need while also enabling them to keep such employees on their payroll for extended periods. The system would lead to greater productivity.
 企業側にも、人材の確保・定着や、生産性の向上につながるといったメリットがあるとされる。

A considerable number of corporations have already hired employees whose status and other working conditions are clearly defined, including those known as area-based regular staff.
 既に、「エリア正社員」などの名称で限定正社員を導入している企業は少なくない。

Set clear standards

In many cases, however, such corporations are vague about what conditions must be met if employees are dismissed, as well as their wage levels. This has aroused concern among many labor organizations. They are anxious about adopting the system, which they have said would produce more regular workers who could be easily dismissed. They are also concerned the system could be used to help reduce personnel expenses.
 ただ、解雇条件や賃金水準などが不明確なケースが多いのも事実だ。このため労働側には、「解雇しやすい正社員が増える」「人件費の引き下げに利用される」といった懸念が根強い。

In its latest guidelines, the ministry’s expert panel said the corporate sector should try to maintain the employment of workers in the new category if their offices and other facilities are abolished, through such measures as personnel relocation. The abolition will not automatically justify dismissal as due process, according to the guidelines.
 指針は、限定正社員の働く事業所などが廃止された場合も、「直ちに解雇が有効となるわけではない」として、配置転換などによる雇用継続の努力を求めた。

The guidelines also urged corporations to achieve a balance in the wage standards applicable to ordinary regular employees and workers in the new category. In giving a yardstick for setting pay standards for the latter, the guidelines cited the criteria adopted by corporations that have already introduced a scheme for hiring employees whose work locations are clearly defined. In many cases, such workers are paid wages equivalent to 80 percent to 90 percent of those earned by ordinary regular workers, according to the guidelines.
 賃金水準については、一般正社員とバランスを取るよう促した。勤務地を限定したタイプなら一般正社員の8~9割とする企業が多い、といった目安も示した。

The creation of the guidelines bears a certain measure of significance for both labor and management.
 指針が示されたことは、労使双方にとって一定の意義がある。

The government must make the guidelines fully known to corporations as soon as possible, with a view to ensuring the system will be operated based on these guiding principles.
 指針を踏まえた運用が行われるよう、政府は内容の周知徹底を急がなければならない。

The status of workers in the new category and ordinary regular employees should not be made permanent. This is essential for preventing employees in the new category from being reduced to a second type of nonregular worker.
 「第二の非正規社員」としないため、限定正社員と一般正社員の固定化は避けるべきだ。

Each business corporation should devise a scheme with which it can flexibly change the employment status of workers to accommodate their wishes.
 労働者の希望に応じて雇用形態を柔軟に変えられる制度を、各企業が設けることが求められる。

It is also important to reconsider working practices for ordinary regular employees, which seem to take for granted both habitual overtime and frequent job relocation.
 恒常的な残業や度重なる転勤を前提とした一般正社員の働き方を見直すことも重要だ。

The key to successfully pursuing the growth strategy is to improve nonregular workers’ career prospects while also better utilizing the abilities of female employees. All this is important, particularly at a time when our nation’s working population is decreasing.
 労働力人口が減少する中、非正規社員のキャリアアップや女性の活用は、成長戦略のカギを握る。

We hope the government and the private sector will come together to show wisdom in making improvements in the employment system, with a view to bringing workers’ motivation and abilities into full play.
官民が連携し、働く人の意欲と能力を最大限に引き出す雇用制度の充実に知恵を絞ってほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 14, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

GDP大幅減 消費回復の後押しが必要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Measures need to be taken to boost private consumption after tax hike
GDP大幅減 消費回復の後押しが必要だ

The decline in private consumption and other economic activity following the April 1 consumption tax hike has apparently been greater than initially expected.
 消費税率引き上げに伴う個人消費などの落ち込みは、当初の想定より大きかったようだ。

The government and the Bank of Japan must take all possible steps through their economic policies to prevent the adverse impact of the tax hike from continuing for a protracted period.
 消費増税の悪影響を長引かせないよう、政府と日銀は経済政策のかじ取りに万全を期さなければならない。

The nation’s real gross domestic product for the April-June period fell 1.7 percent from the previous quarter, marking the first decline in two quarters, according to Cabinet Office statistics released Wednesday.
 内閣府が発表した4~6月期の実質国内総生産(GDP)は、前期比1・7%減と、2四半期ぶりのマイナス成長になった。

The price-adjusted real GDP contracted 6.8 percent at an annualized rate in the fiscal first quarter. It was the biggest quarterly decline in the almost three years since the economy contracted markedly during January-March 2011, in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake in March that year.
年率換算で6・8%減と、東日本大震災による落ち込み以来、約3年ぶりの大幅な減少である。

Private consumption, which rose significantly in the previous quarter due to a last-minute surge in demand before the tax hike, fell 5 percent over the quarter under review. This was greater than the 3.5 percent drop posted during April-June 1997, when the consumption tax rate was raised in April that year.
 4月の消費増税前に駆け込み需要で伸びた個人消費は、前期比5%減と、前回の消費増税があった1997年4~6月期の3・5%減より大きなマイナスだった。

Economic and Fiscal Policy Minister Akira Amari said, “The effects of the backlash that followed the pre-tax-hike surge in demand are likely to wane gradually, and the economy is expected to stage a moderate recovery in the quarters to come,” indicating his bullish projections.
 甘利経済財政相は先行きについて、「次第に反動減の影響が薄れ、緩やかな景気回復が進む」と述べ、強気の見通しを示した。

Nevertheless, it is worrisome that the pickup in personal spending is weak, with department store and new automobile sales remaining sluggish even after July.
 だが、7月以降も百貨店の売上高や新車販売の不振が続くなど消費回復が鈍いのは気がかりだ。

Consumers may have been tightening their purse strings not only because of the tax hike, but also due to general price increases caused by the weakened yen and the rising price of crude oil.
 消費増税の影響だけでなく、円安や原油高による物価上昇もあって、消費者の財布のヒモが固くなっているのではないか。

Guard against slowdown

As capital investment by private companies also remains weak, there appears to be no engine for boosting domestic demand. Vigilance against an economic slowdown must be reinforced.
 設備投資も低調で、内需のけん引役が見当たらない。景気失速への警戒を強める必要がある。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is set to decide this year whether to proceed with a further increase in the consumption tax from 8 percent to 10 percent, currently slated for October 2015. He will likely need to clearly observe economic trends.
 安倍首相は年内にも、2015年10月に消費税率を予定通り8%から10%に引き上げるかどうか決断する。経済動向を注意深く見極めることになろう。

Economic measures formulated last December to ease the adverse impact of the consumption tax hike have not yielded sufficient positive effects, as there have been delays in public works projects due to labor shortages at construction sites and the soaring price of construction materials. Smooth implementation of these projects is needed.
 消費増税の影響緩和のため昨年12月に策定された経済対策は、建設現場の人手不足や資材高騰のあおりで公共工事が遅れ、まだ十分な効果が表れていない。事業の円滑な執行が求められる。

The mismatch between employers’ needs and job seekers’ skills in the labor market must be eliminated by improving vocational training, while measures should be taken to prevent the shortage of needed manpower from having further ill effects.
 職業訓練の充実などで求職と求人のミスマッチ解消を促進し、人手不足の弊害拡大を防ぎたい。

It is also important for the government to steadily carry out its growth strategy, including the lowering of the effective corporate tax rate and the easing of regulations.
 法人税実効税率の引き下げや規制緩和など、成長戦略の着実な実行も大切だ。

It is desirable to reinforce such trends, as reinvigorated corporate activity would lead to wage hikes, which in turn would stimulate personal spending.
企業活動の活発化が賃金上昇につながり、消費を刺激する流れを強めたい。

Soaring electricity rates will also hinder economic growth. As the restart of its nuclear power plant has been delayed, Hokkaido Electric Power Co. has applied for a second round of rate hikes, involving increases of about 20 percent.
 電力料金の高騰も成長の重しとなる。原子力発電所の再稼働が遅れているため、北海道電力は約2割の再値上げを申請した。

Other power companies, including Kansai Electric Power Co., have shown signs of following suit.
関西電力なども追随の構えを見せる。

The Nuclear Regulation Authority should conduct its safety examinations of nuclear power plants efficiently, and those plants whose safety has been confirmed should be allowed to steadily restart.
 原子力規制委員会の審査を効率的に進め、安全性を確認できた原発から着実に再稼働すべきだ。

Even though the yen has settled into a lower value, the nation’s exports have remained sluggish. We wonder if the nation’s earning power through foreign trade has weakened.
 円安が定着しているのに、輸出の不振が続いている。日本の「稼ぐ力」が低下していないか。

The public and private sectors must join hands to quickly boost the international competitiveness of industries and analyze structural problems with the economy, including the hollowing-out of industries.
 官民を挙げて産業競争力の強化に取り組むとともに、産業空洞化など構造的な要因の分析も急がなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 14, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)戦後69年 歴史を忘れぬ後代の責務

August 13, 2014
EDITORIAL: Japan has duty to keep alive lessons of wartime abuse
(社説)戦後69年 歴史を忘れぬ後代の責務

This year marks the 120th anniversary of the outbreak of the First Sino-Japanese War. When peace was shattered in

East Asia, the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun, the predecessor of The Asahi Shimbun, welcomed it in its July 29, 1894,

editorial.
 今年は日清戦争の開戦から120年にあたる。東アジアの平和が破られたその時、1894年7月29日付の東京朝日新聞朝刊は、

歓迎する社説を掲げた。

“War is not a disaster,” it read. “Rather, it is a means for progress. If trounced by Japan, China will repent.”
「戦争は災害ではなくむしろ進歩の方法」「清国は日本に大敗すれば反省するだろう」

Back then, it was taken for granted that countries seeking greatness would battle one another. And people were

probably not really aware yet of the brutality of modern artillery. But many soldiers and civilians ended up dead.
 富強を目指す国同士が戦うのを当然視した時代だった。火砲の発達がもたらす残虐さに対する意識も薄かったかもしれない。実際に

は将兵、一般人を含め犠牲者が多数にのぼった。

After two world wars in the 20th century, countries around the world learned from hard experience that they should

not go to war as a rule. This understanding is reflected in the Charter of the United Nations that provides for

restricted use of arms, and in Japan’s pacifist Constitution as well.
 その後、二つの世界大戦の経験を通じて各国は、戦争を基本的にやってはいけないこととみなした。武力行使を慎むと規定する国連

憲章、平和主義を掲げる日本国憲法とも、その延長線上にある。

The Japanese people came to understand acutely what war means after expanding their territory and then bringing

ruin upon themselves. But with the passage of 69 years since their nation’s defeat in World War II, their collective

memory is fading. How do we keep the memory alive?
 版図拡大と破綻(はたん)を経験した日本人自身の心にも、戦争の何たるかが刻まれた。だが戦後69年も経てば記憶は風化する。

どう伝えていけばいいだろう。

REWRITTEN NARRATIVES
 ■書き換えられる物語

History is sometimes forgotten, sometimes brought back from oblivion, and sometimes rewritten. This was already

going on in ancient Greece, notes British historian Robin Osborne in his book “Greece in the Making 1200-479 BC.”
 歴史は、ときに忘れられ、忘却からよみがえり、書き換えられる。それが古代ギリシャの時代からあったと、英国の歴史学者、R・オズボ

ーン氏が指摘している。(刀水書房刊「ギリシアの古代」による)

In 510 B.C., the expulsion of Hippias, a tyrant, from Athens brought democratic rule to Athens, which “was directly a

product of Spartan action,” writes Osborne.
 紀元前510年、アテネが独裁者ヒッピアスを追放し、民主政に道を開いたのはスパルタの協力によってであった。

But the Athenians came up with their own narrative, in which two Athenians, who had assassinated Hippias’s brother

four years previously, were given full credit for ending tyranny in Athens. The Athenians even built statues of the two

assassins to honor them. Why? Because relations between Athens and Sparta had become hostile.
ところがアテネでは、その4年前にヒッピアスではなく、その弟を殺したアテネ人の偉業という話にすり替わり、像が建てられた。それはアテネ

とスパルタが敵対関係に入ったためだった。

This reminds us of China. Until the 1980s, China refrained from openly discussing its history of fighting Japanese

aggression because maintaining amicable relations with Japan was Beijing’s top priority then. But China began

harping on Japanese aggression in the 1990s, and has since become increasingly strident. Nowadays, China hardly

ever mentions Japan’s past contributions to China’s development.
 連想されるのは中国である。日本による侵略と戦った歴史を語ることは、友好関係を最優先とした80年代まで抑えられていたが、90

年代以降、強調するようになった。関係が悪化した最近はなおさらだ。中国の発展に日本が貢献したことなど、なかなか触れられること

はない。

Some people may be quite put off by China’s ways. But before we complain to China, let us first look at our own

country.
 そんなやり方にうんざりする向きもあろう。だが相手に注文をつける前に、まずは、わが国について省みよう。

In April 2013, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe hosted a ceremony for the first time to commemorate Japan’s recovery of

sovereignty in 1952 when the 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty took effect. Lauding the nation’s phenomenal postwar

recovery and stressing the horrors of the lost war, Abe noted: “Japan was in ruins, and only its mountains and rivers

remained. Such was the state of our country in the summer of 1945.”
 安倍首相は昨年4月、サンフランシスコ講和条約発効を記念する主権回復式典を初めて催した。「国破れ、まさしく山河だけが残っ

たのが、昭和20年夏、わが国の姿でありました」。敗戦の悲惨を語り、その後の復興をたたえた。

But four months later, at the Aug. 15 memorial ceremony to mourn the nation’s war dead, Abe made no mention

whatsoever of the damage Japan inflicted on its Asian neighbors during the war.
 一方で4カ月後、8月15日の全国戦没者追悼式では、アジア諸国への加害についていっさい言及しなかった。

“From humiliation to glory” was the theme of Abe’s appealing narrative that left out any inconvenient historical fact.

The narrative is not necessarily all false, but there seems to lurk a design to rewrite history.
 「屈辱から栄光へ」という受け入れられやすい物語を強調し、不都合な史実には触れない。必ずしもうそではない。しかし、歴史書き

換えの一歩が潜んでいるのではないか。

WHAT IT MEANS TO RESPECT PEACE
 ■平和を尊ぶために

Of course, remembering the war damage done to our country is an important first step in the path to pacifism.
 もちろん、自国にもたらされた戦争被害を思い出すのは、平和思想の起点として大事だ。

But we must also remember our country’s history of spreading the horrors of war across Asia and victimizing innocent

citizens. To remember this history is the duty of all citizens who value peace above everything.
 だが、当時の日本軍がアジア諸国に戦火を広げ、市民を巻き込んだ歴史を忘れるわけにはいかない。平和を何よりも大事にする者と

しての義務である。

It is silly to criticize such citizens for having a masochistic view of history. It is shameful to be obsessed with the nation

’s superficial prestige and try to protect it by misrepresenting or distorting the past. A country can be considered

honorable only if it can honestly face the past to learn lessons from it.
 それを自虐史観と呼ぶのは愚かである。表面的な国の威信を気にして過去をごまかすのは、恥ずべきことだ。過去から教訓を正しく引

き出してこそ、誇りある国だろう。

Keeping alive the memories of the country’s history of abuse of its wartime enemies and citizens is not easy in the

absence of a firm resolve to do so. The people who personally committed acts of abuse do not want to talk, and it is

certainly hard and painful to listen to harrowing accounts. And most of the victims of abuse or their surviving families

live outside Japan.
 加害の歴史を記憶していくのは、よほど自覚しないと難しい。手を下した当事者は口をつぐむ。聞くほうもつらい。被害者やその遺族の

居場所は、ほとんどが国外だ。

In the 69 years since the end of World War II, many stories about kamikaze suicide missions have become bestsellers.

But among war-related works that continue to be read today, how many deal with the damage Japan inflicted on

Asian nations?
 そして69年が過ぎた。特攻隊の物語はベストセラーになるが、戦争加害を正面から扱う文学で読み継がれているものが、どれほどあ

るだろう。

It is the duty of Japan’s postwar generation to keep reminding itself not to forget the easy-to-forget history and let

the rest of the world know its resolve whenever appropriate.
 後代の者の務めは、忘れがちな歴史を忘れないと、折に触れ内外に示すことだ。

And this is exactly why it is of tremendous significance that generations of Japanese prime ministers have established

the custom of mentioning Japan’s war responsibility while mourning the nation’s war dead on Aug. 15 every year.
だからこそ8月15日、歴代首相が戦没者追悼とともに加害責任に触れる慣例が、意義を持ったのだ。

In 2007, during his first stint as prime minister, Abe said that Japan had “inflicted tremendous damage and pain on

people in Asian nations.” But last year, he chose a different approach. We urge him strongly to repeat those original

words t
his year on behalf of the people of Japan.
 安倍首相も、第1次政権の07年は「アジア諸国の人々に対して多大の損害と苦痛を与えた」と述べた。にもかかわらず、昨年は異な

る選択をした。今年こそ、日本国民を代表して再び言うべきである。

LESSONS FROM FIRST SINO-JAPANESE WAR
 ■日清戦争の教訓とは

Last month, several opinion pieces on the First Sino-Japanese War were published in China. Noting that China of the

Qing dynasty lost the war because it was weaker than Japan, the authors discussed what China of today should do.
 先月、中国では日清戦争を回顧した論評がいくつか発表された。当時は弱いから負けた、ならばいま、どうすればいいか、という問題

意識だ。

The overseas version of The People’s Daily, the organ of the Chinese Communist Party, argued to the effect, “We

must ensure not to repeat the tragedy of the First Sino-Japanese War by securing extensive maritime rights with our

navy and enhancing our capability to protect our sovereignty and security.”
 中国共産党機関紙・人民日報(海外版)は「我々は海軍を基本とする強大な海上権を確立し、国家の主権、安全を守る能力を高

め、甲午戦争(日清戦争)の悲劇が繰り返されないようにすべきだ」と論じた。

But in using history to justify its recent arms expansion, China is heading in the wrong direction. Its argument in favor

of an armed clash, just like 120 years ago, suggests China’s failure to understand history correctly.
 しかし昨今の軍備拡張の正当化のために歴史を利用するのでは、方向性を間違えている。120年前と同様、力と力の衝突を肯定

するかのような議論は、むしろ歴史を踏まえていないものだ。

And Japan definitely must not do anything that might result in giving credence to China’s perception of history. Even

if only to prevent such an eventuality, Japan must continue to express the remorse it felt 69 years ago.
 そのような議論に、こちらのほうから現実味を与えるわけにはいかない。そのためにも、69年前の反省をきちんと掲げ続けなくてはならな

いのである。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 13

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月13日 (水)

スイッチポンで瞬時に反応 店舗口コミランキングサイト

世の中同じような検索サイトは星の数ほどありますが、スイッチポンで瞬時に反応する手ごたえが気に入りました。
エキテン はPCでもスマートフォンなどの携帯端末でも自由自在に使える店舗口コミランキングサイトなんです。

トップの上に検索窓があります。
場所と店舗の種類(ジャンル)を打ち込むだけで、ぱっと、めぼしい店舗がまとまって表示されます。
スイッチポンで瞬時に反応するサイトは少ないので驚きました。

近頃、歯が悪いので、地域名と歯医者のキーワードをインプットしたら、たくさんの候補がぱっと現れました。
これからの検索はこうじゃなくってはいけません。
忙しい現代人向きのすばやい検索プログラムなんです。
使い方は自由自在! あなたしだいなのです。

エキテンではただいま特別キャンペーンを実施しています。

写真投稿でポイントがもらえます。
http://www.ekiten.jp/documents/campaign_photo.html

エキテン新ポイント開始記念キャンペーン(今だけみたいです^^)
http://www.ekiten.jp/documents/campaign_newpoint.html







ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ レビューブログからの情報です

| | コメント (0)

日中・日韓関係 対話重ねて現状を打開したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Strained ties with China, S. Korea should be mended through dialogue
日中・日韓関係 対話重ねて現状を打開したい

Japan should aim to improve its bilateral ties with China and South Korea, with dialogues built on various levels and mutual concessions made on both sides.
 様々なレベルで対話を重ね、双方が歩み寄ったうえで、中国、韓国との関係改善を図りたい。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida held talks with his Chinese and South Korean counterparts separately in Myanmar.
 岸田外相はミャンマーで、中韓両国の外相と個別に会談した。

It was the first foreign ministerial meet to be held between Japan and China in roughly two years. Upset with Japan’s nationalization of part of the Senkaku Islands and other factors, China had rejected Japan’s calls to hold bilateral talks. Although Japan must not be too optimistic, the latest development may be a positive sign for the currently strained ties.
 日中外相会談の開催は約2年ぶりだ。中国が尖閣諸島の国有化などに反発し、会談を拒否していた。楽観は禁物だが、現状打開への一歩となり得るのではないか。

Following the talks, Kishida told reporters, “I hope [Saturday’s talks] will be the first step in improving our bilateral relations.”
 岸田氏は会談後、記者団に「これをきっかけに、関係改善を進めていきたい」と語った。

Regarding improvement in the China-Japan relationship, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said it would depend on Japan acting with sincerity and implementing actual steps to achieve that goal.
中国の王毅外相は、関係改善について「日本側が誠意を示し、実際の措置をとれるかどうかだ」と述べた。

By saying this, China is probably hinting that it wants Japan to acknowledge the existence of a bilateral territorial dispute over the Senkakus. But if all China does is one-sidedly press Japan to show its “sincerity” over the issue, bilateral relations will not improve.
 尖閣諸島について領土問題の存在を認めさせたいのだろう。だが、一方的に日本に「誠意」を迫るだけでは、関係は好転しない。

China will host an Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit meeting in Beijing in November. A focal point in the days ahead is whether China does in fact want to realize Japan-China summit talks on the occasion of the APEC forum meeting.
 中国は、11月に北京でアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議を主催する。今後の焦点は、中国がその際に、日中首脳会談を実現させたいかどうかだ。

As a chair of the APEC meeting, China must not allow it to end up in failure. In this respect, China cannot afford to leave its bilateral ties with Japan “broken off” until then.
 議長国としてAPECの失敗は許されない。日本との“絶縁状態”を放置しておけないはずだ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has shown his eagerness to hold talks with Chinese President Xi Jinping during the APEC meeting. Former Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda visited China last month and held talks with Xi, apparently as part of government efforts to improve the environment for holding the summit talks.
 安倍首相は、APECでの習近平国家主席との首脳会談に意欲を示している。福田康夫元首相が7月に訪中し、習氏と会談したのも、その環境整備の一環だろう。

Seek mutual benefits

Political confrontations between Japan and China have had markedly adverse impacts on their economic relations. There are also a number of areas in which the two countries need to cooperate, such as environmental issues and food safety.
 日中の政治対立は、経済関係に大きな悪影響を与えている。環境問題や食の安全など、日中協力が必要な分野も多い。

Both leaders need to make mutual concessions with a broad perspective of pursuing “mutually beneficial relationship based on common strategic interests.”
両首脳は「戦略的互恵関係」の大局に立って、歩み寄らなければならない。

Meanwhile, during the Japan-South Korean foreign ministerial meeting held for the first time in 11 months, both sides agreed on the continuation of dialogue, but remained far apart in their assertions.
 一方、11か月ぶりの日韓外相会談は、対話の継続では一致したが、主張の隔たりは大きかった。

Kishida emphasized to South Korean Foreign Minister Yun Byung Se that “Amicable Japan-South Korean relations will provide mutual benefits.”
 岸田氏は「良好な日韓関係は相互の利益だ」と強調した。

Yet Yun mentioned Abe’s visit to Yasukuni Shrine late last year and a Japanese governmental panel’s recent report reexamining the process of drafting the Kono statement on so-called comfort women, criticizing these developments for damaging bilateral relations.
 だが、韓国の尹炳世外相は、首相の靖国神社参拝や、いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題に関する河野官房長官談話の検証に言及し、「両国関係は損なわれた」と批判した。

Yun also called on Japanese political leaders “to exhibit their wisdom and political clout” on pressing issues, including the one related to comfort women. Again this time, there was no change in South Korea’s hard-line stance of only demanding that Japan make concessions.
 慰安婦問題などで「日本の政治リーダーが知恵と政治力を発揮してほしい」とも要求した。日本側だけに譲歩を求める強硬姿勢は、今回も変わらなかった。

The deteriorated relations between Tokyo and Seoul are more attributable to South Korea than to Japan, with such factors as then South Korean President Lee Myung Bak’s visit to the Takeshima islands in 2012 and an anti-Japan stance taken by current President Park Geun-hye. It is deemed unreasonable for Seoul to unilaterally expect Tokyo to make efforts to solve the bilateral issues.
 日韓関係の悪化は、李明博前大統領の竹島訪問や朴槿恵大統領の反日姿勢など、むしろ韓国に起因する面が大きい。日本に一方的に問題解決の努力を期待するのは、無理があろう。

To close the rift between Japan and South Korea, efforts should be made by both sides. With North Korea’s nuclear and missile development growing more serious, the United States has consistently demanded that both Japan and South Korea improve bilateral ties. Neither Japan nor South Korea must become a factor to cause regional instability.
 日韓間の溝を埋める努力は双方に必要だ。北朝鮮の核・ミサイル問題が深刻化する中、米国は一貫して、日韓関係の改善を強く求めている。日韓自体が地域の不安定要因になってはなるまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 12, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

南シナ海情勢 中国に挑発凍結を促し続けよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Keep pressure on Beijing to freeze provocations in South China Sea
南シナ海情勢 中国に挑発凍結を促し続けよ

Antagonism has become more conspicuous over the South China Sea between China and a group of countries including Japan and the United States.
 南シナ海を巡る日米両国などと中国の対立が、一層鮮明になった。

This could be observed at the recent ASEAN Regional Forum in Myanmar, where foreign ministers and officials from 27 countries and organizations gathered to discuss security issues. They included Japan, the United States, China and the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
 日米中や東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)など27か国・機構の外相らが安全保障問題を話し合うASEAN地域フォーラム(ARF)が、ミャンマーで開かれた。

The focal topic at the meeting was South China Sea affairs, including the territorial dispute between China and Vietnam over the Paracel Islands.
 焦点は、パラセル諸島の領有を巡る中国とベトナムの対立をはじめとする南シナ海情勢だった。

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry called on the countries concerned to put a voluntary freeze on provocative actions. His idea of resolving disputes peacefully through negotiations after easing tensions was supported by the Philippines.
 ケリー米国務長官は、挑発行為の自発的な凍結を当事国に呼びかけた。緊張を緩和した後、交渉で問題を平和的に解決するとの考え方で、フィリピンも同調した。

The current regional tensions have been caused by China’s self-righteous actions such as carrying out reclamation work to build facilities and drilling for oil in disputed waters. If such provocative actions are suspended, it would help in making arrangements for negotiations.
 現在の緊張の原因は、係争海域での石油掘削や埋め立てによる施設建設など、中国の独善的行動だ。挑発行為が凍結されれば、協議の環境を整えるのに有効だろう。

Stressing the importance of the principle of “the rule of law,” Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida expressed opposition to the use of force and coercion as well as the importance for resolving disputes peacefully.
 岸田外相は、「法の支配」の原則を強調するとともに、力の行使や威圧への反対、平和的な問題解決の重要性を訴えた。

The root cause of the problems was that China has been insisting on territorial rights with no grounds in international law and trying to expand its effective rule with the backing of its military might. Kishida’s statements could be intended to check such movements by China. Assertions similar to Kishida’s have been made successively by the representatives of other countries.
 問題の根源は、中国が国際法上の根拠がない領有権を主張し、軍事力を背景に実効支配の拡大を図っていることだ。岸田氏の発言は中国への牽制けんせいであり、他国からも同様の主張が相次いだという。

In response, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi presented a plan to work together with the ASEAN toward early establishment of a legally binding code of conduct in the South China Sea.
 これに対し、中国の王毅外相は、法的な拘束力を持つ南シナ海行動規範の早期策定を、ASEANと進める方針を示した。

Shared interests at stake

It is, of course, desirable to work out a code of conduct aimed at ensuring peace and stability in the South China Sea. But it is suspected that China’s real intention could be to eliminate U.S. involvement in the sea while buying time by promoting talks on a code of conduct.
 南シナ海の平和と安定を目指す行動規範の策定は無論、望ましい。だが、中国の本音は、規範策定で「時間稼ぎ」をしつつ、米国の関与を排除することではないか。

If that is the case, China’s proposal on a code of conduct cannot be endorsed, as freedom of navigation and other interests of the whole international community are at stake.
 それならば、航行の自由などは国際社会全体の利益に関わる問題である以上、容認できない。

We should pay heed to China’s increasing moves to divide ASEAN into pro- and anti-China groups by wielding its economic clout.
 注意が必要なのは、中国が経済力を駆使し、ASEAN内の分断工作を強めていることだ。

China has been providing assistance to Cambodia and Laos in connection with their infrastructure development projects in the Mekong River area. Beijing has also offered an economic cooperation plan to the Thai military regime that took power in a May coup.
 カンボジアやラオスには、メコン川流域の社会資本開発事業などを支援している。5月にクーデターを起こしたタイ軍事政権にも、経済協力策を示した。

It is cause for worry that Thailand has quickly declared its support for a China-led plan to establish an Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.
 中国主導の「アジアインフラ投資銀行」構想にタイがいち早く支持を表明したのは気がかりだ。

The joint statement of the ASEAN foreign ministers’ meeting held ahead of the ARF expressed “serious concern” about the South China Sea issue.
 ARFに先立つASEAN外相会議の共同声明は、南シナ海問題に「深刻な懸念」を表明した。

In the process of drafting the statement, Cambodia among others reportedly opposed a Philippine proposal to call for a “freeze on provocative actions.” China’s diplomatic maneuvering has thus had certain results.
 声明の案文作りでは、カンボジアなどが、「挑発行為の凍結」を求めるフィリピン案に反対したという。中国の工作は一定の成果を上げている。

To prevent China from forcibly changing the status quo in the South China Sea, Japan and the United States must beef up cooperation with not only ASEAN member nations but also their neighboring countries such as Australia and India.
 日米両国は、中国による南シナ海での「力ずくの現状変更」を許さないため、ASEAN各国はもとより、豪州、インドなど周辺国との連携を強める必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 12, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)日本と中韓 異常な外交に終止符を

August 12, 2014
EDITORIAL: Japan, China and South Korea must not let war anniversaries break diplomatic momentum
(社説)日本と中韓 異常な外交に終止符を

The recent meetings between the Japanese foreign minister and his Chinese and South Korean counterparts highlighted afresh the surprising and disturbing fact that the top diplomats had failed to hold talks for so long.
 隣国の外相同士が、これほど長い間まともに会談できなかったことに、改めて驚かざるを得ない。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida recently met separately with Wang Yi of China and Yun Byung-se of South Korea in Myanmar on the sidelines of meetings involving top foreign policy officials from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations members and its key partners.
 岸田外相が、ミャンマーでの東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)関連の会議にあわせ、中国の王毅(ワンイー)外相、韓国の尹炳世(ユンビョンセ)外相と個別に会談した。

It was the first meeting between the top diplomats of Japan and China in nearly two years, and also the first since Prime Minister Shinzo Abe came to power for a second time in December 2012. It had been about 10 months since the Japanese and South Korean foreign ministers last held talks.
 日中外相会談は第2次安倍内閣になってからは初めてで、実に約2年ぶり。日韓は約10カ月ぶりである。

Kishida’s discussions with Wang and Yun in Myanmar were principally attempts to lay the diplomatic groundwork for the first meetings between Abe and the leaders of Japan’s two neighbors.
 ふたつの外相会談とも、まだ実現していない日中、日韓の首脳会談を意識してのものだった。

It would be naïve to expect just one foreign ministerial meeting to pave the way for a summit between Japan and either China or South Korea. But Kishida’s meetings with his Chinese and South Korean counterparts nevertheless represent a step forward in efforts to improve these important bilateral ties.
Both sides should make further diplomatic efforts to realize meetings of their leaders.
たった一度の外相会談で道筋がつくものでもなかろうが、一歩前進であることは確かだ。首脳会談に向けた双方のいっそうの外交努力を求めたい。

The governments of Japan and China are exploring the possibility of talks between Abe and Chinese President Xi Jinping during this year’s Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing in November.
 日中両政府が念頭に置くのは、11月に北京で開かれるアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)の際の安倍首相と習近平(シーチンピン)国家主席の会談だ。

Since China hosts the event, the APEC conference will offer a good opportunity for the Japanese and Chinese leaders to hold talks.
中国が各国首脳を迎えるホスト役を務めることから、2国間の首脳会談を設定しやすいからだ。

In July, former Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda visited China and met secretly with Xi. They agreed to improve Sino-Japanese relations, and Fukuda reportedly conveyed Abe’s message about his desire to meet with the Chinese leader.
 7月には福田康夫元首相が訪中し、習主席とひそかに会談。日中関係の改善で一致し、福田氏は首脳会談実現に向けた安倍氏の意欲を伝えたという。

China’s remarkable rise has triggered various moves toward creating new economic and security orders in the Asia-Pacific region.
 中国の台頭に伴い、アジア太平洋地域では、経済と安全保障の両面で新たな秩序がつくられようとしている。

Countries in the region are trying to figure out ways to conclude and expand economic deals like free trade agreements and the Trans-Pacific Partnership pact.
 自由貿易協定(FTA)や環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)などの経済協定をどうつくりあげ、発展させていくか。

The main regional security challenges include not just how to respond to North Korea’s nuclear and missile programs but also how to deal with China’s assertive, hard-line stance toward territorial disputes in the South China Sea.
安全保障面では、北朝鮮の核・ミサイル開発への対応ばかりでなく、領土・領海をめぐる南シナ海での中国の強硬姿勢にどう対処していくか。

While the United States and South Korea have been actively engaged with China through strategic dialogue and other channels of communication, Japan, a major regional power, has done nothing but repeat that its “door of dialogue is always open.” The situation is simply unacceptable.
 米国や韓国が戦略対話などを通じて積極的に中国とかかわっているのをよそに、地域の大国である日本だけが「対話のドアは常にオープンだ」と言っているばかりですむはずはない。

Since the Japanese government bought the disputed Senkaku Islands from a private landowner in September 2012, tensions between Tokyo and Beijing have been running high, triggering a series of scary incidents. They even include cases of Chinese fighters flying dangerously close to Self-Defense Forces aircraft. The situation urgently demands serious talks between the two countries.
 おととしの尖閣諸島の国有化をきっかけに、東シナ海では自衛隊機が中国の戦闘機に異常接近される事態まで起きた。対話は急務である。

Many dates in the coming weeks will mark key events related to World War II. They include Aug. 15, the day of Japan’s surrender in 1945, and Sept. 18, the day when a staged bomb attack against Japan’s South Manchuria Railway took place in Liutiaohu in 1931, setting off the Manchurian Incident.
This is the season for reflecting on the devastation caused by the war and lessons from the history.
 これから終戦記念日の8月15日や満州事変の発端となった柳条湖事件の9月18日など、戦争の惨禍や歴史に思いをはせる季節がやってくる。

Tokyo, Beijing and Seoul should ensure that nothing will take place at these occasions that could dampen the budding diplomatic momentum for improving the bilateral ties.
ここでまた関係改善の機運に水を差す事態が起きることは、何としても避ける必要がある。

Abe and other Japanese political leaders should refrain from visiting Yasukuni Shrine. China, for its part, should stop using Japan’s past acts as tools for its international propaganda campaign.
 首相はじめ日本の指導者は靖国神社への参拝は慎まねばならない。また中国も、日本の過去の行為をいつまでも国際的な宣伝の材料に使うべきではない。

We strongly urge the three governments to exercise self-restraint and work together to put their relations on a better standing.
 双方の自制と努力を望む。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 12

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月12日 (火)

DVストーカー 被害者住所の漏洩を防止せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Local govts must handle addresses carefully in domestic abuse cases
DVストーカー 被害者住所の漏洩を防止せよ

In a considerable number of criminal cases involving stalking and domestic violence against spouses and lovers, perpetrators requested municipal governments to issue copies of resident registries to locate their targets.
 配偶者や恋人への暴力(DV)や、ストーカー事件では、加害者が、相手の所在を突き止めようと、市区町村に住民票の交付などを申請するケースが少なくない。

City, ward, town and village offices should respond carefully to such requests and not issue them without due consideration.
 自治体には、安易に交付しない慎重な対応が求められる。

However, in case after case, carelessness by employees of municipal governments has led to leaks of personal information of residents who had asked the governments to restrict access to their resident registries. It was a matter of course for the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry to issue instructions to all municipal governments to tightly manage information they keep.
 ところが、職員の不注意などで住民票の閲覧・交付制限を希望している人の情報を漏らす例が相次いでいる。総務省が、各自治体に情報管理の徹底を指示する通知を出したのは、当然と言えよう。

As of the end of last year, access to information contained in the resident registries of as many as 67,000 people was subject to restriction. The ministry’s instructions call for each government to have one employee in charge of managing restricted information and urge that only that employee approve the issue of copies of resident registries.
 住民票の閲覧・交付制限の対象者は、昨年末で6万7000人に上る。通知は、制限対象の情報管理に関する責任者を配置し、責任者の了解がなければ、住民票を交付しないよう求めている。

The ministry also urged the governments to allow other relevant employees in other sections to see warnings displayed when someone is accessing restricted information in the Basic Resident Registration System.
 住民基本台帳システムに表示される閲覧・交付制限の警告を、他部局の情報システムでも確認できるようにする対策も促した。

Municipal governments should consistently follow the ministry’s instructions to protect victims.
 被害者保護のため、各自治体は着実に実行してもらいたい。

In 2012, a woman in Zushi, Kanagawa Prefecture, was stabbed to death by a former boyfriend, bringing the issue of information leaks by municipal governments to the fore.
 自治体からの情報漏洩ろうえいが大きな問題となったのは、神奈川県逗子市で2012年に、女性が元交際相手の男に刺殺された事件だ。

At the request of the perpetrator, the de facto head of an investigative company, pretending to be the woman’s husband, allegedly called the city’s tax affairs section to obtain her address, whose access was restricted.
 男の関係者から依頼された調査会社が、夫を装って市納税課に電話をかけ、制限対象だった女性の住所を聞き出したとされる。

Awareness crucial

In February last year, an employee of the Fukushima city government, who received an application for child medical care assistance from a female victim of domestic violence, erroneously sent related documents that revealed her address to her former husband.
 福島市では昨年2月、DV被害者の女性から、子供の医療費助成の申請を受けた担当職員が、女性の転居先を記した関連書類を元夫に送付してしまった。

The mistake occurred because the employee did not realize access to her information was restricted. If this employee had paid more attention, the error could have been prevented.
 職員が、住民票の閲覧・交付制限に気づかなかったのが原因だ。きちんと注意を払っていれば、防げたはずのミスである。

Municipal government employees can sometimes face difficult situations in making decisions.
 中には、難しい判断を迫られるケースもあろう。

Such cases include those in which perpetrators conspire to obtain copies of resident registries by abusing stipulations of the Basic Resident Registration System.
 例えば、加害者が住民基本台帳法の規定を悪用して、住民票の入手を企たくらんだ場合である。

Under the law, a copy of a resident registry can be issued to a third party for a legitimate reason. If a request for the copy is made for collecting debts or initiating a lawsuit, a legitimate reason is necessary to reject the request even if access to the information is restricted.
 同法は、正当な理由があれば、第三者への住民票交付を認めている。債権回収や訴訟提起などの目的で申請されると、交付制限の対象であっても、拒否するには相当な理由が必要となる。

Last December, a man abducted his child from the home of his former wife who had moved from Kashiwa, Chiba Prefecture, to another prefecture. In this case, an acquaintance of his had obtained a copy of her nullified registry, which included her new address, by submitting a forged IOU to the Kashiwa city hall.
 昨年12月、千葉県柏市から県外に転居した女性の元夫が、女性宅から子供を連れ去った。この事件では、元夫の知人が、偽造した女性の借用書を柏市役所に示し、女性の転居先が記された住民票の除票を手に入れていた。

It is difficult to ascertain if IOUs and other documents are valid at the windows of municipal governments. Therefore, immediate responses at the window should be avoided. It is essential to have a mechanism in place to adequately deal with any situation with the help of lawyers and other experts.
 自治体の窓口で借用書などの真偽を見分けるのは困難だろう。その場で即断せず、弁護士など専門家の助言を得られるようにしておくなど、的確に対処するための体制作りが大事だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 10, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

米軍イラク空爆 オバマ大統領の苦渋の決断だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Decision to launch Iraq air strikes a wrenching choice for Obama
米軍イラク空爆 オバマ大統領の苦渋の決断だ

U.S. forces have launched air strikes in Iraq against an Islamic extremist group. This is the first U.S. military intervention since U.S. forces withdrew completely from Iraq in 2011.
 米軍がイラクで、イスラム過激派組織に対する空爆に踏み切った。

For the administration of President Barack Obama, which has touted the pullout from Iraq as one of its major accomplishments, the decision to militarily intervene again signifies a policy change toward Iraq.
 2011年に米軍がイラクから全面撤収して以来、初の軍事介入だ。
 イラクからの米軍撤収を大きな成果に掲げてきたオバマ政権にとって、再度の軍事介入はイラク政策の転換を意味する。

The U.S. strikes are targeting positions of the Islamic State, an extremist organization of the Islamic Sunni sect. U.S. aircraft including fighter planes and unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) have repeatedly bombed such targets as mortar positions of the Islamic State.
 米軍が空爆したのは、イスラム教スンニ派の過激派組織「イスラム国」の拠点だ。米空母搭載の戦闘攻撃機や無人攻撃機が、迫撃砲陣地などを繰り返し爆撃した。

Having expanded its sphere of influence by taking advantage of the civil war in Syria, the Islamic State has launched assaults on other religious sects and ethnic groups, seizing towns and oil fields one after another in Iraq, which is now on the brink of a security collapse.
 イラクでは、シリア内戦に乗じて勢力を拡大したイスラム国が、他の宗派や民族を攻撃し、都市や油田を次々に占拠している。国家崩壊の危機である。

The United States earlier sent such personnel as military advisers to Iraq to help prop up the struggling Iraqi government, but the situation has grown worse and worse. The U.S. decision to embark on military action to rein in the extremists’ offensive is understandable.
 劣勢のイラク政府をテコ入れするため、米国は軍事顧問などを派遣したが、その後も戦況は悪くなるばかりだ。過激派の攻勢に歯止めをかける軍事行動に乗り出したことは理解できる。

Regarding the purpose of the air strikes, Obama referred in a speech on Thursday to the protection of such Americans as diplomats and military advisers who are stationed in Iraq.
 オバマ大統領は目的について、外交官や軍事顧問などイラク在住の米国人の保護を挙げた。

He also pointed out that many Iraqi residents who have fled to the mountains to escape persecution by the extremists are facing death due to a lack of food and water. Emphasizing the humanitarian aspect of the air strikes, he noted current events “would constitute genocide,” and that “the United States cannot turn a blind eye.”
 さらに、過激派の迫害で山岳地帯に逃げ込んだ多数の住民が、食料も水もなく死に直面していると指摘し、「大虐殺に相当する。米国は見て見ぬふりはできない」と、人道的な側面を強調した。

Exit strategy unclear

Britain and France have expressed their unequivocal support for the U.S. air strikes, which were made in response to requests from the Iraqi government. Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida has also expressed a degree of understanding, saying the air strikes should be deemed as “part of the fight against terrorism.”
 イラクの要請に基づく今回の空爆に対し、英仏は明確な支持を表明した。岸田外相も、「テロとの戦いの一環」だとして、一定の理解を示した。

With a midterm election scheduled for November in the United States, the air strikes must have been a politically tough decision for the president.
 米国は11月に中間選挙を控えており、空爆は政治的にも難しい決断だったと言えよう。

Many members of the opposition Republican Party have criticized the Obama administration over the deterioration of the Iraq situation, saying it resulted from the administration’s weak-kneed stance.
 イラク情勢の悪化について野党共和党内には、オバマ政権の「弱腰」が原因とする批判が多い。

Meanwhile, many U.S. citizens have opposed sending U.S. troops overseas. Obama strongly denied the possibility of deploying ground troops in his statement, presumably in consideration of such public opinion.
 一方、国民の多くは米軍の海外派兵に反対だ。オバマ氏が地上部隊の派遣を強く否定した背景には世論への配慮もあるのだろう。

It is concerning, however, that the effect of the air strikes is unclear, and the Obama administration has not crafted an exit strategy. Should the air strikes become unnecessarily protracted, fears would then arise of anti-U.S. sentiment that could develop among the Iraqi people.
 懸念されるのは、空爆の効果が不透明で、「出口戦略」が描けていないことだ。いたずらに空爆が長引けば、イラク国民の反米感情が高まる恐れもある。

For the sake of the long-term stabilization of Iraq, it is indispensable to achieve reconciliation among Iraqi communities and improve public order and security by strengthening the Iraqi forces.
 長期的なイラク安定化のためには、イラク国民の融和と、イラク軍の強化による治安の改善を図ることが欠かせない。

It is vitally important to establish a national unity Cabinet involving both the Islamic Sunni and Shiite sects, as well as Kurdish and other participating forces, as early as possible.
 イスラム教のシーア派とスンニ派、クルド人などの各勢力が参画する挙国一致内閣を早期に樹立することが肝要だ。

The United States should tenaciously continue its diplomatic efforts to stabilize the Iraqi situation through cooperation with such nearby countries as Iran, a major power among the Shiite nations, and Saudi Arabia, which has significant influence over Sunni Muslims.
 米国は、シーア派大国のイランや、スンニ派に影響力を持つサウジアラビアなど周辺国と連携し、イラク安定に向けて粘り強く外交努力を続けるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 10, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)被爆地と首相 逆行あり得ぬ非核への道

August 11, 2014
EDITORIAL: Japan must pursue a path to a nuclear-free world
(社説)被爆地と首相 逆行あり得ぬ非核への道

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Hiroshima and Nagasaki this month, both of which marked the 69th anniversaries of the atomic bombings. In the ceremonies in both cities, he emphasized determination to realize a world without nuclear weapons.
 原爆投下から69年の広島、長崎を安倍晋三首相が訪れた。式典では「核兵器のない世界を実現する」との決意を強調した。

However, it seems that the gap between Abe and the cities that were struck by atomic bombs has increased since last year.
 だが、被爆地との溝は昨年より深まったように見える。

In a meeting with Abe in Hiroshima, 85-year-old hibakusha Yukio Yoshioka said, “(The Cabinet’s approval of the exercise of the right to collective self-defense) will make Japan a country that repeats its (past) mistake and can wage a war.”
 「過ちを繰り返し、戦争のできる国にするものだ」。広島で首相と懇談した被爆者の吉岡幸雄さん(85)は言った。

Miyako Jodai, 75, who served as the representative of atomic bomb survivors in the ceremony in Nagasaki, said, “I want the government not to forget or deny the sufferings of atomic bomb survivors.”
長崎の式典で被爆者代表を務めた城臺美彌子(じょうだいみやこ)さん(75)は「被爆者の苦しみを忘れ、なかったことにしないで」と力を込めた。

They apparently demanded that Abe withdraw the Cabinet’s approval of the exercise of the right to collective self-defense.
 ともに、集団的自衛権の行使を認めた閣議決定の撤回を首相に求めるものだった。

DIFFERENT FROM DESIRES
 ■重ならない願い

There are also other causes of concern.
 懸念材料はほかにもある。

One is the exports of nuclear power generation infrastructure to emerging countries. Another is negotiations to conclude a nuclear power agreement with India, which has conducted nuclear tests without joining the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Both could lead to nuclear proliferation.
 新興国への原発輸出、核不拡散条約(NPT)に加盟せずに核実験したインドとの原子力協定交渉……。どちらも核拡散につながる恐れがぬぐえない。

The Abe administration also plans to maintain the policy of removing plutonium from spent nuclear fuels and reusing it in nuclear power plants.
 安倍政権は、プルトニウムを使用済み核燃料から新たに取り出して原発で利用する政策も続ける方針だ。

After the March 2011 nuclear disaster in Fukushima Prefecture, the future of nuclear power generation remains unclear. In addition, Japan already holds stocks of more than 40 tons of plutonium whose use has yet to be decided. Anti-nuclear groups in Japan and abroad suspect that Japan has the intention of arming itself with nuclear weapons.
 福島での大事故のあと、原発の未来が不透明なままだ。しかも日本は、利用計画を定めきれない40トン以上のプルトニウムの在庫を抱えている。内外の反核団体などは、「核武装の意図があるのでは」といぶかる。

Why are the moves of the government of A-bombed Japan so different from the desires for anti-nuclear policies?
 被爆国である日本の政府の動きがなぜ、これほどまでに反核の願いと重ならないのか。

In cities that were devastated by the atomic bombs, Abe asked the people to understand the Cabinet’s approval of the exercise of the right to collective self-defense by repeatedly saying, “It is to protect the lives and livelihoods of the people.”
 安倍首相は被爆地で「国民の命と暮らしを守るためだ」と繰り返し、集団的自衛権の行使容認に理解を求めた。

The government’s basic stance is as follows: China’s military power is conspicuously increasing. North Korea is not halting its nuclear and missile development. The security environment surrounding Japan is becoming harsher. Therefore, the series of policies is preparation for a variety of threats.
 中国の軍事的台頭が目立ち、北朝鮮は核・ミサイル開発をやめない。日本の安全保障環境は厳しくなっており、一連の政策は多様な脅威への備えだというのが、政権の基本姿勢だ。

CONTRADICTIONS OF POLICIES
 ■政策の矛盾深く

It is said that in Northeast Asia, nuclear deterrence is effective because some countries continued to possess nuclear
weapons even after the end of the Cold War. Therefore, the government’s policy of depending on the U.S. nuclear umbrella is unshakable.
 冷戦後も核を持つ国がひしめき、核抑止力がものを言うとされるのが北東アジアだ。
このため、米国の「核の傘」に頼るという方針も揺るがない。

If concerned countries only rely on nuclear weapons, however, the era of risking catastrophe by nuclear war will continue. China, Russia and North Korea will heighten their alarm against the strengthening of the Japan-U.S. alliance based on nuclear weapons. As a result, “the lives and the livelihoods of the people” will be endangered.
 ただ、関係国が核兵器に依存するばかりでは、核戦争による破滅リスクを背負ったままの時代が続く。核を主軸に据えた日米同盟の強化に、中国やロシア、北朝鮮が警戒感を高め、「国民の命と暮らし」が逆に危うくなりかねない。

However, the Abe administration is taking no action to drastically minimize the role of nuclear weapons and positively reduce the risk of the nuclear age.
 ところが安倍政権には、「核の役割」を大きく低下させ、核時代のリスクを積極的に消していくような発信も行動もない。

There are many cases that run counter to nuclear disarmament. One is the missile defense (MD) system, which is being jointly developed by Japan and the United States at present.
 核軍縮に逆行するような事例は、いくつもある。たとえば、日米共同で開発を進めるミサイル防衛(MD)システムだ。

The United States puts expectations on Japan’s exercise of the right to collective self-defense on the grounds that the exercise will lead to the strengthening of the MD system. That is because the Abe administration says that it plans to make it possible for Japan to shoot down ballistic missiles targeting the U.S. mainland or warships under the interpretation of the Constitution.
 米国は集団的自衛権の行使が、MDの強化につながると期待感を示す。米本土や艦船を狙う弾道ミサイルを日本が撃ち落とすことも、憲法解釈上は認められるようにする、と安倍政権が語っているためだ。

Irrespective of whether it is technologically possible to shoot down the missiles, China and Russia are opposed to the strengthening of the MD system, saying that their nuclear deterrence will be weakened. China could also use the strengthening of the MD system as an excuse to increase its nuclear capabilities in order to break the defense network of Japan and the United States.
 技術的に可能かどうかはともかく、中国やロシアは「核抑止力が損なわれる」とMD強化に反発する。中国が防衛網を突破しようと、核戦力増強の口実に使う恐れもある。

Abe also supports the possibility of the Self-Defense Forces sweeping for mines in the Strait of Hormuz. But the potential to do so could irritate Iran and adversely affect multinational talks to halt the country’s nuclear development. As a result, Japan could lose its influence on Iran.
 安倍首相は、ホルムズ海峡で自衛隊が機雷除去にあたることも可能になるとの考えを示している。これがイランを刺激して核開発を防ぐ多国間協議に悪影響を及ぼし、イランへの日本の発言力もそぎかねない。

It is important to take the threats seriously. But it is impossible to continue the vicious cycle of “power against power” forever. What policies will the Abe administration take to prevent the acceleration of nuclear power expansion and nuclear proliferation and stabilize the international society and Northeast Asia? The policies are unclear. Therefore, people in cities that were victimized by the atomic bombs are feeling anxiety.
 脅威を見据えるのは大切だが、「力には力」での悪循環をずっと続けるわけにはいかない。安倍政権は、核軍拡や核拡散の加速をどう防いで国際社会や北東アジアの安定をはかるのか。そこが見えないことが、被爆地の不安の根っこにある。

It is Japan’s role to show a vision of steadily promoting arms control of the entire Northeast Asian region and stabilizing it.
 周辺地域全体の軍備管理を着実に進め、安定を図る。そうしたビジョンを示すことは、日本に求められる役割である。

TRUST AND DIALOGUE
 ■信頼と対話が出発点

In the Hiroshima Peace Declaration, Mayor Kazumi Matsui called for the establishment of “a new security system based on trust and dialogue.”
 「信頼と対話による安全保障の仕組みづくりを」。松井一実広島市長は平和宣言で訴えた。

In the world, the Obama administration is losing its centripetal force, and its relations with Russia have cooled due to the Ukrainian situation. China’s maritime advances have intensified friction with neighboring countries. The road to the “new security system based on trust and dialogue” is steep. But is it just a dream?
 世界を見れば、米国のオバマ政権は求心力が低下し、ウクライナ問題でロシアとの関係が冷え込んだ。中国の海洋進出は、近隣との摩擦を強めている。「信頼と対話による安全保障」への道は険しい。だが、夢物語だろうか。

The Nagasaki Peace Declaration this year again advocated an idea of establishing “nuclear-weapon-free zones.” In the proposal, Japan and the Korean Peninsula are denuclearized, and nuclear powers promise not to attack the areas with nuclear weapons.
 長崎の平和宣言は今年も、北東アジアに非核兵器地帯をつくる構想を掲げた。日本と朝鮮半島を非核化し、核保有国はそこを核攻撃しないと約束する。

The Japanese government is negative to the idea on the grounds that relations of trust, which serve as a prerequisite, do not exist in the areas partly because North Korea has repeatedly conducted nuclear tests. North Korea counters the view, saying that what is a threat is the U.S. nuclear umbrella.
 北朝鮮が核実験を繰り返すなど、前提となる信頼関係がない、と日本政府は消極的だ。北朝鮮は、米国の核の傘こそが脅威だと反論する。

Relations of trust will be established through dialogue. To realize the nuclear-weapon-free zones, Japan should first show its intentions to set up the zones and leave the U.S. nuclear umbrella. Then, it should urge the United States to accept the zones. After that, showing a joint goal, Japan should strongly urge North Korea to take part in the negotiations.
 信頼関係は、対話を通じて構築していくものだろう。日本がまず非核地帯設置と、核の傘脱却に向けた意思を示し、同盟国である米国に働きかける。共通の目標を掲げ、北朝鮮に強く交渉参加を迫ってはどうか。

The improvement of relations with China is also indispensable. A council of experts from five countries in the Asia and Pacific region, including former Australian Foreign Minister Gareth Evans, asked Japan and China to hold a summit meeting in its proposal compiled in Hiroshima.
 中国との関係改善も不可欠だ。エバンズ元豪外相ら、アジア太平洋5カ国の有識者会議は広島でまとめた提言で、日中両国に首脳会談を呼びかけた。

It is not easy to untangle a thread. Unless there is a dialogue, however, nothing will start.
 もつれた糸を解きほぐすのは容易ではない。だが、対話がなければ、なにも始まらない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 10

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月11日 (月)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:尊重し合う心がなければ /東京

July 13, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Respect and a bit of consideration
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:尊重し合う心がなければ /東京

There happens to be a charity event in Japan that I have held alongside figures including the young monk Daiki Nakashita, who is known for activities to prevent people from dying alone. A central part of this event is a talk including author Karin Amamiya, Makoto Yuasa, who is known for anti-poverty activities, and Yasuyuki Shimizu, who is involved in work to curb suicide.
 「孤立死」を防ぐ見守り活動などで知られる若き僧侶の中下大樹さんらと継続して行っているチャリティーイベントがある。作家の雨宮処凛さん、反貧困の活動で知られる湯浅誠さん、自殺対策活動の清水康之さんとのトークが中心だ。

This time, we decided to invite a guest: Masaaki Odaka, a specialist in neurological and internal medicine at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital in Fukushima Prefecture.
 今回はゲストを呼ぼうということになり、南相馬市立総合病院の神経内科医・小鷹昌明さんに来ていただいた。タイトルは「原発に一番近い病院から」。それがまさに小鷹氏の職場なのだ。

Using lots of photos, Odaka described the situation at his hospital and the state of recovery in Minamisoma, one of the areas hit hard by the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and the ensuing nuclear disaster.
 たくさんの写真を使って病院の現状、南相馬市の復興の様子などを説明しながら、

"I don't want people to forget Fukushima, but at the same time, it's a problem for people to deliberately stress the dangers of radiation, because that's where we've decided to live," he said.
小鷹氏は「福島を忘れてほしくはないけれど、ことさら放射能の危険さを強調されるのもまた問題だ。私たちはそこに住むことを選択したのだから」と言った。

So what kind of stance should people who live in other areas take?
では外部の人間は、どういう態度を取ればよいのだろう。

"They should realize that people are living there and be considerate in what they say," Odaka says with a smile.
その点について小鷹氏は「住んでいる人もいると想像し、言葉などに配慮してくれればいいんです」と笑顔で述べた。

"That makes sense," I thought. "If I say such and such, what will the other party think? If I were in their shoes, how would I feel?" Taking this kind of approach, we can become naturally considerate in our choice of words.
 なるほど、と思った。「私がいまこう言ったら、言われた側はどう思うかな。もし私だったらどう感じるかな」と想像さえすれば、自然に言葉の選び方にも配慮が生まれるはずだ。

It's not simply a case of being able to make up guidelines which tell us, "This word is all right; that one isn't."
「この単語はオーケー」「これはダメ」などとガイドラインを作れるようなものではない。

Recently, more people struggle to perform the simple tasks of thinking about how the other person feels and being appropriately considerate.
 最近、こういった「相手の気持ちを想像する」「そして配慮する」という、とてもシンプルなことが苦手な人が増えている。

When I went to a bookstore, I was surprised to see a corner of books that listed up the problems and faults of other countries, criticizing them and making fun of them with strong language.
書店に行くと、日本以外の国の欠点や問題点をあげつらねて、強い言い方で非難したり笑いものにしたりするような本のコーナーができていて驚く。

If I went overseas and visited a bookstore only to find books that heaped abuse on Japan, how would I feel?
もし自分が外国に出かけ、立ち寄った書店に「日本をののしる本」が並んでいたらどう思うか。

Picturing this kind of situation should produce a level of consideration for the other party, even when saying something that needs to be said firmly.
そう想像してみれば、たとえ毅然(きぜん)として言うべきことは言う場合でも相手への一定の配慮が生まれるはずではないか。

Some people might respond, "The other party pays no consideration to me, so there's no need for me to do that."  「向こうがこちらに配慮しないのだからその必要はない」と言う人もいるが、

But surely we have never witnessed a time in history or in our daily lives when "an eye for an eye" has been able to prevent a quarrel or conflict.
「目には目を」がいさかいや争いを抑えたことが、歴史上でも日常生活でも一度だってあるだろうか。

I think the reason human society has been able to continue in some way or other is because people have held on to the attitude, "It's not easy, but let's make an effort to respect each other's feelings and position."
「実際にはなかなかむずかしいけれど、お互いの気持ちや立場を尊重する努力はしよう」という気持ちを手放さなかったからこそ人間社会はなんとか続いてきたのだと思う。

"That's hard for you." "You've got it tough, too."
 「たいへんですね」「そちらこそ」。

Rather than coming out swinging, it's important to adopt a stance that pays consideration to the other person, and encourages consideration.
ただ強気に出るのではなく、相手に配慮する姿勢、配慮を促す姿勢が大切。

And this should apply to any issue, whether it be Fukushima or international society, or even when thinking about diplomacy and security.
福島でも国際社会でも外交や安全保障を考える上でも、それは同じであるはずだ。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
(精神科医)
毎日新聞 2014年07月08日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「判官びいき」で再建を /東京

July 20, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Feeling sympathy for the weak
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「判官びいき」で再建を /東京

The 2014 World Cup has ended. Japan did not make it to the knockout stage, Alberto Zaccheroni has resigned as manager and sport magazines are busy analyzing the causes of the national team's defeat.
 サッカー・ワールドカップ(W杯)ブラジル大会が終わった。日本は1次リーグ敗退という残念な結果に終わり監督も交代、スポーツ雑誌などはさかんに敗因の分析をしている。

Host country Brazil was hammered 7-1 by Germany in a semifinal, a loss that marks one of the darkest moments in the soccer giant's history. Left in dismay and anger, some Brazilian fans took to streets to riot, setting buses on fire.
 主催国のブラジルは、準決勝でドイツに歴史的大敗を喫した。ブラジル国内ではバスの放火が相次ぐなど、国民は失望と怒りを爆発させた。

When Japan's Blue Samurai team returned home, fans welcomed them back with open arms, giving them a round of applause at the airport.
 日本チームが帰国したとき、空港に集まったファンたちは「お疲れさま」と温かい拍手を送り、

There was reportedly nobody yelling at players for not doing well in the big event.
罵声を浴びせる人はいなかったといわれる。

Some stores held up signs which said, "Thank you Japan!"
「感動をありがとう」と書かれた選手らの写真を飾る店もある。

Some critics say, however, that this kind of "sympathy" is what keeps Japan from becoming a great power in soccer. しかし、「このやさしさがいけないんだ」と批判する声もある。

I guess they are saying that fans need to take a critical view of the Japan team while admitting that a loss is a loss, so that players thrive to become better under great pressure.
負けは負けとして認め世間がチームに対して厳しい態度を取ることが、選手たちの緊張感を高めて次の勝利につながる、ということなのだろう。

Such a harsh attitude may be necessary for players to improve their skills and work for victory.
 たしかに、技術の向上や勝利への貪欲さのためには、そういった厳しさも必要なのかもしれない。

But I believe that our ability to appreciate the underdogs, give them a pat on the back and encourage them that there will be another chance is something we should value.
しかし、負けを喫した人たちにも「よくがんばった」とねぎらいの声をかけ、「次があるよ」と励ますことができるというやさしさ、寛大さは、私たちの長所ではないかと思うのだ。

In Japanese culture, there is a long-held concept of being sympathetic for the weak. Such an attitude comes from public opinion in which people side with 12th century general Minamoto no Yoshitsune, who endured unfortunate circumstances because his brother Minamoto no Yoritomo despised him.
 日本には、兄の源頼朝に憎まれ、不遇の生涯を送った義経の肩を持つことに由来する「判官びいき」といわれる独特の“弱い者びいき”がある。

Praising those who could not bring good results despite their hard work is unique to Japanese culture, and I think that's something we should be proud of.
がんばったのに結果を残せなかった人にひときわ大きな拍手を送ってたたえる、というこの姿勢は、他国にはあまり見られない日本が誇るべき文化なのではないかと思っている。

Unfortunately, however, that attitude toward the weak has become almost unrecognizable outside of the soccer world.
 ただ残念ながら、サッカーの世界以外ではこの「判官びいき」の精神は薄れており、

More people have become critical of others who are in trouble and abandon them in the name of personal responsibility.
弱い人、困っている人を「それは自己責任」と見捨てる傾向も強まっている。

Provisions added to the Revised Public Assistance Act, which came into effect on July 1, place stricter punishment on welfare recipients who manipulate the system and aim at getting those who live on public assistance back to work.
この1日から施行されている改正生活保護法は、不正受給の厳罰化や自立促進などが盛り込まれるなど受給者にとっては厳しいものとなっている。

We can't talk about soccer players and regular people in the same way.
 もちろん、サッカーの選手と一般の生活者を一律に語ることはできない。

However, if we can keep cheering for the Japan team without getting angry, we should be able to take a less harsh attitude toward the so-called "vulnerable" who cannot work or raise their children due to illness or those who have fallen off the right path.
とはいえ、負けて帰ってきた選手たちにも腹を立てず、エールを送ることのできる私たちであれば、病気などで働けない、子どもの養育ができない、人生の道をいったん誤ってしまった、といった社会的弱者と呼ばれる人たちに対しても、もう少しやさしい視線を向けることができるはずだ。

If I said, "Let's take a fresh look at our long-held belief of rooting for the underdogs to rebuild both Japanese soccer and society," would soccer fans think I'm being too soft?
今こそ「判官びいき」の精神を見直して、サッカーも世の中ももう一度、立て直しをはかろうなどと言ったら、ファンたちに「それは甘い」と怒られるだろうか。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
(精神科医)
毎日新聞 2014年07月15日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:必要な大人は誰なのか /東京

July 27, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Who does a child need most?
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:必要な大人は誰なのか /東京

What determines the relationship between a father and child -- the biological connection or a legal arrangement?  父と子どもの関係を決めるのは、血縁なのか法律上の取り決めか。

Recently Japan's Supreme Court deliberated on this difficult issue, handling relationships between fathers and their children in cases where DNA analysis had shown that the men were not biologically related to their kids.
最高裁でこんなむずかしい問題が審理された。DNA鑑定で実の子ではないことがわかった場合の父子関係をめぐる裁判だ。

The court ruled that even if no biological connection existed, the relationship remained unaffected.
最高裁が下した判決は、「血縁がなくても父子関係は変わらずに成立する」というものだった。

In my consultation rooms, parent-child relationships often surface as a problem.
 診察室でも、親子の関係がしばしば問題になる。

In the majority of these cases, it is clear, both from a biological and legal perspective, that the person is a parent, but that person is not fulfilling the role of a parent.
そのほとんどは、血縁上も法律上もまぎれもなく親なのに、その役割をまったく果たしていないというケースだ。

Some fathers do not pay child support after getting divorced and never come to see their children.
離婚後、養育費も支払わなければ面会にも来ない父親もいれば、

There are also cases where the children are living with their parents, but their mothers pay no attention to them at home, and their fathers treat them violently.
同居しているのに子どもには無関心な母親や暴力を振るい続ける父親もいる。

When I encounter people who say things like, "I hate my father," or, "I would've been better off without a mother like that," I start to think that what's important in judging a relationship between a parent and child is not simply the biological connection or a legal decision, but rather how dearly the person cares about that child.
「父親を憎んでいます」「あんな母親、いなきゃよかったのに」と絞り出すように話す人たちを見ていると、親子関係を判定する上で大切なのは、血縁でも法律でもなくて「どれだけ子どものことを大切に思ってくれるか」ではないかと思えてくる。

There are some people who are neither legally nor biologically related to the child, but care for the child as if that child were their own.
 逆に、血縁や法律では何の関係もないのに、かかわった子どものために一生懸命、心をつくしてくれる人もいる。

A documentary film titled "Tonaru Hito" is being shown through independent screenings across Japan.
『隣る人』という、全国で自主上映会が続けられているドキュメンタリー映画がある。

It is based on eight years of coverage of the child welfare facility "Hikari no Kodomo no Ie" in Saitama Prefecture.
埼玉県にある児童養護施設「光の子どもの家」に8年間も密着して作られた作品なのだが、

It depicts the lives of workers who fill the role of parents for children who are unable to live with their parents for some reason or another.
そこにはいろいろな事情で親といっしょに暮らせない子どもたち、そしてその子たちの「親代わり」の保育者との生活が描かれる。

Unlike at other facilities, these childcare workers form "families" with the children they are in charge of, and try to live in a way somewhat resembling a regular household.
他の施設とは違い、保育者は担当の子たちと「家族」を作り、そこで家庭に近い生活を営もうとしているのだ。

Because the children live in a "family," there are times when they clash with each other and with the childcare workers.
 「家族」だからこそ、子どもどうし、子どもと保育者たちは感情的にぶつかることもある。

Attempts to get the children to open up sometimes end without success, and the family commonly faces problems, such as when the children rebel.
心を開かせようとしてもうまくいかない場合もある。子どもの反抗といった問題もいっぱい。

But precisely because it is a "family," no one is allowed to say, "That's it. I'm out of here," or, "Let's change the worker in charge."
でも「家族」であればそこで「やめた」とか「担当をかわりましょう」というわけにはいかない。

I'm sure many people feel that these workers, with their tireless approach, go above and beyond the responsibilities of a parent.
保育者たちの根気強いかかわりに、誰もが「これは親以上だ」と感じるのではないだろうか。

Of course, that isn't to say a child is necessarily happier off living with an adult more stable than a parent.
 だからといって、もちろん「親元よりしっかりした大人のもとで暮らすほうが、子どもにとっては幸せ」ということはない。

The children look happy when their parents come to pick them up, even if those parents have problems.
たとえ問題のある親でも、迎えに来てくれれば子どもは心からうれしそうな顔をする。

The Supreme Court said the law has more say over a parent-child relationship than a biological relationship.
 ただ、裁判で「血縁より法律が父子関係を決めるのだ」と言われても、

But even so, or even if it were the other way around, I would still have mixed feelings about the decision. Let us consider which adult the child needs most.
あるいは逆の判決が出たとしても、すっきりは割り切れない。子どもにとっていちばん必要な大人って誰なのだろう、と考えてしまう。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
(精神科医)
〔都内版〕
毎日新聞 2014年07月22日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:今も健在?血液型ネタ /東京

August 03, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Questioning the relevance of blood type
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:今も健在?血液型ネタ /東京

I once had the opportunity to appear on a television program as a commentator. That day, a prominent musician from the United States was to feature on the program as a guest.
 以前、テレビの情報番組にコメンテーターとして出演したときのことだ。その日は、アメリカから来日中の大物ミュージシャンもゲストで出演することになっていた。

The studio had prepared several question boards, and as I waited before the program, I wondered what questions would be asked. I then spotted one of them, which surprised me. "What is your blood type?" it read.
 スタジオには、そのミュージシャンへの質問を書いたボードが何枚か用意されていた。番組が始まる前、「どんな質問があるのかな」と眺めていた私は、ある1枚を見て驚いた。「血液型は?」と書かれていたのだ。

The program staff member who had prepared the question believed in the ability to tell people's personalities based on their blood type.
 ボードを作ったスタッフは「血液型性格占い」を信じている人で、

They probably imagined a scene where the guest's blood type would be revealed and the host would liven up the program with a comment like, "Wow, I never would have guessed it!" or "I thought you'd be that type, because you do things at your own pace."
血液型をきき出し、司会者らが「えー、意外!」「マイペースだからそうかと思ってた」などと盛り上がる様子を想像したのだろう。

But the practice of deducing people's personalities based on blood type is pretty much restricted to Japan and a few other countries in Asia.
しかし、「血液型性格占い」は日本を中心にアジアのわずかな国に広まっているだけで、

In Europe and the United States, most people haven't even heard of it.
欧米の人などは存在すら知らない。

I imagine I would be startled if I were suddenly asked a question about my body, like, "What's the diameter and color of your navel?" I think asking someone for their blood type is the same sort of thing.
たとえば私たちが海外の番組に出て「あなたのヘソの直径と色は?」などとからだのことをきかれたらギョッとすると思うが、それと同じようなものだと思う。

I quickly called for the question to be ditched, and other staff members apparently agreed with me. The impending scene of a major star suddenly being asked for personal medical information in the form of their blood type was thereby averted.
 私はあわてて「この質問、やめたほうがいいですよ」と言い、ほかのスタッフからも同じ声が上がったらしく、結局、大スターに突然、血液型という医学的個人情報をきく、などという事態にはならなかった。

The other day, a study released by sociologist Kengo Nawata drew attention in Japan. It indicated through statistical analysis that there is no scientific basis for a relation between a person's blood type and personality.
 先日、社会学者の縄田健悟氏が「血液型と性格の関連性に科学的根拠はない」とする統計学的な解析結果を記した論文を発表し、話題になった。

Nawata targeted over 10,000 people from Japan and the United States in the survey, which analyzed the blood types of respondents in comparison to their attitudes.
縄田氏は日米の1万人以上を対象にした意識調査と回答者の血液型とを解析し、

The study revealed that blood type bears practically no relation to a person's sense of values and daily habits.
その人の価値観や生活習慣などと血液型にはほとんど何の関係もないことを明らかにしたのだ。

There actually exist other studies giving the same results, and I have presented these at universities, where I repeatedly tell students, "There is no relation between blood type and personality."
 実は同じ結果を示す研究はほかにもあるので、私も大学でそれを見せながら、学生たちに繰り返し「血液型と性格は関係ないんですよ。

"That notion," I say, "is based on a boom that was started in Japan in the 1970s.
1970年代に日本で作られたブームがもとで、

We simply assume things like, 'I'm type B, so I must be that type of person.'"
私たちは『自分はB型だからこうであるはず』と思い込んでいるだけですよ」と伝えている。

My students look at me with serious expressions on their faces and say they understand.
 学生たちはそのときはまじめな顔で「よくわかりました」などと言う。

But then when I share a meal with them, I hear them ask each other, "What's your blood type?" and exclaim, "Really? You're serious, so I thought you'd be a different type."
しかし、いっしょに食事会などをするとやっぱりまた、「あなた何型?」「ホント! マジメだから違うと思った」などと盛り上がっている。

For them, talking about blood type might be a handy tool allowing them to find an entry point to communicate with another person.
彼らにとっては血液型の話は、とりあえずコミュニケーションの入り口を見つけるために便利なツールなのかもしれない。

As an educator, though, I discourage them from picking friends or partners based on blood type, or using their blood type to pass judgment on their own personalities.
それはわかるけれど、くれぐれも血液型で友人や恋人を選んだり自分の性格を決めつけたりはしないように、と教員としては思うのである。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
(精神科医)
毎日新聞 2014年07月29日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「立派な親」のプレッシャー /東京

August 10, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: The pressure of having upstanding parents
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「立派な親」のプレッシャー /東京

Among the children who come to my consultation room for skipping school or violence in the home, many have parents with some kind of upstanding job: teacher, lawyer, doctor, pastor. Those parents say things like, "I'm in a job where I guide others, yet my own child is a shut-in."
 診察室にやって来る不登校や家庭内暴力などの子どもで、「親が先生」という場合がよくある。「先生」の種類は、学校の教師、弁護士、医師、教会の牧師などさまざまだ。付き添ってきた親は「私が他の人を指導する立場なのに、わが家に引きこもりの息子がいるとは」とつらそうな顔をすることが多い。

In my mind, I say to these people, "It is because you are considered upstanding, and because you continue to act that way, that your child has assumed your weakness."
 そういう親に、私は心の中でこう呼びかける。「そうやってあなたがまわりから立派だと言われ、そう振る舞い続けているから、息子さんはあなたの弱い部分を全部引き受けてくれているんですよ」

People have a variety of sides to them. A kind person has a mean side to them, and a person considered bad has a good side. Sometimes this opposite side that doesn't usually come to the forefront is called a "shadow" in psychology.
 人間にはいろいろな顔があり、どんなにやさしい人にも意地悪な一面があったり、逆に悪人だと思われている人にも善良な部分があったりする。表には出ていない正反対の顔を心理学では「シャドウ」と呼ぶことがある。

For a person in a job of respect, there is little opportunity to express this shadow. They may have to constantly put on a performance that this shadow doesn't even exist, and according to the psychologist Hayao Kawai, in these cases sometimes a family member will end up assuming this shadow role instead.
 しかし、周囲から尊敬されている「先生」の場合、その「シャドウ」を出す機会はほとんどない。あるいは、そんな正反対の顔など一切ないようにいつも立派な顔を見せ続けなければならない。そうなると、ときどき家族の中の誰かが「シャドウの肩代わり」をすることがある。そう言ったのは心理学者の河合隼雄氏だった。

The reason that the children of people with upstanding jobs sometimes end up skipping school or exhibiting other problem behavior may be because they are assuming this shadow role.
 「先生」の子どもたちが学校に行かなくなったり問題行動を起こしたりするのは、まさに「シャドウの肩代わり」なのではないだろうか。

I think it is wrong for the parents of these children to consider them an embarrassment.
そういうわが子を見て、親が「恥ずかしい、情けない」と言うのは違うと思う。

Instead, I want them to reflect on whether they aren't trying too hard to make themselves look good, whether they haven't demanded too much of their children that they mind the eyes of others.
そこで親には「いつも無理してまわりに良い顔ばかりを見せすぎていないだろうか。

Should they self-reflect in this way, I think they will notice a different side of themselves, one that sometimes wants to slack off.
子どもにも“世間の目があるんだからちゃんとしろよ”と強要したのではないか」とちょっと振り返ってみてほしい。そうすると「自分の中にもときにはサボりたい、ダラけたいという思いがある」などといつもの顔とは違う一面に気づくはずだ。

If they can then bring out that side of themselves in front of their family, that would be best, but if they cannot, then I hope they will at least avoid putting too much pressure on their children to act properly in front of others.
 「今日は家族でダラダラしようか。父さんもいつも“先生”じゃいられないよ」などと自分の中の「シャドウ」に目を向け、家族の前でそれを出すことができればいちばんよい。それがむずかしければ、せめて子どもに「私を尊敬してくれている人たちの手前、家族にもきちんとしてもらわなければ困る」などとプレッシャーをかけないでほしい。

To those children who have assumed the shadow of their parents before even realizing it, I want to say, "It's OK to take better care of yourself."
 そして、立派な親のもと、「シャドウの肩代わり」を知らないあいだに引き受けてイライラしたりモヤモヤしたりしている子どもたちには、こう言いたい。「おつかれさま、でももっと自分を大切にしていいんだよ」

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
(精神科医)
毎日新聞 2014年08月05日 地方版

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月10日 (日)

エボラ出血熱 国際連携で拡大を食い止めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
International cooperation crucial to block spread of fatal Ebola virus
エボラ出血熱 国際連携で拡大を食い止めよ

Widespread infection with Ebola virus has been reported in West Africa. International cooperation is essential to prevent the expansion of this terrible disease.
 西アフリカで、エボラ出血熱の大量感染が起きている。国際社会が連携し、拡大を食い止めなければならない。

The deadly virus has been spreading from Guinea since February. The death toll from the epidemic has topped 900 in Guinea and its two neighboring countries, Sierra Leone and Liberia, marking the largest number of victims since the first patient with Ebola virus was confirmed in 1976.
 感染は今年2月頃、ギニアから広がった。隣接するシエラレオネとリベリアを含め、死者は3国で900人を超えた。1976年に最初の患者が確認されて以来、最大の被害である。

Deaths from the virus have been also confirmed in Nigeria, which does not border any of the other three African countries. A patient with symptoms similar to those of Ebola died in the Middle Eastern country of Saudi Arabia. The deadly virus is thus threatening to spread across the world.
 3国と国境を接していないナイジェリアで死者が出たほか、中東のサウジアラビアでも、似た症状の患者が死亡した。感染が世界に拡散しかねない危険な状況だ。

The World Health Organization has declared the outbreak to be “a public health emergency of international concern” and recommended that countries take measures to prevent the spread of the virus, such as strengthening surveillance at airports and issuing travel advisories.
 世界保健機関(WHO)は「国際的な公衆衛生上の緊急事態」を宣言し、空港での監視強化や旅行者への情報提供など拡散防止策を取るよう各国に勧告した。

For its part, Japan should steadily take necessary steps and not regard the outbreak as “a fire on the opposite shore.”
 日本も「対岸の火事」とみなさず、着実に対策を取るべきだ。

Infection with the disease—formally known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever—occurs through contact with blood and other bodily fluids. The fatality rate is extremely high at 50 to 90 percent, as there are no effective treatment methods.
 エボラ出血熱は、患者の血液などに触れることで感染する。有効な治療法はなく、患者の致死率は50~90%と極めて高い。

The previous outbreak of the Ebola epidemic occurred mainly in agricultural areas. But this outbreak has reached populous urban areas, threatening to further increase the number of infections. This is a matter of grave concern.
 過去の感染は主に農村部で起きたが、今回は人口の多い都市部にも及んでいる。感染が広がりやすい、憂慮すべき事態である。

To contain the Ebola outbreak, it is crucial to strictly quarantine infected persons. It is also indispensable to keep area residents fully informed about the fatal disease.
 エボラ出血熱の拡大を封じ込めるには、感染者を厳格に隔離することが肝要だ。住民に対する衛生知識の周知徹底も欠かせない。

Separate efforts ineffective

In the three West African countries where mass Ebola infection has been reported, administrative and medical treatment systems remain fragile following the civil wars and coups that have occurred in recent years. There are limits to what these countries can do to deal with the outbreak on their own.
 大量感染が起きた3国は、近年まで内戦やクーデターが続き、行政や医療の体制は今も脆弱ぜいじゃくだ。自力での対処には限界がある。

The fact that many doctors and nurses have been infected with the Ebola virus has increased worries about potential infection, thereby making it difficult to secure medical staff.
 多くの医師や看護師が感染したため動揺が広がり、治療スタッフの確保が困難になっている。

The U.S. government has decided to send an additional 50 medical professionals to West Africa. The decision was apparently made in view of the serious conditions there.
 米国政府は、西アフリカに派遣する医療専門家を50人増員する方針を決めた。現地の厳しい現状を踏まえてのことだろう。

Japan, for its part, must provide financial and other assistance as much as possible.
 日本も資金援助など、できる限りの支援が求められる。

The Foreign Ministry of Japan has issued information on infection risk in the three West African countries, calling for people to postpone travel to these countries unless essential and urgent. To prevent Ebola infection from reaching Japan, vigilance must not be neglected at borders.
 外務省はギニアなどの3国を対象に「感染症危険情報」を出し、不要不急の渡航を延期するよう呼びかけている。感染を日本に飛び火させないため、水際での警戒を怠ってはならない。

Should domestic infection emerge, the infected persons would be quarantined at a designated medical institution. Procedures for transport and admission of such patients must be verified.
 国内で感染者が出た場合は、指定医療機関に隔離されることになっている。搬送や受け入れの手順を再確認することが大事だ。

However, there is no special facility available domestically to safely handle viruses with a high fatality rate such as Ebola. If there is no alternative but to ask other counties to conduct an analysis of a pathogen, it is feared that there will be delays in implementing countermeasures.
 問題は、エボラ出血熱など致死率の高い感染症のウイルスを安全に扱うための特別な施設が、国内には1か所もないことである。病原体の分析を外国に依頼せざるを得ないようでは、対応が後手に回る恐れがある。

Protecting people’s lives from deadly infectious diseases is an important crisis-management task for the state. The government must step up efforts to bolster such a system.
 国民の命を感染症から守ることも国家の重要な危機管理である。体制の強化を急ぐべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 9, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

公務員給与上げ 世代や地域でメリハリが要る

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Civil servant salaries should vary based on location, workers’ age
公務員給与上げ 世代や地域でメリハリが要る

The economic recovery has finally reached the salaries of national public servants. Looking ahead, it will be important to allocate salaries flexibly, taking a worker’s age and location into consideration.
 景気回復が官の給与にも及んだ。今後は世代や地域に応じて、メリハリのある配分を追求することが大切だ。

The National Personnel Authority has recommended to the Cabinet and the Diet that the average monthly salary for national public servants doing regular work in fiscal 2014 be increased by 0.27 percent from fiscal 2013, and their annual bonuses by an equivalent of 0.15 month’s salary. This is the first recommendation for a pay raise in seven years.
 人事院が2014年度の国家公務員一般職の給与について、月給を平均0・27%、ボーナスを0・15か月分、引き上げるよう内閣と国会に勧告した。7年ぶりのプラス勧告だ。

In fiscal 2012 and 2013, the salaries of national civil servants were reduced by an average of 7.8 percent, with funds saved by the cuts diverted to finance reconstruction of areas hit hard by the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. These salaries returned to their original level in April this year. If the pay increase is implemented as recommended, the average annual pay among national government workers would rise by ¥79,000 from the current level to ¥6.618 million.
 国家公務員給与は12、13年度、東日本大震災の復興財源に充てるため、平均7・8%減額されていたが、今年4月に元の水準に戻った。勧告通り実施されれば、平均年収は今より7万9000円増の661万8000円となる。

Civil servant salaries are basically kept in line with those offered in the private sector. The NPA’s latest recommendation is linked to the recent string of wage increases being offered by private companies. Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga indicated his support for the proposed pay increase. “It reflects rising salaries in the private sector due to Abenomics,” he said.
 国家公務員給与は民間準拠が基本だ。今回の勧告は、民間企業の賃上げに連動したものである。菅官房長官も「アベノミクスによる民間給与の上昇を反映した内容」と評価している。

In its recommendation, the NPA called for a ¥2,000 raise across the board in the basic salary of civil servants who were new graduates from high school or university. In contrast to a more handsome share being distributed to younger workers, the NPA left the basic salaries of workers aged 55 and older unchanged.
 勧告は、高校・大学の新卒者の基本給を一律2000円引き上げるなど、若年層への配分を手厚くする一方で、55歳以上の基本給は据え置いている。

The salaries of civil servants in their 20s are lower than those of their counterparts in the private sector. However, their pay steadily increases, and by the time they are 55 or older, they earn more than average private-sector workers. Given the need to attract and retain talented young and midcareer workers, we can understand the need to give them extra financial consideration.
 国家公務員の給与は、20代では民間水準を下回るが、徐々に上昇し、55歳以上では上回る。優秀な人材を確保するため、若手・中堅に配慮するのは理解できる。

Keep personnel costs in check

The bonus increase will come in the form of an allowance for industriousness based on a worker’s ability and performance. The more talented the worker, the higher the bonus they receive. We think expanding the performance-based bonus system, just as the private sector has done, is fair.
 ボーナスの引き上げ分は、能力・実績に応じた勤勉手当に充て、優秀な職員により多く配分する。民間と同様に、成果主義を拡大していく方向性は妥当だろう。

The NPA also called for a comprehensive review of the civil servant salary system over three years from fiscal 2015. In regions where private sector salaries are low, the basic salary of civil servants will be cut by an average of 2 percent overall in fiscal 2015 and beyond, with the reduction reaching a maximum of 4 percent for personnel 55 and older. This is to eliminate pay disparities between the private and public sectors in these regions.
 勧告は、給与制度の総合的見直しを15年度から3年間かけて行うことも求めた。民間給与水準が低い地方での官民格差を是正するため、基本給の水準を15年度以降、全体で平均2%、55歳以上は最大4%下げる内容だ。

Funds saved by these pay cuts will be used to boost regional allowances and bump up the salaries of civil servants in cities and areas where prices and private-sector wages are high. Allowances for workers who have to transfer far away or work away from their families will be expanded.
 引き下げ分を原資に、勤務地に応じた地域手当を増やし、物価や民間給与が高い都市部の職員の待遇を改善する。広域異動手当や単身赴任手当などは拡充する。

It is only natural that allowances be increased or cut depending on the environment and conditions in the region where one works. We think the government should steadily forge ahead on this matter.
 働く地域や環境の実情に応じて手当を増減するのは当然である。着実に進めたい。

According to a Finance Ministry calculation, fully implementing the recommended pay hikes would increase costs for national public servants by about ¥82 billion for this fiscal year.
 財務省の試算によると、今年度の人勧を完全実施すれば、国の人件費は約820億円増える。

Given the nation’s current severe fiscal situation, the government must try to keep total personnel expenses down and move ahead with reviews of the salary system, staffing levels and organization of the government.
 厳しい財政事情の下、政府は、給与制度とともに、機構・定員の見直しを進め、総人件費の抑制に努めなければならない。

If the salaries of local government employees nationwide are raised in line with those of national civil servants, the total costs are forecast to swell by about ¥220 billion. It is not uncommon for local government employees to earn more than private-sector workers in areas where private salaries are low. Close attention needs to be given to this point when considering any revisions of the salary system for civil servants.
 地方公務員の給与は、仮に国に準じて改定した場合、約2200億円の増加が見込まれる。民間給与が低い地域では、地方公務員の給与が民間を上回る例も少なくない。給与改定には、こうした点への目配りも必要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 9, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月 9日 (土)

すき家過重労働 赤字は従業員軽視のツケだ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Tumbling into red, Sukiya pays price for working staff into the ground
すき家過重労働 赤字は従業員軽視のツケだ

The working hours were outrageously long. They must be rectified immediately.
 あまりに非常識な長時間労働である。早急な是正が求められる。

The harsh working conditions at the Sukiya beef-bowl chain have been revealed in a report by a third-party panel set up by Zensho Holdings Co., the parent of the gyudon chain’s operator.
 牛丼チェーン「すき家」の過酷な職場実態が、運営会社のゼンショーホールディングスが設置した第三者委員会の調査報告書で明らかになった。

Some Sukiya staff worked more than 500 hours a month and were unable to return home for two weeks. Only one employee was on during graveyard shifts, so they could not even go to the bathroom. These unreasonable working conditions had become routine at the food chain.
 1か月の勤務が500時間を超え、2週間も帰宅できない。深夜の店を1人で任されトイレにも行けない。こうした無理な勤務体制が常態化していた。

The Labor Standards Inspection Office had repeatedly pointed out that Sukiya was violating the law, but the company did not take any fundamental steps to improve its practices.
 労働基準監督署から再三、法令違反を指摘されていたのに、会社が根本的な対策を怠ってきた。

Management’s attitude of giving short shrift to even the health of Sukiya’s employees cannot be simply overlooked.
 従業員の健康さえ軽視した経営姿勢は、看過できない。

Details about the harsh working conditions at Sukiya restaurants spread online and through other channels. The resulting nosedive in job applicants eventually rendered Sukiya unable to secure enough part-time workers. Many Sukiya outlets were forced to temporarily close due to staff shortages, and Zensho is now forecast to register a loss this fiscal year. This will be the first time Zensho has fallen into the red since it was established.
 すき家は、激務に関する情報がネットなどで広がり、希望者の激減で必要なアルバイトを確保できなくなった。多くの店舗が一時休業を余儀なくされ、ゼンショーは今年度、創業以来初の赤字決算に転落する見通しとなった。

This is the price Sukiya must pay for dumping an excessive workload on its employees. It has exposed a major shortcoming in the company’s business model of continuously expanding its network of outlets and squeezing out every last yen in profit by curtailing labor costs.
 従業員に過重な労働を強いてきたツケである。あくなき店舗網の拡大と、労働コストの切り詰めで利益をひねり出すビジネスモデルの欠陥を露呈したと言える。

At a press conference, Zensho Holdings Chairman and President Kentaro Ogawa said the company “will change its plan to have all outlets operating 24 hours a day.” Ogawa also said he plans to abolish the practice of having just one employee working through the early hours of the morning by the end of September.
 小川賢太郎会長兼社長は記者会見で、「すべての店で24時間営業する方針は変更する」と述べ、9月末までに深夜の1人勤務を解消する考えを表明した。

The company must quickly create an environment in which its employees can work comfortably.
 無理なく働ける職場環境づくりを急がねばならない。

Staff bearing brunt

Sukiya is not the only company at fault. Competition is intense in the restaurant chain industry. There has previously been criticism of companies where employees committed suicide due to the stress of excessive working hours and other arduous conditions, and exploitative cases of staff being made managers in name only so they do not receive overtime pay.
 すき家だけでなく、競争の厳しい外食チェーン業界では、長時間労働などを苦にした従業員の自殺や、残業代ゼロで酷使される「名ばかり管理職」の存在が、これまでも批判されてきた。

The mass departure of staff and difficulties in attracting new employees are indications that a company’s work environment is unduly severe. Businesses exhibiting such signs should learn a useful lesson from Sukiya’s woes, and check for any problems with their own work structure and treatment of employees.
 大量退職や採用難は、自社の労働環境が不当に厳しいことを示すサインとなる。こうした兆候のある企業は、すき家を「他山の石」とし、勤務体制や処遇に問題がないか確認すべきだろう。

In fiscal 2012, the number of people recognized as suffering from work-related heart disease and other conditions due to excessive work increased for the second consecutive year. Cases of work-related mental disorders also increased by nearly 50 percent, hitting the highest figure on record. This is a very serious situation.
 2012年度に過労による心疾患などで労災認定された人は、2年連続で増加した。精神疾患による労災も5割近く増え、過去最多となった。深刻な事態だ。

The government must take effective countermeasures based on the karoshi (death from overwork) prevention law that was passed this year.
 政府は、今年成立した過労死防止法に基づき、実効性のある対策を講じる必要がある。

A Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry survey of about 5,000 companies suspected of forcing employees to work excessive hours and other unfair practices found 80 percent were violating the law.
 厚生労働省が、過重労働などの疑いのある企業約5000社を調べたところ、8割で法令違反が見つかった。

In Japan, there is one labor standards inspector for every 20,000 workers. The ratio of these inspectors, who are responsible for clamping down on companies that violate labor laws, is below that of many other major nations. We hope the government will thoroughly examine whether the nation’s systems for monitoring and exposing labor law violations are sufficient.
 取り締まりにあたる労働基準監督官は、労働者1万人あたり0・5人で、多くの主要国を下回っている。政府は、違法行為の監視・摘発体制が十分かどうか、しっかり点検してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 8, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

防衛白書 中朝の軍事挑発に警戒強めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Bolster sense of vigilance against provocations from China, N. Korea
防衛白書 中朝の軍事挑発に警戒強めよ

While maintaining unfailing vigilance against China and North Korea, which have been continuing their military provocations, Japan must proceed steadily with the tasks of enhancing the Self-Defense Forces’ capabilities and taking relevant legislative action.
 軍事的挑発を続ける中国や北朝鮮への警戒を怠らず、自衛隊の能力向上や関連法整備を着実に進める必要がある。

“Defense of Japan 2014,” the nation’s defense white paper for this year, has noted that destabilizing factors in Asia, including areas surrounding Japan, “are becoming more serious,” expressing “strong concern” especially on such matters as the Chinese military’s provocative acts.
 2014年版防衛白書は、日本周辺を含むアジアの不安定要因が「より深刻化している」と明記し、特に中国軍の挑発行動などに「強い懸念」を示した。

Regarding Beijing’s unilateral declaration last autumn of an air defense identification zone in the East China Sea, the white paper released on Tuesday criticized the ADIZ imposition as a “profoundly dangerous act that may cause unintended consequences.”
 昨秋の東シナ海における中国の一方的な防空識別圏設定については「不測の事態を招きかねない非常に危険なもの」と批判した。

The white paper has clearly stated what stands to reason. Such incidents as Chinese fighters approaching abnormally close to SDF aircraft have subsequently been taking place one after another.
 その後、中国軍戦闘機による自衛隊機への異常接近も相次いでおり、白書の指摘は当然である。

In fiscal 2013, the Air Self-Defense Force scrambled its fighter jets 810 times against military planes and other aircraft feared to be infringing on Japanese territorial airspace, according to the white paper. It is the first time in 24 years that the number has topped 800. More than half of the incidents were in response to Chinese planes, the document said.
 領空侵犯の恐れがある軍用機などに対する13年度の航空自衛隊の緊急発進(スクランブル)は810回で、24年ぶりに800回を超えた。半数以上が対中国機だ。

There is no doubt that China’s provocations have heightened tensions between Tokyo and Beijing. To avoid an accidental clash, such arrangements as setting up a hotline between Japan and China must be made promptly. It is also very important for Japan to tenaciously prod China in cooperation with other countries, including the United States, to exercise self-restraint to prevent dangerous behavior.
 中国の挑発が日中間の緊張を高めていることは明らかだ。偶発的衝突を回避するため、日中間のホットライン設置などを急がねばならない。日本は、米国などと連携し、中国に危険な行動の自制を粘り強く促すことも大切だ。

The white paper cited such facts as a Chinese naval fleet making a passage through not only the Nansei Islands, between Kyushu island and Taiwan, but also Hokkaido’s Soya Strait for the first time in July last year. According to the paper’s related analysis, China has continued to ramp up its oceanic deployment capabilities. It is imperative for the Defense Ministry to continue to carry out detailed surveillance of the activities of Chinese naval forces.
 白書は、中国海軍の艦艇部隊が、南西諸島だけでなく、北海道の宗谷海峡を昨年7月に初めて通過したことなどに言及し、外洋展開能力を向上させていると分析した。防衛省は、その動向の詳細を監視し続けることが欠かせない。

Ensure ‘seamless’ defense

In March this year, North Korea fired multiple missiles in the early morning and at night using transporter-erector launchers (TELs), or mobile launchers. The white paper observes that Pyongyang “has deepened confidence about the performance and reliability” of its missiles.
 北朝鮮は今年3月、早朝・夜間に移動式発射台から複数の弾道ミサイルを撃った。白書は、北朝鮮がミサイルの「性能や信頼性に自信を深めている」と指摘した。

The North’s medium-range Rodong missiles are capable of striking almost anywhere in Japan. If Pyongyang’s actual warfare missile-launching capabilities are boosted and its program to miniaturize nuclear weapons is realized, the threat from North Korea will increase further.
 中距離弾道ミサイル・ノドンは日本の大半を射程に収めている。北朝鮮のミサイル発射の実戦能力が向上し、核兵器の小型化が実現すれば、脅威は一段と高まる。

In response, Japan must strengthen missile interception arrangements through such means as the Aegis-equipped destroyers of the Maritime Self-Defense Force. Defense cooperation with U.S. forces should also be made even closer to build up deterrence against North Korea.
 日本は、海上自衛隊のイージス艦などによるミサイル迎撃体制を強化するべきだ。米軍との防衛協力を緊密化し、北朝鮮に対する抑止力も強めたい。

As for the Cabinet approval in July to allow Japan to exercise the right of collective self-defense on a limited scale, the white paper has evaluated the decision as having “historic significance” in further ensuring national peace and security.
 白書は、集団的自衛権の行使を限定的に容認する新たな政府見解の閣議決定を「歴史的な重要性を持つ」と評価した。

It also emphasized the importance of enhancing legislative arrangements to make the nation capable of making a seamless response to the outbreak of various types of emergencies.
様々な緊急事態が発生した際に、切れ目のない対応を可能とする安全保障法制の整備の重要性も強調している。

Bolstering preparedness to cope swiftly with what are known as “gray zone” incidents, or events that cannot be immediately defined as military attacks—such as seizure of remote islands by foreign intruders disguised as fishermen—is matter of urgency. Measures to address such situations should be reflected in the revision of the Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation scheduled toward the year-end.
 偽装漁民による離島占拠など、平時でも有事でもない「グレーゾーン事態」に迅速に対処する体制を整えることが急務である。年末の日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)改定に反映したい。

Furthermore, it is also important to forge ahead with the international development of weapons based on the government’s three principles on the transfer of defense equipment and technology, with the aim of boosting the nation’s defense-related production and technological bases to ensure the enhancement of its comprehensive defense capabilities.
 防衛装備移転3原則に基づく武器の国際共同開発を進めて防衛生産・技術基盤を強化し、総合的な防衛力を高めることも重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 8, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)代理出産 安易な利用が生む悲劇

August 09, 2014
EDITORIAL: Down syndrome surrogacy case a cautionary tale for Japan
(社説)代理出産 安易な利用が生む悲劇

In a shocking act of trampling on human rights and degrading the dignity of life, an Australian couple has abandoned a child born with Down syndrome to a Thai surrogate they hired. The boy is one of twins carried by the Thai woman, and the couple has returned home from Thailand with the other infant, a healthy girl.
 母子の人権と尊厳を踏みにじる行為に驚かされる。
 オーストラリア人夫婦がタイで代理出産を依頼した。ダウン症の男児を含む双子が生まれたが、夫婦はその男児だけ引き取らずに帰国した。

The couple’s selfish act has provoked international criticism. We can find some solace in the fact that the Thai woman said she would raise the boy on her own and has been receiving donations from around the world.
 その身勝手な振るまいに国際的な批判が起きている。救われるのは、産んだ女性が男児を育てると表明し、世界中から支援が寄せられたことだ。

This tale has brought to the fore some deep-rooted problems inherent in the practice of gestational surrogacy, in which a woman becomes pregnant with a fertilized egg from a couple and gives birth on behalf of the wife.
 このケースは第三者の女性に受精卵を移植し、妻に代わって出産させる代理出産がはらむ問題の根深さを突きつけている。

Pregnancy and childbirth inevitably entail risks. It sometimes happens that a surrogate mother begins to suffer serious complications after giving birth, or in worse cases even dies.
 妊娠・出産にリスクはつきものだ。代理母の女性が重い後遺症を負ったり、死に至ったりすることもある。

The fundamental question is whether people should be allowed to impose such burdens on others in order to have their own children.
「自分の子」をもつために、そんな負担を他人に背負わせることが許されるかという本質的な問いがある。

Many cases of surrogacy involve a monetary payment to the surrogate mother.
 また、いま行われている代理出産の多くは報酬を伴う。

The way people in wealthy nations hire surrogate mothers in poor countries smacks of exploitation based on economic disparities.
豊かな国から貧しい国へ代理母を求める動きには、経済格差を背景にした搾取の性格が否めない。

It is hard to see the whole picture of international surrogacy, and there may be other cases similar to the one in Thailand.
 国際的な代理出産の全体像は見えにくく、同様のケースがほかにもあるかもしれない。

There are many ways in which surrogacy contracts end up in serious trouble, such as the surrogate mother refusing to part with the baby or cases in which it is later found that the child has no blood relationship with the couple who hired the surrogate mother.
代理母が赤ちゃんを手放さなかったり、引き渡した子と依頼人夫婦に血縁がないとのちにわかったり、トラブルの芽は無数だ。

Surrogacy is far from unknown in Japan. More than 20 years have passed since Japanese couples started hiring surrogate mothers in other countries to have children.
 よその国のこととも言っていられない。日本人夫婦が海外で代理出産をしだして20年以上たつ。

Initially, most of such Japanese couples sought surrogate mothers in the United States, but now Asian nations like Thailand and India are more popular because of lower costs.
当初の米国から、報酬が安いタイ、インドなどアジア諸国に行き先が移っている。

In 2008, a case came to light in which a child born to an Indian surrogate hired by a Japanese man had not been allowed to leave India.
 08年には、日本人男性が依頼した代理出産によりインドで生まれた子どもが、出国できなくなったケースが表面化した。

Further complicating the surrogacy situation in this nation is the fact that Japan trails other countries in regulations on surrogate childbirths.
 深刻なのは、代理出産の規制で日本が大きく遅れていることだ。

The government has been trying to ban surrogacy since the 2000s, but has so far failed to submit proposed legislation to the Diet.
政府は2000年代以降、禁じる考えだったが、法案を出せずにきた。

The government’s expert panel as well as an academic society have called for a ban. Debate on the issue should not be delayed any further.
禁止は政府の専門委員会、学会などが打ち出しているが、これ以上、議論を遅らせるべきではない。

It is adults who adopt surrogacy as a means to have their children. But it is always children who suffer when such arrangements go awry. The rules concerning the issue should be designed to protect the well-being of children born under surrogacy arrangements.
 代理出産という手段をとるのは親の都合だが、出産前後に何か問題が起こると、窮地に立つのは常に子どもだ。子の側に立ったルールを求めたい。

Even if legislation banning surrogacy is established, however, it will still be difficult to prevent all surrogacy deals arranged overseas.
 ただし、たとえ立法がされても、海外での実施を防ぎきるのは難しいだろう。

Japan should try to work with other governments to investigate the issue more deeply and develop measures to ensure that surrogate mothers and children born to them will not find themselves in predicaments that spell hardship.
生まれる子どもや代理母が窮地に陥らないよう、関係政府間で調査し、対策づくりで協力できないか。

Some lawmakers of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party are campaigning for the submission of a comprehensive bill concerning reproductive medicine to the autumn extraordinary Diet session.
 自民党内には、秋の臨時国会に生殖医療をめぐる包括的な法案提出をめざす動きがある。

The draft bill would allow surrogacy for only certain cases, such as women who do not have a uterus.
But there is no public consensus on key surrogacy-related issues. Debate on the matter should be based on both accurate scientific knowledge and values shared widely among Japanese citizens.
 素案は代理出産を子宮がない場合など条件つきで認めているが、社会の議論は追いついていない。科学的知見や市民の価値観に根ざした検討が必要だ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 9

| | コメント (0)

(社説)すき家の教訓 使い捨てにはその報い

August 08, 2014
EDITORIAL: Companies eventually pay the price for bad treatment of workers
(社説)すき家の教訓 使い捨てにはその報い

It was not uncommon for employees at the Sukiya restaurant chain to put in more than 100 hours of overtime each month, which is generally regarded as the threshold for “karoshi,” or death from overwork.
 「過労死ライン」とされる月100時間を超える残業が珍しくなかった。

That was the finding of a committee that investigated the working conditions at the beef bowl chain.

The third-party panel of experts set up by the chain’s operator, Zensho Holdings Co., published a report on its findings on July 31. The report said most employees at the chain had experienced working 24 hours nonstop. Some workers put in such long hours they could not even find the time to return home for two weeks at a time.
 大半の社員が24時間続けて働いたことがあり、自宅に2週間帰れなかった人もいる。

The panel criticized Zensho for failing to improve the working conditions, despite being repeatedly urged to take remedial measures by the Labor Standards Inspection Office concerning problems like overtime in excess of the limit set in the chain’s labor-management agreement.
 労使協定を超える残業などで労働基準監督署からたびたび勧告を受けながら、事態は改善されなかった。

The panel’s report painted a dark picture of how employees of the company listed on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange had to endure physically taxing working conditions.
 牛丼チェーン「すき家」を運営するゼンショーホールディングスの第三者委員会による報告書は、東証1部上場の企業グループの驚くべき実態をつまびらかにした。

Zensho will be held accountable for making good use of the report to ensure better treatment of its employees. The investigation also highlighted a number of other issues, such as the need to enhance the powers and functions of the Labor Standards Inspection Office.
 報告を生かし、労働環境を改善していけるのか、ゼンショーが厳しく問われるのは言うまでもない。労基署の体制の強化策なども課題だろう。

But are the problems at the Sukiya chain unique to that company alone?
 しかし、これはすき家だけの問題なのだろうか。

Last September, the labor standards watchdog looked into the working conditions of companies that were suspected of using young people as “disposable workers.”
 労基署は昨年9月、若者の「使い捨て」が疑われる企業を調査した。

More than 80 percent of an estimated 5,000 workplaces monitored by the labor standards office were found to have committed violations of labor laws, such as illegal overtime and extra work without pay.
5千余の事業所のうち8割超で、違法な時間外労働や賃金不払い残業など、法律違反が見つかった。

At 730 workplaces, or nearly 15 percent of the total, the workers doing the longest monthly overtime put in more than 100 extra hours. The longest monthly overtime was more than 80 hours at 1,230 workplaces, or nearly a quarter of the total.
1カ月の残業が最長の社員を見ると、15%近い730事業所で100時間超、80時間超だと4分の1近い1230事業所に達した。

Another investigation found that more than 100,000 workers in Japan worked extra hours without receiving overtime pay in fiscal 2012. These workers should have received a total of 10.4 billion yen ($102 million) in overtime pay. The figures fell from their peaks, but are still at high levels.
 別の調査では、賃金不払い残業は12年度で10万人余り、計104億円。ピークよりは減ったものの、依然高水準だ。

Many companies have adopted the same staffing policy as that of the Sukiya chain, which was described as being on the “winning side” in an era of deflation. Companies with this policy prefer nonregular workers like part-timers to full-time employees and harshly exploit them.
 正社員よりもアルバイトやパートなど非正社員を雇い、酷使する。「デフレ時代の勝ち組」とされたすき家と同じ手法をとってきた企業は少なくない。

The dire state of working conditions at Sukiya restaurants came to light as workers quit one after another while encouraging their co-workers to do the same. They aired their grievances on the Internet, forcing many Sukiya restaurants to suspend or shorten their operations.
 すき家の実態が知られるようになったのは、従業員がネットなどで同僚に呼びかけながら次々と退職し、多くの店舗が休業や営業短縮に追い込まれたことがきっかけだった。

Sukiya workers could afford to rebel against their employer because the improved economy created more job offers and made it easier for them to land other work.
 従業員が「反乱」できたのは、経済の持ち直しで求人が増え、他に働き口を見つけやすくなってきたからだろう。

If the economy had continued to be in bad shape, the problem might have gone mostly unnoticed and become even more serious.
景気低迷が続いていれば、問題はより見えにくく、深刻になっていたかもしれない。

A growing number of Japanese companies, including those with a reputation for long work hours, have been turning their nonregular workers into permanent employees and improving wages and other work conditions. These moves also reflect the seriousness of the labor shortage that is threatening Japanese industries.
 最近、長時間労働で知られた企業を含め、非正社員を正社員に切り替え、賃金など待遇を良くする動きが目立つ。これも、人手不足の深刻さを反映したものだろう。

There are, however, legitimate concerns about how these companies would behave if the economy slides into the doldrums again. Our fear is that they may suddenly reverse their attitudes.
 半面、景気が悪くなったら、こうした企業はどう振る舞うのか、と心配にもなる。手のひらを返すようなことはないだろうか、と。

Zensho is expected to report a net loss for the first time in its history, due partly to the closure of many Sukiya restaurants.
 すき家の決算は、店舗の大量休業も響き、初の最終赤字に転落する見通しになった。

Corporate executives throughout Japan should learn from the mess created by Zensho and realize that a company that does not treat its employees well will have to pay the price sooner or later.
 従業員を大切にしない企業には、しっぺ返しがある。経営者は胸に刻んでほしい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 8

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月 8日 (金)

国際科学五輪 理系人材を生かす社会作ろう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Scientific talent must be nurtured for the sake of Japan’s future
国際科学五輪 理系人材を生かす社会作ろう

Japanese students have been performing well at the International Science Olympiads, an annual event in which international high school students and others receiving secondary-level education compete on scientific knowledge and thinking power.
 世界の高校生らが知識や思考力を競う「国際科学五輪」で、日本勢が好成績を収めている。

Efforts should be increased to discover and nurture talented young people who will play leading roles in shaping the future of Japan as a nation that can thrive on the strength of its scientific and technological power.
 科学技術立国の将来を担う人材を発掘し、育てる取り組みを強めたい。

The ISO is a group of annual competitions in various scientific disciplines. The rankings of participants are decided through scores based on written examinations, experiments and other tests.
 科学五輪は、科目別の大会が毎年実施され、筆記や実験などの試験で順位が決まる。

A certain percentage of high achievers in each scientific area are awarded gold, silver and bronze medals. About 10 percent of top contestants take home gold.
成績上位者に一定の割合で金、銀、銅のメダルが贈られる。金メダルを手にできるのは上位の約1割だ。

In July, Japanese students competed in five ISO areas—mathematics, informatics, biology, physics and chemistry—with four to six contenders in each field. All of the Japanese participants earned medals.
 7月に開かれた数学、情報、生物学、物理、化学の5大会に、日本代表は各4~6人が参加し、全員がメダルを獲得した。

Of the six Japanese participants in the mathematics ISO, four were awarded gold medals. In the informatics area, a middle school student achieved the feat of winning a gold medal. It was reassuring to see these young Japanese people earn recognition in international competitions.
 数学では参加6人中、4人が金メダル、情報では中学生が金に輝いた。日本の若者の実力が世界で認められたのは心強い。

Our nation began stepping up efforts to succeed in the ISO about 10 years ago. In 2004, the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry began taking action to assist with these efforts. The ministry has set aside about ¥200 million in funds for such purposes this fiscal year, including costs to send contestants to ISO competitions and giving them special training.
 日本が科学五輪に力を入れ始めたのは、10年ほど前だ。文部科学省は2004年から支援に乗り出し、今年度も派遣費や強化費などに約2億円を投じている。

Domestic ISO contests in this country, through which Japanese participants for the ISO finals are selected, have been increasing in size year by year. In 2004, 3,200 students competed at home, and the figure exceeded 16,000 last year. In the past, high school students from urban districts accounted for the majority of ISO finalists from Japan. Nowadays, more students from other areas earn themselves places in the list of finalists.
 代表を選ぶ国内大会も年々、規模が大きくなってきた。04年に3200人だった参加者は、昨年は1万6000人を上回った。かつては都市部の高校生が大半を占めたが、今では地方からの参加者も代表を射止めるようになった。

Success breeds success

This seems to suggest that middle and high school students nationwide have been inspired by the splendid showing made by Japanese ISO finalists from their generation, largely as a result of the increasing degree to which the ISO is recognized. The situation can be seen as a good opportunity to discover talented young people from around the country.
 大会の認知度が上がり、同世代の活躍が中高生の刺激になっているのだろう。全国の優れた才能を見いだす好機と言える。

Giving Japanese students opportunities to mix with talented youths from other nations in international settings will help broaden their outlook on the world. Given this, government support for prospective Japanese participants in the ISO finals is greatly significant.
 国際舞台で、他国の優秀な若者と触れ合えば、視野も広がる。政府が、科学五輪への出場を後押しする意義は大きい。

The international ISO contest is a test of competitors’ knowledge and skills on scientific themes that can go beyond the contents of Japanese school textbooks. To cope with this, teaching staff from colleges and universities in the nation undertake the task of coaching candidates for the ISO at training camps, thus enabling them to better compete in the finals.
 五輪では、日本の教科書のレベルを超えた内容も出題される。それに備え、強化合宿では大学教員が指導役となり、代表候補に英才教育を施している。

A considerable number of high school teachers have visited such training camps, hoping to learn how to teach students more effectively. It is important to ensure that efforts to compete well in the ISO also contribute to improving the level of our nation’s science and mathematics education.
 合宿を見学し、指導方法を学ぶ高校教員も少なくない。科学五輪を理数教育全体のレベルアップにつなげることが大切である。

More than 20 domestic universities, including Tohoku and Keio, have set quotas in their entrance exams for high achievers at domestic ISO competitions. Under a recommendation-based admission system to be introduced in autumn next year, meanwhile, the University of Tokyo will consider the achievements gained by candidates at domestic ISO preliminaries. Such efforts are likely to motivate more students to try to qualify for the finals in the annual scientific knowledge contest.
 国内大会の上位者向けに、東北大、慶応大など20以上の大学が特別入試枠を設けている。東京大も来秋から実施する推薦入試で、大会の成績を考慮する。より多くの生徒が、五輪出場に挑戦する動機付けになるだろう。

One of the important tasks facing colleges and universities is to further cultivate the talents of gifted students and produce graduates who can play a role in the advancement of society. We hope each college and university will improve its educational programs and research systems.
 優れた才能をさらに伸ばし、社会の発展に貢献できる人材に育て上げることが、大学の重要な責務である。各大学は教育・研究体制の充実に努めてもらいたい。

If no progress is made in creating an environment that utilizes at home the excellence of people gifted with scientific and mathematical knowledge and skills, it is feared a brain drain will ensue. Further efforts must be made to provide talented young people with opportunities to play an active part in society after finishing their school studies.
 国内で理数系の英知を活用する環境整備が進まなければ、海外に優秀な人材が流出してしまう懸念もある。社会に出てから有能な若者が活躍できる場を、さらに広げることが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 7, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

原爆忌 核軍縮を着実に前進させたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
We must strive for steady progress in efforts for nuclear disarmament
原爆忌 核軍縮を着実に前進させたい

By transmitting to the world the real facts of being a country where atomic bombs were dropped, we should solidify a global trend of nuclear disarmament so as not to let the catastrophic consequences of such a weapon occur again.
 核による惨禍が二度と繰り返されないよう、被爆の実相を伝え、核軍縮の潮流を確かなものにしなければなるまい。

On Wednesday, Hiroshima marked the 69th anniversary of becoming a victim of an atomic bomb during the war.
 被爆地・広島が69回目の原爆忌を迎えた。

During a ceremony to commemorate the atomic bombing, Hiroshima Mayor Kazumi Matsui called for the international community to make efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons by saying, “We pledge to join forces with people the world over seeking the abolition of the absolute evil, nuclear weapons, and the realization of lasting world peace.”
 広島市の松井一実市長は平和記念式典で、「『絶対悪』である核兵器の廃絶と世界恒久平和の実現に向け、世界の人々と共に力を尽くすことを誓います」と述べ、核廃絶への努力を呼びかけた。

There are about 17,000 nuclear warheads in the world. China is building up its nuclear capability while North Korea, which is proceeding with its nuclear development program, has repeatedly conducted ballistic missile tests.
 世界には約1万7000発の核弾頭がある。中国は核戦力を増強し、核開発を進める北朝鮮は弾道ミサイル実験を続けている。

Taking these threats into account, Japan has no option but to depend on the nuclear umbrella of the United States. Even so, it is a mission of Japan, as the sole country where atomic bombs were dropped, to testify to the world about the inhumane nature of nuclear weapons, while making incessant efforts to realize nuclear arms reduction.
 こうした脅威を踏まえれば、日本は安全保障上、米国の核の傘に依存せざるを得ない。それでも、唯一の被爆国として核兵器の非人道性を訴え、核軍縮へ不断の努力を重ねることは日本の使命だ。

The ministerial meeting of the Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI) hosted by Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida—attended by 12 nonnuclear nations and held in Hiroshima in April—should be recognized as part of such efforts made by Japan.
 今年4月、岸田外相の主導により、広島で開催された非核保有国12か国による「軍縮・不拡散イニシアチブ(NPDI)外相会合」は、そうした取り組みの一環として評価できよう。

Realistic approaches

In the statement adopted by the Hiroshima meeting, the participating countries stressed the need for a systematic and continued reduction of all types of nuclear weapons. They also said it was important to discuss the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons.
 会合で採択された広島宣言は、すべての種類の核兵器の体系的かつ継続的な削減や、核兵器の非人道的影響に関する議論の重視などを盛り込んでいる。

Of the 12 nations, seven states including Japan, Australia, Canada and Germany depend on the U.S. nuclear umbrella. The seven countries are characterized by their realistic approaches to realizing gradual nuclear disarmament, instead of calling for an immediate ban on nuclear weapons.
 12か国のうち、日本、豪州、カナダ、ドイツなど7か国は、米国の核の傘に依存している。核兵器の即時禁止などは求めず、漸進的な核軍縮を目指す現実的なアプローチを取っているのが特徴だ。

Nuclear-armed states such as the United States have also shown their understanding, to a certain extent, of the NPDI’s efforts.
 米国など核保有国も、NPDIには一定の理解を示している。

In the Hiroshima statement, the participating countries also call for the world’s political leaders to visit Hiroshima and Nagasaki to witness the grave consequences of such a bombing.
 広島宣言は、世界各国の指導者に広島と長崎を訪問することも呼びかけている。

U.S. President Barack Obama advocated for creating a world free from nuclear weapons in a speech in Prague five years ago. To realize progress in nuclear disarmament, it is important for the world’s leaders, including Obama, to understand the reality of being victimized by such a bombing.
 オバマ米大統領は5年前のプラハ演説で「核なき世界」を唱えた。オバマ氏ら世界の要人に被爆の現実を知ってもらうことは、核軍縮を前進させるうえで大切だ。

U.S. Ambassador to Japan Caroline Kennedy, attending the memorial ceremony for her first time, released a comment saying, “This is a day for somber reflection and a renewed commitment to building a more peaceful world.” We hope she will convey the voices raised by people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Obama and other leaders in the United States.
 平和記念式典に初めて参列した米国のキャロライン・ケネディ駐日大使は「厳粛な思いで、より平和な世界を築くための誓いを新たにする日です」とのコメントを発表した。広島や長崎の声を大統領らに伝えてもらいたい。

Next spring in New York, there will be a Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. This important international conference is held every five years to review the current state of affairs of nuclear weapons and to discuss the reduction and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.
 来年春には、ニューヨークで核拡散防止条約(NPT)再検討会議が開催される。核の現状を点検し、軍縮・不拡散を協議する5年に1度の重要な国際会議だ。

We hope there will be an acceleration in the discussion on nuclear disarmament at the 2015 review conference, with participating countries taking the spirit of the Hiroshima statement to heart.
 再検討会議では、広島宣言の精神を踏まえ、核軍縮の議論を加速させたい。

It is important for Japan, in solidarity with other NPDI member countries, to tenaciously call for a ban on nuclear tests and on the reduction of nuclear weapons.
日本は、他のNPDI参加国などと連携し、核実験の禁止や核兵器の削減などを粘り強く訴えていくことが重要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 7, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)警察の不正 組織の病理にメスを

August 07, 2014
EDITORIAL: Deep-rooted structural problems behind Osaka crime data scandal
(社説)警察の不正 組織の病理にメスを

Police in Osaka Prefecture are reeling from a scandal of unprecedented scale after it emerged they failed to report tens of thousands of offenses to improve the prefecture's crime rate figures.
The whole organization should be held strictly accountable for this dire state of affairs.
 前代未聞のごまかしだ。責任は極めて重い。

All of the 65 police stations in the prefecture falsified crime figures in their districts over a five-year period from 2008 to 2012. Data was withheld on incidents of street theft, destruction of property and the like. The police stations failed to report more than 81,000 offenses, some 10 percent of the total, during the period.
 大阪府警の全65署が、窃盗や器物損壊などの犯罪を認知した件数を過少報告していたことがわかった。5年間で8万件を超え、全体のほぼ1割に当たる。

In 2010, the prefectural police announced that Osaka shed its shameful title of being the most street crime-infested prefecture--a disgraceful status it held for 10 years through 2009. But it was a false claim based on manipulated data.
 府警は不正な統計をもとに、長年続いてきた街頭犯罪ワースト1を10年に返上した、と発表していたが、虚構だった。

The way the prefectural police department responded to the revelation was also surprising. The department concluded that it was not a case of conspiracy involving the whole organization. It claimed the officers in charge at the police stations acted on their own in falsifying crime data without being told to do so by any senior police official.
 当の府警の受け止め方にまた驚く。「幹部の指示はなく、各署の担当者が独自判断でやった」とし、組織ぐるみの不正ではなかったと結論づけた。

The scandal has even more serious implications if all the stations were really involved in the same misconduct even though no senior official gave clear directions concerning the matter.
 誰も明確に指示していないのに、全署が同じ不正に手を染めたとすれば、事態はより深刻だろう。

The prefectural police department should recognize that what happened has its roots in serious problems with the organization.
組織に根ざした問題として受け止めるべきである。

There have been similar cases of data manipulation by police in various parts of the nation. The Saga prefectural police underreported the number of accidents resulting in injury or death. The Aichi prefectural police failed to report a number of fatal traffic accidents.
 警察の不正な統計処理は各地で問題になってきた。佐賀県警は人身事故件数を少なく偽装し、愛知県警でも交通死亡事故などの計上漏れが発覚した。

What is common to all these cases is excessive importance placed on statistics.
 共通するのは、統計数値に対する異様なこだわりである。

After Toru Hashimoto became governor of Osaka Prefecture in 2008 with a pledge to rescue Osaka from the shame of being the most street crime-ridden prefecture, the successive chiefs of the prefectural police department constantly spurred officers on the front line to make greater efforts to reduce crimes. Many officers in charge have said they felt strong pressure that made them hesitant to report crimes.
 大阪の場合、ワースト1返上に意欲を燃やす橋下徹知事(当時)の誕生で、歴代の府警トップが現場にはっぱをかけ続けた。多くの担当者が重圧を感じ、「犯罪を計上しにくい雰囲気があった」と証言している。

A top-down system is the norm for police organizations.
 警察組織は上意下達が原則だ。

If the upper echelons of police regard crime and other statistics as measures of job performances and reward officers for improved data and punish them for worse numbers, it is not surprising that rank-and-file officers start trying to avoid presenting bad data that would displease their bosses.
上層部が統計をまるで成績指標とみて、数値を減らせば表彰、増えれば叱責(しっせき)、というような信賞必罰で臨むと、現場が顔色をうかがうようになるのは、当然といえる。

The number of recognized crimes in an area is an important indicator of the level of public safety. What police should do is to analyze all data carefully to take effective steps to improve the public security situation.
 犯罪の認知件数は、地域の治安状況の指標であり、それを率直に受け止めて対策を講じるのが筋である。

If a crime data falsification scandal raises doubts among citizens about whether police will deal with crime reports appropriately, there will be grave consequences for public security.
「犯罪を届け出ても正しく処理されないのでは」と市民に思われれば、弊害も大きすぎる。

The Osaka prefectural police department has reprimanded 97 officers, including heads of police stations and chiefs of criminal affairs divisions during the period in question.
 府警は、当時の署長や刑事課長ら97人を処分の対象とした。

Every time this kind of scandal comes to light, police punish responsible people and avow to make sure that all officers will be properly instructed as to how they should act.
 こうした問題が起きるたび、関係者を処分し、「指導を徹底する」と繰り返すのが警察の常だ。

But these disciplinary actions alone cannot root out the structural problems with the organizations that are behind such scandals.
だが、そういう懲罰型の対応だけでは、組織自体に起因する問題の根絶は不可能だろう。

The burden of work and responsibility borne by police is growing. Police stations across the nation receive more than 1.7 million requests for help and advice every year. The number of cases that demand cautious responses, such as stalking and domestic violence, is on the rise.
 ただでさえ警察の負担は高まっている。相談は全国で年170万件を超え、ストーカーや家庭内暴力など慎重な対応を求められる事案も増えている。

On the other hand, the fiscal crunches of the central and local governments are making it difficult to expand police squads in response to the growing workload.
一方、国や自治体の財政難で要員増は追いついていない。

The National Police Agency should ask itself why police officers on the front line who are supposed to have a strong sense of mission are often tempted to commit misconduct. The agency should view the situation as a serious challenge for the national police force as a whole and embark on identifying contributing factors while seeking advice from outside experts.
 使命感が高いはずの現場がなぜ不正に傾くのか。警察庁は警察全体の問題ととらえ、外部識者の意見も聞きながら、背景事情の解明に取り組むべきだ。

If the agency treats the latest scandal in Osaka as an exceptional, isolated case, it will no doubt see many more similar episodes in the future.
 大阪などを特殊ケース、と片付けるようなら、不正はまた必ず起きる。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 7

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月 7日 (木)

朝日慰安婦報道 「吉田証言」ようやく取り消し

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Asahi Shimbun makes long-overdue corrections over ‘comfort women’
朝日慰安婦報道 「吉田証言」ようやく取り消し

◆女子挺身隊との混同も認める

After a review of its reports on the so-called comfort women issue, which has become a huge thorn in the side of Japan-South Korea ties, The Asahi Shimbun has admitted its mistakes in the reports—albeit partially—and retracted some of the contents.
 日韓間の大きな棘とげである、いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題について、朝日新聞が過去の報道を点検し、一部だが、誤りを認めて取り消した。

The retractions allude to reports on remarks by Seiji Yoshida, who claimed to have forcibly taken away local women from Jeju Island, South Korea, to make them serve as comfort women. During World War II, Yoshida was said to be the former head of the mobilization department of the Shimonoseki Branch of Romu Hokoku-kai, an organization in charge of recruiting laborers.
 韓国・済州島で慰安婦を強制連行したとする吉田清治氏の証言である。吉田氏は戦時中、労務報国会下関支部の動員部長だったとされる。

In September 1982, the newspaper reported—without verification—the remarks of Yoshida, who claimed to have “hunted up 200 young Korean women in Jeju Island.”
 朝日新聞は1982年9月、「済州島で200人の若い朝鮮人女性を『狩り出した』」とする吉田氏の発言をうのみにして報じた。

Misperceptions about Japan
◆世界に誤解広げた一因

The report added fuel to anti-Japan sentiment in South Korea, and also became a basis of misperception of Japan spreading through the world. In its Tuesday morning edition, the Asahi concluded—for the first time—that Yoshida’s remarks were baseless, and finally retracted the newspaper’s reports regarding the remarks.
 これが韓国の反日世論をあおっただけでなく、日本について誤った認識が、世界に広がる根拠の一つとなった。今回、吉田証言を初めて虚偽と判断し、それをめぐる記事をようやく撤回した。

We cannot help but point out the correction should have been made at a much earlier stage. Doubts about Yoshida’s remarks have been raised as early as 1992. The newspaper’s negligence in allowing the issue to linger for more than 20 years is deplorable.
 もっと早い段階で訂正されるべきだった。92年には疑問が指摘されながら、20年以上にわたって、放置してきた朝日新聞の責任は極めて重い。

The Asahi has, by its own account, reported about Yoshida on at least 16 occasions. Historian Ikuhiko Hata raised doubts over Yoshida’s remarks in 1992, but the newspaper has long refrained from making a correction.
 朝日新聞は82年以降、確認できただけで計16回にわたって、吉田氏について記事にした。92年に歴史家の秦郁彦氏が吉田証言への疑問を指摘したが、修正することはなかった。

In March 1997, The Asahi Shimbun carried a special article on the reports about the comfort women issue. However, the newspaper only said it was unable to confirm the authenticity of Yoshida’s remarks.
 97年3月の検証記事でさえ、吉田証言について「真偽は確認できない」と表記するにとどめた。

Yoshida’s remarks were cited by a 1996 U.N. Human Rights Commission report compiled by Radhika Coomaraswamy, helping propagate a misunderstanding in the international community that the forcible recruitment of comfort women took place.
 吉田証言は、96年の国連人権委員会のクマラスワミ報告にも引用された。これが、慰安婦の強制連行があったとする誤解が、国際社会に拡大する一因となった。

Another serious problem with the Asahi’s reports is the mix-up between comfort women and female volunteer corps.
 朝日新聞の報道におけるもう一つの重大な問題は、慰安婦と「女子挺身ていしん隊」との混同である。

In a front-page article carried in January 1992, the Asahi stated that “South Korean women became the major target of forcible recruitment conducted in the name of the female volunteer corps. The estimated number [of victims] range from 80,000 to 200,000.”
 92年1月の1面記事で「主として朝鮮人女性を挺身隊の名で強制連行した。その人数は8万とも20万ともいわれる」と記した。

The report was issued just before then Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa’s visit to South Korea. It prompted the government to conduct an investigation into the comfort women issue, resulting in a statement issued by then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono, which expressed the government’s “sincere apologies and remorse” to former comfort women.
 この記事は、宮沢首相の訪韓の直前に報じられた。政府が慰安婦問題を調査し、元慰安婦への「おわびと反省」を表明する河野談話を作成する発火点となった。

In Tuesday morning’s edition, the Asahi admitted its mistake over the mix-up for the first time, saying that the female volunteer corps refers to groups of women mobilized for work in munitions factories and elsewhere during wartime and are “completely different” from comfort women.
 朝日新聞は今回、「女子挺身隊は、戦時下で女性を軍需工場などに動員した『女子勤労挺身隊』を指し、慰安婦とはまったく別」と、初めて誤りを認めた。

“We have been working not to confuse the two since 1993,” the newspaper said in the Tuesday edition. However, the Asahi’s reports have prompted the false understanding that even girls of primary school age were recruited as comfort women.
 「93年以降、両者を混同しないよう努めてきた」としているが、小学生まで慰安婦にしたかのような誤解を生むことになった。

The Asahi defended its coverage by saying in its two-page spread: “Little progress had been made in investigating the comfort women issue at that time. Some documents to which [Asahi] reporters referred contained statements in which the female volunteer corps was mixed up with the comfort women.” Then the special feature said that some other national dailies had also published articles containing a similar mix-up.
 「当時は、慰安婦問題に関する研究が進んでおらず、記者が参考にした資料などにも慰安婦と挺身隊の混同がみられた」と釈明したうえ、他紙も同様の報道をしたと指摘している。

In reporting on the female volunteer corps and Yoshida in initial stages, The Yomiuri Shimbun also ran some stories including factual errors. In the late 1990s and onward, however, we corrected such errors through our editorials and other articles.
 読売新聞にも当初、女子挺身隊や吉田氏に関して、誤った記事を掲載した例があった。だが、90年代後半以降は、社説などを通じて、誤りを正している。

Assertions unchanged
◆正しい歴史認識持とう

We question the Asahi’s assertions about how so-called comfort women were kept at facilities to provide sex for soldiers. Though the heart of the matter was whether they were recruited by force, the national daily argued that great importance must be attached to the fact that those women were caught in a situation marked by “a coercive nature” with which they had been “deprived of freedom.”
 疑問なのは、「強制連行の有無」が慰安婦問題の本質であるのに、朝日新聞が「自由を奪われた強制性」があったことが重要だと主張していることだ。

In initial stages, the Asahi continued to insist the crux of the problem was that these women had been forcibly recruited, citing testimony from Yoshida and other sources. However, the testimony and data used by the paper as a basis for its reasoning were later disproved. Then the Asahi started to argue that the retention of those women in facilities had a coercive nature.
 朝日新聞は当初、吉田証言などを基に、慰安婦の強制連行を問題視してきた。だが、強制連行の根拠が崩れると、慰安婦が慰安所に留め置かれていたことに強制性があると主張するようになる。

The Asahi’s assertion has remained fundamentally unchanged in this respect, as illustrated by its latest feature, which stated that the essence of the problem lies in the fact that “women were deprived of freedom in brothels, and their dignity was violated.”
 今回も、問題の本質は、「慰安所で女性が自由を奪われ、尊厳が傷つけられたことにある」としており、その主張は基本的に変化していない。

There is no doubt that a large number of women, including those from the Philippines and Indonesia, had their honor and dignity injured during World War II. There may have been cases deemed inexcusable from a present-day human rights perspective, even if no coercive action was taken by the prewar government and the military.
 フィリピンやインドネシアなども含め、戦時中に多数の女性の名誉と尊厳が傷つけられる行為があったことは確かである。政府・軍の強制連行はなくとも、現在の人権感覚では、許されないこともあっただろう。

Still, it is necessary to discuss two issues related to the whole controversy as separate matters—that is, how to deal with sex-related issues facing soldiers and whether the Japanese wartime military was involved in forcibly recruiting women for the provision of sex.
 しかし、「戦場での性」の是非と、軍の強制連行があったかどうかは、区別して論じる必要がある。

Questions can be asked as to the appropriateness of calling the Japanese government to task by insisting coerciveness was prevalent in the provision of sex by those women in a broad sense of the term. We believe focusing on such questions is an attempt to sidestep the real issue.
広義の強制性があったとして日本政府の責任を問うことは、議論のすりかえではないか。

Gaining a proper perception of history requires thorough efforts to uncover the whole truth behind any historical issue.
 正しい歴史認識を持つためには、あくまで真実を究明することが欠かせない。

Better Japan-ROK ties needed
◆日韓関係の正常化を

South Korean President Park Geun-hye strongly opposed a report issued by the Japanese government in June regarding the results of investigations into how the so-called Kono statement on comfort women was drafted and issued in 1993, using Coomaraswamy’s U.N. report and other data as a basis for her assertion. Her unbending hard-line stance on Japan is unlikely to change.
 韓国の朴槿恵政権は、クマラスワミ報告などを根拠として、日本政府が6月に発表した河野談話の検証結果にも強く反発している。その頑かたくなな対日強硬姿勢は、簡単には変わるまい。

The government should not easily compromise on the controversy. It must persist in urging South Koreans to gain a proper understanding of our government’s stance on the comfort women dispute.
 政府は、安易な妥協をすることなく、慰安婦問題に関する日本の立場に対する韓国の理解を粘り強く求めていかねばならない。

Relations between Japan and South Korea are strained today. There has been no summit meeting between the two nations for more than two years. We hope the media and the public in both nations will come to have an accurate grasp of all the facts, a task essential for their respective efforts to build a future-oriented relationship between the two neighbors.
 日韓関係は今、首脳会談が2年以上も開かれない異常な状態にある。両国のメディアや国民も、冷静に事実関係を把握したうえで、未来志向の関係の構築に向けて、それぞれの努力を心がけたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 6, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)被爆69年の夏に 核兵器の違法化・禁止を

August 06, 2014
EDITORIAL: Ban nuclear weapons on humanitarian grounds
(社説)被爆69年の夏に 核兵器の違法化・禁止を

“Remember Hiroshima, Nagasaki,” goes the refrain in “Remember,” a number released last year by singer Shinobu Sato (lyrics by Rei Nakanishi, music by Kisaburo Suzuki). Since then, Sato has been singing this song at concerts all over Japan.
 ♪リメンバー ヒロシマ・ナガサキ
 声楽家の佐藤しのぶさんが、昨年発表した曲「リメンバー」(なかにし礼作詞、鈴木キサブロー作曲)を各地のコンサートで歌っている。

Why “remember”? It was often quoted by artist and nuclear disarmament activist Yoko Ono, who insisted that Japan, the world’s sole victim of nuclear attacks, should keep telling the rest of the world to “remember.” She explained, “There are too many people who don’t remember, aren’t there?”
 なぜ、リメンバー(覚えておこう)なのか。もともとは核兵器廃絶を訴え続けている芸術家オノ・ヨーコさんが、被爆国日本から世界に発信すべき言葉として口にした。「だって、覚えていない人、多いでしょ」と。

She went on to express her wish that people around the world would imagine and understand the horrors of nuclear bombs before they say, “No more.”
 ノーモアと言う前に、世界の人々に原爆の悲惨さを知ってほしい。思い起こしてほしい。

Ono’s wish echoes the desperate appeals that hibakusha (atomic-bomb survivors) have been making to the international community for decades. Their appeals have often been ignored in the coldly calculating setting of international politics and nuclear disarmament negotiations.
 それは、被爆者らが長年、世界に訴え続けてきた痛切な思いと重なる。国際政治の冷徹なかけひきや核軍縮をめぐる綱引きのなかで、ともすると、かき消されがちだった声でもある。

But in this 69th year since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the inhumanity of nuclear weapons is being highlighted anew.
 だが、被爆69年の今、核の非道が改めて注目されている。

Momentum is surging among nations that are seeking total nuclear disarmament and asking, “Why can’t we ban nuclear weapons altogether on humanitarian grounds?”
 「人道に反する兵器であることを根拠に、核兵器を禁止できないか」。核廃絶を求める国々による、そんな動きが急速に高まっているからである。

DESTRUCTION THAT DEFIES ALL RELIEF EFFORT
 ■救援が不可能な破壊

In violence-torn Ukraine, Iraq, Gaza and elsewhere, many lives are being lost even as we speak.
 ウクライナ、イラク、パレスチナ自治区ガザ……。今も戦いで多くの命が失われている。

Some people think all lethal weapons are equally inhumane, be they nuclear, chemical or conventional missiles or guns. Still, nuclear weapons should be considered differently from the rest.
 殺すのは、核も、化学兵器やミサイル、銃も同じ、兵器は一様に非人道的と考える人もいるだろう。だが、やはり、核は別に考えるべき兵器なのである。

Over the last two years, four international conferences have been held about nuclear weapons, and each conference has produced a joint declaration condemning their inhumanity. The number of participating nations in support of these declarations has grown each time, from 16 to 34, 80 and 125.
 過去2年間、核を巡る国際会議が4回開かれた。非人道性に関する共同声明がその都度、提案され、賛同国は16、34、80、125と膨らんだ。そして今年2月、メキシコのナヤリット。

In February this year, as many as 146 nations gathered in Nayarit, Mexico, for the International Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons, although none of the five major nuclear nations--the United States, Russia, France, Britain and China--was in attendance.
核の非人道性を問うこの会議に5大国は参加しなかったが、146もの国が集まった。

Summing up the current state of affairs at the conference, the chairman noted that the impact of any nuclear detonation can spread far enough to cross national borders and that the effects of the destruction of infrastructure and health damage from radiation will remain for an extremely long time. But no matter how badly relief work is needed, no country or international organ is fully equipped to handle it, the chairman pointed out.
 席上、議長は核兵器の特徴と現状をこう表現した。
 核爆発の影響は国境を越えるほど広がり、インフラ破壊や放射線障害の影響は極めて長く続く。救援がいくら必要でも、どこの国も国際機関も対処しきれない。

Yet, he continued, there is no end to countries and terrorist groups that seek to possess nuclear weapons, and the danger of nuclear detonation by mistake or as an act of terror keeps increasing.
なのに核兵器を持とうとする国やテロ集団は後を絶たず、ミスやテロによる核爆発の危険は増す一方だ――。

The chairman’s observation echoed what many people have been thinking: When nuclear weapons that cause tremendous damage already exist in mind-boggling numbers, on what grounds can anyone ever say that the human race will still survive?
 甚大な被害をもたらす核が、気が遠くなるほど多く存在する。何を根拠に、この危うさを抱えたままで人類が生きながらえると言えるだろうか。そんな問いかけが、そこにはある。

RETURN TO THE BASICS
 ■廃絶めざし原点回帰

In the latter half of the 20th century, humanity came face to face with grave challenges, such as global warming and the depletion of resources from mass consumption. As a result, we have come to accept certain limitations to our daily activities, if that is what will help the human race survive.
 20世紀後半、人類は資源の大量消費と枯渇、地球温暖化といった難題に直面した。人類が生き延びるには、日々の活動が一部制約されてもやむを得ないと考えられるようになってきた。

We believe the same sort of attitude is needed on matters of security. We cannot just sit and do nothing when we already have more than enough nuclear weapons hanging over our heads, so to speak, to drive the human race and civilization to extinction.
 安全保障にも同様な感覚が必要だろう。人類と文明を滅亡のふちに追いやるに十分な核兵器が、依然として頭の上にぶら下がっているのは放置できない。

The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty restricts the possession of nuclear weapons to the five major nuclear nations and requires them to proceed with nuclear disarmament with sincerity. But the treaty has proved less effective than expected because of the deeply ingrained belief that the “power of nuclear deterrence” guarantees the safety of the nation.
 核兵器に関しては、核不拡散条約(NPT)が保有国を5大国に限り、5大国は誠実に核軍縮を進めることを定めている。だが、思うような成果は上がってこなかった。核で国の安全を確保する「核抑止」の考え方が染みついているからだ。

Given this situation, we must return to the basics and ban nuclear weapons on humanitarian grounds. We can start by prohibiting the pre-emptive use of nuclear weapons, and then proceed to banning their use under all circumstances, until they are completely eliminated.
 ならば原点に返り、非人道性を根拠に核兵器を違法化していくことだ。たとえば核の先制使用の禁止から入り、さらに使用全般を人道法上違法化して、将来の廃絶につなげる。化学兵器が使用禁止から、全面禁止へと進んだことを思い起こしたい。

CITIZENS DECIDE THE FUTURE
 ■市井から決める未来

At the Nayarit conference, five atomic-bomb survivors were given more than one hour to make their presentations. This was unprecedented on a diplomatic stage.
 ナヤリット会議では冒頭、被爆者ら5人に1時間以上の発言機会が確保された。外交の舞台では画期的なことだ。

Setsuko Thurlow, a Canadian resident, was 13 years old when she survived the Hiroshima atomic bomb 69 years ago. She gave a vivid account in English of how her classmates and relatives died before her eyes. The majority of more than 70 conference attendees who participated in a general discussion session voiced empathy with what the hibakusha had to say.
 69年前の今日、広島で13歳で被爆したサーロー・節子さん=カナダ在住=は、同級生や親類らの死にゆく姿を英語で生々しく語った。一般討論に立った70人以上の代表の大半が、被爆者らの発言に共感を表明した。

In wrapping up the conference, the chairman called for tangible action, including the drafting of a treaty to ban nuclear weapons. His comments were hailed as a succinct summary of the discussions of the past five years regarding the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons, and also as a clear counterproposal to the nuclear nations that continue to rely on their nuclear arsenals.
 議長は総括で、核兵器禁止条約づくりなどを念頭に、具体的に動き出そうと呼びかけた。ここ5年ほどの核の非人道性をめぐる議論をまとめ、核に頼り続ける保有国への対抗軸を明確に打ち出したものとして、注目を集めた。

In December this year, a conference in Vienna will take up where the Nayarit conference left off. Not only the five major nuclear nations, but also as many countries as possible should attend the Vienna conference and hear the discussions.
 今年12月、ナヤリットを受けた国際会議がウィーンで開かれる。1カ国でも多く、5大国も参加して、議論に耳を傾けるべきである。

Three times in the past, the Japanese government refused to endorse joint statements condemning the inhumanity of nuclear weapons, and came under harsh criticism from the mayors and citizens of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for “contradicting its stated policy of seeking total nuclear disarmament as the government of the A-bombed nation.” But at Nayarit, the Japanese government finally came around.
 日本政府は核の非人道性を批判する共同声明について、賛同を3度見送った。広島、長崎両市長をはじめ、市民の側が「被爆国の立場、核廃絶を求める政策と矛盾しているではないか」と政府の対応を強く非難した。4度目にやっと姿勢を変えた。

Mayors for Peace, presided over by the mayor of Hiroshima, currently has an active membership exceeding 6,000 mayors around the world. With a growing nuclear risk now being felt globally, it appears that so many mayors are participating in the latest Mayors for Peace conference because they are aware of the sense of crisis being felt by the public at large.
 広島市長が会長を務める平和首長会議には今、世界で6千を超す首長が参加する。非人道性の国際会議に限らず、核リスクへの危惧は確実に強まっている。多くの首長たちが参加するのは、市井に広がるそうした危惧を感じとってのことだろう。

Matters of national security must not be left to the government alone to decide. Whether something deviates from human decency is for us, ordinary citizens, to determine. Let us always bear that firmly in mind.
 安全保障の問題だからと国任せにはしない。人の道に外れているかどうかを決めるのは、普通に暮らす私たちである。そこを強く自覚していきたい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 6

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月 6日 (水)

アルゼンチン 「ハゲタカ」の横暴が目に余る

The Yomiuri Shimbun
‘Vultures’ drive Argentina into default, turning debt relief accords to ashes
アルゼンチン 「ハゲタカ」の横暴が目に余る

The Argentine government has fallen into default, unable to keep up with interest payments on its debt.
 アルゼンチン政府が国債の利払いをできない債務不履行(デフォルト)の状態に陥った。

It is important to deal with the latest turmoil and prevent it from developing into a serious and more widespread financial crisis.
 事態の早期収拾を図り深刻な危機に拡大しないようにすることが重要だ。

The latest default resulted from the collapse of talks between the country and U.S. hedge fund creditors, which sought payment in full.
 今回のデフォルトは、全額返済を求める米投資ファンドとの交渉決裂によって起きた。

Argentina fell into its first default in 2001. Later, Argentina reached agreements with more than 90 percent of investors to wholly or partially write off obligations comprising about 70 percent of the country’s $100 billion debt as part of its restructuring plans. It has made interest payments since then.
 アルゼンチンは2001年にいったんデフォルトになった。1000億ドルの債務について9割超の投資家と約7割の減免で合意し、利払いを続けてきた。

But certain U.S. fund creditors, refusing to accept the debt reduction plans, sued the country. An earlier U.S. court decision that was recently upheld by the Supreme Court blocks Argentina from making interest payments to other bondholders who separately agreed to restructuring plans until the U.S. hedge funds get paid the full value of their bonds.
 ところが、減免に応じないファンドが提訴し、ファンドに全額返済するまで他の債権者への利払いを認めないとする判決が、米国の最高裁で確定した。

With the recent decision by the U.S. court, Argentina has become unable to make interest payments to other creditors no matter how much the country wants to do so.
 このため、アルゼンチン政府はファンド以外の債権者に利払いしたくてもできなくなった。

The hedge funds in question snapped up Argentina’s junk bonds from original investors following the first default and then refused the restructuring terms, suing for repayment in full. It is hardly surprising for the Argentine financial authorities to criticize the hedge fund creditors as “vultures.”
 問題の投資ファンドは、当初の債権者から国債を破格の安値で買い取り、全額返済を求める裁判を起こした。アルゼンチン当局がファンドを「ハゲタカだ」と、強く非難しているのは当然だろう。

Impact limited, for now

Currently, there is hardly any trading of Argentina’s national bonds on the market. Therefore the latest development is expected to have only a limited impact on the international financial market.
 現在、アルゼンチン国債の市場取引はほとんどなく、国際金融市場への影響は限定的とされる。

Yet Argentina’s economy will inevitably be affected by the impact of the peso’s decline in the currency market, due to the decline in the country’s creditworthiness. Close attention is needed as to whether the latest development may cause a negative chain reaction involving such emerging economies as Brazil, which is closely linked with the Argentine economy.
 だが、信用低下による通貨安など、アルゼンチン経済への打撃は避けられない。経済の結びつきの強いブラジルなど新興国に連鎖しないか、注視する必要がある。

Prolonging the current turmoil may not be a good course of action to take for the U.S. hedge funds, either. No matter how hard they drive Argentina’s weak economy into a corner, they cannot expect much benefit for themselves. The hedge funds must search for a realistic middle ground with the Argentine government.
 混乱の長期化は、ファンドにとっても得策ではあるまい。経済力の乏しいアルゼンチンをいくら追いつめたところで、得るものは限られよう。ファンドはアルゼンチン政府との間で、現実的な妥協点を探るべきだ。

The problem is that, due to the funds’ attempt to rake in money, the agreements that other creditors reached earlier with Argentina to resolve the default crisis in 2001—even at the possible cost of suffering a loss—have turned to ashes.
 問題は、荒稼ぎを狙ったファンドの行動で、01年のアルゼンチン危機を収束させるため、債権者が損失覚悟で結んだ合意が、簡単に台無しになったことである。

Many are skeptical of the U.S. court decision, which gave credit to the U.S. funds’ unilateral assertions, despite the fact that a large number of creditors had agreed with Argentina over the restructuring plans.
 多数の債権者が合意した経緯があるのに、ファンド側の一方的な主張を認めた米裁判所の司法判断を疑問視する見方も多い。

The fact that an international agreement has been overturned by the judicial ruling of a single country has fueled concern among such financial institutions as the International Monetary Fund that it would become ever more difficult to compile assistance efforts such as debt reductions or exemptions, should such a crisis as debt default occur in other countries in the future.
 一国の司法判断が国際的な合意を覆したことに、国際通貨基金(IMF)などは、他国で将来、デフォルトなどが起きた際、債務減免といった支援策をまとめにくくなるとの懸念を強めている。

Recently there have been many national bonds that have set, at the time of issuance, a provision that if a certain ratio of creditors agree with a debt reduction, all the creditors will have to comply with the agreement.
 最近は、一定割合の債権者が債務削減に合意すれば、すべての債権者が従わなければならないという条項を、発行時に定めている国債が多いという。

The IMF and the Group of Seven major powers have to expedite their efforts to draw up an international framework to help such agreements retain their validity even in the judicial arena.
 IMFや先進7か国(G7)は、こうした取り決めが司法の場でも実効性を保てるよう、国際的な枠組み作りを急ぐべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 5, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

福島の除染 個人線量の重視で復興加速を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Use individuals’ radiation doses as decontamination benchmark
福島の除染 個人線量の重視で復興加速を

To effectively carry out decontamination work in areas affected by Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, setting realistic targets to lower radiation exposure doses is essential.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故に伴う除染の作業を効率的に進めるには、実態に沿った放射線量の低減目標が欠かせない。

The Environment Ministry has proposed a policy of carrying out decontamination work by attaching utmost importance to the radiation doses individuals are exposed to.
 環境省が、実際に住民が被曝ひばくする個人線量を重視して除染を進める方針を打ち出した。

Decontamination plans have been worked out by the government and relevant municipalities based on radiation doses measured in the air. The government has set a long-term decontamination goal of reducing individuals’ annual radiation exposure to 1 millisievert or lower, equivalent to 0.23 microsievert or less in terms of air dosage per hour.
 これまでは、空中で測った空間線量に基づき、政府や市町村が除染計画を立てていた。長期的目標として、「年間1ミリ・シーベルト以下」、1時間当たりに換算すると「0・23マイクロ・シーベルト以下」を掲げてきた。

But the measurement of air doses can vary, so the ministry’s shift to deciding on decontamination areas based on measurements of individuals’ radiation doses is realistic.
 だが、空間線量には、ばらつきがある。個人線量計のデータによって除染地点を決める方針に転換したのは、現実的な判断だ。

According to actual measurements taken in Fukushima Prefecture, the radiation dosage of individuals was held to an annual 1 millisievert even in areas where air doses exceeded more than two times the 0.6 microsievert per hour, the conventional level set as a long-term target.
 福島県内で実測された例によると、空間線量が従来の長期目標の2倍を大きく超える毎時0・6マイクロ・シーベルトの地域でも、個人線量計のデータをみると、年換算で1ミリ・シーベルト程度の被曝にとどまっている。

Merely applying air doses uniformly to set decontamination goals would cause affected residents to become extremely anxious. It is natural for relevant municipalities such as Fukushima and Date, which have been taking pains over decontamination, to call for the government to study practical decontamination measures.
 空間線量を一律に適用するばかりでは、住民に過度の不安をもたらす。除染に腐心する福島市や伊達市などの関連自治体が、政府に現実的な除染方針を検討するよう求めてきたのは当然だろう。

Nevertheless, the ministry’s new policy is still inadequate. The “annual dose of 1 millisievert” is regarded as a goal, at present. This could be interpreted as “the threshold of safety and danger.”
 ただ、新方針では、まだ不十分だ。個人線量で「年間1ミリ・シーベルト」が当座の目標のように扱われている。相変わらず「安全と危険の境界」と受け取られかねない。

Set a viable goal

The International Atomic Energy Agency, for example, says an annual dose of up to 20 millisieverts is tolerable.
 国際原子力機関などは、「年間20ミリ・シーベルトまでは許容し得る」との見解を示している。

The 20-millisievert limit is also set as a condition to lift evacuation orders in the aftermath of the nuclear power plant accident. But many displaced residents assume they will not be able to return home unless the exposure dose falls to 1 millisievert or lower.
 原発事故後の避難指示を解除する基準も20ミリ・シーベルトだ。しかし、避難生活が続く住民の中には、線量が1ミリ・シーベルト以下に下がらなければ、自宅に戻れないと思い込んでいる人は少なくない。

The Miyakojimachi district of Tamura city is the only municipality among those around the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant where the evacuation order has been lifted after the completion of decontamination work. Removal of a similar order, which had been scheduled for July in eastern Kawauchi village in Fukushima Prefecture, was postponed due to fears expressed by many people that “radiation doses are still high in some places.”
 福島第一原発の周辺自治体のうち、除染作業が終了し、避難指示が解除されたのは、田村市都路町地区だけだ。7月に予定されていた川内村東部の解除は先送りされた。「まだ放射線量が高い所がある」との声が多かったためだ。

Thus, the 1-millisievert benchmark, set by the former Democratic Party of Japan-led government to meet requests of local residents that decontamination work be carried out thoroughly, still hampers reconstruction of the affected areas.
 徹底除染を求める地元の要望を受け、1ミリ・シーベルトを目安とした民主党政権の施策が、いまだに地域再生の障害となっている。

The government must give detailed explanations to residents of the importance of using individuals’ radiation doses to set decontamination goals, and that there is no need to stick to the 1-millisievert target for the time being. Even if the 1-millisievert target is set as a long-range goal, discussing phased targets leading to that limit is crucial.
 政府は、個人線量の重要性と、当面は1ミリ・シーベルトにこだわる必要がないことを、住民に丁寧に説明せねばならない。長期的には1ミリ・シーベルトを目指すにしても、そこに至る段階的な目標を議論すべきだ。

Future decontamination work will have to be conducted intensively in areas of high radiation doses. This will help shorten the period of work and reduce the amount of radioactive waste generated.
 今後の除染作業は、線量の高い地点で集中的に実施することが重要である。作業期間が短縮され、発生する廃棄物も減量できる。

Sticking to the 1-millisievert goal alone would delay reconstruction further.
 1ミリ・シーベルトにとらわれたままでは、復興が遅れるばかりだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 5, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)子どもの虐待 重層的な対策が必要だ

August 05, 2014
EDITORIAL: Multilayered approach needed to prevent child abuse
(社説)子どもの虐待 重層的な対策が必要だ

Child consultation centers across Japan recognized and confirmed a record 73,765 cases of child abuse in fiscal 2013, according to data released recently by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The number has broken records for 23 straight years since fiscal 1990, when the ministry started compiling the statistics.
 全国の児童相談所が2013年度に虐待として認定した件数(対応件数)が合計7万3765件で、過去最多となった。統計を取り始めた1990年度から23年連続で過去最多を更新している。

The ministry said the number of child abuse cases remains “on a high level.” Ministry officials added that the main factor behind the steady increase in the number of recognized cases is “heightened public interest” in the problem, which has led to a larger number of consultations and reports concerning child abuse.
 統計を公表した厚生労働省は「虐待件数は高い水準にある。社会的関心が高まって、相談や通報が増えたことが大きな要因」と説明している。

If the ministry’s explanation is accurate, the data indicate that our society’s ability to detect and recognize child abuse has improved.
 厚労省の説明通りなら、この数字は、現実をつかむ精度が上がった結果ととらえることができる。

It is depressing to know that so many children suffer abuse in this nation. The first priority in dealing with this problem should be saving children from abuse.
虐待の広がりには、暗然たる思いを抱く。まず、子どもを虐待から救うことを考えたい。

It is crucial to detect abuse at an early stage. That requires close cooperation among related organizations, including schools, child consultation centers, local governments and medical institutions.
 虐待を早い段階で見つけることだ。そのためには、学校や児童相談所、市町村、医療機関など関係機関の緊密な連携が欠かせない。

In the case of the recent suicide of a second-year junior high school student in the city of Nishi-Tokyo who was a victim of abuse by his father, the school was aware of bruises on his face but failed to notify the local child consultation center.
 東京都西東京市の中学2年生が自殺したケースで、学校は生徒のあざに気づいていたが、児童相談所に伝えなかったという事態が起きている。

In an Aug. 4 conference of the heads of child consultation centers from around the country, the importance of cooperation among related institutions was emphasized afresh. People and organizations concerned should figure out ways to ensure practical cooperation with each other while putting the top priority on the safety of children.
 4日に全国の児童相談所長らが集まった会議では、改めて関係機関が連携する重要性が強調された。「子どもの安全」を第一に考え、実質的な連携を深めてほしい。

More efforts should be made to detect early warning signs so that child abuse can be prevented.
 虐待に至る前に気づいて、予防することにもっと、力を注いではどうか。

Abuse by parents accounts for an overwhelming 93 percent of the cases handled by child consultation centers, according to data for fiscal 2012. The other cases involve grandparents or other relatives, such as uncles and aunts.
 児童相談所が対応する虐待は親子間が全体の93%を占め、残りは祖父母やおじ・おば(2012年度統計)となっている。

Many experts say child rearing in an isolated environment often leads to abuse. If so, steps should be taken to prevent parents raising children from becoming isolated.
孤立した育児が虐待につながりかねない、と多くの専門家が見る。ならば、孤立を防ぐことを考えるべきだ。

There should be more places where parents can seek counseling on child rearing as well as help to deal with problems they are facing without feeling hesitant or uncomfortable.
 親が気軽に子育ての相談をする、「小さなSOS」を気兼ねなく出せる、そんな身近な集いの場を増やしてほしい。

The proposed program of free preschool education the government is now considering would be an effective measure also from the viewpoint of policy support for child care.
 現在検討されている小学校就学前教育の無償化は、子育て支援の観点からも意味がある。

If kindergartens and day nurseries become more accessible for low-income families, these institutions can serve as intermediaries to help troubled families receive support from child consultation centers and government organizations.
低所得の世帯が通園しやすくなれば、幼稚園や保育所が相談所、行政からの支援を受ける「つなぎ役」になれるかもしれないからだ。

These institutions could do a lot to help prevent child abuse by gathering more detailed information about the child-care situations in families, such as whether infants are not receiving health checkups or if the parents are having difficulties raising their children.
 乳幼児健診を受けていない子どもがいる、子育てに悩んでいる、などきめ細かく情報をすくいあげることも、虐待の予防につながるはずだ。

It is also important to make sure that child abuse is not viewed simply as a problem in the relationships between children and their parents or those among family members.
 虐待を親子間・家族間の問題に閉じ込めない視点も必要だろう。

The questions we need to ask ourselves include whether our society puts strong pressure on parents to assume all responsibility for taking care of their children and whether enough policy support is offered to help parents find jobs and ensure stable livelihoods.
親の側を追い詰める社会になっていないか。就労を含め、生活が安定するような支援が届いているのだろうか。

It is vital for all of us to understand that child abuse is a problem for our entire society and work out effective measures to tackle this urgent social challenge from a broad perspective.
 虐待を私たちの社会全体の問題とみて、幅広く対策を考えることが求められている。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 5

| | コメント (0)

(社説)子どもの虐待 重層的な対策が必要だ

August 05, 2014
EDITORIAL: Multilayered approach needed to prevent child abuse
(社説)子どもの虐待 重層的な対策が必要だ

Child consultation centers across Japan recognized and confirmed a record 73,765 cases of child abuse in fiscal 2013, according to data released recently by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The number has broken records for 23 straight years since fiscal 1990, when the ministry started compiling the statistics.
 全国の児童相談所が2013年度に虐待として認定した件数(対応件数)が合計7万3765件で、過去最多となった。統計を取り始めた1990年度から23年連続で過去最多を更新している。

The ministry said the number of child abuse cases remains “on a high level.” Ministry officials added that the main factor behind the steady increase in the number of recognized cases is “heightened public interest” in the problem, which has led to a larger number of consultations and reports concerning child abuse.
 統計を公表した厚生労働省は「虐待件数は高い水準にある。社会的関心が高まって、相談や通報が増えたことが大きな要因」と説明している。

If the ministry’s explanation is accurate, the data indicate that our society’s ability to detect and recognize child abuse has improved.
 厚労省の説明通りなら、この数字は、現実をつかむ精度が上がった結果ととらえることができる。

It is depressing to know that so many children suffer abuse in this nation. The first priority in dealing with this problem should be saving children from abuse.
虐待の広がりには、暗然たる思いを抱く。まず、子どもを虐待から救うことを考えたい。

It is crucial to detect abuse at an early stage. That requires close cooperation among related organizations, including schools, child consultation centers, local governments and medical institutions.
 虐待を早い段階で見つけることだ。そのためには、学校や児童相談所、市町村、医療機関など関係機関の緊密な連携が欠かせない。

In the case of the recent suicide of a second-year junior high school student in the city of Nishi-Tokyo who was a victim of abuse by his father, the school was aware of bruises on his face but failed to notify the local child consultation center.
 東京都西東京市の中学2年生が自殺したケースで、学校は生徒のあざに気づいていたが、児童相談所に伝えなかったという事態が起きている。

In an Aug. 4 conference of the heads of child consultation centers from around the country, the importance of cooperation among related institutions was emphasized afresh. People and organizations concerned should figure out ways to ensure practical cooperation with each other while putting the top priority on the safety of children.
 4日に全国の児童相談所長らが集まった会議では、改めて関係機関が連携する重要性が強調された。「子どもの安全」を第一に考え、実質的な連携を深めてほしい。

More efforts should be made to detect early warning signs so that child abuse can be prevented.
 虐待に至る前に気づいて、予防することにもっと、力を注いではどうか。

Abuse by parents accounts for an overwhelming 93 percent of the cases handled by child consultation centers, according to data for fiscal 2012. The other cases involve grandparents or other relatives, such as uncles and aunts.
 児童相談所が対応する虐待は親子間が全体の93%を占め、残りは祖父母やおじ・おば(2012年度統計)となっている。

Many experts say child rearing in an isolated environment often leads to abuse. If so, steps should be taken to prevent parents raising children from becoming isolated.
孤立した育児が虐待につながりかねない、と多くの専門家が見る。ならば、孤立を防ぐことを考えるべきだ。

There should be more places where parents can seek counseling on child rearing as well as help to deal with problems they are facing without feeling hesitant or uncomfortable.
 親が気軽に子育ての相談をする、「小さなSOS」を気兼ねなく出せる、そんな身近な集いの場を増やしてほしい。

The proposed program of free preschool education the government is now considering would be an effective measure also from the viewpoint of policy support for child care.
 現在検討されている小学校就学前教育の無償化は、子育て支援の観点からも意味がある。

If kindergartens and day nurseries become more accessible for low-income families, these institutions can serve as intermediaries to help troubled families receive support from child consultation centers and government organizations.
低所得の世帯が通園しやすくなれば、幼稚園や保育所が相談所、行政からの支援を受ける「つなぎ役」になれるかもしれないからだ。

These institutions could do a lot to help prevent child abuse by gathering more detailed information about the child-care situations in families, such as whether infants are not receiving health checkups or if the parents are having difficulties raising their children.
 乳幼児健診を受けていない子どもがいる、子育てに悩んでいる、などきめ細かく情報をすくいあげることも、虐待の予防につながるはずだ。

It is also important to make sure that child abuse is not viewed simply as a problem in the relationships between children and their parents or those among family members.
 虐待を親子間・家族間の問題に閉じ込めない視点も必要だろう。

The questions we need to ask ourselves include whether our society puts strong pressure on parents to assume all responsibility for taking care of their children and whether enough policy support is offered to help parents find jobs and ensure stable livelihoods.
親の側を追い詰める社会になっていないか。就労を含め、生活が安定するような支援が届いているのだろうか。

It is vital for all of us to understand that child abuse is a problem for our entire society and work out effective measures to tackle this urgent social challenge from a broad perspective.
 虐待を私たちの社会全体の問題とみて、幅広く対策を考えることが求められている。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 5

| | コメント (0)

アンドロイド搭載のシムフリースマートフォン

covia社により、アンドロイド搭載のシムフリースマートフォンFLEAZ F5 が新発売されした。
スマートフォンもアンドロイドを搭載することによって、その機能はPCに近くなります。
PCでは小型のノートブックでも、24時間身につけているのは難しいです。
スマートフォンなら、男性は上着のポケットに、女性ならハンドバックの中に忍ばせておくことができます。
これからはインターネットを利用した便利な機能が、24時間、どこでも利用できる時代なのです。
使い方はいろいろなんですが、一人ひとりの個性に応じた、便利な使い方が楽しめます。
ブルートゥースにも対応しており、さまざまな便利なアイテムやグッヅを接続して楽しむことができます。
私が気に入ったのはブルートゥース対応の多機能活動計です。
身に着けているだけで、歩いた歩数、高低差、移動距離、消費カロリー、心拍数、睡眠の状態などを自動的に記録、解析してくれるんです。




コヴィア、デュアルSIMスケジューラー対応、Bluetoothテザリング機能を搭載したAndroid4.4 SIMフリースマートフォン新製品「FLEAZ F5」を発売開始



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月 5日 (火)

大阪府警不正 犯罪統計の操作にあきれる

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Osaka police’s manipulation of statistics appalling, harmful to public awareness
大阪府警不正 犯罪統計の操作にあきれる

In an attempt to save face, the Osaka prefectural police were found not to have included all crimes that occurred in their jurisdiction in official statistics. This pretense that public order was improving in the prefecture is utterly appalling.
 組織のメンツのため、実際に起きた犯罪を、統計上はなかったことにした。これで治安回復を装っていたとは、あきれるばかりである。

It was revealed that a total of 80,000 Penal Code offenses committed over five years from 2008 to 2012 were excluded from crime statistics by the prefectural police. All 65 police stations in the prefecture were involved, manipulating 4 percent to 13 percent of confirmed criminal cases yearly.
 大阪府警が2008~12年の5年間で、計8万件に上る刑法犯を犯罪統計に計上していないことが発覚した。65の全警察署が関与し、毎年、認知件数の4~13%が不正に操作されていた。

Nearly 90 percent of the unreported cases involved theft. In particular, street crimes such as bicycle thefts and car burglaries constituted a significant number of the hidden cases. Since 2008, Osaka Prefecture has made earnest efforts to escape the notorious title of having the highest number of street crimes of any prefecture in the nation.
 未計上事件の9割近くが窃盗だった。特に自転車盗、車上狙いなどの街頭犯罪に集中していた。都道府県別で街頭犯罪が全国最多だった大阪では、08年から「ワースト1返上」を目標に掲げ、府を挙げて対策に取り組んでいた。

As a “result,” Osaka’s street crime numbers appeared smaller than those of Tokyo from 2010 onward.
 その“成果”で、10年以降は東京を下回ったとされた。

If the unreported street crimes are added to Osaka’s statistics, it remains the worst prefecture in this category.
ところが、判明した未計上分を加えると、「ワースト1」のままだった。

The Osaka police have claimed “there was no systemic instruction” to conduct manipulation. But we wonder if that was really the case. Considerable pressure was reportedly placed on police stations to reduce the number of street crimes.
 府警は、「組織的な指示はなかった」と説明しているが、実態はどうなのか。件数削減に向け、各警察署には相当のプレッシャーがかかっていたという。

The top echelon of each police station was reportedly pleased when its place in monthly theft statistics was better than those of other stations, and disappointed when it was worse. In some cases, high-ranking police station officials criticized people in charge of compiling statistics for including small misdemeanors.
 各署の幹部は、月ごとに集計される署別の件数比較に一喜一憂していた。軽微な事件について「計上する必要があるのか」と統計担当者をとがめることもあった。

False numbers affect public

Crime statistics are an important indicator of the reality of public safety. If false statistics are allowed, it will certainly have an adverse effect on residents’ awareness of crime prevention.
 犯罪統計は、治安情勢を映し出す重要な指標である。虚偽の数字がまかり通れば、住民の防犯意識にも影響が及ぶだろう。

It is necessary to check whether similar statistical manipulation is conducted by other prefectural police.
 他の都道府県警でも同様の不正がないか、点検が必要だ。

The revelation of the scandal forced the National Police Agency to make a substantial amendment to data immediately before it was to publish this year’s White Paper on Police. It was an unprecedented situation.
 今回の不正発覚を受け、今年の警察白書は、発表直前に大幅なデータ修正を余儀なくされる異例の事態となった。

According to the white paper, the number of confirmed thefts dipped below the 1 million mark last year for the first time in 40 years. Although this fact is unchanged after the unreported cases are included, the scandal certainly undermined the credibility of all crime statistics.
 白書は、窃盗犯の認知件数が減少を続け、昨年は40年ぶりに100万件を下回ったと強調している。再集計でも、この事実は変わらないものの、大阪府警の不正で、犯罪統計全体の信頼性が損なわれたことは間違いない。

The white paper finds it problematic that the number of theft cases in which police identify suspects through their investigations has sharply declined. It said this can adversely affect how the public views public safety.
 窃盗犯について、白書は、検挙数が激減している点を問題視している。「国民の体感治安に悪影響を及ぼしかねない」からだ。

According to a public awareness survey conducted by the NPA, the largest number of people cited burglaries and other forms of theft as crimes they fear in daily life.
 警察庁が実施した国民の意識調査で、日常的に不安を感じる犯罪として、空き巣などの窃盗を挙げた人が最も多かった。

Particularly because thefts are misdemeanors that people can easily associate with their daily life, the anxiety of victims and nearby residents will not be dispelled unless the offenders are arrested—no matter how small the damage from the theft.
 身近な犯罪だけに、たとえ被害が軽微でも、犯人が捕まらなければ、被害者や近隣住民の不安はいつまでも解消されない。

In recent years, weaker ties among neighbors have made it difficult for police to obtain information during investigations. Police must maintain their investigative capabilities and ensure criminals are arrested.
 住民同士のつながりが希薄となり、近年、聞き込み捜査で情報を得るのが難しくなっているという。警察に求められているのは、捜査力を維持し、犯人を着実に捕まえることである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 4, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

北海道電値上げ 原発再稼働で火力頼み脱却を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Hokkaido Electric’s rate hikes must lead to reactors going back online
北海道電値上げ 原発再稼働で火力頼み脱却を

The electricity rate hikes implemented by seven utilities since the Great East Japan Earthquake have entered a second round of markups.
 東日本大震災後に電力7社が実施した料金値上げが2巡目に入った。

To avoid stagnation in the economy, which is now subject to the adverse effects of the April consumption tax increase, it is urgent and necessary to bring forward the smooth restart of nuclear power plants after confirming the safety of their operations.
 消費増税の逆風を受けている景気を失速させないため、安全性を確認した原発の再稼働を円滑に進める必要がある。

Hokkaido Electric Power Co. has applied for electricity rate hikes with the Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry. It seeks to raise electricity bills by 17 percent for households and 22 percent for corporate users, the highest increases requested by a domestic utility since the 2011 earthquake and tsunami disaster. The Hokkaido regional utility’s planned hikes are expected to go into effect as early as this autumn after a ministry screening on whether the higher rates are reasonable.
 北海道電力が電気料金の値上げを経済産業省に申請した。家庭向けが17%、企業向けは22%で、震災以降に各社が申請した値上げ幅としては最大である。審査を経て秋にも実施されると見られる。

Hokkaido Electric raised its rates in September last year, but has been forced into circumstances that have made another hike unavoidable less than a year later. This is primarily because the firm’s financial condition has drastically deteriorated due to swelling fuel costs for thermal power generation to make up for its halted nuclear reactors. The planned resumption of the three reactors Hokkaido Electric owns at its Tomari nuclear complex—previously envisioned to be restarted in sequence from last December—has failed to get off the ground.
 北海道電は昨年9月に値上げしたが、1年足らずで再値上げ申請に追い込まれた。昨年12月から順次、実施するとしていた泊原発3基の再稼働が実現せず、代替する火力発電の燃料費がかさみ、収益が急激に悪化したためだ。

Although it recently received ¥50 billion as a capital injection from the Development Bank of Japan in a bid to improve its ailing finances, Hokkaido Electric’s business prospects remain severe.
 累積赤字で悪化した財務内容を改善するため、日本政策投資銀行から500億円の資本支援を受けたが、先行きは厳しい。

Unless it can make up its financial shortfall by increasing revenue through higher electricity rates, Hokkaido Electric is said to face the risk of its liabilities surpassing its assets as early as next fiscal year.
 値上げによる収入の増加で赤字体質を脱却しないと、来年度にも負債が資産を上回る債務超過に転落しかねないという。

There is also concern that the utility may find it hard to raise funds through such independent means as loans from financial institutions and issuance of corporate bonds, thus becoming unable to make sufficient capital investment to ensure a stable supply of electricity. Given the situation, it should be considered inevitable that Hokkaido Electric has to increase its electricity rates to some degree.
 借り入れや社債による資金調達が難しくなり、電力安定供給に必要な設備投資が滞る恐れもある。一定の値上げはやむを得まい。

Little room to cut costs

Nevertheless, it is necessary to make the markups as small as possible to minimize the power bill burdens on households and businesses.
 とはいえ、家計や企業の負担を最小限にするため、値上げ幅はできるだけ圧縮する必要がある。

Hokkaido Electric has been making serious efforts to enhance its business efficiency, worth ¥50 billion per year, through such moves as cuts in personnel costs and expenditures for procuring power generation materials. The utility should study whether there is any room to further streamline its operations.
 北海道電はこれまで、人件費や資材調達費の削減など年500億円の経営効率化を進めてきた。さらに一段のリストラの余地はないか、検討してもらいたい。

It is also important to undertake a review of its power supply services, including the advisability of devising a new electricity rate-charging system designed to allow users to reduce their electricity bills based on their ability to find resourceful ways to economize on power consumption.
 利用者が電気の使い方を工夫すれば負担を抑えられる料金メニューを用意するなど、サービス面の見直しも重要である。

If operations are resumed at the Tomari nuclear plant and the firm’s finances improve, the utility will be in a position to consider the possibility of lowering electricity charges.
 泊原発の再稼働が実現し、収支が改善すれば、値下げの環境が整うだろう。

On a related note, there are understandable concerns that Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Kansai Electric Power are highly likely to seek another rate hike themselves.
 懸念されるのは、東京電力と関西電力も再値上げに踏み切る可能性が高いことだ。

Eighty percent of small and midsized businesses say their profitability will inevitably shrink if electricity bills are raised again. Rising electricity costs could even turn out to be the Achilles’ heel that hampers the Abenomics economic policy mix undertaken by the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
 再値上げされれば、減益が避けられないとする中小企業は8割に達する。電力コスト上昇は、安倍政権の経済政策「アベノミクス」のアキレス腱けんとなりかねない。

There are no prospects of lower fuel costs for thermal power generation in the foreseeable future, while cost-cutting efforts by power utilities are nearing their limits in steps to streamline operations. To prevent electricity bills from being raised again, there is no alternative but to slash power generation costs by bringing reactors back online.
 火力発電の燃料調達コストが下がる見通しは立たず、リストラによる電力会社の経費節減も限界に近い。再値上げを防ぐには、原発を再稼働し、発電コストを下げるほかに手立てはあるまい。

A path toward resumption has begun to be carved out for the operation of Kyushu Electric Power Co.’s Sendai plant in Kagoshima Prefecture. The Nuclear Regulation Authority should proceed without delay with the task of conducting safety screenings of other nuclear reactors. The government must throw its support behind the utilities’ efforts through such means as playing a leading role in providing residents of nuclear plant-hosting communities with convincing explanations about the restart.
 九州電力川内原発は再稼働への道筋が見えてきた。原子力規制委員会は他原発の安全審査を遅滞なく進めるべきだ。政府も地元への説明で前面に立つなど、再稼働を後押しすることが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 4, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)新疆のテロ 民族政策を見直す時だ

August 04, 2014
EDITORIAL: China's racial policy fuels cycle of violence in Xinjiang region
(社説)新疆のテロ 民族政策を見直す時だ

The Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region is an inland region in far western China that has a large population of Uighur Muslims.
 中国内陸部の新疆ウイグル自治区は、イスラム教徒のウイグル族が多く暮らす地域である。

The region has recently been hit by a series of violent attacks believed to have been perpetrated by terrorists. There are no signs of calming the wave of violence in the region.
 この地方で最近、テロとみられる暴力事件が相次いでおり、沈静化の気配が見えない。

It is necessary to take a firm stand against violence. But it is hard to deny that the approach the authorities have adopted to deal with the problems behind these attacks has only stirred up resentment among the local people.
 暴力には断固とした対処が必要なのは当然だ。だが、当局のやり方が地元の憎しみを増幅させていることも否めない。

China is a multiracial nation. Although Han Chinese form a great majority of the population, the vast country is home to various minority races with diverse values and lifestyles.
 中国は漢民族が主体だが、さまざまな少数民族が多様な暮らしを営む多民族国家である。

The chain of violence in the Xinjiang region indicates that the Chinese government’s racial policy has gone awry. Beijing needs to rethink its fundamental attitude toward ethnic minorities.
 暴力の連鎖が示唆するのは、中国政府の民族政策の行き詰まりだ。少数民族との向き合い方を根本的に見直すことが必要だろう。

An incident of violence in the region’s Kashgar district in late July involved an exceptionally large group of attackers. Dozens of knife-wielding militants attacked the local government office and police station, killing and injuring many.
 先週、カシュガル地区で起きた事件は、犯行集団の規模がひときわ大きかった。刃物をもった数十人が地元政府や警察を襲い、多数が死傷した。

In May, bombs set off in a busy morning market in Urumqi, the capital of the region, left more than 100 people dead or injured.
 新疆の中心都市、ウルムチでは5月に朝市で爆発があった。

After the May incident, President Xi Jinping ordered strict precautions against “a chain reaction.” The administration tightened its crackdown on “extremist religious groups.”
習近平(シーチンピン)国家主席が「連鎖反応を防げ」と命じ、「過激宗教グループ」の摘発が強化された。

Chinese police have huge powers to maintain law and order. They are allowed to wiretap telephone lines and monitor private communications over the Internet.
 電話の盗聴や、ネット上の交信の監視を含め、中国警察は強力な治安維持能力をもつ。

Chinese leaders should ponder why the chain reaction of violence in the region has not stopped, despite the government’s enormous police power.
それでも連鎖反応が止まらない理由を深刻に考えねばならない。

Recent news reports on the situation in Xinjiang suggest that the Chinese government has been tightening its control over the people in the region in ways that brutally ignore Islamic customs.
 最近伝えられた現地の様子からは、イスラムの習慣を踏みにじるような締めつけが続いていることがうかがわれる。

Officials in the region, for instance, compelled some Muslim restaurant owners to remain open during the holy fasting month of Ramadan. Police detained Muslim women for wearing headscarves.
 食堂経営者が断食月のさなかの開店を強いられたり、スカーフで顔を覆った女性が警察に捕まったり。

There have been reports that the attack in Kashgar was triggered by the crackdown on the wearing of scarves.
カシュガル地区の事件も、発端はスカーフの取り締まりだったとの報道がある。

Violence is unpardonable. By seeking to ban even the daily customs of Muslims, however, the Chinese government has gone too far in its fight against violence. The government’s actions are not so much as efforts to prevent crimes as they are an oppression of an ethnic minority.
 暴力は許してはならない。だが、日常習慣の否定にまで突き進むのは不穏当であり、もはや取り締まりというより弾圧だ。

The authority’s iron-fisted policy toward the restive region has provoked the chain reaction of violence there.
こうした当局の振る舞いこそが連鎖反応を呼んでいる。

Last week, in another disturbing move, the Chinese government indicted the outspoken, Beijing-based Uighur scholar Ilham Tohti on charges of “separatism.”
 加えて心配されるのが、在北京のウイグル族学者イリハム・トフティ氏が先週、国家分裂を図った罪で起訴されたことだ。

Tohti is known as a moderate who has been working for reconciliation between Uighurs and Han Chinese. His indictment has drawn strong criticism from both inside and outside China.
 漢族とウイグル族の和解をめざす穏健派として知られる人物だ。この措置には内外から強い疑問の声が出ている。

Chinese law-enforcement authorities have asserted that the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, which it describes as a foreign terrorist group, is inciting Uighurs to carry out terrorist attacks.
 当局は、国外のテロ組織「東トルキスタン・イスラム運動」がウイグル族を唆し、テロを実行していると断じている。

It is possible that the attackers may have been influenced by Muslim extremists.
 容疑者らがイスラム過激派の影響を受けた可能性はあろう。

But the government appears to be trying to shift responsibility for its policy failure by blaming the series of attacks in the region on a terrorist organization and others incited by the group.
だが、国外の邪悪な組織と、それに扇動された一部分子が悪いとする論法は、政権の政策失敗の責任を転嫁する面がある。

According to China’s Constitution, all races are equal and their customs should be respected. People in China should also have religious freedom.
 各民族は平等であり、風俗・習慣は尊重される。宗教・信仰の自由もある。

Leaders in Beijing should not forget that these are fundamental principles of the nation’s Constitution.
それらは中国の憲法でも、大原則になっていることを忘れてはならない。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 3

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月 4日 (月)

中小企業の救い主 無料の勤怠管理

従業員10人までと制限つきなんですが、無料の勤怠管理 システムが開発されました。
株式会社フリーウェイジャパンが開発したものですが、売りはそのお手軽さなんです。
携帯電話か、別に作成したICカードを使います。

携帯電話はおサイフケータイの導入が必要です。
ICカードでは、Suica、nanaco、Edy、Waon、PiTaPa、TOICA、ICOCA、PASMO、PiTaPa、Kitaca、SUGOCA、nimoca などが自由に使えます。

これらの携帯電話かICカードを、小さな専用読取機の上にかざすだけで、社員の勤怠管理をパソコン上で自動的に管理する画期的な仕組みなんです。
タイムカード、タイムレコーダのリース料金を支払っている会社では、これは救いとなるのではないでしょうか。

ちりも積もれば山となる!
経費節減は勤怠管理費用の削減から行いましょう。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

これは天の声かも クラウド上から自由自在な検索はサジェスト

これはもしかしたら天の声かも知れないですね。
クラウド技術で有名なクレイトエージェンシー が、新しいかたちの検索サイトを開発しました。その名もサジェストなんです。
サジェストとは英語で示唆するという意味です。

インターネットの普及は、目を見張るものがあります。
利用される端末は、ノートパソコンやデスクトップなどのPCがメインですが、タブレットとスマートフォンもあわせて利用する人たちが大半です。
つまり、自宅ではPC主体でネットライフを楽しみ、勤務先や外出時などでは、小型軽量で持ち運びのしやすいタブレットとスマートフォンを使ってネットライフを楽しむという欲張りな構図なんです。
もはや国民の8割以上が、何らかの形でネットライフにかかわっています。

ツイッターやフェイスブックなどのSNSサービスを利用する人たちも幾何級数的に増大しています。
そして、それらの人たち全員が使うのが検索技術なんです。
検索といえばグーグル、ヤフーなんですが、これらの検索サイトにも対応しているのが、クラウド上から操作できるサジェストです。
サジェストはスマートフォン上での利用で、その威力を爆発させます。
使ってみれば一発でわかります。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

佐世保高1殺害 なぜ少女は凶行に走ったのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
What was behind the horrendous killing of a Sasebo high school girl?
佐世保高1殺害 なぜ少女は凶行に走ったのか

A first-year female student of a Nagasaki prefectural government-run high school in Sasebo has been arrested on suspicion of murdering a female classmate.
 長崎県佐世保市の県立高校1年の女子生徒を殺害したとして、同級生の少女が逮捕された。

What was behind this grisly killing? Investigative authorities must get to the bottom of this crime.
 少女はなぜ、凶行に及んだのか。捜査当局には徹底解明を求めたい。

The girl allegedly strangled the victim after striking her with a blunt instrument at the alleged perpetrator’s apartment on the night of July 26, and severed parts of the victim’s body with a saw and other implements.
 少女は自宅マンションで、女子生徒を工具で殴った後、首を絞めて殺害し、ノコギリなどで遺体の一部を切断したとされる。

The victim was said to have enjoyed studying history and aspired to enter the literature department of a university. At her funeral service, her father was quoted as saying his daughter was “my precious treasure.” The depth of sadness of the bereaved family is beyond imagination.
 殺害された女子生徒は歴史好きで、大学の文学部への進学を希望していた。父親は告別式で「娘は宝物だった」と語ったという。悲しみは、察するに余りある。

In reply to questions posed by investigators, the alleged perpetrator was cited as saying she wanted to feel “what it was like to kill someone.”
 少女は調べに対し、「人を殺してみたかった」という趣旨の供述をしている。

The two girls had been classmates since middle school and they reportedly had not bullied or quarreled with each other. On the day of the murder, they were said to have enjoyed shopping together until immediately before the killing.
女子生徒とは中学時代からの同級生で、2人の間にいじめやけんかなどはなかったという。事件当日も、犯行直前まで2人で買い物を楽しんでいた。

Why on earth did one girl find it necessary to murder her friend? The psychotic nature of the crime is conspicuous. We are completely at a loss to figure it out.
 その友人をなぜ、殺害せねばならなかったのか。猟奇的な面も際立つ。理解に苦しむばかりだ。

The alleged perpetrator was said to be getting good grades ever since her early childhood, and was enthusiastic about sports. When she was in primary school, however, the girl caused trouble by mixing detergent and other substances into school lunches.
 少女は幼い頃から成績が良く、スポーツにも熱心だったが、小学生時代には、給食に洗剤などを混入するトラブルを起こした。

Last autumn, her mother died of an illness. After her father remarried this year, the girl hit her father with an aluminum bat. It also was reported that the girl dismembered a small animal.
 昨秋、母親が病気で死亡した。今年に入って父親が再婚した頃、少女は父親に金属バットで暴力を振るった。小動物を解剖する問題行動も見られたとされる。

Warning left unaddressed

Given that she is at a susceptible adolescent age, it may be that changes in the girl’s familial environment influenced her state of mind.
 多感な年頃である。家庭環境の変化が、少女の心に何らかの影響を及ぼしたのだろうか。

The girl is expected to be referred to a family court shortly. To try to understand the psychological process behind the murder, the investigative authorities will probably find it imperative to not only have the girl undergo a psychiatric examination, but also to probe in detail her family background and early development.
 少女は今後、家庭裁判所に送致される見通しだ。犯行に至る心理状態を解き明かすには、精神鑑定のほか、家庭環境や成育歴の詳しい調査が求められよう。

The girl began living alone in the apartment from spring this year. But she was absent from her high school much of the time.
 少女は今春からマンションで一人暮らしを始めた。高校には、ほとんど登校していなかった。

It has been reported that her middle school teachers and others occasionally called on the girl at the apartment to counsel her and to have a meal with her. It is deeply regrettable that efforts made by the school officials and others failed to bear fruit.
 中学時代の教員らが時折、少女を訪ね、一緒に食事をしながら、相談に乗っていた。少女を支えようとする学校関係者の努力が実らなかったのは、残念である。

In June, a local child consultation center received a telephone inquiry from a psychiatrist who had examined the girl, saying she could “go to the extremes of even committing murder.” The center, however, did nothing but provide the psychiatrist with some words of advice.
 児童相談所には6月、少女を診察した精神科医から「人を殺しかねない」と相談があったが、児相は助言をしただけだった。

It is highly lamentable that information regarding the deepening seriousness of the girl’s behavior failed to be conveyed to the school authorities and police, so possible steps to adequately address the girl’s problems came up short. Anything relevant to those circumstances must be put under the microscope.
 少女の行為が深刻さを増しているという情報が、学校や警察に伝わらず、適切な対処につながらなかったことが悔やまれる。経緯の検証が欠かせない。

Another incident occurred about a decade ago in Sasebo in which a girl in the sixth year of primary school caused a classmate to bleed to death. Despite the subsequent nationwide effort to encourage students to understand the sanctity of life, the incident this time has sent shock waves throughout the country.
 佐世保市では10年前にも、小6女児が同級生を失血死させる事件が起きた。その後、命を大切にする教育が全国で広がっただけに、今回の事件の衝撃は大きい。

The government should forge ahead with measures to effectively address problems that affect the sensibilities of children, such as improving the use of school counselors.
 政府は、子供の心の問題に対応するスクールカウンセラーの活用などを、さらに進めるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 3, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

首相中南米歴訪 互恵の関係を長期的に築こう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Reciprocal, sustainable long-term ties with Latin America important
首相中南米歴訪 互恵の関係を長期的に築こう

The task of securing a stable supply of energy and food is an important matter of diplomatic concern for our nation. Given this, strengthening relations with resource-rich nations in Central and South America is extremely significant for Japan.
 日本にとって、エネルギーや食糧の安定確保は重要な外交課題だ。資源の豊富な中南米諸国との関係を積極的に強化する意味は大きい。

During his five-nation Latin American tour, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on Friday held talks with Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff in which he confirmed Japan would offer technical assistance for deep-sea oil development off southeastern Brazil. Japanese corporations are aiming to win orders for projects to build a floating platform as a base for oil development operations.
 中南米5か国を歴訪中の安倍首相がブラジルのルセフ大統領と会談し、ブラジル南東部沖の海底油田開発に関する技術協力を確認した。日本企業は油田開発に必要な浮体式構造物(メガフロート)の受注を目指している。

The two leaders also decided to start talks aimed at improving the efficiency of grain transportation in Brazil. Bilateral talks will likely cover such issues as projects to build and improve road and railway networks extending to seaports from inland grain belts in that nation.
 ブラジル国内での穀物輸送を効率化するため、両国の協議を開始することも決めた。内陸部の穀倉地帯から港への道路や鉄道網の整備などが対象となる見通しだ。

In a meeting with Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto, meanwhile, the prime minister agreed that Japan would cooperate in promoting oil and natural gas development programs in Mexico. The agreement will require our nation to extend technical and financial aid to Mexico.
 首相はメキシコのエンリケ・ペニャニエト大統領との会談でも、石油・天然ガス開発の協力で一致した。日本が技術、資金両面で支援するという。

All this constitutes an effort to facilitate natural resource-related cooperation with Latin American countries, a task essential for rectifying our nation’s heavy reliance on Middle Eastern nations for oil and other supplies and ensuring it has a diversity of suppliers. Doing so is significant for Japan’s energy security.
 日本が中南米との資源協力を進め、中東に偏った石油などの調達先を多角化することは、エネルギー安全保障面で意義がある。

What is important in this endeavor is to respect efforts by Japan’s partner nations to facilitate resource development on their own while also establishing long-term relations under which to enjoy mutual benefits.
 大切なのは、相手国の自主的な開発を尊重し、共に利益を享受する長期的な関係を築くことだ。

China has been no less active in increasing ties with Latin American countries, with a view to securing natural resources from them. This was evident, for example, in a visit to Brazil and some other nations in the region by Chinese President Xi Jinping. However, observers have said that China puts its own interests first, paying no attention to its partners’ wishes for development.
 中国も、習近平国家主席が7月にブラジルなどを歴訪するなど、資源確保を視野に中南米との関係を強化している。ただ、中国は目先の利益を最優先し、相手国の発展を顧みないとの指摘がある。

Japan should attach great importance to building reciprocal relationships with its Latin American partners, and emphasize its difference from China in dealing with these countries.
 日本は互恵関係を重視し、中国との差別化を図るべきだ。

Path to Security Council

Abe’s latest tour included trips to Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia and Chile. He was the first prime minister to make a full-fledged tour of Central and South America in 10 years. The prime minister was accompanied by about 70 others, including corporate executives.
 安倍首相は今回、トリニダード・トバゴ、コロンビア、チリも訪問した。首相の本格的な中南米歴訪は10年ぶりで、約70人の企業首脳らが同行した。

Latin America is home to about 600 million people. Many nations in that region feel affinity toward Japan. That part of the world has achieved significant economic growth in recent years, combined with an increase in the number of middle-class consumers with a strong motivation to spend money. The Japanese government and the private sector should join hands in encouraging domestic companies to do business in Latin American markets while also boosting two-way trade with these nations.
 中南米の人口は6億人で、親日的な国が多い。近年は経済成長が著しく、消費意欲が強い中間層も増えている。日本は、官民が連携して企業の進出を図り、貿易拡大に努めることが大切である。

At Friday’s meeting, Abe and Rousseff agreed that Japan and Brazil, both of which aim to gain a permanent seat on the U.N. Security Council, would promote cooperation in this respect as the United Nations marks its 70th anniversary next year. The two leaders confirmed their governments would increase ties with Germany and India in what could be called a “Group of Four nations,” so progress could be made in reforming the most powerful U.N. organ.
 日ブラジル首脳会談では、国連創設70周年の来年に向けて、安全保障理事会改革を進めるため、常任理事国入りを目指す両国にドイツ、インドを加えた「G4」の連携を強めることで一致した。

Thirty-three Central and South American nations account for somewhat less than 20 percent of the U.N. member states. Japan’s bid to reform the Security Council will require support from these Latin American countries. Japan stands ready to run in an election to choose new nonpermanent members of the council in autumn next year. Abe’s latest tour was aimed, in part, at securing votes in favor of Japan at the U.N. election.
 中南米33か国は国連加盟国全体の2割弱を占める。安保理改革の実現には中南米の支持が欠かせない。日本は、来秋の非常任理事国選挙に立候補する方針で、首相の歴訪には票固めの狙いもある。

During his Latin American tour, Abe met top leaders from member states of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an organization comprising 14 nations and one territory in the Caribbean Basin. The summit meeting was the first of its kind to be held between Japan and the CARICOM members.
 首相は今回、カリブ海の14か国・1地域で作る「カリブ共同体」との首脳会合を初めて開いた。

Japan should obtain support from the Caribbean nations for its Security Council reform drive. This may be made possible through close cooperation with these countries in the field of disaster damage management, given that they are prone to natural calamities.
 ハリケーンなどの被害を受けやすいカリブ諸国とは、防災協力を通じて関係を緊密化し、安保理改革への支持を取り付けたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 3, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月 3日 (日)

第3極勢力 現実的な政策で存在感を示せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
‘3rd-pole’ political force must present realistic policies to become meaningful
第3極勢力 現実的な政策で存在感を示せ

Small opposition parties, aiming to become a “third-pole” political force, should try to realize their policies by establishing free and unbiased relationships with the government.
 政権と是々非々の関係を築き、政策の実現を図る。そんな役割を第3極勢力は果たすべきだ。

House of Representatives member Shintaro Ishihara and other lawmakers who split from Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party), have established the Party for Future Generations. Takeo Hiranuma, a veteran lower house member, has taken the helm of the new party, which comprises 19 lower house members and three House of Councillors members.
 日本維新の会を分党した石原慎太郎衆院議員らは「次世代の党」を結成した。衆院19人、参院3人が参加し、党首に平沼赳夫衆院議員が就いた。

Establishment of an independently written constitution, which is one of Ishihara’s pet goals, has been listed as the top priority in the party platform. The enactment in June of the revised National Referendum Law has prepared a legal environment for holding a national referendum on constitutional revision.
 党綱領は、石原氏の持論である「自主憲法の制定」を最優先課題に掲げた。6月の改正国民投票法の成立で、憲法改正の国民投票を実施する法的環境は整った。

It is hoped that the Party for Future Generations will lead debate on constitutional revision.
 次世代の党は、憲法改正論議を主導することが期待される。

Asked about how his party would deal with the Abe administration, Hiranuma told reporters that it “will pursue a free and unbiased stance.”
 平沼氏は記者団に、安倍政権との関係について「是々非々の姿勢で進んでいきたい」と語った。

The Party for Future Generations endorses the government’s change in its interpretation of the Constitution to approve a limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense. The party takes the stand that legal arrangements should be made to deal with “gray-zone” situations falling short of armed attacks.
 次世代の党は、集団的自衛権行使を限定容認する政府の憲法解釈変更に賛成している。武力攻撃に至らないグレーゾーン事態に関する法整備も推進する立場だ。

As for nuclear policies, the party has set forth a policy of “maintaining the world’s most advanced nuclear technologies.” The party said it will also seek to end reliance on nuclear power generation by diversifying sources of electricity.
 原発政策に関しては、「世界最先端の原子力技術の維持」を打ち出した。電源構成の多様化で「脱原発依存」も目指すという。

The party’s stances on national security and nuclear policies correspond to those of the government and ruling parties in large part. To accomplish its policy targets, it is essential for the party to actively cooperate with the Liberal Democratic Party and other parties.
 安全保障や原発政策では、政府・与党と一致する点が少なくない。自らが目指す政策の実現のためには、自民党などと積極的に連携することが大切である。

The group led by Osaka Mayor Toru Hashimoto, which has also split from Ishin no Kai, is aiming to merge with Yui no To. The group will shortly establish a council to prepare for establishment of a new party with its inauguration said to be scheduled for early September.
 一方、石原氏らと分かれた橋下徹大阪市長のグループは、結いの党との合流を目指している。近く新党設立準備会を設置し、9月初旬に結党する予定という。

Reconcile differences

The crucial thing is to definitely reconcile fundamental visions and policies.
 重要なのは、基本理念や政策をきちんとすり合わせることだ。

Ishin no Kai, then led by Hashimoto, neglected efforts to reconcile nuclear and energy policies with the now defunct Sunrise Party, which was established by Ishihara and others, as it hurried to achieve a merger of the two parties before the 2012 lower house election. This is one factor behind the division of Ishin no Kai into two groups now and should be a matter for reflection.
 維新の会は一昨年の衆院選前、石原氏らの旧太陽の党との合流を急ぐあまり、原発・エネルギー政策などの詰めを怠った。これが今回の分裂の要因となったことを反省材料とせねばなるまい。

Hashimoto is willing to approve the exercise of the right of collective self-defense, but Kenji Eda, leader of Yui no To, takes a cautious view of the issue. It is necessary for the two leaders to present an unambiguous unified view on the matter. It is indispensable to decide on ways of cooperation and division of roles between the Osaka-based group led by Hashimoto and the group of lawmakers based in Tokyo.
 橋下氏は集団的自衛権の行使容認に前向きだが、結いの党の江田代表は慎重だ。この問題を曖昧にせず、統一見解を示す必要がある。橋下氏ら大阪組と、東京の国会議員団の連携のあり方や役割分担も決めておくことが欠かせない。

Meanwhile, Your Party has been losing strength. This is due to a money scandal involving former party head Yoshimi Watanabe, who allegedly received a huge amount of questionable loans.
 みんなの党は、党勢が低迷している。渡辺喜美前代表の巨額借入金問題が響いているのだろう。

Keiichiro Asao, the current head of Your Party, will be required to make his political presence felt on such policy matters as national security and regulatory reform.
 浅尾代表は、安全保障や規制改革など政策面で存在感を発揮することが求められよう。

In a political landscape dominated by the powerful LDP, opposition parties cannot attract much attention. The third-pole parties should not forget their obligation as “responsible opposition parties” to cooperate with the Abe administration if they agree on government policies, without repeated alliances and ruptures among them.
 自民党の勢力が突出する「1強」体制の下、野党の影は薄い。第3極の各党は、離合集散ばかりでなく、一致する政策については安倍政権にも協力する「責任野党」の立場も忘れるべきではない。

Such an approach will make it possible for them to differentiate themselves from the Democratic Party of Japan, the major opposition party, that tends to stick to criticizing the government.
 それが、政権批判一辺倒になりがちな民主党との違いをアピールすることにもなるだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 2, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

第1次大戦100年 今こそ銘記したい悲劇の教訓

The Yomiuri Shimbun
We must heed the tragic lessons of WWI on its 100th anniversary
第1次大戦100年 今こそ銘記したい悲劇の教訓

This summer marks the centennial of the outbreak of World War I, which ignited in Europe, causing devastation unparalleled by any war the world had witnessed up to that time.
 欧州を発火点に、それまでにない戦禍を引き起こした第1次世界大戦の勃発から、この夏で100年を迎えた。

We must learn from the tragedy, whose protracted battles left about 13 million people dead.
 泥沼の長期戦で約1300万人もの犠牲者を出した悲劇に学ばねばならない。

World War I was triggered in June 1914 by the assassination of the heir presumptive to the Austrian throne by a young Serbian man who fired two shots. In retaliation, Austria declared war on Serbia.
 第1次大戦の発端は、1914年6月、セルビア人の青年が2発の銃弾を撃ち、オーストリア皇太子の命を奪った事件だった。オーストリアは報復として、セルビアに宣戦を布告した。

Early in August of that year, Germany launched a military campaign based on its military alliance with Austria, leading to an all-out war between the Germany-led Central Powers and the Allies that included Britain, France and Russia.
 8月初め、ドイツはオーストリアとの同盟を根拠に軍事行動を開始し、ドイツを中心とした同盟国側と、英仏露など連合国側との全面戦争に発展した。

In those days, many people predicted an early conclusion to the war and believed their own country’s side would be victorious.
 当時は多くの人々が戦争の短期終結を予想していた。しかも自国側の勝利を確信していた。

This war left a weighty lesson that a war should never be launched.
 かりそめにも戦端を開くことがあってはならない。大戦が残した重い教訓と言えよう。

U.S. President John F. Kennedy was a leader who acted based on what he learned from studying the failures of World War I when he dealt with the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962, in which confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union escalated to the verge of nuclear war.
 米ソ対立が核戦争の一歩手前まで先鋭化した1962年10月の「キューバ危機」の際、こうした先人の失敗を鑑かがみとしたのが、ケネディ米大統領である。

An eye on history

Having read “The Guns of August” by Barbara Tuchman, which chronicled in detail the developments leading to the opening of World War I, Kennedy reportedly said he did not want somebody writing a book called “The Missiles of October” in the future.
 大統領は、第1次大戦が開戦に至った経過を詳細に綴つづったバーバラ・タックマンの「八月の砲声」を読み、誰かが将来、「十月のミサイル」という本を書くことは望んでいないと語ったという。

Based on unbridled discussions with his aides, Kennedy worked on possible Soviet actions and considered responses to each scenario, as well as the likely resulting outcomes. He put priority on averting a military clash and decided on a maritime blockade of Cuba, instead of launching attacks on Cuba.
 側近の自由な議論を踏まえ、ソ連の出方と、それに対する米側の行動のもたらす結果を検討し、衝突回避を優先して、キューバ攻撃でなく海上封鎖を選んだ。

While confirming the Soviet intentions, Kennedy entered negotiations with the Soviet Union for it to withdraw its missiles from Cuba, nipping a potential World War III in the bud. We should never forget what the president accomplished.
 さらに、ソ連の意思を確認しながら、ミサイル撤去交渉に入り、「第3次世界大戦」の芽を摘み取ったことを忘れてはならない。

It is important to bear in mind that peace is at risk when an international balance of power crumbles. World War I occurred just as the power of Britain declined from its hegemonic status, which coincided with the rise of Germany.
 銘記すべきは、国際的な力の均衡が崩れる時に平和が危うくなることだ。大戦前は、覇権国家だった英国の力が低下し、新興国ドイツが台頭する時期だった。

The present-day world is confronting a shift similar to the changing power balance in Europe 100 years ago.
 現代の世界も、100年前の欧州とも似たパワーバランスの変化に直面している。

In January, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe likened today’s relationship between Japan and a rising China to that of Britain and Germany before the first world war, stirring widespread controversy and putting him on the defensive. Nonetheless, it is true that stabilizing the bilateral relationship has emerged as a major issue.
 安倍首相は1月、台頭する中国を念頭に、今日の日中関係を第1次大戦前の英独関係になぞらえて物議を醸し、釈明に追われた。だが、日中関係の安定化が大きな課題となっているのは事実だ。

It is necessary for the two nations to prevent accidental military clashes by establishing a hotline between the leaders and between defense units. The two nations should urgently build a mechanism to be used in the event of a clash to prevent it from escalating into a full-blown conflict.
 首脳間や部隊間のホットライン設置など、偶発的な衝突を防ぎ、仮に衝突が起きた場合でも本格的な紛争につなげないための仕組みを早急に構築する必要がある。

History proves that a war, once started, will play out without restraint. Once again, the impor-tance of striving to prevent war has come to the fore.
 戦争は、いったん始まれば自制が利かなくなることは歴史が証明している。戦争回避の努力の重要性が改めて問われている。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 2, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)増える空き家 放置防いで活用探ろう

August 02, 2014
EDITORIAL: Making good use of millions of vacant houses
(社説)増える空き家 放置防いで活用探ろう

As many as 8.2 million houses in Japan are unoccupied, accounting for 13.5 percent of all existing houses in this nation. The number has increased by 630,000 from five years ago and is the highest on record, according to latest government data.
 全国の空き家は820万戸、住宅総数の13・5%を占める。5年前より63万戸増えて過去最多。こうした数字が国の統計で明らかになった。

A confluence of factors is behind this trend, including such major social changes as the postwar tendency among Japanese to live apart from their parents and the aging and shrinking of the population. The number of vacant houses is expected to continue growing in the coming years.
 子どもの独立、高齢化や人口減と社会の大きな変化も反映した現象で、これからも空き家は増え続けると見込まれる。

If left abandoned, vacant houses could collapse or become targets of crimes like arson. Greater efforts should be made to prevent uninhabited houses from being neglected and find new uses for them.
 空き家が放置されれば、倒壊したり、放火などの犯罪を招いたりする恐れがある。放置を防ぎながら、新たな使い方に結びつける努力を重ねたい。

Homeowners should in principle take care of their houses. There can be cases, however, where vacant homes pose a safety hazard, such as dilapidated houses in areas of high snowfall that are on the verge of collapse. In such cases, the local government may have no choice but to demolish them.
 個人の家は、個人の責任で管理するのが大前提だ。だが、周辺に危険が及ぶ事態が差し迫っている場合、たとえば、豪雪地帯での家屋倒壊の恐れがある時など、やむを得ず行政が解体するケースはあるだろう。

More than 350 local governments across the nation have ordinances concerning proper management of unoccupied houses. The city of Daisen, Akita Prefecture, and Tokyo’s Ota Ward have torn down houses in danger of collapsing on behalf of the owners under their ordinances regarding such situations.
 空き家の適正管理に関わる条例を定めている自治体は、全国で350以上。秋田県大仙市や東京都大田区は、条例に基づいて、倒壊の危険がある空き家を所有者に代わって取り壊したこともある。

A group of lawmakers is working on legislation to deal with the increasingly serious problem. One key provision of the envisioned law would give municipalities access to information about local residents’ records concerning the municipal tax on real estate so that they can identify the owners of vacant houses. Another would allow local governments to order the owners of dangerous vacant houses to demolish them.
 国会議員による立法化も検討されている。市町村が空き家の持ち主を知るために固定資産税の情報を使えるようにすることや、持ち主に対して危険な空き家の撤去を命令できるようにすることが柱だ。

However, dismantling a house to create a vacant lot means losing a real estate tax break. The tax burden on the owner could increase up to six times.
 住宅を解体して更地にすると固定資産税の軽減措置がなくなり、最大6倍の負担が生じてしまう。

Many experts say this tax rule is one of the factors behind the growing number of unoccupied houses.
これが空き家が増える一因だと指摘する声も多い。

If the government considers putting together a comprehensive package of measures to deal with the problem, changes in tax rules may be effective components.
空き家対策を総合的に考えるなら、税制面にも工夫する余地はありそうだ。

Some policy efforts are under way to make use of vacant houses that could otherwise become sources of trouble.
 困りものに映る空き家だが、一方で活用への動きもある。

Low-rent public housing for low-income earners is generally very popular, with the number of families wishing to move in being dozens of times larger than the number of units available.
 所得が低い人向けの公営住宅は、入居倍率が数十倍にもなる。

Vacant houses could meet the needs of the huge ranks of people looking for low-rent housing.
家賃が安い住まいを求める人は多く、空き家はこうしたニーズにも応えられる。

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in April started a pilot project to use empty houses to provide housing to low-income elderly people.
 厚生労働省は、低所得高齢者の住まい確保のため、空き家を活用するモデル事業を今年度から始めた。

The project is aimed at encouraging owners to rent their unused houses to such people. Under the project, nonprofit organizations and other entities will provide support for the daily lives of aged renters to ease the landlord’s concerns about the possible solitary deaths of occupants.
日常生活をNPO法人などが支援することで、孤独死などを懸念する持ち主が「貸してもいい」と思える環境づくりを狙う。

The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism is planning to ease government and ministerial ordinances related to the Building Standards Law, under certain conditions, to make it easier to turn vacant houses into group homes and other facilities for the elderly.
国土交通省も、一定の条件の下に建築基準法の政省令を緩和して、空き家をグループホームなどに転用しやすくする方針だ。

In June, the city of Kyoto started providing subsidies to help remodel detached houses and vacant row houses into housing for foreign students or local public facilities. The municipal government has already received around 100 inquiries about the new subsidy program.
 京都市は、戸建てや長屋建ての空き家を留学生の住まいや地域の居場所に改修する場合などに、6月から補助金を出すことにした。すでに約100件の問い合わせがあったという。

Usable vacant houses are valuable resources. A wide range of organizations and people should be involved in the efforts to come up with good ideas to overcome obstacles to utilizing them.
 使える空き家は「資源」だ。「使いたいのに使えない」を乗り越える知恵は、いくらでも出し合いたい。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 2

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月 2日 (土)

対露制裁強化 米欧の協調で圧力かけ続けよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Concerted action by U.S., EU vital in applying continued pressure on Russia
対露制裁強化 米欧の協調で圧力かけ続けよ

It is highly significant that the United States and Europe have taken concerted actions to toughen diplomatic pressure on Russia, determined to accept the adverse impact it will have on their economies.
 米欧各国が足並みをそろえて、経済への悪影響も覚悟し、ロシアに対する外交圧力を強めた意義は大きい。

Washington and the European Union have decided to implement tougher economic sanctions against Moscow, penalties that are said to be on the largest scale since the end of the Cold War between East and West.
 米国と欧州連合(EU)が、本格的な対露経済制裁の発動を決めた。東西冷戦終結後では最大規模とされる。

While strongly condemning Russia’s actions since its March annexation of the Crimea Peninsula, a territory of Ukraine, the EU has indicated additional penalties depending on how Moscow responds.
 EUは、3月にクリミアを一方的に編入して以来のロシアの行動を強く非難し、同国の対応次第では更なる追加制裁も示唆した。

The sanctions are aimed at pressuring Russia to cooperate in the international investigation of the downing of a Malaysian Airlines jet on July 17 over eastern Ukraine.
 制裁には、ウクライナ東部で起きたマレーシア航空機撃墜事件の国際調査に協力するよう、ロシアに圧力をかける狙いがある。

The site has been controlled by pro-Russia separatist armed groups since the deadly incident occurred. Traces of cutting, which can be interpreted as an attempt to destroy evidence, were found in the wreckage of the aircraft. The preservation of the site has been far from what was called for in a U.N. Security Council resolution.
 事件後、現場は親露派武装集団に支配されてきた。機体の残骸からは、証拠隠滅とも受け取れる切断の跡が見つかった。国連安全保障理事会決議が求めた現場の保存とは、ほど遠い状況である。

An international investigation team became able to enter the site from Thursday, a couple of weeks after the crash.
 国際調査団が現場入りできたのは、31日になってからだ。

Russia must exercise its influence over pro-Russia separatist armed groups to shed light on the truth of the incident. It must also stop its intervention into Ukraine.
 ロシアには、真相究明に向け、親露派武装集団に影響力を行使させるとともに、ウクライナへの介入をやめさせる必要がある。

The U.S. and EU lists of sanctions exclude Russia companies involved with natural gas, as such sanctions would be extremely detrimental to Europe, but they have targeted key Russian economic sectors such as finance, defense and energy.
 米欧の制裁は、欧州への影響が大きいガス関連企業を対象から外したが、金融、軍需、エネルギー部門というロシア経済の根幹を標的としている。

Key sectors targeted

The penalties call for restricting Russian national banks’ procurement of funds in U.S. and European financial markets. The penalties further ban new arms transactions, provision of technology with dual military and civilian uses, and the supply of expertise and equipment used for the development of offshore oil fields and shale oil.
 ロシア国営銀行による米欧金融市場での資金調達を制限した。新規の武器取引、軍民両用技術の提供、海底油田やシェールオイル開発向けの技術供与も禁止した。

The EU had been reluctant to implement substantial sanctions against Russia, which is its major energy supply source. But it hardened its stance in the aftermath of the deadly incident, as the Netherlands, which lost many citizens in the crash, called for tougher sanctions, prompting a wary Germany to act.
 欧州は、重要なエネルギー供給源のロシアへの本格制裁に及び腰だった。だが、撃墜事件で多数の犠牲者を出したオランダが強く主張し、慎重なドイツが動いた。

The U.S. release of satellite images as evidence of rocket attacks on Ukraine from Russian territory also helped encourage Europe to enact tougher sanctions.
 米国が、ロシア領内からの対ウクライナ攻撃の証拠として衛星写真を公表したことも、欧州に制裁強化を促す一助になった。

The Russian economy has been showing signs of deterioration, including drops in stock prices and Russian ruble exchange rates plus capital outflow. The Russian economy as a whole will unavoidably suffer from the sanctions, as it relies heavily on investment and technology from foreign nations. Resources development in the Arctic Sea and western Siberia will also stagnate.
 ロシア経済は、株価やルーブルの下落、資金流出など、悪化の兆しが出ている。外国からの投資と技術への依存度も高く、制裁が経済全体へ悪影響を及ぼすことは避けられまい。北極海や西シベリアでの資源開発も停滞しよう。

The administration of Russian President Vladimir Putin is poised to counter the Western penalties by taking such measures as raising the prices of energy shipments to Europe. Its antagonistic stance toward the United States and Europe is expected to grow stronger as well.
 プーチン露政権は、欧州向けエネルギー価格の引き上げなどで対抗する構えだ。米欧との関係は、対決色が強まろう。

Emphasizing cooperation with the United States and Europe, Japan has decided on additional penalties against Russia, including a freeze on assets of individuals and organizations involved in the Ukraine issue and restriction on imports of Crimea-made products. This is a reasonable decision.
 日本が米欧との連携を重視し、ウクライナ問題に関係する個人や団体の資産凍結、クリミア産品の輸入制限などの対露追加制裁を決めたのは妥当である。

The Japanese government is making arrangements for Putin’s visit here this fall, but for the moment Tokyo must give priority to international cooperation in promoting the investigation into the deadly incident.
 日本は、今秋のプーチン露大統領の来日を調整しているが、当面は、事件の調査進展に向けた国際協調を優先する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 1, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

海江田民主党 甘い総括で再建できるのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Ineffectual Kaieda remains in charge of DPJ thanks to disunited opponents
海江田民主党 甘い総括で再建できるのか

It was a tepid assessment devoid of a sense of urgency over faltering party strength. The fact that the party head is allowed to stay in office even under such circumstances graphically reveals the party’s current state of affairs.
 党勢の低迷に対する危機感の薄い、甘い総括だった。これでも党首が続投できるところに、党の現状が示されている。

The Democratic Party of Japan held a meeting on Thursday with most of the party’s Diet members attending to make an overall assessment of the way DPJ President Banri Kaieda ran the largest opposition party in the past year. The evaluation was called for as he remained at the helm of the party after its humiliating defeat in the House of Councillors election last summer by making a commitment to “produce tangible, positive results within one year.”
 民主党が、海江田代表の党運営を総括する両院議員懇談会を開いた。昨夏の参院選惨敗後、海江田氏が「1年後までの目に見える成果」を約束して代表にとどまった経緯を踏まえたものだ。

At the outset of the meeting, Kaieda expressed his intention to stay on in the top post of the DPJ, saying, “Approval ratings for the Abe Cabinet have been on the wane, and what matters most for us is whether our party is able to act effectively in defense of people who feel unease and dissatisfaction.”
 海江田氏は懇談会の冒頭、「安倍政権への支持が小さくなっている。国民の不安や不満の受け皿に民主党がなれるかどうかだ」と語り、続投する考えを表明した。

Regarding the “tangible results” he committed himself to, Kaieda cited such things as his success in having kept party unity intact. But we feel rather skeptical about the wisdom of using such reasons to justify his staying on as party president.
 「目に見える成果」としては、党の結束を維持したことなどを挙げた。だが、それらを理由に続投を正当化するのは、やや無理があるのではないか。

Even though he appears to have been intent on rebuilding the party in the past year, Kaieda has been hardly able to make his presence felt in the political area because of his feeble ability to come out with strong political messages. Party approval ratings have shown public support for the DPJ hovering at less than 10 percent, compared to the 30 percent to 40 percent levels for the Liberal Democratic Party.
 海江田氏はこの1年、党再建に意欲は見せてきたが、発信力に乏しく、存在感は薄かった。政党支持率は、自民党が30~40%台なのに対し、民主党は1けた台だ。

In the by-election of the House of Representatives Kagoshima Constituency No. 2 in April, the first contest for a Diet seat after the raising of the consumption tax, the candidate backed by the DPJ was defeated. The triumph of a former DPJ lower house member in the gubernatorial election in the middle of last month in Shiga Prefecture seemed to be attributable mainly to the tactic of keeping the party’s backing as inconspicuous as possible.
 消費増税後初の国政選である4月の衆院鹿児島2区補選では、推薦候補が敗れた。先月中旬の滋賀県知事選で前民主党衆院議員が勝利したのも、「民主党隠し」の戦術が奏功した面がある。

Bleak future prospects

Within the DPJ, such heavyweights as the party’s former Vice President Katsuya Okada demanded publicly that the party’s presidential election, scheduled for September next year, be held earlier, which Kaieda made a point of turning down.
 民主党内では、岡田克也前副総理らが来年9月の代表選を前倒しするよう公然と求めていたが、海江田氏は拒否し続けた。

Party rules of the LDP include “recall provisions” that stipulate holding a presidential election if and when a majority of the party’s Diet members and representatives of its prefectural chapters call for one. The DPJ, however, has no such rule, and so long as Kaieda refuses to hold a party election, there can be no party presidential contest before his term of office expires.
 自民党の党則には、所属国会議員と都道府県連代表の過半数が求めれば総裁選を行える「リコール規定」がある。だが、民主党の規約にこうした規定はないため、海江田氏が応じない限り、任期途中の代表選はできない。

Among the factors behind Kaieda’s strong attitude is apparently the fact that those DPJ lawmakers who oppose his leadership are in disarray over who should succeed him, so that moves to oust Kaieda from the top party post have failed to gain impetus.
 海江田氏の強気な姿勢の背景には、反執行部系議員が新代表候補などを巡って足並みがそろわず、「海江田おろし」が広がりを欠いているという事情もある。

The DPJ’s future prospects, however, remain bleak. The rift has been deep between the Kaieda leadership, which has been eager to strengthen ties to trade unions, and conservative members who wish to see the DPJ break its dependence on unions.
 ただ、民主党の前途は依然として、厳しい。労働組合との関係強化を掲げる海江田執行部と、「労組頼み」脱却を求める保守系議員との対立は根深い。

Kaieda is poised to reshuffle the lineup of party executives as early as September, and it is likely that he will have hard time trying to build party unity as anti-Kaieda sentiment continues to smolder.
 海江田氏は9月にも党役員を刷新する考えだが、海江田氏に対する批判がくすぶる中、挙党態勢を築くのは簡単ではあるまい。

The party has said its task of formulating a set of policies geared for unified local elections next spring will soon be in full swing. Although the party says it will make a review of the DPJ electoral platform for the 2009 general election, which comprised many unrealistic and pandering handout policies, before the end of the year, the pace of such review seems to have been extremely slow.
 来春の統一地方選に向けた政策作りも近く本格化する。バラマキ政策が目立つ2009年衆院選政権公約を年内に見直すというが、あまりに作業が遅すぎないか。

The DPJ has also continued shelving discussions within the party on pros and cons concerning the exercise of Japan’s right of collective self-defense.
 集団的自衛権の行使の是非に関しても、議論を棚上げしている。

So long as it fails to put an end to its propensity to postpone conclusions on key issues merely to prevent a split in the party, the DPJ will be unable to fulfill its responsibility as the No. 1 opposition party and will have no prospects for regaining strength.
党の亀裂回避を優先し、結論を先送りする体質を変えなければ、野党第1党の責任を果たせず、党勢回復もおぼつかない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 1, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)原発事故原因 究明求める声を聴け

August 01, 2014
EDITORIAL: Public demands the truth about Fukushima accident
(社説)原発事故原因 究明求める声を聴け

What is the whole truth about the nuclear disaster that hit this nation three years ago? We have yet to hear a satisfactory answer to this question.
 3年前の原発事故は何だったのか。私たちは納得いく答えをまだ得ていないではないか。

Public discontent about this fact was clearly reflected in a recent decision by an independent judicial panel of citizens concerning the criminal liability of three former executives of Tokyo Electric Power Co. for the accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
 そんな国民の不満が反映された議決とみるべきだろう。

The Tokyo No. 5 Committee for the Inquest of Prosecution said July 31 that the three should be indicted over the 2011 disaster, rejecting a decision by prosecutors against prosecuting them.
 福島第一原発の事故をめぐり検察審査会が、東京電力の元幹部3人について、「起訴相当」とする議決書を公表した。

The panel’s action forces the Tokyo District Public Prosecutors Office to reconsider its decision to drop the case against the three former executives of the electric utility, which operates the stricken nuclear power plant.
 いったん不起訴処分とした東京地検は、起訴するかどうか改めて判断することになった。

Regardless of whether the three are actually indicted, there is no doubt that the panel’s call is a sign of public exasperation about the lack of serious efforts to get to the bottom of the nuclear disaster on the part of the government, the Diet and the utility.
 刑事責任の追及がどうなるかはさておき、この議決には、事故について徹底究明しようとしない政府と国会、東電に対する社会のいらだちが映し出されているのは確かだろう。

Both the government and the Diet have the power and ability to gather huge amounts of information about the accident and glean lessons from what happened. The authority is vested in the two institutions by the people.
 政府と国会には、事故に関する膨大な情報を集めて、教訓を引き出す権限と能力がある。国民が与えているのである。

But both the government and the Diet have failed to make a serious response to the people’s calls for a clarification of the causes of the accident.
 にもかかわらず、政府も国会も、原因究明を求める国民の思いにまったく応えていない。

This discontent has also been indicated by a recent opinion poll.
 その不満は、世論調査からも読み取れる。

In a national poll conducted by The Asahi Shimbun in July, 59 percent of the respondents voiced opposition to the plan to restart reactors at Kyushu Electric Power Co.’s Sendai nuclear power plant in Kagoshima Prefecture, against 23 percent who supported it.
朝日新聞社による7月の全国世論調査では、九州電力川内(せんだい)原発(鹿児島県)の再稼働について「賛成」が23%、「反対」が59%だった。

When asked whether they thought that the lessons from the Fukushima accident had been incorporated into Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s energy policies, only 19 percent of the respondents said “yes,” while 61 percent answered negatively.
 安倍首相の政策に事故の教訓が生かされていると思うかとの問いには、そう思う人が19%、否定が61%だった。

The committees set up separately by the government and the Diet to investigate the accident both ended their inquiries after about one year of work. Both panels called for continued efforts to reveal the whole truth about the triple meltdown at the Fukushima plant. But virtually no specific step has been taken to do so.
 政府と国会が事故直後、別々につくった事故調査委員会は、いずれも1年前後で活動を終えた。どちらも引き続き究明を求めたが、今に至るまで具体的な動きはないに等しい。

Given the scale and severity of the accident, it is obvious that the hasty investigations conducted by the two panels are far from sufficient. The records of testimonies and the massive materials produced by their inquiries have not been made available for wide use.
 これだけの事故を起こしながら、駆け足の調査で済ませていいわけがない。両事故調が集めた証言録や資料も死蔵されたままである。

A full-scale probe into the accident should be resumed to make clear the lessons that should be learned before the relevant memories of people involved begin to fade.
 関係者の記憶が薄れぬ前に、早く本格的な調査を再開して教訓をきちんと示すべきだ。

The three former executives at TEPCO are facing possible charges of professional negligence resulting in death and injury. Legal action has been taken against them by survivors of the accident in Fukushima Prefecture and others. The plaintiffs are seeking to hold the three liable for damage caused by the disaster, such as the deaths of hospitalized patients and the exposure of local residents to radiation during evacuations.
 東電元幹部が問われている容疑は、業務上過失致死傷罪である。事故の避難途中に入院患者が死亡し、住民が被曝(ひばく)したなどとして、福島県内の被災者らが告訴・告発したものだ。

Important for proving their criminal liability are issues like whether the possibility of a powerful earthquake and huge tsunami triggering such a severe accident could be foreseen.
 刑事責任を問ううえでは、地震や津波の予見可能性などの立証が重みをもつ。

But efforts to draw lessons from the accident should not be focused only on such judicial viewpoints. The probe should be done from a broader perspective.
だが、教訓を引き出すうえでは、そうした司法の視点だけでなく、幅広い視野からの検証も重要である。

Whether local residents can be safely evacuated in nuclear emergencies is one of the key questions for the decision on whether to restart an idled nuclear power plant. But the criteria for deciding on whether to bring a reactor back online do not include the existence of an effective and workable evacuation plan.
 住民が安全に避難できるかどうかは、原発を再び動かすかどうかをめぐる最大の焦点のひとつだ。なのに、再稼働の前提となる基準には今も、避難態勢の整備は含まれていない。

What happened to local residents during the nuclear crisis? How did the electric utility respond to the crisis?
 あのとき、住民に何が起きたのか、電力会社の対応はどうだったのか。

In order to answer these and other key questions, it is vital to examine afresh the accident in an exhaustive manner from all possible angles.
あらゆる角度から、事故の徹底検証を進めることが不可欠である。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 1

| | コメント (0)

2014年8月 1日 (金)

最低賃金上げ 中小企業への目配りも大切だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Spare a thought for smaller firms in light of minimum wage hike
最低賃金上げ 中小企業への目配りも大切だ

To shore up consumption and help the economy finally shake off the shackles of deflation, it is vital that wages are raised.
 消費を下支えし、デフレを脱却するには、賃金の底上げが重要だ。

The Central Minimum Wages Council, a panel of the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry, has agreed to recommend that Japan’s minimum hourly wages for fiscal 2014 be increased by ¥16 on average from the previous year.
 厚生労働省の中央最低賃金審議会が、今年度の最低賃金(時給)の引き上げ幅を全国平均で16円とする目安を決めた。

This would be a double-digit increase for the second consecutive year, and is expected to bump up the average minimum hourly wage to ¥780. In response to this recommendation, committees in prefectures across the nation will make final decisions on the increase to ensure the minimum wage fairly reflects local conditions. The new standards will be adopted in or around October.
 2年連続で2桁の大幅アップとなり、最低賃金は平均780円に上昇する見込みだ。この目安を参考に、各都道府県の審議会が地域の実情を踏まえて金額を決め、10月ごろに改定される。

Currently, after-tax income earned by a worker on the minimum wage is less than they would receive in welfare benefits in Tokyo, Hokkaido and three other prefectures. This so-called reversal phenomenon, in which welfare benefits exceed the minimum wage, can deflate a worker’s incentive to keep working, a development that is rightly viewed as problematic.
 最低賃金を巡っては、生活保護の給付水準を下回る「逆転現象」が、労働意欲を損なうとして問題視されてきた。現在も5都道県で生じている。

The latest hike in the minimum wage is forecast to resolve this problem in all five prefectures—a development we warmly welcome.
 今回の引き上げで、それがすべて解消される見通しとなったことは、評価できよう。

The monthly income of a full-time worker earning the minimum wage will rise by an average of ¥2,500. With the increase of nonpermanent workers in recent years, many households whose breadwinner is on the minimum wage are barely making ends meet. The value of lifting the minimum wage is considerable.
 最低賃金でフルタイム働いた場合の月収は、平均で2500円程度増える。非正規労働者の増加で、一家の担い手が最低賃金ぎりぎりで働くケースも多い。引き上げの意義は小さくない。

It is a fact that Japan’s minimum wage is among the lowest of advanced nations.
 日本の最低賃金が、先進国の中で低い水準にあるのも事実だ。

Buoyed by increasing signs of an economic recovery, this year’s shunto spring labor-management wage negotiations generated a wave of wage hikes, mainly for regular employees of major companies. However, amid rising prices and April’s increase in the consumption tax rate, the income for household budgets is effectively shrinking.
 景気の回復傾向を受け、今春闘で大企業を中心に賃上げが相次いだ。しかし、物価上昇に消費増税の影響も加わり、家計の実質的な収入は目減りしている。

For nonregular workers and employees at small and midsize companies, moves toward wage increases have been lukewarm.
 非正規労働者や、中小・零細企業では、賃上げの動きは鈍い。

Share the benefits around

There is growing frustration that the benefits of Abenomics, the bold economic policies of the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, are not reaching every corner of society.
 安倍政権の経済政策「アベノミクス」の恩恵が及んでいないとの不満も強まっている。

The proposed hefty minimum wage increase appears to reflect the strong desire of the administration to haul the economy out of deflation. Health, Labor and Welfare Minister Norihisa Tamura had called for an increase in minimum wage “equivalent to last year’s rise, or higher.”
 今回の大幅アップは、デフレ脱却を軌道に乗せたい政権の強い意向を反映したものと言えよう。田村厚労相は「昨年並みか、それより良い成果」を求めていた。

In recent years, more young people have been working in nonregular jobs and earning minimum wage. There has been a noticeable increase in people giving up on getting married and having children due to their financial situations. This has been a major factor in the accelerating decline in the population due to the nation’s low birth rate.
 若年層に低賃金の非正規雇用が増え、結婚や子育てをあきらめる人も目立つ。少子化を加速させる大きな要因となっている。

Raising the minimum wage is thus also vital from the perspective of countering the falling population.
最低賃金の引き上げは、人口減対策の観点からも重要である。

The public and private sectors should make efforts to ensure higher wages also spread to nonregular workers and other employees.
 非正規労働者などにも賃上げが波及するよう、官民を挙げた取り組みが求められる。

There are concerns that raising the minimum wage could put a squeeze on the management of small and midsize businesses. Many of these companies are already enduring tough financial conditions as they bear the brunt of soaring fuel and raw material costs due to the weaker yen.
 心配なのは、最低賃金の引き上げが、中小・零細企業の経営を圧迫しないかという点だ。多くの企業が、円安による原材料価格や燃料費の高騰に直面し、厳しい経営状況にある。

Simply telling these companies to boost wages could worsen their business performance even further. There are also fears that negative consequences, such as companies laying off employees, could escalate.
 賃金の引き上げを求めるだけでは、さらなる業績の悪化を招きかねない。従業員の解雇など弊害が拡大する恐れもある。

We think the government should keep a close eye on the actual state of small and midsize companies and prepare effective assistance for them, such as supporting their moves into sectors where growth is anticipated.
 政府は、中小企業の実情に目配りし、成長分野への進出を後押しするなど、効果的な支援策に取り組むべきだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 31, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

周永康氏摘発 腐敗蔓延の陰で続く権力闘争

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China anticorruption drive linked to power struggle in Communist party
周永康氏摘発 腐敗蔓延の陰で続く権力闘争

An unprecedented investigation has been launched into alleged wrongdoing by a member of China’s top leadership.
 中国の最高指導部メンバーの不正に、調査のメスが入る。極めて異例の事態である。

The Communist Party of China decided to conduct the probe into Zhou Yongkang, a former head of the party’s Central Politics and Law Commission and once the ninth-ranking member of the party. Zhou was a member of the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC) until autumn 2012.
The party is investigating him over “serious violations of party discipline,” and plans to prosecute the case.
 中国共産党が、2012年秋まで党政治局常務委員を務め、党内序列9位だった周永康・前党中央政法委員会書記について、「重大な規律違反」があったとして、調査、立件することを決めた。

No details have been released about the charges Zhou faces, but since last year, his aides and former subordinates have been brought up on corruption-related charges one after another. As Zhou himself is strongly believed to be involved in corruption, it is likely that he has already been detained.
 具体的な容疑は明らかにしていないが、昨年来、周氏の側近や元部下らが汚職容疑で相次いで摘発されている。周氏自身も、汚職に関与したとの見方が強く、既に軟禁状態にあるという。

There are currently only seven members of the PSC, which sits atop the gigantic party structure, including President Xi Jinping. There were nine when Zhou held his office at the PSC.
 巨大な党組織の頂点に立つ政治局常務委員は、現在、習近平総書記以下、7人しかいない。周氏の在任中も9人だった。

There was said to be an unwritten rule that the wrongdoings of a small handful of high-ranking officials were not prosecuted to avoid party fissures and maintain party prestige.
 このごく一握りのトップ層に関しては、党の分裂回避や威信維持の観点から、不正は摘発しないとの不文律があったとされる。

However, proliferating corruption is a source of discontent and mistrust among the people, and is seen as a grave problem for the survival of the party. Xi, who promised with his sweeping anticorruption campaign to target all levels from high-ranking “tigers” to low-level “flies,” may have had no choice but to break the taboo.
 だが、腐敗の蔓延まんえんは今、国民の不満・不信の源であり、党の生き残りにも関わる重大問題だ。「ハエもトラもたたく」と腐敗一掃を宣言した習氏は、タブーに手を付けざるを得なかったのだろう。

Charging this big tiger is aimed at demonstrating to the people the party’s firm stance on eradicating corruption. Anticorruption is also likely to be high on the agenda at the general meeting of the Communist Party Central Committee scheduled for October.
 特大の「トラ」の摘発には、腐敗撲滅に向けた断固たる姿勢を国民にアピールする狙いがある。10月の党中央委員会総会でも、反腐敗が主要議題となる見通しだ。

Zhou member of ‘oil faction’

In China, anticorruption charges are closely tied to power struggles within the party.
 中国での腐敗摘発は、党内抗争とも密接に結びついている。

Zhou is a central figure in the “oil faction” within the Communist Party, a network of influential politicians who have ties with China’s petroleum industry. As the head of the party’s Central Politics and Law Commission, he also assumed control of the security and judicial sectors.
 周氏は、豊かな資金力を誇る石油業界「石油閥」の中心的存在である。政法委書記として公安や司法部門の実権も握っていた。

Zhou is said to be backed by former Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Jiang Zemin and former PSC member Zeng Qinghong, who is an aide to Jiang. Zhou is believed to be close to former Politburo member Bo Xilai, who was sentenced to life in prison for corruption last year.
 江沢民・元総書記や江氏側近の曽慶紅・元常務委員らが後ろ盾とされる。昨年、収賄罪で無期懲役が確定した薄煕来・元党政治局員とも近かったと見られている。

Xi is hurriedly concentrating power in his own hands, assuming one top position after another in organizations leading security and economic reform.
 習氏は現在、治安対策や経済改革の指導組織のトップに相次いで就任するなど、自身への権限集中を急いでいる。

Charging Zhou and stemming the influence of those with vested interests, including Zhou’s oil faction, as well as the influence of Jiang’s faction, appear to be part of Xi’s efforts to consolidate his power base. But it is too early to say that such moves by the president will make his administration stable.
 周氏を摘発し、その背後にいる石油閥など既得権益層や江氏の影響力を排除することは、習氏が権力基盤を固める一環と言えよう。ただ、これで習政権が盤石になると見るのは早計だ。

Charging Zhou may be welcomed by the people in the short term, but the deep-rooted nature of corruption in the party remains unchanged. There are fears that opposition to Xi’s high-handed approach could grow stronger within the party. China’s society and politics still have a long way to go to reach stability.
 周氏摘発は一時的に民衆に歓迎されるとしても、根深い党の腐敗体質に変わりはない。習氏の強引な手法に対する党内の反発が強まる恐れもある。中国の社会と政治の安定は、なお遠い。

If domestic politics become unstable, Xi could leverage his self-righteous foreign policies to appeal to patriotism among the people. Japan needs to carefully watch the power struggles playing out behind the anticorruption charges.
 内政が不安定化すれば、習氏は国民の愛国心に訴えるため、独善的な対外姿勢を強めかねない。日本は、腐敗摘発の陰で続く権力闘争を注視する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 31, 2014)

| | コメント (0)

(社説)中国汚職摘発 真の法治をめざすなら

July 31, 2014
EDITORIAL: Xi’s anti-corruption campaign still leaves rule of law by the wayside
(社説)中国汚職摘発 真の法治をめざすなら

Members of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party collectively rule a nation of 1.3 billion people, making them China's most powerful group of political leaders.
 中国共産党の政治局常務委員とは、13億人の大国を仕切る最高指導部メンバーである。

The party has decided to open a formal corruption investigation into Zhou Yongkang, one of the nine members of the paramount policymaking body of the previous administration of President Hu Jintao. The party’s anti-graft watchdog announced it is investigating Zhou for “serious violations of party discipline.”
 胡錦濤・前政権に9人いたうちの一人だった周永康氏(71)が「重大な規律違反」を問われることになった。

The 71-year-old Zhou is said to have been implicated in a large web of corruption. He is the highest-ranking Communist Party figure to face a formal criminal investigation since the country embarked on economic reform in the late 1970s.
 大規模な汚職があったとされ、改革開放以降では最高位の摘発となる。

Taking on endemic corruption within the party is the right thing to do.
はびこる腐敗をただすことは正しい方向だ。

But it needs to be pointed out that the unusual move to bring criminal charges against such a powerful politician is part of the political battle waged by the current administration of President Xi Jinping to solidify its power base.
 ただし、異例の大物立件の本質は、習近平(シーチンピン)・現政権が仕掛ける権力闘争であることを見落としてはなるまい。

Zhou was head of a state-owned oil company. It is believed that he used money he had earned illicitly from the oil business to build up a corrupt network of people cemented by interests.
 周氏は国有石油企業の出身。石油ビジネスに絡む不正資金をてこに、利益で結ぶネットワークを築いたとみられている。

China’s leadership may appear to be monolithic, but in fact the innermost circles of the party and the state include people with widely different agendas and motives. Each section of the government tends to become an interest group. The Xi administration recently launched a series of campaigns against such corrupt interest groups.
 一枚岩にみえる中国指導部だが、党と国家の中枢は多元的で、各部門が利益集団化しがちだ。最近、そこにメスを入れるケースが相次いでいる。

After the top official of the Ministry of Railways was charged with corruption, the ministry was dismantled and its functions were taken over by three separate organizations at the time the Xi administration was inaugurated.
 トップが汚職で捕まった鉄道省は、習政権発足時に三分割した。

Gen. Xu Caihou, who was once one of the country’s most senior military officials, was expelled from the party after being accused of accepting bribes.
軍の元最高幹部の徐才厚氏は収賄の疑いで党籍を奪った。

Now, the administration is targeting the oil sector’s entrenched interests in its campaign to purge the party of corruption.
そして今は「石油グループ」に切り込もうとしている。

Zhou is said to have close ties with former President Jiang Zemin. There must have been fierce resistance within the party to the move against Zhou.
 周氏は江沢民・元国家主席とつながりが深かったといわれる。党内の抵抗は強かったに違いない。

Immediately after Zhou retired from the Politburo Standing Committee in 2012, the government started detaining people around him, including high-ranking officials and business big shots.
 関係者の拘束は、一昨年に周氏が常務委員を退いた直後から始まった。

The Xi administration then began to make efforts to prepare public opinion for actions against influential politicians by stressing that even high-level officials would not be exempted from its anti-graft campaign.
同時に習政権は反腐敗の旗のもと、「地位の高い者も例外扱いしない」と強調し、世論の地ならしをした。

The investigation into Zhou came after careful and meticulous efforts to corner the former security chief.
 実に周到な準備で一歩ずつ追い詰めた末の立件である。

It can safely be assumed now that Xi has built a solid power base for his leadership.
これで習氏の政権基盤は固まったとみるべきだろう。

The Communist Party Central Committee’s plenary session last year called for judicial reform, and the rule of law is expected to be high on the agenda during this year’s session, to be convened in October.
 党中央委の昨年の総会は司法改革を唱え、次の10月の総会の主な議題も「法治」とされる。

There are some fundamental questions, however, about whether the action against Zhou will contribute to the efforts to establish the rule of law in China.
 ただ、この立件が法治に資するかといえば、根本的な疑問がぬぐえない。

The decision to investigate the former member of the Politburo Standing Committee was made by the party leadership, not by the judiciary.
 今回の決定を下したのは、党中央であり、司法ではない。

Once the party’s inquiry discovers his violations, he will be stripped of party membership and subjected to the legal process of criminal justice.
党の調べで違反ありと認定すれば党籍を剥奪(はくだつ)し、そこではじめて司法手続きに移る。

The whole system is based on the assumption that the Communist Party’s power is superior to judicial power. The party leadership is considered infallible.
党は司法に優越し、党中央は常に間違えないという前提がある。

Stamping out corruption to build a fair society is a worthy policy goal. If this goal is merely a political tool used by the powers that be to buttress the party’s monopoly on power, however, there will be limits to what this undertaking can achieve.
 汚職をなくして公正な社会を築くという目標はいいが、それが一党支配をより強固にするための権力者の道具でしかないなら、おのずから限界がある。

As for the rule of law, China has a Constitution that enumerates the people’s rights.
 法治といえば、国民の諸権利を明記した憲法が、いまの中国にはある。

But the party has been cracking down on many legal and academic experts campaigning for the realization of constitutional government. The reality of China’s government is a far cry from the rule of law.
しかし、「憲政の実現」を訴える弁護士や学者を次々と弾圧している現状は、法治にほど遠い。

What China really needs is an effective system for the rule of law that can expose and punish the crimes of even top party leaders. Establishing such a system is the proper way to root out systemic corruption.
 真に必要なのは党の指導者をもチェックできる「法の支配」だ。それこそが反腐敗の王道ではないのか。

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 31

| | コメント (0)

« 2014年7月 | トップページ | 2014年9月 »