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2014年8月19日 (火)

不登校増加 サポート態勢の充実が大切だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Enhanced support system urgently needed to stem school absenteeism
不登校増加 サポート態勢の充実が大切だ

The figure stands at 119,617. This is the number of primary and middle school students across the country who were absent from school for 30 days or more in fiscal 2013 for reasons other than health or economic hardship. It represents the first increase in six years, and is up 7,000 from the previous year.
 11万9617人――。昨年度、不登校で30日以上学校を休んだ小中学生の数だ。6年ぶりに増加に転じ、前年度より約7000人増えた。

Among middle school students, this worked out to one in 37 being chronically absent. Statistically speaking, one student was absent from every homeroom. This is obviously an alarming situation.
 中学生では37人に1人の割合だった。数字上は、クラスに1人が不登校ということになる。心配な状況である。

The number of long-term absentees was brought to light in a basic school survey recently conducted by the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry.
 文部科学省の学校基本調査で判明した。

A growing number of students are becoming unable to go to school for such reasons as difficulty in forming human relations or the inability to follow healthy waking and sleeping patterns, according to the ministry.
人間関係の構築が苦手だったり、生活のリズムが崩れたりして、登校できなくなる子供が増えているという。

In many instances before a student becomes absent for a long time, there is reportedly a “latent period” in which their short-term absences increase. To respond effectively, teachers must cooperate with parents to ascertain students’ concerns, so they can detect early signs of a student starting to avoid school.
 不登校になる前には、多くの場合、短期の欠席が増える「潜在期間」がある。教師が不登校の兆候を早期に見極め、家庭と連携して生徒の心情を把握することが、対策を講じる上で重要だ。

Sharing information between teachers and school counselors, who are experts in child psychology, is also essential.
 児童心理の専門家であるスクールカウンセラーなどとの情報共有も欠かせない。

Bullying can be a reason for students to stop going to school.
 いじめが不登校の原因となっているケースもあるだろう。

Since the suicide of a middle school boy because of bullying in Otsu in 2011, an increasing number of parents seem to believe their children should not have to go to school if it means enduring bullying. This may be a factor behind the rise in students’ absences in the latest survey.
 大津市のいじめ自殺事件を契機に、「いじめに苦しんでまで、学校に行かなくてもいい」と考える親が増えたようだ。それも不登校増加の要因の一つではないか。

Survey results favorable

Both parents and teachers should respect and support children’s feelings, instead of trying to force them to attend school. Naturally teachers must give firm guidance to students who bully others.
 親や教師には、登校を無理強いするよりも、子供の気持ちを尊重して支える姿勢が求められる。無論、教師は加害生徒を厳しく指導する必要がある。

Ever since the 1990s, when student absenteeism rose sharply, there has been a growing number of facilities to help young people who do not want to go to school, such as adaptation guidance classes run by municipal governments at about 1,300 locations across the country and private-sector “free schools” for children who avoid school or are unable to go to school for various reasons.
 不登校が急増した1990年代以降、自治体が開設する約1300か所の適応指導教室や、民間のフリースクールなど、不登校生の受け皿となる施設が増えた。

The adaptation guidance classes, which are operated outside schools, aim to get children back in school. Current and former teachers tutor students and they are helped by counselors.
 学校外に設けられている適応指導教室では、学校への復帰を目指し、カウンセリングと並行して、教師や元教師が勉強を教える。

The free schools run by private-sector groups or nonprofit organizations offer greater freedom for students. Students are allowed to learn at their own pace, engaging in such activities as cooking and caring for animals together with classmates and facility personnel, with the aim of connecting with other people.
 民間やNPOが運営するフリースクールは、もっと自由度が高い。学習ペースも生徒が自分たちで決め、級友やスタッフとの調理、動物の世話などを通して、人とのつながりを回復させていく。

A system exists under which school principals can count attendance at these facilities as days of attendance at the students’ former schools. Effective use of this system should be encouraged.
 こうした施設に通った期間についても、学校長の判断で、元の学校に登校したと見なす仕組みがある。有効に活用したい。

The education ministry last month released findings from a follow-up survey about students who were absent in their third year at middle school. The survey examined their situations five years later, and found that 85 percent went on to high schools or other schools.
 文科省は先月、中3当時に不登校だった生徒に対する5年後の追跡調査の結果を発表した。85%が高校などに進学し、

This was a significant improvement from results in a similar survey 13 years ago.
13年前の調査結果より大幅に改善していた。

The good results likely reflect the achievements of the adaptation guidance classes and free schools. The government’s Education Revitalization Council last month proposed studying the advisability of using public funds to extend financial support to free schools.
 適応指導教室やフリースクールの成果の表れだろう。政府の教育再生実行会議は先月、フリースクールに対する公費支援を検討するよう提言した。

To help absent students become able to learn again together with their friends at school, arrangements should be made that are suited to their individual circumstances.
 不登校生が再び学校の仲間と一緒に学べるよう、一人ひとりの事情に応じたサポートが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 18, 2014)

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