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2014年8月29日 (金)

道徳の教科化 思いやりの心を培う授業に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
New subject of moral training should nurture children’s thoughtfulness
道徳の教科化 思いやりの心を培う授業に

It is important to ensure that the proposed idea of introducing moral training as a school subject will result in substantial improvement in the quality of our nation’s ethical education.
 教科化を契機に、道徳教育を充実させることが大切である。

An subcommittee of experts at the education ministry’s Central Council for Education has basically adopted a report proposing that the current “moral training hour” at primary and middle schools be upgraded to a “special subject.” The new subject would use education ministry-authorized textbooks but not grade students numerically.
 中央教育審議会の専門部会が、小中学校の「道徳の時間」を「特別の教科」とするよう求める報告案を大筋で了承した。検定教科書を導入する一方で、点数による評価はしない新たな教科である。

The Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry hopes to introduce the new subject in fiscal 2018 at the earliest, after revising its official teaching guidelines and laying down criteria for screening moral education textbooks.
 文部科学省は、学習指導要領の改定や検定基準の作成を行った上で、早ければ2018年度からの実施を目指す。

As circumstances stand today, classes for moral training are not part of the ministry’s regular curriculum. Some schools tend to pay little heed to the importance of offering moral training, as shown by their practice of switching such lessons to Japanese language, arithmetic and mathematics classes. The idea of making moral training a subject is intended to rectify this situation.
 現在、道徳は正規の教科でないため、学校によっては、国語や算数・数学の授業に振り替えるなど、軽視するケースも見られる。教科化はこうした状況を改善するのが狙いである。

It is very meaningful for children to be encouraged to learn social rules and develop a sense of thoughtfulness toward others, as they are certain to play a leading role in shaping our country’s future. Some critics have said that making moral training a subject is tantamount to forcing certain values on students. Such criticism must be dismissed as pointless.
 将来を担う子供たちが、社会のルールを学び、思いやりの心を培う意義は大きい。道徳の教科化には、「特定の価値観の押しつけにつながる」といった批判もあるが、的外れと言うほかない。

The latest report cited “the frailties of people” and “the courage to confront difficulties” as examples of topics to be taken up in the new subject, reflecting the fact that school bullying is becoming even worse nowadays. It also proposed addressing contemporary issues such as the morals to be observed when using information on the Internet.
 報告案は、学校でのいじめが深刻さを増していることを踏まえ、「人間の弱さ」や「困難に立ち向かう強さ」を、取り上げるテーマとして例示した。ネットを利用する際の情報モラルなど、今日的な課題も扱うよう提案している。

The question is what should be done to improve the quality of moral training lessons. Teachers will not gain a favorable response from children if they only read out from a textbook.
 問題は授業の質をいかに向上させるかだ。教師が教科書を読み上げるだけの授業では、子供たちの心には響くまい。

Imaginative ideas needed

One of the proposals put forward in the report focused on school bullying and other problems involving students. The report suggested encouraging students to think about what to do by having them role-play such scenarios. It also proposed getting children to debate a single issue to the fullest. We find it reasonable for the proposal to emphasize the need to come up with imaginative ideas about how to give moral training lessons.
 いじめやトラブルの場面を設定し、子供たちに役割を割り振って、とるべき行動を考えさせる。一つの課題を徹底的に討論させる。そうした工夫の必要性を報告案が指摘したのはうなずける。

The introduction of the new subject is certain to test teachers in terms of their instructional skills. However, the status quo is hardly promising. In the teacher training courses offered by colleges and universities, there are only a few lectures on moral education. Therefore, many teachers remain unsure about their teaching methods.
 教師の力量が問われるが、現状は心もとない。大学の教員養成課程では道徳に関する講義の時間が少なく、指導方法に自信を持てない教師が多いからだ。

Moral training lessons would be conducted by homeroom teachers as they are well acquainted with students. Such teachers should not be left to their own devices or become complacent about how to conduct moral education. With this in mind, the principle of each school should take responsible steps to ensure this does not occur.
 道徳の授業は、児童・生徒と身近に接する学級担任が担当する。担任任せにして、独り善がりの授業が行われるような事態を招いてはならない。各校の校長には、責任ある対応が求められる。

One focus of attention is examining what kinds of standards should be set for screening textbooks, as well as how to assess the achievements accomplished by each student.
 今後の焦点は、教科書検定基準と、子供の評価方法の検討だ。

Full rein must be given to the originality and ingenuity of private-sector textbook publishers, to ensure that the contents of their textbooks are worth reading. At the same time, however, it is necessary to lay down screening criteria conducive to securing the ideological neutrality of the contents and attaining a proper balance in other aspects of the details.
 読み応えのある内容にするため、民間の教科書会社の創意工夫を生かすのは大事だが、政治的中立性など記述のバランスに目配りした基準作りは欠かせない。

In conducting moral training lessons, it is not appropriate to use scores to grade students’ achievements.
Moral education differs from other subjects in which students are assessed through tests and other scores. Classes for moral training are intended to improve their mental attitude.
 内面的資質を育てる道徳には、一般の教科のような点数評価はそぐわない。

Given this, the latest report is correct in saying that teachers should describe in writing the attitude of each student toward the lessons and his or her accomplishments.
報告案が示したように、授業に取り組む姿勢や成果を文章で記述する方式が適切だろう。

We hope the education ministry will set specific guidelines for that purpose, to provide teachers with some illuminating information.
文科省は現場の参考になる具体的な指針を示してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 28, 2014)

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