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2014年8月 1日 (金)

(社説)中国汚職摘発 真の法治をめざすなら

July 31, 2014
EDITORIAL: Xi’s anti-corruption campaign still leaves rule of law by the wayside
(社説)中国汚職摘発 真の法治をめざすなら

Members of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party collectively rule a nation of 1.3 billion people, making them China's most powerful group of political leaders.
 中国共産党の政治局常務委員とは、13億人の大国を仕切る最高指導部メンバーである。

The party has decided to open a formal corruption investigation into Zhou Yongkang, one of the nine members of the paramount policymaking body of the previous administration of President Hu Jintao. The party’s anti-graft watchdog announced it is investigating Zhou for “serious violations of party discipline.”
 胡錦濤・前政権に9人いたうちの一人だった周永康氏(71)が「重大な規律違反」を問われることになった。

The 71-year-old Zhou is said to have been implicated in a large web of corruption. He is the highest-ranking Communist Party figure to face a formal criminal investigation since the country embarked on economic reform in the late 1970s.
 大規模な汚職があったとされ、改革開放以降では最高位の摘発となる。

Taking on endemic corruption within the party is the right thing to do.
はびこる腐敗をただすことは正しい方向だ。

But it needs to be pointed out that the unusual move to bring criminal charges against such a powerful politician is part of the political battle waged by the current administration of President Xi Jinping to solidify its power base.
 ただし、異例の大物立件の本質は、習近平(シーチンピン)・現政権が仕掛ける権力闘争であることを見落としてはなるまい。

Zhou was head of a state-owned oil company. It is believed that he used money he had earned illicitly from the oil business to build up a corrupt network of people cemented by interests.
 周氏は国有石油企業の出身。石油ビジネスに絡む不正資金をてこに、利益で結ぶネットワークを築いたとみられている。

China’s leadership may appear to be monolithic, but in fact the innermost circles of the party and the state include people with widely different agendas and motives. Each section of the government tends to become an interest group. The Xi administration recently launched a series of campaigns against such corrupt interest groups.
 一枚岩にみえる中国指導部だが、党と国家の中枢は多元的で、各部門が利益集団化しがちだ。最近、そこにメスを入れるケースが相次いでいる。

After the top official of the Ministry of Railways was charged with corruption, the ministry was dismantled and its functions were taken over by three separate organizations at the time the Xi administration was inaugurated.
 トップが汚職で捕まった鉄道省は、習政権発足時に三分割した。

Gen. Xu Caihou, who was once one of the country’s most senior military officials, was expelled from the party after being accused of accepting bribes.
軍の元最高幹部の徐才厚氏は収賄の疑いで党籍を奪った。

Now, the administration is targeting the oil sector’s entrenched interests in its campaign to purge the party of corruption.
そして今は「石油グループ」に切り込もうとしている。

Zhou is said to have close ties with former President Jiang Zemin. There must have been fierce resistance within the party to the move against Zhou.
 周氏は江沢民・元国家主席とつながりが深かったといわれる。党内の抵抗は強かったに違いない。

Immediately after Zhou retired from the Politburo Standing Committee in 2012, the government started detaining people around him, including high-ranking officials and business big shots.
 関係者の拘束は、一昨年に周氏が常務委員を退いた直後から始まった。

The Xi administration then began to make efforts to prepare public opinion for actions against influential politicians by stressing that even high-level officials would not be exempted from its anti-graft campaign.
同時に習政権は反腐敗の旗のもと、「地位の高い者も例外扱いしない」と強調し、世論の地ならしをした。

The investigation into Zhou came after careful and meticulous efforts to corner the former security chief.
 実に周到な準備で一歩ずつ追い詰めた末の立件である。

It can safely be assumed now that Xi has built a solid power base for his leadership.
これで習氏の政権基盤は固まったとみるべきだろう。

The Communist Party Central Committee’s plenary session last year called for judicial reform, and the rule of law is expected to be high on the agenda during this year’s session, to be convened in October.
 党中央委の昨年の総会は司法改革を唱え、次の10月の総会の主な議題も「法治」とされる。

There are some fundamental questions, however, about whether the action against Zhou will contribute to the efforts to establish the rule of law in China.
 ただ、この立件が法治に資するかといえば、根本的な疑問がぬぐえない。

The decision to investigate the former member of the Politburo Standing Committee was made by the party leadership, not by the judiciary.
 今回の決定を下したのは、党中央であり、司法ではない。

Once the party’s inquiry discovers his violations, he will be stripped of party membership and subjected to the legal process of criminal justice.
党の調べで違反ありと認定すれば党籍を剥奪(はくだつ)し、そこではじめて司法手続きに移る。

The whole system is based on the assumption that the Communist Party’s power is superior to judicial power. The party leadership is considered infallible.
党は司法に優越し、党中央は常に間違えないという前提がある。

Stamping out corruption to build a fair society is a worthy policy goal. If this goal is merely a political tool used by the powers that be to buttress the party’s monopoly on power, however, there will be limits to what this undertaking can achieve.
 汚職をなくして公正な社会を築くという目標はいいが、それが一党支配をより強固にするための権力者の道具でしかないなら、おのずから限界がある。

As for the rule of law, China has a Constitution that enumerates the people’s rights.
 法治といえば、国民の諸権利を明記した憲法が、いまの中国にはある。

But the party has been cracking down on many legal and academic experts campaigning for the realization of constitutional government. The reality of China’s government is a far cry from the rule of law.
しかし、「憲政の実現」を訴える弁護士や学者を次々と弾圧している現状は、法治にほど遠い。

What China really needs is an effective system for the rule of law that can expose and punish the crimes of even top party leaders. Establishing such a system is the proper way to root out systemic corruption.
 真に必要なのは党の指導者をもチェックできる「法の支配」だ。それこそが反腐敗の王道ではないのか。

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 31

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