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2014年9月

2014年9月30日 (火)

空いた時間を活用できる女性のためのネットアルバイト

美トリ  という素敵なネットアルバイトサイトを紹介します。
こちらは、空いた時間を活用できる女性のためのネットアルバイト情報です。
どんなアルバイトなんでしょうか?
実に簡単なんです。

美トリはエステやコスメ、サプリメント等のモニターをしてお小遣いを稼げる素敵なサイトなんです。
例えば、商品モニターをして、簡単なアンケートに答えるだけで、自分はきれいになったうえ、お金が支払われるのです。

ブログをお持ちの女性だったら、美トリアフィリエイトURLを掲載して、そこから読者が入会されれば500円の謝礼がもらえるそうです。これは大きいです。
訪問者が多いブログをお持ちの女性だったら、こちらのアフィリエイトだけでもまとまったお小遣いが稼げる可能性があります。
この際挑戦してみたらどうでしょうか。
いま美トリに入会すると謝礼がもらえますよ。
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ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ レビューブログからの情報です

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目先を変えてみませんか?競走馬の世話をするお仕事だってあります

現役時代は建設業関連だったので競馬遊びも必須科目でありました。
重賞レースでは、作業所の全員が競って特券を買い求めた思い出があります。
30歳を過ぎてから、さまざまな海外勤務をしましたが、ハワイはオアフ島のノースショアでお仕事をしたことがあります。
広い牧場には無数の馬が放し飼いにされており、昼休みには馬たちとの会話を楽しみました。
乗馬も習ったのですが、これは難しい。
私は到底競走馬の騎手にはなれないなと実感しました。

馬の世話をするのは実に身体に良いです。
心がいやされるんですね。
乗馬する前に、馬のひずめにたまった汚物を金属のかきだし棒で清掃します。
それから丁寧に身体全体をブラッシングしてあげます。
1時間もすると、自然に馬たちとお友達になれ、会話が出来るようになります。

これからの高校進学なんですが、素敵なところを紹介します。
競走馬を育てる高校<馬の学校 東関東馬事高等学院> なんです。
騎手が無理でも、馬の世話をする担当者として働くことができます。
馬の世話をするお仕事は人間関係の煩雑な職場よりもいいかも知れません。



馬と共に生徒が成長する高校 「馬の学校 東関東馬事高等学院」では、10月より競走馬を育てる授業をスタートします。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

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「円安なら株価が上がる」は本当か まじめに「円安と株価の関係」を考えてみた

(東洋経済オンライン記事を引用)

 今日は、まじめに考えてみよう。

 いつもまじめなのだが、ここでいう「まじめ」とは、行動ファイナンス的にではなく、いわゆる「ファンダメンタルズ」的に考えてみるということだ。

 さて、そうなると、円安で日本株が上昇する、というのは説明がつきにくくなる。行動ファイナンス的に言えば、円安は日本経済にプラス、だから日本株上昇、という連想ゲームをみんながするから、円安となれば迷わず日本株買い、ということですべてが済んでしまう。

なぜ「円安株高」という連想ゲームが働くのか

 しかし、「まじめに」考えると、なぜ、円安株高という連想ゲームが働くのかが問題だ。行動ファイナンスで考えれば、連想の理由はどうでもよく、皆がそう連想する、という連想が重要なのだ。

 いったん、この連想の連鎖が皆に広がれば、自動的に連想の連鎖は広がり、続く。これがバブルであり、連想の根拠があろうがなかろうが、それがファンダメンタルズであろうがなかろうが、同じことで、すべてバブルなのだ。

 ただ、いわゆる「ファンダメンタルズ」で考えてみることも重要である。なぜなら、前回の9月9日のコラム「私に『金融』を考えさせた『3つの事件』」で触れたように、金融の時代は終わり、実体経済の時代がやってきているからだ。

 そうなると、連想ゲームは、金融だけの事情では起こりにくくなってくる。実体経済、いわゆる「ファンダメンタルズ」によって、金融市場は動かされる側になってくるからだ。連想ゲームが起こるとしても、「ファンダメンタルズ」が基礎、あるいはきっかけになるはずだからだ。

 さて、円安が日本経済にプラスというのは本当だろうか。経済学で言えば、これは100%誤りである。為替レートは経済学では交易条件であり、円が強い、自国通貨が強くなれば、必ず、自国の経済厚生は高まる。

 つまり、国民は幸せになるのである。なぜなら、円が強くなるということは、同じ100円でより多くのモノが手に入るということであり、食べ物も資源も衣類もすべて安く手に入るわけであるから、必ず幸せになるのである。

なぜ「円高悪玉論」は、半ば常識となったのか

 しかし、円高のせいで日本経済がおかしくなっていた、という議論は、半ば常識として取り扱われてきた。これは、なぜだろうか。

 もっとも一般的な解釈は、為替には均衡為替レートが存在し、市場の調整機能が十分発揮されれば、到達することになる為替レートがあるが、そこから一時的に外れると、さまざまなひずみをもたらすということである。そして、これまでは、均衡レートを上回る円高だったということだ。

 つまり、たとえば、均衡為替レートが1ドル90円であったときに、78円になってしまうと、輸出企業は苦しむ。彼らが均衡為替レートを正しく認識していたとすると、78円というのは異常事態であり、いつかは均衡に戻るはずである。

 均衡に戻れば、1ドル90円になれば、現在の生産工場の立地はこれでいい。日本中心でいい。だから、90円に戻るまでは、歯を食いしばってがんばり続ける。こういう意思決定をしたとすると、一時的な円高は苦痛である。

 そして、一時的と思った円高が数年も継続すると、苦痛では済まなくなり、企業の危機である。需要はその数年間に他の国の生産者に取られ、まったく市場からおいていかれ、衰退してしまう。取り返しのつかない円高ということになる。一時的な円高を修正しようとしなかった日銀が悪い、という非難というか愚痴も出てくる。

 しかし、これは単なる愚痴だ。行動ファイナンスの世界になれているわれわれには、とても愚かな言いわけに聞こえる。ノイズトレーダーリスクがあり、株価が均衡価格あるいはファンダメンタルズに戻ってくる保証はないから、均衡に戻るというナイーブな信念で、投資戦略を立てる愚か者はいない。実体経済においても、証券投資と同じく、ポートフォリオを組むべきなのだ。

 すなわち、世界に生産ネットワークを構築し、一時的に円高で日本での生産がコスト上不利になった場合には、その期間は、米国工場の生産を100から150に増やし、欧州工場の生産を50から80に増やし、日本工場の生産を200から120に抑える、というような対応を取るべきなのだ。

 そういうことができるのは大企業だけだ、と言われそうだが、グローバル経済で生きていく以上、一点集中で勝負するのは、全財産を個別株1銘柄だけに集中させるのと同じくらい危険なことなのだ。

 そして、個別銘柄のリスクよりも為替の動向は読みやすい。なぜなら、為替には明らかなモーメンタムがあり、いったん円高方向にすすむトレンドができれば、ある程度は継続することはわかっているからだ。

 もう一つは均衡レートの読み誤り、ということがある。そもそも、金融市場ではファンダメンタルズによる均衡レートを期待することそのものが間違ってはいるのだが、そうだとしても、均衡レートが120円にあると考え続けたのは間違っている。実体経済からの均衡レートは、85円から95円というのが妥当な推測だ。現在110円へ向かおうとしているのは、異常な金融緩和によるものであり、いまこそ実体経済から見た均衡レートからは外れる動きをしている。

「円安歓迎の上場企業」のファンダメンタルズは改善

 さて、本題は、なぜ円安になると日本経済にプラスになるのか、ということであった。モノを手に入れるためのおカネの価値が下がるのであるから、日本国民は不幸になるということであった。そして、為替レートの一時的な変動は、実体経済における企業などの行動にひずみをもたらすということがわかった。

 しかし、均衡レートを超えて円安になることで、経済が良くなることは絶対あり得ない。均衡から外れること自体が不幸であるし、しかも、それが自国のおカネの価値を下げ、土地のドルベースの価格を下げ、企業の時価総額を下げ、日経平均のドル建ての価格を下げることになるから、何もいいことがあるはずがなかった。

 円安により、世界経済における日本の存在感も価値も大きく低下したのである。中国にGDPで抜かれて悔しがるのであれば、円高になれば、すぐに抜き返すことができるにも関わらず、悔しがった人々は、円高がそれに拍車をかけたと勘違いしていたのである。

 そうなると、円安株高の理由は「ファンダメンタルズ」上はまったくなくなる、ということになる。では、なぜ、円安株高の連想ゲームはまだ続いているのであろうか。

 それは、「ファンダメンタルズ」を日本経済の「ファンダメンタルズ」で考えたからだ。日本経済ではなく、日経平均株価の構成銘柄、あるいは東証1部上場企業の「ファンダメンタルズ」で考えなければならなかったのだ。企業の「ファンダメンタルズ」とは企業価値であり、企業の収益とリスクからなる。この企業収益が、円安により増えるかどうか、ということなのだ。

 いまやコンセンサスとなったように、円安では輸出は伸びない。前述のポートフォリオをきちんと構築している、これらの上場大企業たちは、世界中に生産基地ポートフォリオを確立している(しつつあった。そのためには円高は割安で海外の土地や工場や企業や人々を安く雇えたのだ。もはや円安では、田中将大を買い戻すことはできない)。

 だから、円高対応で、価格競争にさらされるコモディティと呼ばれる、多くの生産者が作ることができる製品は、海外へ、それも日本とは賃金が10分の1以下などの国に移したのである。なぜかテレビの生産者の一部は、これをしなかったために、大きな損出を出した。これは単なる誤りであった。

 さて、したがって、円安になっても、これらの生産は日本には戻さない。当初は円高対応がきっかけだったが、実際に海外に拠点を置いて見ると、賃金の違いは為替の20%などでは埋められない差であり、しかも、販売先の市場に近い立地で生産することのメリットが大きいことに誰もが気づいたからである。

 人を雇うのであっても、現地の人々を使った方が、現地にふさわしいものづくりができることは、よく考えてみれば明らかだった。

 この結果、価格競争だけのコモディティだけでなく、付加価値の高いモノであっても、現地で作るという流れが定着した。したがって、今後も、円安ぐらいでは日本に生産を戻すということは起きにくいだろう。

円安で株価が上がる2つのメカニズム

 しかし、それでも、円安で企業収益は改善し、株価は上がる。それは、2つのメカニズムである。第1に、もともと日本から輸出していたモノの利益率が高まることである。400万円のコストをかけて作った自動車を米国市場で5万ドルで売っていた場合、1ドル80円なら利益ゼロだが、1ドル100円なら利益は1万ドルだ。だから利益率は上がる。

 しかし、価格引き下げで販売数量を伸ばし、輸出を増やし、生産を増やす、という行動には出ない。米国市場においては、5万ドルが最適な企業戦略価格だからだ。だから、輸出は伸びず雇用は増えないが、利益は増える。賃金は、この企業は上がる可能性はある。

 もう一つのメカニズムは、より単純で、たとえば、この自動車会社の米国現地子会社の利益が年間10億ドルだったとすると、円換算が80円なら800億円、100円なら1000億円になるなら、2割増益になるからだ。この二つのメカニズムで、企業収益は大きく改善したのである。

 先日、ある外資系証券会社の分析を見た。円安の企業収益に与える影響というものだった。輸出企業に限らず、企業全体である。輸入企業、内需企業は輸入コスト高で苦しくなるのは当たり前である。しかし、輸出と輸入、内需、すべての企業への影響をトータルすると、前述の増益の第一のメカニズムを考慮してもマイナスであることが判明したそうだ。つまり、モノの実際の輸出入では明らかに損失なのである。

 これは前述の経済学が述べたとおりで、交易条件の悪化が、いわゆる経済厚生の水準を低下させるというモノで、企業部門に限ってもマイナスだったのだ(消費者は100%マイナスであるから、日本経済全体ではそれ以上のマイナスだが、ここでは関係ない)。

 しかし、前述の「第二のメカニズム」=子会社効果は大きなプラスで、これを加えると、トータルでプラスになるという分析だった。だから、円安で株高になるのは正しい、という議論であった。

円安による株高は長続きしない

 これは何を意味するか。実態ベース、実質ベースでは、日本企業、上場企業に限っても大きなマイナスであることを示している。なぜなら、子会社の利益は円換算にした場合にプラスとなるだけで、ドルベースで考えると不変だからだ。

 そして、実体経済ベースではマイナスなのだから、これは実質ベースで考えれば、上場企業にとってすら大きなマイナスなのだ。なぜなら、もはや海外企業を買収しようにもより多くの円が必要になり、海外企業にとっては、より少ないドルや元で日本企業や人材や土地を買うことができるからだ。

 こうなると、やはりファンダメンタルズで考えると、円安株高というのはごく短期の会計上の利益改善に着目した動きということになる。ファンダメンタルズ的に言えば、持続はしないということになる。

 実際、円安がすすんでも株高にならない場合が、最近は散見されるようになってきた。そのときの市場のムード次第、仕掛ける側の都合次第で、円安は株高につながったり、つながらなかったりするようになっている。

 意外と市場もファンダメンタルズに近づいていると言えるかもしれない。

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ソニー経営不振 大胆な発想で活路を開きたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Bold inventiveness needed for Sony to recover from deep business slump
ソニー経営不振 大胆な発想で活路を開きたい

Once a behemoth maker of inventive products that swept the global market, Sony Corp. has found itself in a serious business slump.
 かつて独創的な製品で世界市場を席巻したソニーが、深刻な経営不振にあえいでいる。

If it rests on the laurels of its glorious past, Sony will not win the cutthroat competition in the global market. It is hoped that the electronics giant will successfully reconstruct itself with the firm determination of starting all over again from square one.
 「過去の栄光」に安住していては、厳しい国際競争に勝ち抜けない。一から出直す覚悟で、再建を果たしてもらいたい。

Sony has revised down its earnings projection for the business year ending in March 2015 from a loss of ¥50 billion to ¥230 billion in the red. It also announced it would not pay an annual dividend for the first time since its 1958 listing.
 ソニーは、2015年3月期決算の予想赤字額を500億円から2300億円に修正した。株主配当を見送り、1958年の上場以来、初めて無配に転落する。

The red in this business year’s settlement of accounts would represent the sixth time that the company has reported losses over the past seven years.
 ソニーの赤字決算は、最近7年で6回目となる。

Sony President Kazuo Hirai, who took the helm of the company in 2012, made smartphone production a core business to turn its business around.
長期低迷からの再生を託され、一昨年に就任した平井一夫社長は、スマートフォンを中核事業に据え、反転攻勢をかける方針を示していた。

But the smartphone business failed to reach the company’s earnings target, forcing it to forecast massive losses for this business year. Its high-end smartphones were considerably outsold by Apple’s iPhone models, while its lower-priced products fared poorly in a market dominated by makers from China and other emerging economies.
 だが、肝心のスマホ事業で収益目標を達成できず、大幅な損失計上を迫られた。高級端末は米アップルのiPhone(アイフォーン)に大差をつけられ、低価格帯でも中国など新興国メーカーに市場を奪われた。

Hirai stressed the company would focus on high-end smartphones to improve its profitability, but the same strategy he applied to its flat-screen television business is still making losses. There is serious concern that the company will end up making losses in the smartphone business as well.
 平井社長は高級端末への絞り込みなどで収益性を高める考えを強調したが、同様の手法で巻き返しを目指した薄型テレビは、今も赤字続きである。スマホも同じ轍てつを踏む懸念が拭えない。

Shift in focus crucial

Many of the electronics makers that helped generate Japan’s high-flying economic growth fought losing battles with companies from emerging economies, but they shifted from consumer-centered business — which turns out thin profit margins — to corporate-centered business to ensure their survival.
 高度成長を支えた電機メーカーの多くは、新興国勢との競争で苦戦し、利益の薄い消費者向けから企業向けビジネスに軸足を移し、生き残りを図った。

Hitachi Ltd. and Toshiba Corp. have produced stable earnings by concentrating their business resources on nuclear power generation and railroad and other infrastructure businesses. Panasonic Corp. downsized its flat-screen TV and smartphone businesses and shifted to the housing and automobile sectors, achieving an impressive business recovery.
 日立製作所や東芝は、原子力発電や鉄道などインフラ事業に経営資源を集中し、安定した収益を上げている。パナソニックも薄型テレビやスマホを縮小する一方で、住宅や自動車の事業に注力し、業績を回復させた。

Unlike these general electronics manufacturers, Sony, launched as Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, has based its growth on the production of radios, TV sets and game consoles. Simply severing its consumer-oriented businesses will not allow it to attain the business resuscitation it badly needs.
 これらの総合電機メーカーとは違い、ソニーは東京通信工業として創業し、ラジオ、テレビ、ゲームなどで成長してきた。消費者向けの事業を単純に切り捨てる手法では、再生は望めまい。

Sony’s audiovisual and sound technologies are highly evaluated. A new model of the Walkman portable music players to be released in November is the world’s smallest and lightest player that meets a sound quality standard higher than that of CDs.
 ソニーは映像や音声の技術力に定評がある。11月に発売する新型ウォークマンは、CDより高音質な規格に対応した再生機として、世界最小、最軽量を実現した。

Through such quality improvements and model refinements, Sony should win the hearts of more consumers. What consumers are waiting for is the revival of Sony’s capacity to translate adventurous ideas into hit products.
 こうした性能向上や改良で、支持を広げてほしい。さらに、消費者が待っているのは、ソニーらしい大胆な発想をヒット商品に結びつける力の復活だろう。

Sony once won immense support for Walkman players by proposing a lifestyle of “carrying music with you.”
 かつてウォークマンでは、「音楽を持ち歩く」という生活スタイルそのものを提案し、絶大な支持を得た。

The company should use its free and open-minded corporate culture — which has helped create the Sony legend — to discover a totally new consumer demand, an effort that would likely allow the company to find a way out of its current hardship.
「ソニー神話」を支えた自由闊達かったつな企業風土を生かし、全く新しい消費者ニーズを掘り起こすことが、活路を切り開こう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 29, 2014)Speech

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チーム学校構想 事務職員も欠かせない戦力だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Increasing staff members essential for revamping nation’s schools
チーム学校構想 事務職員も欠かせない戦力だ

To deal with the various tasks facing schools, it is crucial to effectively utilize not only teachers but also nonteaching staff and human resources from outside schools.
 教育現場の様々な課題に対処するため、教師だけでなく、事務職員や外部人材の力を有効に活用したい。

The Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry’s Central Education Council will soon start deliberating on what needs to be done to enhance the collective strengths of school organizations.
 中央教育審議会が、学校組織の総合力を高める方策の議論を始める。

The advisory body is set to review the division of roles between teachers and administrative workers at schools. The council is in favor of accepting more outside experts in such fields as child psychology and social welfare. The idea is to map out ways to revitalize schools with teachers and staff members working together as an integrated, consolidated team.
 教師と事務職員の役割分担を見直す。児童心理や福祉の専門家を積極的に受け入れる。学校をいわば一つのチームとして活性化させようという構想である。

In addition to classes, school tasks are diversified, ranging from such problems as bullying and absenteeism, responding to complaints from parents and others, extending support to children from impoverished families and opening up school facilities to neighborhood communities. Teachers tend to carry out these tasks by themselves, a major burden to place on their shoulders.
 いじめや不登校、保護者からのクレームの対応、貧困家庭の子供の支援、学校施設の地域開放など、教育現場の業務は授業以外にも多岐にわたる。教師はこれらをすべて抱え込みがちで、多忙化の要因の一つになっている。

By reviewing school tasks, those suited to be handled by administrative workers and people with expertise should be left up to them. The council’s basic stance is appropriate as it seeks to use the envisioned division of roles to enable teachers to spend more time to prepare for classes and provide greater opportunities to communicate with their students, with the aim of enhancing the quality of their educational activities.
 業務の内容を再点検し、事務職員や専門スタッフに任せられる仕事は任せていく。それによって、教師が授業の準備をする時間や、子供と向き合う機会を増やし、指導の充実につなげようという方向性は妥当と言えよう。

The education ministry plans to increase school staff members other than teachers by 3,000 in the coming decade. It aims to expand the assignment of a number of administrative staff members to medium-size schools, instead of only large schools with many classrooms.
 文部科学省は今後10年間で、3000人の事務職員の増員を計画している。現在、主に学級数の多い大規模校で認められている事務職員の複数配置を、中規模校にも広げることを目指している。

Clarify status of workers

What is of key importance in increasing the number of administrative staff members is to ensure that they are professionally qualified.
 増員を図る上で重要なのは、事務職員の資質の向上である。

There are significant differences among municipalities in regard to hiring staff and on-the-job training. It is extremely important to improve municipality-sponsored training of administrative workers to ensure they firmly acquire the job skills needed for their workplaces, such as information processing using personal computers.
 学校の事務職員は、自治体によって採用や育成の方法にばらつきがある。パソコンを使った情報処理の技術など、現場で必要とされる能力をしっかり身に付けられるよう、各自治体の研修を充実させることが求められる。

It is also a challenge to secure sufficient numbers of school counselors to provide mental health care to students, and school social workers to improve the environment of students through such activities as home visits.
 児童・生徒の心のケアを担うスクールカウンセラーや、家庭訪問などを通じて環境の改善にあたるスクールソーシャルワーカーを、どう確保していくかも課題だ。

These outside experts are qualified clinical psychotherapists and social welfare workers authorized by the government, and are sought after for classrooms.
 こうした外部の専門スタッフは、臨床心理士や社会福祉士といった資格を持ち、現場のニーズは高い。

At present, most of these experts work on a nonregular basis, with many covering a number of schools.
にもかかわらず、勤務形態は非常勤で、複数の学校を掛け持ちするケースが多い。

Under the School Education Law, they are not considered regular school workers. To permit them to work continuously in a stable job environment, studies should be carried out to clarify the status of these workers in the eyes of the law.
 学校教育法上、学校の職員としても位置づけられていない。継続的・安定的な配置を実現するためには、職務を法的に明確にすることを検討してはどうか。

Administrative affairs involving not only teachers but other staff members will certainly become more burdensome for those in managerial positions in schools, including principals and vice principals.
 外部の人材をも束ねることになれば、校長や副校長ら学校管理職の役割は一層、重くなる。

At publicly operated schools, teachers in their 30s and 40s are outnumbered by teachers in their 50s, indicating that there may be a shortage of candidates for managerial positions in the future.
 現在、公立学校の教師の年齢構成は、50歳代に比べて30~40歳代が少なく、将来の管理職候補が手薄な状況だ。

Arrangements must be put in place to systematically train teachers for managerial positions by such measures as creating a teacher education course in postgraduate schools for training school teachers so mid-career teachers can learn how to effectively operate schools.
中堅教師が学校運営の手法を学べる講座を教職大学院に設けるなど、管理職養成の体系的な仕組みを整えたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 29, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月29日 (月)

児童虐待防止 妊娠期から切れ目ない支援を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Stopping child abuse requires system of support that begins with pregnancy
児童虐待防止 妊娠期から切れ目ない支援を

Cases of child abuse are continuing unabated. Systems that can prevent or detect and deal with child abuse at an early stage need to be put in place quickly.
 児童虐待が後を絶たない。予防と早期発見・対応へ向けた体制作りが急務である。

According to the National Police Agency, police across Japan reported to child consultation centers cases involving suspected abuse of 13,037 children from January to June this year. This is the highest figure on record for a six-month period.
 警察庁によると、今年上半期に、児童虐待を受けた恐れがあるとして、全国の警察が児童相談所に通告した子供は1万3037人に上った。半年間の通告数では最も多かった。

In fiscal 2012, 51 children died after being abused, according to a Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry report. Of these children, 63 percent died due to physical abuse, and 28 percent due to parental neglect. In 75 percent of these cases, the biological mother was the abuser.
 厚生労働省のまとめでは、2012年度に虐待を受けて死亡した子供は51人に上っている。原因は、身体的虐待が63%、育児放棄(ネグレクト)が28%で、加害者の75%は実母だ。

One especially eye-catching statistic was the fact that more than 40 percent of the children who died due to abuse were still in their first year. About half of these infants were less than 1 month old.
 着目すべきは、亡くなった子供の4割以上を0歳児が占めている点だ。その半数は生後1か月未満の新生児だった。

A review by a panel of experts established by the ministry found that 70 percent of the infants who died due to abuse had been “unwanted pregnancies.” Noticeably, many of these mothers had not received maternity or child health record notebooks from their local municipal governments, and many had not received regular checkups while they were pregnant.
 厚労省の専門委員会が検証したところ、これまでに新生児が犠牲になった事例の7割が「望まない妊娠」を背景にしていた。母子手帳をもらわず、妊婦健診も受診していない母親が目立つ。

When a pregnant woman who is alone is afflicted by worries and gives birth, it can lead to tragedy. The expert panel called, with good reason, for a stepped-up consultation and support system to be available to women right from when they find out they are pregnant.
 妊婦が1人で悩みを抱えながら出産に至り、悲劇を招いたことがうかがえる。専門委員会が、妊娠期からの相談・支援体制の充実を求めたのは、もっともだ。

The city of Nabari, Mie Prefecture, has introduced a system in which counseling about pregnancy, childbirth and child-rearing is unified, and specialist staff can provide support to women who need it.
 三重県名張市は、妊娠・出産・育児の相談窓口を一本化し、専門職員が対応して必要な支援につなぐ制度を導入している。

The city government of Urayasu, Chiba Prefecture, will soon start compiling support plans for women raising children, and public health nurses and other professionals will be continually available to personally talk with mothers and mothers-to-be.
千葉県浦安市は、妊娠期から継続的に保健師などが面談し、子育ての支援プランを作る事業を近く始める。

Sharing info crucial

All of these initiatives form part of the ministry’s model project for creating a seamless system that supports mothers, beginning with prenatal care.
 いずれも、出産前からの切れ目のない支援体制作りへ向けた厚労省のモデル事業の一環だ。

Such support tailored for mothers and children will not only prevent the fatal abuse of infants, but also help prevent abuse triggered by financial anxieties and exhaustion from raising children. We hope such efforts will be implemented in more areas.
 親子に寄り添ったサポートは、新生児の虐待死だけでなく、育児疲れや経済的な不安を背景とした虐待の予防にもつながろう。こうした取り組みを広げたい。

In this regard, it is essential that pregnant women be told where counseling services are available so they easily know where they can go to discuss problems. City, town and village governments will also need to work closely with obstetricians and others so households in need of support are identified.
 その際、重要なのは、悩みを抱える妊婦が相談しやすいよう、窓口の周知を図ることだ。市町村が産科医などと連携し、支援を要する家庭を把握する必要もある。

Preventing child abuse will require stronger cooperation between medical institutions, day care centers for children, schools and other facilities involved in taking care of children. In many cases, child consultation centers and local governments have been aware that a household was having problems, but insufficiently close cooperation has meant a death due to abuse could not be prevented.
 虐待防止には、医療機関や保育所、学校を含めた関係機関の連携強化も欠かせない。児童相談所や市町村が問題を把握しながら、連携が不十分で、虐待死を防げなかった事例が少なくない。

It is also problematic that information about child abuse and children whose whereabouts are unknown is not being shared between municipal governments. When families with a risk of abuse frequently move to a new address, support for them can be interrupted. This has resulted in cases snowballing into more serious situations. These governments need to discern how such information can be shared quickly and efficiently.
 児童虐待や所在不明児に関する情報が、自治体間で共有されていないことも問題だ。虐待リスクのある家庭が転居を繰り返すうちに支援が途切れ、深刻な事態を招いたケースがある。情報共有のあり方を工夫する必要があろう。

The Child Abuse Prevention Law obligates anyone who notices a child has been abused to report it to a child consultation center or some other bodies that can help. It is vital that the whole of society watches over its children.
 児童虐待防止法は、虐待に気づいた人に児童相談所などへの通告を義務づけている。社会全体で子供を見守ることが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 27, 2014)Speech

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首相国連演説 常任理事国へ戦略的に挑め

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan should make strategic efforts to become permanent UNSC member
首相国連演説 常任理事国へ戦略的に挑め

Reforming the U.N. Security Council is a daunting task due to the tangled web of vested interests among the countries concerned. Japan, which holds the United Nations in high esteem, must take the lead in revamping the Security Council.
 国連安全保障理事会の改革は、関係国の利害が複雑に絡むため、実現が難しい。だが、「国連重視」を掲げる日本は率先して取り組むべきだ。

In a speech delivered at the U.N. General Assembly on Thursday, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said: “It is my wish, with the 70th anniversary [of the U.N.’s inception next year] as a turning point, countries sharing the same aims all work together to finally resolve a long-standing issue to reform the U.N. in a way that reflects the realities of the 21st century. In that context, Japan seeks to become a permanent member of the Security Council.”
 安倍首相がニューヨークでの国連総会で演説した。国連創設70周年の来年に向け、「21世紀の現実に合った姿に国連を改革し、日本は常任理事国となり、ふさわしい役割を担いたい」と表明した。

The U.N. Security Council often renders itself dysfunctional as a result of the conflict among permanent members with veto power — the United States, Britain, France on one side, and Russia and China on the other — thus failing to deal effectively with international disputes.
 安保理はしばしば機能不全に陥り、国際紛争に対応できなくなる。拒否権を持つ常任理事国の米英仏と、露中が対立するためだ。

Matters related to Ukraine, including Russia’s annexation of the Crimean Peninsula, are a case in point. The United States organized a coalition of “willing countries” to launch air strikes on the Islamic State, as there is a limit to what the Security Council can do.
 ロシアのクリミア半島編入などウクライナ情勢が典型例である。米国が「有志連合」を組織し、イスラム過激派組織「イスラム国」への空爆に乗り出したのも、安保理の対応に限界があるからだ。

Only one permanent seat on the Security Council has been held by an Asian country, and only a few slots for non-permanent membership on the council are allocated to Asia and Africa despite the fact that the regions have numerous U.N. members and large populations. Restoring the functionality of the Security Council by rectifying the regional disparity has been a key challenge for many years.
 アジアやアフリカは、加盟国や人口が多いのに、常任・非常任理事国の割り当ては少ない。地域的な偏りを是正し、安保理の機能を回復する改革は長年の懸案だ。

The Group of Four (G-4) nations vying to become permanent members — Japan, Germany, India and Brazil — held foreign ministerial talks recently in New York, issuing a joint communique seeking support of all U.N. members for realizing Security Council reform next year.
 常任理事国入りを目標とする日本、ドイツ、インド、ブラジル4か国(G4)の外相はニューヨークで会合を開き、来年の改革実現に向けて、全加盟国に協力を求める共同声明を発表した。

In 2005, the G-4 submitted a resolution seeking to increase the number of permanent and nonpermanent members, but it was rejected in the face of opposition from China and the United States. It is essential for the G-4 to learn from this experience and strategically forge cooperation with Africa, which holds a large number of votes, while trying to win a certain level of acceptance for its plan from the United States and China.
 G4は2005年にも、常任・非常任理事国を拡大する決議案を提出したが、中国や米国が反対し、実現しなかった。その反省を踏まえ、米中両国の一定の理解を得つつ、大票田のアフリカとの連携を戦略的に進めることが重要だ。

Increasing global influence

As a nation aiming for permanent membership, Japan must make further efforts to contribute to the world.
 常任理事国を目指す日本は、一層の国際貢献が求められる。

“In the future, we intend to cultivate still further our human resources in terms of both quan-tity and quality, to contribute to the area of peace-building,” Abe said in his speech. In line with this, Japan must focus its contributions on the areas of conflict prevention and reconstruction efforts across the world.
 首相は演説で、国連平和維持活動(PKO)に関連し、「平和構築分野で世界に貢献する人材を、質量とも一層育てていきたい」と語った。紛争予防や復興支援などに力を入れねばならない。

The prime minister also indicated that Japan would emphasize the empowerment of women in providing foreign aid.
 対外援助で、女性の地位向上を重視する考えも示した。

“The 20th century had a history of profound harm to women’s honor and dignity when conflicts broke out,” Abe said. “Japan will stand at the fore and lead the international community in eliminating sexual violence during conflicts.”
「20世紀には紛争が起きると、女性の名誉と尊厳が深く傷付けられた歴史があった」と指摘し、「紛争下での性的暴力をなくすため、国際社会の先頭に立つ」と強調した。

In making these remarks, Abe apparently had in mind the smearing of Japan’s reputation by China and South Korea over the issue of so-called military comfort women. It is critical for Japan to use its knowledge in the education, health and medical fields to support the self-reliance of women around the world. In cooperation with the United Nations, Japan should make continued efforts in this regard.
 いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題で中国と韓国が日本を貶おとしめていることが念頭にあるのだろう。日本が、教育や保健・医療分野の知見を生かし、世界の女性の自立を後押しする意義は大きい。国連と連携し、持続的に取り組みたい。

Next year will mark the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II. Abe firmly said, “Our pledge never to wage war is something that will be handed down and fostered by the Japanese people for generation upon generation to come.”
 来年は戦後70年に当たる。首相は「不戦の誓いは、日本国民が世々代々、受け継いでいく」と言明した。

It is important for this country to inform the world about its history as a pacifist nation and deepen the understanding of Japan in the international community.
様々な機会に、平和国家としての歩みを発信し、国際社会の理解を深めることが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 27, 2014)Speech

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御嶽山噴火 見せつけられた予知の難しさ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Eruption of Mt. Ontake demonstrates difficulty in predicting volcanic activities
御嶽山噴火 見せつけられた予知の難しさ

Once again, we have been confronted with a graphic reminder of the ferocity of volcanoes.
 火山の猛威を、まざまざと見せつけられた。

Mt. Ontake, a peak more than 3,000 meters above sea level that straddles the Nagano-Gifu prefectural border, erupted shortly before noon Saturday.
 長野県と岐阜県にまたがる標高3000メートル超の御嶽山が噴火した。

With the start of the year’s autumnal foliage season on the weekend, a large number of hikers were on the mountain when it blew its top.
 紅葉シーズンの週末とあって、登山客が大勢いた。

Many people were reported to have been seriously injured from extremely hot volcanic ash. A number of people took refuge in mountain lodges, but rescue operations were hindered as eruptions continued.
高温の火山灰などで多数の重傷者が出ている。山小屋に退避した人もいるが、噴火が続いているため、救援活動は時間を要している。

The government set up a liaison office at the Crisis Management Center in the Prime Minister’s Office to speed information-gathering efforts concerning casualties and damage. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe issued instructions to officials to place priority on rescuing victims and ensuring the safety of climbers, and ordered the dispatch of Self-Defense Forces personnel to the affected area.
 政府は、首相官邸の危機管理センターに連絡室を設置し、被害の情報収集などを急いでいる。安倍首相は、被災者の救助や登山客の安全確保に全力を尽くすよう指示し、自衛隊を派遣した。

All-out endeavors must be made to minimize the extent of damage, and no time should be wasted in transporting victims and carrying out search-and-rescue operations for people unaccounted for.
 負傷者の搬送、行方不明者の捜索・救難を急ぎ、被害を最小限に食い止めねばならない。

It is unclear when Mt. Ontake’s volcanic activity will subside.
 噴火活動がいつ静まるのか、まったく予測はつかない。

Plumes of smoke billowed high into the sky from spots near the mountaintop in the volcano’s eruption, and a huge amount of volcanic ash spread over the mountain’s slopes at tremendous speed. Volcanic rocks were also flung around extensively.
 山頂付近から噴煙が高く舞い上がり、大量の火山灰が猛烈なスピードで山腹を流れ下った。噴石も広範囲に飛散している。

A close watch must be kept on the mountain’s volcanic activities, while efforts should be made to prevent secondary dangers.
 引き続き火山活動の厳重な監視が必要だ。二次災害にも十分警戒してもらいたい。

The Japan Meteorological Agency issued an alert, warning that further eruptions on a scale similar to Saturday’s are possible. The agency has raised the eruption alert level on its scale of five from the lowest 1 at normal times to 3, meaning climbers are restricted from entering the mountain range.
 気象庁は、今後も同規模の噴火が起きる恐れがあるとして、警戒を呼びかけている。5段階ある噴火警戒レベルを平常時の1から入山規制を伴う3に引き上げた。

Beef up observation

Even though Mt. Ontake has long been considered to have an extremely low degree of volcanic activity, it suddenly erupted in 1979, causing volcanic ash to fall over an extensive area. Small-scale eruptions occurred in 1991 and 2007.
 活動性が極めて低い火山と考えられていた御嶽山は、1979年に突如噴火し、火山灰が広い地域に降った。91年と2007年にも小規模の噴火を起こしている。

The meteorological agency planned to upgrade the surveillance of Mt. Ontake by designating it as one of the 23 most active volcanoes in the country, out of a total of 110 active volcanoes. The agency, however, fell short of detecting signs that the volcano was about to erupt this time.
 気象庁は、全国に110ある活火山のうち、活動が活発な23火山の一つに御嶽山を選び、監視体制の充実を目指していた。だが、噴火の予兆は捉えられなかった。

The agency’s failure to forecast the event shows how difficult it is to predict volcanic eruptions.
 噴火予知の難しさが浮き彫りになったと言えよう。

Although it had noted a succession of fairly active volcanic tremors in the Mt. Ontake range from early this month, the agency did not predict an eruption, mainly because of a dearth of data. No explicit changes in the crustal movement below the mountain were detected that could have served as clear precursors of the eruption, according to the agency. In light of this, the current method of collecting data must be reviewed.
 気象庁は今月上旬から、やや活発な地震動を観測していたが、過去の噴火データが乏しく、噴火につながると判断できなかった。噴火の明確な前兆となる地殻変動なども探知されなかった。監視体制の再点検が求められる。

In spite of Japan being a volcanic country, experts have pointed out that both budgets and personnel required for volcano observation are insufficient. Full-fledged volcanic observation systems are limited to few regions, such as Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima Prefecture and Mt. Asama on the border of Nagano and Gunma prefectures.
 日本は火山国なのに、監視に必要な予算や人材が不足しているとの指摘がある。充実した観測体制は、鹿児島県の桜島や長野・群馬県境の浅間山などに限られる。

When Mt. Shindake on Kuchinoerabu Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, erupted in August this year, the local meteorological observatory detected nothing that indicated it would erupt.
 8月に鹿児島県の口永良部島で新岳が噴火した際には、前兆を察知できなかった。

No regular observation activities have been conducted for Nishinoshima island, an uninhabited islet in the Ogasawara chain, despite continuing volcanic activities.
噴火活動が続く小笠原諸島の西之島は、常時の観測さえしていない。

Partly because of the rise in popularity of mountain climbing in recent years among middle-aged and elderly people, many volcanic mountains are thronged with hikers. Many well-known hot spring resorts and other sightseeing spots are near volcanoes. Everyone should take to heart the possibility of being involved anytime in an emergency in these areas.
 最近は、中高年の登山ブームもあり、登山客でにぎわう火山は多い。周辺には温泉など有名観光地もある。万一の事態があることも忘れてはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 28, 2014)Speech

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日韓外相会談 関係改善への機運は本物か

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Have foreign-minister talks generated genuine momentum for better ties?
日韓外相会談 関係改善への機運は本物か

We must hold regular dialogue and seek common ground, even if there are issues that are onerous to resolve. We hope to see a return to this standard practice of diplomacy.
 解決が困難な課題があっても、対話を重ね、接点を探る。そんな外交の常道に立ち返りたい。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida and his South Korean counterpart, Yun Byung Se, have held talks in New York, where they agreed on “the importance of continuing and deepening high-level communication” for Japan-South Korea ties.
 岸田外相がニューヨークで韓国の尹炳世外相と会談し、日韓関係について「高いレベルの意思疎通を継続し、深化させる重要性」で一致した。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and South Korean President Park Geun-hye have yet to hold a summit meeting. This point was clearly on the minds of the two foreign ministers. Kishida and Yun also held talks last month, and we welcome these positive developments toward improved bilateral relations.
 まだ実現していない安倍首相と朴槿恵大統領の首脳会談を念頭に置いたものだ。両外相は先月も会談しており、関係改善に向けての前向きな動きと評価できる。

However, obstacles remain. Regarding the issue of so-called comfort women, Kishida said, “Both Japan and South Korea must make efforts.” Yun was unbending in his response, demanding that Japan apologize and take concrete steps to resolve the issue.
 ただ、いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題について岸田外相は「日韓双方が努力する必要がある」と語ったが、尹外相は日本に謝罪と具体的措置を求める立場を崩さなかった。

As Kishida stated, South Korea should not simply continue to demand that Japan alone cede ground, and unless both sides make compromises, the comfort women issue will remain a thorn in the side of relations between the two countries.
 岸田外相の言うように、韓国が日本に一方的な譲歩を求めるのでなく、双方が歩み寄らなければ、慰安婦問題のトゲは抜けない。

Disconcertingly, there has been little change in Park’s obstinate stance. Even during her recent speech to the U.N. General Assembly, Park hinted at the comfort women issue, saying, “Sexual violence against women during armed conflicts is a clear violation of human rights and humanitarian norms, regardless of how far back or where it occurred.”
 懸念されるのは、朴大統領の頑かたくなな姿勢にあまり変化がないことだ。国連演説でも、慰安婦問題を念頭に「戦時の女性に対する性暴力は人権に反する」と語った。

Although Park’s comments were more restrained than Yun’s remarks at the United Nations last year, the fact that a bilateral issue is being raised at the U.N. General Assembly itself only complicates efforts to untangle it.
 昨年の尹外相の国連演説よりは抑制された表現だが、2国間の課題を国連総会で取り上げること自体、問題を複雑化する。

Making amends

During her talks with former Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori on Sept. 19, Park also insisted, “Sincere efforts have to first be made to heal the wounds of history.” Her position that “resolving” the comfort women issue was a precondition for a summit meeting with Abe remained firmly intact.
 朴大統領は19日の森元首相との会談でも、「過去の傷を治癒する誠意ある努力の先行」を求め、慰安婦問題の「解決」が首脳会談の前提との姿勢を変えなかった。

Park has not made any mention of precisely what she means by “sincere” and “efforts.” We wonder what point there is in Park upholding her anti-Japan stance.
 大統領は「誠意」や「努力」の具体的内容には言及しようとしない。反日姿勢を続けることに意味があるのだろうか。

As Park rigidly adheres to her position and steps up her castigation of Japan over the comfort women issue, she invites a backlash in Japanese public opinion, with many thinking, “We should just leave South Korea alone,” and chills Tokyo-Seoul ties. We urge the president to quickly recognize what is actually happening.
 自らがこの問題に固執し、日本批判を強めることが、「韓国は放置しておけば良い」という日本世論の反発を招き、日韓関係を冷え込ませている。この実態を大統領には早く理解してもらいたい。

In fields other than history issues, the South Korean side has recently been strengthening efforts to move relations with Japan forward.
 韓国側も最近、歴史問題以外の分野では、対日関係を前進させようとする動きを強めている。

In September alone, there have been unofficial talks between Japanese, Chinese and South Korean vice ministers; Yun and Japanese Ambassador to South Korea Koro Bessho met for talks; and a director general-level meeting on Japan-South Korea cultural exchange was held.
 今月だけでも、日中韓の次官級の非公式協議、尹外相と別所浩郎駐韓大使の会談、文化交流の局長級協議などが行われた。

Providing the backdrop to these encouraging developments have been external factors such as signs of improvement in Japan-China relations, the resumption of talks between Japan and North Korea and diplomatic pressure from the United States to mend ties, and growing calls from South Korean business circles and some media outlets to repair relations with Japan.
 この背景には、日中関係の改善の兆し、日朝協議の再開、米国からの外交圧力など対外要因に加えて、日韓関係の修復を求める韓国内の一部メディアや経済界の声の高まりがあるのだろう。

The stalemate in Japan-South Korea relations has affected efforts to work together on North Korean policies and defense cooperation. The repercussions also have been felt in sports and cultural exchanges, and in economic ties as seen in declines in Japanese corporate investment in South Korea and the number of Japanese tourists visiting there.
 日韓関係の停滞は、北朝鮮政策での連携、防衛協力のほか、日本企業の投資や日本人観光客の減少など経済関係、文化・スポーツ交流にも影響が及んでいる。

It is vital that both the Japanese and South Korean governments cherish the momentum generated by the recent series of dialogues, and make steady progress in efforts to build practical, cooperative relations.
 日韓両政府は、最近の対話の機運を大切にし、実務的な協力関係を着実に進めることが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 28, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月27日 (土)

社説:TPP日米協議 交渉全体の漂流を防げ

September 26, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Don't let latest breakdown in bilateral talks halt TPP negotiations
社説:TPP日米協議 交渉全体の漂流を防げ

Japan and the United States have ended ministerial talks over a Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade treaty without reaching a bilateral agreement. There's no denying that momentum for concluding the overall treaty negotiations has waned.
 環太平洋パートナーシップ協定(TPP)交渉を巡る日米間の閣僚協議は、合意への道筋を描けずに終わった。TPP交渉全体をまとめる機運が損なわれたことは否めない。
   
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, in which member states' leaders will come together, is set to take place in November. It will offer a critical and final opportunity to reach a broad agreement before the end of the year. Both countries must persist in their discussions to prevent the negotiations from drifting aimlessly.
 しかし、アジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)で各国首脳が集まる11月が迫っている。年内大筋合意への最後のヤマ場だ。両国は交渉全体を漂流させることのないよう、粘り強い協議を続ける必要がある。

Japan and the U.S. have reached an impasse over tariffs on Japanese agricultural products and Japan's non-tariff barrier for automobiles. In particular, safeguard measures that Japan wants to institute in return for reducing tariffs on beef and pork has been a point of contention. Working-level discussions have been held repeatedly, but there remains a chasm between the two countries.
 難航しているのは、日本の農産品の関税や自動車の非関税障壁の問題だ。日本が牛・豚肉の関税を引き下げる代わりに輸入が急増した場合に歯止めをかける緊急輸入制限(セーフガード)の扱いが最大の焦点になっている。これまで両国は実務者レベルの調整を重ねてきたが、溝は埋まらなかった。

Meanwhile, the deadline that U.S. President Barack Obama has set for all participating nations to reach an agreement -- before the end of the year -- is quickly approaching. Ministerial talks by the 12 negotiating members are set to take place in October. The way they proceed will have great bearing on whether a deal will be reached at the summit the following month.
 一方で、オバマ米大統領が設定した「年内」という交渉全体の合意期限が迫ってきた。10月にはTPP交渉に参加する全12カ国による閣僚会合が予定されている。APECに合わせて開催される見通しの首脳会談で大筋合意にこぎつけるため、大きな節目になる会合だ。

The goal of the latest meeting between Japanese minister in charge of TPP Akira Amari and U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman, was for the two countries, which have leading roles in the overall TPP initiative, to make a political breakthrough ahead of the ministerial and summit meetings.
 今回の甘利明TPP担当相と米通商代表部(USTR)のフロマン代表との協議は、TPP交渉全体を主導する役回りの両国が政治レベルで打開を図り、12カ国閣僚会合や首脳会談につなげるのが目的だった。

However, while Japan displayed a certain level of compromise, it was unable to prompt similar concessions from the U.S. With U.S. midterm elections coming up in early November, agricultural organizations and Congress have stepped up calls for Japan to open its markets. It's likely that under such pressure, the U.S. trade delegation was unable to make a proposal that could be interpreted as being yielding to Japan.
 しかし、協議で日本側は一定の妥協案を示したものの、米側の譲歩は引き出せなかったようだ。米国は11月初めに中間選挙を控え、農業団体や議会から日本に市場開放を迫る声が強まっている。日本に譲歩したと見られる提案をするのは難しかったのだろう。

Negotiations, however, by nature entail compromise. Following the talks, Amari criticized the U.S. delegation, saying the discussion could not be characterized as "mutually accommodating." It will be difficult to reach a deal if the U.S. refuses to make any concessions.
 しかし、互いに譲り合うのが交渉だ。甘利氏は協議後、米側の交渉姿勢について「互いに譲歩するとは受け取れない」と不満をもらした。米側が一歩も譲らない姿勢では、決着は困難だ。

The breakdown in talks between Japan and the U.S. -- which together account for 80 percent of the GDP among the TPP negotiating countries -- has made reaching a deal before the end of the year virtually impossible. The negotiations as whole, however, must not be permitted to fade as a result.
 日米は、TPP交渉参加国全体の国内総生産(GDP)の約8割を占める。その両国の協議が物別れになったことで、年内の実質的な合意は見通せなくなった。しかし、これで交渉全体を立ち消えにさせてはならない。

The TPP is a framework that aims to bring high-level liberalization to a wide range of areas in trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. It also has the purpose of sharing transparent and fair economic rules, and of keeping China in check. Economic cooperation is important in the context of security as well.
 TPPはアジア太平洋地域で、貿易・投資の幅広い分野を対象に高いレベルの自由化を目指す枠組みだ。透明で公平な経済のルールを共有し、中国をけん制する狙いもある。経済連携は安全保障面でも大きな意義を持つ。

Both Japan and the U.S. face harsh realities in their respective agricultural sectors. Politicians must exhibit extreme determination in order to work out an agreement. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and President Obama must reaffirm the meaning of the treaty, and exercise strong leadership.
 日米両国とも、とりわけ農業をめぐって厳しい国内事情を抱えている。折り合うには政治的決断が欠かせない。安倍晋三首相とオバマ大統領はTPPの意義を再認識し、指導力を発揮すべきだ。

毎日新聞 2014年09月26日 02時30分

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社説:テロとの戦い 明確な展望が必要だ

September 26, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Obama must state clear vision for expanded airstrikes against Islamic State
社説:テロとの戦い 明確な展望が必要だ

The United States and five Arab countries have begun airstrikes in Syria, expanding the battle against Sunni Islamic State radicals. In a rare move, U.S. President Barack Obama headed a United Nations Security Council summit, where he successfully pitched a resolution to prevent foreign nationals from joining terrorist groups. One could say that a full-fledged struggle against terror has been launched by the Obama administration.
 米国がアラブ5カ国と連携してシリア領内の空爆に踏み切った。イスラム教スンニ派の過激派組織「イスラム国」との戦場をイラクからシリアにも広げたのである。と同時にオバマ米大統領は国連安保理で異例の首脳級会合を主宰し、「イスラム国」などの武装組織に外国人が流入することを防ぐ決議採択にこぎ着けた。オバマ政権版の「テロとの戦い」が本格的に始まったといえよう。
   
Obama announced an expansion of the American military campaign in a speech he gave in mid-September, having determined that airstrikes in Iraq were insufficient. Over half of the more than 30,000 Islamic State militants are believed to be in Syria. The oil-rich countries of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain are all U.S. allies and have taken a collective security strategy. Meanwhile, Jordan, which borders Iraq and Syria and is the fifth Arab country to participate in the expanded airstrikes, has been targeted by the Islamic State group as its next prey.
 空爆拡大はオバマ大統領が今月中旬の演説で予告していた。3万人を超える「イスラム国」の戦闘員は半数以上がシリア領内にいるとされ、イラク空爆だけでは不十分と見たのだ。空爆に参加した湾岸産油国のサウジアラビア、アラブ首長国連邦、カタール、バーレーンはいずれも親米で、集団安保機構「湾岸の盾」を構成する。イラクとシリアに接しているヨルダンは「イスラム国」が虎視眈々(たんたん)と制圧を狙う国だ。

It was the complementary nature of U.S. and Arab interests that made this collaborative operation possible. Having come under intense fire from the Muslim world for its pre-emptive military strikes with the U.K. against Iraq in 2003, the Obama administration wanted to avoid such criticism, while the five Arab countries were desperate as they faced immediate threats from Islamic State militants. The structure of the campaign resembles the one taken when the air forces of the U.S. and Gulf countries waged war against Iraq in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
 2003年のイラク戦争は米英の先制攻撃がイスラム世界の猛反発を買っただけに、反発を避けたいオバマ政権と、脅威に直面する5カ国の利益が一致して共同作戦になったのだろう。米国と湾岸諸国の空軍が先陣を切った湾岸戦争(1991年)の開戦とよく似た構図だ。

We want to ask President Obama, however, what his strategy and prospects are for the future. In his aforementioned speech, Obama declared that he would seek the destruction of the Islamic State group, but insisted he would not send U.S. ground troops. How effectively, then, can the powerful terrorist group on the ground be fought? Can victory be secured through airstrikes alone? The answer remains unclear. And it will not be easy to organize ground troops centered on the militaries of the Arab countries taking part in the campaign.
 だが、オバマ大統領に重ねて問いたいのは、将来への戦略と展望だ。先の演説で大統領は「イスラム国」の壊滅をめざしつつ米地上軍の投入は否定した。ではどうやって強力な「イスラム国」と地上で渡り合うのか。空爆によって勝利への展望は開けるのか。その答えは相変わらず見えない。アラブ諸国を中心に地上軍を組織するのも簡単ではあるまい。

While it's possible to interpret the airstrikes in Iraq as exercising the right to collective self-defense, the legal basis for conducting airstrikes within Syrian borders while being at odds with the administration of President Bashar Assad is questionable. Both Russia and China, which have continued to veto Security Council resolutions relating to Syria, must also feel the threat of the Islamic State group. Would it not make sense for the Obama administration to hold renewed discussions with the two countries about a Security Council resolution that would justify the current military campaign and on how to bring the civil war in Syria to an end?
 また、イラク政府の要請による領内の空爆は集団的自衛権の行使と解釈できても、シリアのアサド政権と対立しながら同国領内を空爆する法的根拠への疑問もある。シリア関連の安保理決議案に拒否権を行使し続けたロシアや中国も「イスラム国」の脅威を感じていよう。オバマ政権は、軍事行動を正当化する安保理決議やシリア内戦の収束について露中と改めて話し合ってはどうか。

In the latest airstrikes, a largely unknown al-Qaida subgroup called the Khorasan group was one of the targets. Terrorist organizations are splintering off and proliferating. The administration of President George W. Bush began using the expression "war on terror" after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, but the series of military operations that followed fueled anti-U.S. sentiment -- to which the rise of unprecedented threats such as the Islamic State group could be attributed.
 今回の空爆では「ホラサン」という、一般には無名のアルカイダ系武装組織も攻撃対象となった。テロ組織は分化・増殖しながら拡散している。ブッシュ前政権は01年の同時多発テロ後、あえて戦争という言葉を使い「テロとの戦争(waronterror)」を始めたが、一連の軍事行動が反米感情をあおり、ひいては「イスラム国」のような未曽有の脅威を生んだと考えることもできよう。

The kind of militarism characterized by the Bush administration will only leave behind more trouble. The Obama administration is probably in for the long haul in its fight against terrorism. And it is precisely because the struggle will be a prolonged one that we must embrace foreign diplomacy and international cooperation.
 前政権のような武断路線では禍根を残す。オバマ政権のテロとの戦いは長期戦になろう。それだけに外交と国際協調を大事にしたい。

毎日新聞 2014年09月26日 02時31分

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国語世論調査 誤用に気づく契機にしたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Use results of government language survey to correct misuse of words
国語世論調査 誤用に気づく契機にしたい

Are there any words we use erroneously without knowing their actual meaning?
 本来の意味とは異なることを知らずに、誤った使い方をしている言葉はないだろうか。

Take “nitsumaru,” for example. This is an idiomatic expression describing a situation in which a conclusion is ready to be made after exhaustive discussions. However, 40 percent of the respondents in a government survey thought it meant being bogged down.
 例えば、「煮詰まる」だ。議論が尽くされ、結論が出せるようになった状態を示す慣用表現だが、4割の人は、議論が行き詰まった状態と思い込んで使用している。

The Cultural Affairs Agency’s survey of the national language was conducted among men and women aged 16 or older. There were more than 2,000 respondents.
 文化庁が16歳以上の男女を対象に実施した「国語に関する世論調査」の結果で明らかになった。

“Sekenzure” means someone has become cunning through dealing with the world, but no more than 30 percent of respondents used the term correctly. More than half of the respondents who used it incorrectly thought it meant one’s thinking deviates from that of society.
 「世間ずれ」は、世間を渡ってずる賢くなっていることを示す言葉だ。正しく使っている人は3割にとどまり、半数以上が誤って、世の中の考えから外れている意味で用いていた。

“Manjiri to mo sezu,” which means sleepless, was used by half of the respondents to mean staying still.
 眠らないでいる状態を表す「まんじりともせず」も、半数の人が、じっと動かないでいるという意味で使っている。

All these phrases were more often used incorrectly by younger generations. The survey results must be used as an opportunity to spread the correct meaning of words.
 いずれの表現も、若い年齢層ほど誤用が多い傾向がある。調査結果を言葉の正しい意味を知るきっかけとしたい。

The agency has put up videos on its website and elsewhere explaining the meanings and usages of idiomatic expressions. We want it to conduct more such educational activities regarding the Japanese language.
 文化庁は、慣用表現の意味や使い方を説明する動画を作り、ホームページなどで公開している。啓発に努めてほしい。

An encouraging sign

Regarding the use of honorifics, the survey found that an increasing number of people are aware of inappropriate and unfit expressions. This is an encouraging sign for eliminating incorrect usage.
 敬語の使い方では、不適切だったり、ふさわしくなかったりする表現に気づく人が増えている。誤用をなくす上で明るい材料だ。

In the sentence “Okyaku-sama, dozo itadaite kudasai,” for example, the humble “itadaku” is not the proper deferential term. More than 70 percent of the respondents said the sentence bothered them, an increase of eight percentage points from a decade ago.
 「お客様、どうぞいただいてください」という文は、謙譲語の「いただく」を尊敬語と間違えている。この例文について、7割以上が「気になる」と答えた。10年前よりも8ポイント増えた。

The survey found that young people tend to attach importance to honorifics so as to smooth human relations. This is partly because they have more chances to learn honorifics, beginning in their student days when they attend such events as seminars on how to interact with customers at the restaurants or shops where they work part-time.
 若年層では、人間関係を円滑に進めるために、敬語を重視する傾向がうかがえる。接客のアルバイトなどの研修で、学生時代から敬語を学ぶ機会が増えていることも影響しているのだろう。

The latest survey covered for the first time the use of nouns combined with the suffixes “ru” and “suru.” A typical usage is “chin-suru.” Ninety percent said they use this phrase about heating something in a microwave oven, indicating it has taken root among all age brackets.
 今回の調査では初めて、名詞などに「る」「する」をつけた言葉の使用状況も調べた。
 代表格が「チンする」だ。9割の人が、電子レンジで加熱する際に使っている。全ての年齢層ですっかり定着したと言える。

“Sabo-ru” (slack off), “ocha-suru” (have coffee or tea), and “jiko-ru” (cause or have an accident) were also frequently used.
 「サボる」「お茶する」「事故る」なども使用率が高い。

On the other hand, such phrases as “disu-ru,” which means to dis or speak badly of someone, and “kyodo-ru,” which means to assume a suspicious attitude, are used by some young people on the Internet. They are not yet in widespread use.
 一方で、否定する意味の「ディスる」や、挙動不審な態度を示す「きょどる」などは、一部の若者がネット上などで使っているだけで、一般化はしていない。

Languages change with the times. New words and phrases will emerge one after another.
 言葉は時代とともに変化する。新しい言葉も次々と生まれる。

Elderly people sometimes cannot understand expressions that are widely used among young people. To correctly convey their intentions, people must take care to select their words in accordance with the situation.
 若者の間では広く使われている表現でも、高齢者には通じないこともあるだろう。意図を正しく伝えるため、場面に応じて用いる心配りが必要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 26, 2014)Speech

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TPP協議 進展阻む米国の対日強硬姿勢

TPPの本質を知ればすぐに理解できること。
農業部門での折り合いがつけられないのは、最初から分かっていた。
政府主導でTPPを強引に進めればよい。
少なくともあのおろかな異次元金融緩和よりは、平均的日本人を幸せにしてくれる。
大企業の資金繰りをよくするだけの政策からは将来の展望がうかがえない。
主食の米の値段が大幅に下がれば、それだけで生活は多少楽になる。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
United States’ hard-line stance toward Japan blocking progress in TPP talks
TPP協議 進展阻む米国の対日強硬姿勢

The creation of a new free trade framework has shuddered to a standstill just as the finish line is coming into sight. Some bold, mutual concessions will be needed to get the negotiations moving forward again.
 新たな自由貿易の枠組み作りが大詰めで足踏みしている。交渉を前進させるには、大胆な歩み寄りが必要だ。

Japan-U.S. ministerial talks regarding the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations have been held in Washington. The meeting ended with both sides unable to come to an agreement.
 ワシントンで行われた環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉を巡る日米閣僚協議は、双方が折り合わないまま終了した。

This round of talks had aimed to settle several contentious issues whose resolution is proving elusive to the end, including the conditions that would trigger the implementation of Japanese safeguards that would return tariff rates on U.S. beef and pork to their original high levels if imports of these meats surged.
 今回の協議は、米国産の牛・豚肉の輸入が急増した場合に、関税率を元の高い水準に戻す緊急輸入制限措置(セーフガード)の発動要件など、最後まで難航している分野の決着を目指していた。

“Our side put forward some flexible proposals, but we were unable to achieve any progress,” Akira Amari, state minister in charge of TPP trade negotiations, said after the talks. Amari indicated that efforts by his counterpart, U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman, to make concessions had been insufficient.
 甘利TPP相は協議後、「当方は柔軟性のある提案をしたが、進展を得られなかった」と述べ、フロマン米通商代表の譲歩が不十分だったとの認識を示した。

“Looking ahead, we will speed up bilateral talks” with other nations, Amari added. However, Japan and the United States are spearheading the TPP negotiations. If they are unable to reach a formal bilateral agreement, overall talks involving the 12 nations at the TPP table will not move forward.
 甘利氏は「今後は(米国以外との)2国間協議を加速する」としたが、TPP交渉を主導する日米が正式合意しないと、12か国による交渉全体は前に進まない。

The TPP nations aim to reach a broad agreement in November. Failure by Tokyo and Washington to reach a compromise at these talks has muddied the waters over whether this goal will be achieved.
 11月中の大筋合意という目標の達成は、今回の日米物別れで一段と不透明になったと言えよう。

We think Japan and the United States should quickly resume negotiations and reach a final deal.
 日米両国は交渉を再開し、最終合意を急ぐべきだ。

Domestic pressure at play

Behind the obstinacy displayed by the U.S. side are midterm elections scheduled for Nov. 4, which have made it difficult to offer compromises to Japan.
 米側がかたくなな背景には、11月4日の中間選挙を控え、日本に譲歩しにくい事情がある。

The administration of U.S. President Barack Obama is facing growing calls from Congress and industry groups to maintain an unbending stance during negotiations.
 オバマ政権に対し、厳しい姿勢で交渉に臨むよう求める声が、議会や業界団体で高まっている。

Amid these demands, some politically powerful livestock industry groups and lawmakers with ties to them have even suggested Japan should be excluded from TPP negotiations if it does not agree to eliminate all tariffs on agricultural products.
 中でも、政治力の強い畜産団体と、その関係議員は、日本が農産物の関税撤廃に応じない場合、TPP交渉から日本を排除するよう迫っている。

How can these domestic, excessively anti-Japan hard-liners be quieted? Obama’s leadership qualities will be tested in the quest for compromise in the negotiations.
 国内の過激な対日強硬論をどう抑え込むか。交渉妥結へ、オバマ大統領の指導力が問われよう。

Also worrying is the fact that Congress has refused to grant Trade Promotion Authority to the president, due to opposition from the ruling Democratic Party and other reasons.
 大統領に通商一括交渉権(TPA)を与える法案が、与党・民主党の反対などで成立していないことも気がかりである。

Consequently, there are lingering concerns that even if Japan-U.S. TPP talks come to a positive conclusion, the agreement could be scrapped due to opposition in Congress. We hope Obama will take responsibility and persuade the Democratic Party to help grant him TPA at an early date.
 日米協議が決着しても、議会の反対で合意を反故ほごにされる懸念が残る。オバマ氏は責任を持って民主党を説得し、TPA法案の早期成立を図ってもらいたい。

If the TPP comes into being, it will create a massive economic bloc in the Asia-Pacific region that accounts for about 40 percent of global gross domestic product. The significance of this cannot be understated.
 TPPを実現し、アジア太平洋地域に世界の国内総生産(GDP)の約4割を占める巨大経済圏を誕生させる意義は大きい。

Lowering tariffs and establishing common rules for trade and investment are expected to invigorate the economies of the participating nations.
 関税の引き下げや貿易・投資のルール共通化によって経済活性化のメリットが期待できる。

The TPP member countries also have strategic objectives of contributing to regional stability and keeping a rein on China, whose economic might is growing.
 経済力を増す中国をけん制し、地域の安定に資するという戦略的な狙いもある。

Each country taking part in international negotiations will, of course, pursue their own national interests. However, now that the TPP talks are in the final stage, it is important that all sides make concessions from a broad perspective and reach an agreement.
 国際交渉で各国がそれぞれ国益を主張するのは当然だ。しかし、最終段階においては、大局的な見地から譲歩し合い、合意に達することが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 26, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月26日 (金)

社説:気象サミット 新枠組みの交渉加速を

September 25, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Speed up talks on new framework for carbon emissions
社説:気象サミット 新枠組みの交渉加速を

One could say that international negotiations on global warming countermeasures have gained momentum.
 地球温暖化対策を巡る国際交渉に弾みがついたと言えるだろう。
   
Leading figures from roughly 120 countries assembled in New York for the 2014 U.N. Climate Summit on Sept. 23 -- the largest such gathering of leaders at an event discussing global warming.
 ニューヨークで開かれた国連気候変動サミットには、世界約120カ国の首脳級が出席し、温暖化対策に関する過去最大の首脳級会合となった。

Many countries declared that they would release targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from 2020 onwards by March next year. U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said that the summit "has shown that we can rise to the climate challenge."
多くの国が来年3月までに2020年以降の温室効果ガス排出削減目標を提出することを表明し、潘基文(バン・キムン)事務総長は「サミットは私たちが気候変動に対処できることを示した」と総括した。

Ahead of the gathering, an estimated 300,000 people participated in a demonstration in New York, calling for global warming countermeasures. This is surely a sign that people across the world who have faced abnormal weather and a spate of natural disasters deeply feel there is no time to lose in adopting global warming countermeasures.
 温暖化対策を求め、サミット直前にニューヨークで開かれたデモには約30万人が参加したという。異常気象や自然災害が相次ぐ中、世界の人々が温暖化対策は待ったなしとの思いを深めている表れに違いない。

However, the summit mostly served as a forum for each country to state its position on measures against global warming, maintaining a distance from the negotiation table. We hope that world leaders will speed up discussions while working toward a new framework for reductions in emissions, without forgetting pledges made at the summit.
 だが、サミットは温暖化対策に関する各国の意思表示の場で、交渉からは距離を置いていた。各国首脳はサミットでの誓いを忘れずに、排出削減の新枠組み合意に向け、協議を加速してもらいたい。

Following on from the Kyoto Protocol, international society plans to adopt a new framework for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from 2020 onwards at the Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21), to be held in Paris at the end of next year. In November last year, an agreement was reached to aim to have all countries, including developing countries, participate, with as many as possible presenting their own reduction targets by March 2015.
 国際社会は、京都議定書に続く20年以降の温室効果ガス排出削減の新枠組みについて、15年末にパリで開かれる気候変動枠組み条約第21回締約国会議(COP21)で採択する計画だ。途上国を含めたすべての国が参加することを目指し、可能な国は15年3月までに自主的削減目標を提出することで昨年11月に合意した。

At the summit, U.S. President Barack Obama stated that the United States would meet its goal of cutting carbon emissions by roughly 17 percent from 2005 levels by 2020. He stressed that the United States and China have a special responsibility in formulating global warming countermeasures, as they together account for some 40 percent of the world's carbon dioxide emissions.
 サミットでオバマ米大統領は、20年までの排出量を05年比で約17%削減する自主目標の達成を明言。世界の二酸化炭素排出量の約4割を占める米中2カ国は温暖化対策で「特別な責任」を負うと主張した。

China also declared that it would level off its emissions as soon as possible. Like the U.S. and the European Union, China indicated that it would present its own reduction target for 2020 onwards by March next year.
 中国もできるだけ早い時期に排出量を頭打ちさせることを表明した。中国は米国や欧州連合(EU)同様、来年3月までに20年以降の削減目標を提示する意向も示した。

Clearly the U.S. and China are trying to seize the initiative in negotiations. However, they haven't exactly been proactive in their global warming countermeasures to date. We cannot allow a situation in which the two countries lead negotiations and water down the effectiveness of a new framework.
 米中が交渉の主導権を握ろうとしていることは明らかだが、両国のこれまでの温暖化対策は、決して積極的と言えるものではなかった。両国が新たな枠組みの実効性を骨抜きにするような形で、議論を主導するようなことがあってはならない。

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe outlined a plan to assist developing countries in training weather and disaster-prevention experts, but did not set a time for presenting a reduction target for carbon emissions. This is because Japan has yet to determine future ratios of electricity sources, such as nuclear power and renewable energy. But Japan is the world's fifth-largest emitter of carbon dioxide and if it does not present a reduction target by March next year, it will not be able to escape criticism. The nation needs to quickly advance domestic discussion on the issue.
 安倍晋三首相は、途上国に向け、気象や防災の専門家らの育成を支援する方針を表明したが、削減目標の提出時期は示さなかった。原発や再生可能エネルギーなど将来の電源比率を定めていないためだ。だが、来年3月に削減目標が打ち出せないようでは、世界第5位の二酸化炭素排出国として、批判は免れない。国内の議論を急ぐ必要がある。

Considering Japan's experience with the Fukushima nuclear disaster, it is unrealistic for the country to rely on nuclear power to counter global warming. What it needs to do is to step up energy conservation and the introduction of renewable energy. It also needs an approach that will lead to innovation and the development of regional economies.
 福島第1原発事故の経験を踏まえれば、原発頼みの温暖化対策は現実的でない。省エネや再生可能エネルギーの導入を一層拡大し、イノベーションや地域経済の発展に結びつけていく取り組みこそが求められる。

毎日新聞 2014年09月25日 02時35分

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気候サミット 日本の知見を途上国の対策に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Passing on Japan’s knowledge can help developing nations fight climate change
気候サミット 日本の知見を途上国の対策に

Extreme weather, rising sea levels, food supply crises, water shortages — global warming is having a serious impact on the entire world. Each and every country must cooperate and move ahead with countermeasures to combat global warming.
 異常気象や海面上昇、食糧危機、水不足――。地球温暖化は世界全体に深刻な影響をもたらす。各国が協力して対策を進めなければならない。

The U.N. Climate Summit has been held at U.N. Headquarters in New York. The leaders of more than 120 nations and territories presented and explained the various efforts their nations were making to deal with global warming.
 国連気候サミットが国連本部で開かれ、120を超える国・地域の首脳らが自国の温暖化対策をアピールした。

The biggest focus of the climate summit was whether participants will be able to settle on a new international framework due to come into effect in 2020 to replace the Kyoto Protocol. The framework will oversee reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon dioxide.
 二酸化炭素(CO2)など温室効果ガスの排出削減を巡る最大の焦点は、京都議定書に代わり、2020年に発効する予定の新たな国際的枠組みの策定だ。

The new emissions agreement is scheduled to be reached at COP21, the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, which will be held in Paris late next year. This week’s summit in New York was significant, to a degree, in building momentum for creating a framework that has teeth.
 来年末のパリでの国連気候変動枠組み条約第21回締約国会議(COP21)で合意を目指している。実効性のある枠組み作りの機運を高める上で、気候サミットの開催は一定の意義があったろう。

In his speech in New York, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced a plan to help train 14,000 experts and other personnel to help with antidisaster measures and weather forecasting in developing nations. The program will focus on island nations, where the effects of rising sea levels are enormous.
 安倍首相は演説で、発展途上国に対し、気象予報や防災に携わる専門家など1万4000人の人材育成を支援する方針を表明した。海面上昇の影響が甚大な島嶼とうしょ国が主な対象となる。

Japan has repeatedly suffered damage from storm surges and flooding. The nation has poured resources into strengthening seawalls and other coastal defenses, and has improved the accuracy of its forecasts for typhoon routes. We think passing on Japan’s knowledge to developing nations, whose disaster-prevention measures are lagging, and thereby helping to minimize damage would certainly be an effective international contribution.
 日本は高潮や洪水の被害を何度も経験し、台風の進路予測の精度向上や護岸の強化などに努めてきた。災害対策が遅れている途上国に日本の知見を伝え、被害抑止につなげることは、有効な国際貢献と言えよう。

U.S., China hold key

Japan is home to some superb energy-efficient technologies. During future COP negotiations, it is essential that Japan plays a prominent role through the expansion of technological support that taps such strengths.
 優れた省エネ技術など、日本の強みを生かした技術支援の拡充も、COPの交渉で存在感を示すためには欠かせない。

Abe said Japan’s new greenhouse gas emissions reduction target “will be presented as soon as possible.” However, he did not mention a specific date for this announcement.
 日本の温室効果ガスの新たな削減目標について、安倍首相は「早期に提出する」と述べたが、時期は明言しなかった。

Nuclear power generation does not emit carbon dioxide, which makes it an important energy source from the perspective of the fight against global warming. But due to the March 2011 accident at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, it is still unclear at what pace Japan’s reactors can be restarted — or even if they will be used in the future.
 温暖化対策上、CO2を排出しない原子力発電は、重要なエネルギーである。だが、東京電力福島第一原発事故のため、原発をどのようなペースで再稼働し、将来的に活用していくか、メドが立たない状況が続く。

It is unavoidable that more time will be needed before Japan can establish its emissions reduction target. It is important that this goal be an achievable figure, unlike the unrealistic cut of 25 percent pledged by the administration of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama in 2009.
 削減目標の設定に時間を要するのはやむを得まい。鳩山政権が掲げた「25%削減」のような非現実的な目標は避け、実現可能な数値にすることが大切だ。

Japan produces less than 4 percent of the world’s CO2 emissions. By contrast, China and the United States — the world’s two biggest emitters — together generate more than 40 percent. Above all else, the new framework must ensure that Beijing and Washington fulfill their appropriate responsibilities regarding their emission cuts.
 世界全体のCO2排出量のうち、日本の占める割合は4%に満たない。これに対し、2大排出国の中国、米国を合わせると、40%を超える。新たな枠組みで最も重要なのは、米中が排出削減に応分の責任を果たすことである。

At the summit, U.S. President Barack Obama said, “As the two largest economies and emitters in the world, we have a special responsibility to lead.” The international community will need to closely watch the efforts of China and the United States as they grapple with reducing their emissions.
 オバマ米大統領も、今回のサミットで、「世界1、2位の排出国である私たちは、率先して行動しなければならない特別な責任がある」と述べた。国際社会は、排出削減に向けた米中の取り組み状況を注視していく必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 25, 2014)Speech

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米シリア領空爆 「テロとの戦い」に結集しよう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
International community must unite in global battle against terrorism
米シリア領空爆 「テロとの戦い」に結集しよう

The long and difficult “war on terrorism” has entered a new phase.
 長期に及ぶ困難な「テロとの戦い」が、新たな段階に入った。

The United States has extended its air strikes against the Islamic State, an Islamist extremist organization, from Iraq into Syria. The air strikes — involving cruise missiles fired by U.S. warships, stealth strike aircraft and drones — hit and destroyed Islamic State command-and-control sites and other military facilities in the country.
 米国が、イスラム過激派組織「イスラム国」に対する空爆をシリア領へ拡大した。艦船搭載の巡航ミサイルやステルス戦闘機、無人機などが、イスラム国の司令部や軍事施設を破壊した。

The air strikes also targeted an Al-Qaida affiliate that Washington said was poised to attack the United States or Europe.
 欧米へのテロ攻撃を計画していたとされるアル・カーイダ系組織も攻撃目標となった。

U.S. President Barack Obama emphasized that the U.S.-led campaign would degrade the extremist ideologies that fuel bloodshed and ultimately destroy them.
 オバマ米大統領は、「流血をもたらす過激思想を弱体化させ、壊滅する」と強調した。

Previously, the Obama administration had pulled out U.S. forces that were stationed in Iraq, and it did not conduct air strikes on Syria while the administration of President Bashar Assad was oppressing that nation’s people.
 オバマ政権は、イラク駐留米軍を撤収させ、国民を弾圧したシリアのアサド政権への空爆も見送った。

As the threat of the Islamic State spread across the world, however, the Obama administration was forced to change its policy into one of reinforcing its military involvement in the Middle East.
だが、イスラム国の脅威が世界に広がる中、中東への軍事関与を強める路線転換を迫られた。

Five Arab nations, including Saudi Arabia and Jordan, joined the U.S.-led operations. The United States wants to avoid unilateral action that would escalate anti-U.S. sentiment in the region and elsewhere, while the five Arab nations are threatened by the Islamic State’s efforts to alter national borders and change established systems. The nations’ interests thus align.
 作戦には、サウジアラビア、ヨルダンなどアラブ5か国が加わった。反米感情を高める単独行動を避けたい米国と、国境や体制の変更を図るイスラム国の脅威に直面する5か国の利益が合致した。

The United States will be required to strengthen the solidarity of the coalition, while maintaining its cooperative ties with the Arab world.
 米国は、アラブ世界との連携を保ちながら、「有志連合」の結束を強めることが求められよう。

Washington has described its air strikes as an exercise of the right of self-defense. Meanwhile, Assad also approved the U.S.-led air strikes in his country by saying that he would support any international effort against terrorism. He apparently hopes to see the hostile forces against his administration weakened in his country.
 米国は、空爆について「自衛権の行使」と説明する。シリアのアサド大統領も「反テロの努力を支持する」として自国領内への攻撃を容認した。敵対勢力の弱体化を期待しているのだろう。

Ground warfare next

However, the likelihood that the air strikes would have only a limited effect is worrisome. To eliminate the Islamic State militant group, ground warfare is inevitable.
 懸念されるのは、空爆の効果が限定的なことだ。イスラム国の壊滅には地上戦が避けられない。

The United States wants to see moderate dissident groups in Syria become a core force in the ground war against Islamic State militants by organizing them and giving them military training, and to see them become a force that would eventually replace the Assad regime.
 米国は、シリアの穏健な反体制派を組織化し、軍事訓練を行って、イスラム国との地上戦の主体とするとともに、いずれアサド政権に代わる勢力に育てたい考えだ。

To realize these goals, however, it will take quite a lot of time and energy. On this score, it is important for international society, in close cooperation with the United States, to support such efforts.
 ただ、それには相当な時間と労力を要するだろう。国際社会が、米国と緊密に連携し、後押しすることが重要である。

In the war on terrorism, diplomatic reinforcement is vital, in addition to military power.
 テロとの戦いには、軍事面に加え、外交の強化が欠かせない。

The United States has been calling on the international community to reinforce border controls and freeze the assets of terrorists to prevent foreign militants and funds from flowing into the Islamic State group.
 米国は、外国の戦闘員や資金がイスラム国に流入することを防ぐため、国境管理の強化やテロリストの資産凍結を訴えてきた。

Members of the U.N. Security Council, in summit-level talks on Wednesday, aim to adopt a resolution on border controls. European countries and Middle Eastern nations not taking part in the military operations against the Islamic State should cooperate with such efforts of the council.
 国連安全保障理事会は24日の首脳級会合で、国境管理に関する決議の採択を目指している。軍事作戦に参加していない他の中東や欧州の国々も協力すべきだ。

It is reasonable that Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has denounced the brutal acts of the Islamic State militants and showed his understanding of the latest air strikes.
 安倍首相がイスラム国の蛮行を非難し、今回の空爆に「理解」を示したのは妥当である。

The Islamic State has brought about a serious crisis in the Middle East, creating vast numbers of refugees and other victims. Japan should contribute more proactively than before to countries in the region by extending humanitarian aid to refugees.
 イスラム国は、大量の犠牲者と難民を生むなど、中東に重大な危機をもたらしている。日本も、難民への人道支援などで、従来以上に積極的に貢献したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 25, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月25日 (木)

社説:ソニー巨額赤字 復活の戦略作りに期待

September 24, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Beleaguered Sony needs bold revival strategy
社説:ソニー巨額赤字 復活の戦略作りに期待

There's no end to Sony Corp.'s slump. Weak sales in its mobile phone business have forced the company to project a loss of 230 billion yen for the current fiscal year ending in March 2015.
 ソニーの業績悪化が止まらない。スマートフォン事業の不振から、2015年3月期に2300億円もの連結最終(当期)赤字を予想し、株主への配当を初めて見送るという。

Pitted against Chinese and other Asian mobile phone manufacturers with more competitively priced products, Sony has been unable to offer goods attractive enough to overcome such price discrepancies. Sony's predicament is symbolic of the one that Japan's entire manufacturing industry faces. We urge Sony to rebuild its management strategy to reclaim its past glory.
 中国などアジアのメーカーに価格競争力で劣り、それを乗り越える魅力的な商品を開発できない。ソニーの苦境は、日本のものづくり産業の象徴ともいえる。かつての輝きを取り戻すため、経営戦略の立て直しを急いでほしい。

Sony's net loss forecast ballooned from its previous prediction of 50 billion yen because of a lower valuation of its mobile business and an approximately 180-billion-yen impairment charge. As a result, the company has been forced to suspend its shareholder dividend for the first time since it went public in 1958.
 ソニーの当期予想の赤字は、従来の500億円から大幅に拡大した。スマホなどモバイル事業の収益性を再評価し、事業の資産価値の減少分の約1800億円を損失として計上したためだ。その結果、1958年の株式上場以来初の無配を余儀なくされることになった。

In July, Sony revised its smartphone sales targets for the current term from 50 million units to 43 million units. It had hoped to expand sales in emerging economies, but sales have fallen short of initial predictions with Chinese manufacturers dominating the market with competitive prices. Sony says sales in Chinese and South American markets have been especially weak.
 ソニーは今年7月に、今期のスマホ販売見通しを従来の5000万台から4300万台に下方修正していた。元々は新興国を中心に販売を伸ばす計画だったが、低価格を売りにする中国メーカーの台頭で、その思惑が大きく外れた。とりわけ、中国と南米市場での落ち込みが目立つという。

This marks the sixth downward revision in the two years since Kazuo Hirai became president of Sony pledging to rebuild the firm's electronics division.
 エレクトロニクス(電機)事業の立て直しを請け負って、2年前に平井一夫社長が就任して以降、当期予想の下方修正は今回で6回目だ。

The downward adjustments thus far were considered a part of structural reform to dispose of its underperforming businesses, including spinning off its television division and selling its computer division.
 これまではテレビ事業の分社化やパソコン事業からの撤退など不採算事業を整理する構造改革の一環だった。

This time, however, the cause for the downgrade is poor performance of the company's smartphone division, which Sony had expected would be a main pillar in its turnaround. As such, there are bound to be more serious repercussions for Sony's management.
今回は、経営再建の柱に位置づけていたスマホ事業の不振が原因だけに経営への打撃は深刻と言える。

Sony announced that it will narrow down its target markets only to those where the company can expect good earnings, cut back on low-priced models, and focus on high-value-added products.
 ソニーは収益が見込める市場だけに展開地域を絞り込み、低価格帯モデルを削減して高付加価値商品に集中するという。

It also said that in scaling down its smartphone division, it will cut some 1,000 -- or 15 percent -- of its staff both in Japan and abroad by next March.
事業縮小に伴い国内外でスマホ事業に携わる従業員の15%に当たる約1000人を来年3月までに削減する方針も示した。

Even Samsung Electronics Co., which tops the world's smartphone share, and Apple Inc., which comes in second, are feeling the heat of their Chinese rivals and are concentrating on high-end models. Under such circumstances, it's unclear whether Sony can secure the earning power it needs.
 しかし、スマホ事業は世界シェア首位の韓国サムスン電子や2位の米アップルでさえ中国勢に追い上げられ、高級機種重視の姿勢を打ち出している。ソニーが思惑通りに収益力を確保できるかは不透明だ。

Narrowing down target markets and focusing on value-added products is the same tack that Sony took when Chinese and South Korean manufacturers threatened the survival of its television business.
 販売地域の絞り込みや高付加価値商品への集中は、同社のテレビ事業が中国や韓国のメーカーに追い上げられた際の手法と同じだ。

It's the copycat strategy that the Japanese manufacturing industry at one time took in its battle for survival.
日本のものづくり産業がかつて、生き残りをかけて右へ倣えした戦略とも言える。

It will not be easy to pull the company out of this quagmire.
起死回生は容易ではない。

Other electronics giants are improving their earning capacity by cutting back on digital consumer electronics, which are prone to intense price-slashing competition, and beefing up residential- and automobile-related products for corporate clients.
 ソニー以外の電機大手は、価格競争が激しい消費者向けのデジタル家電を縮小し、住宅や自動車関連など法人向けを強化するなどして収益力を上げている。

A bold re-examination of its management strategy is imperative if Sony -- which at one time took the world by storm with the Walkman -- is to be revived.
 ウォークマンで世界を席巻したソニーが復活するには、経営戦略の大胆な見直しが欠かせない。

毎日新聞 2014年09月24日 02時30分

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社説:認定こども園 安心できる制度設計を

貧すれば鈍す。
このような発想にうんざりした。
(スラチャイ)

September 24, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: More funds needed to support new child-rearing system
社説:認定こども園 安心できる制度設計を

Government-certified preschools called "kodomoen," which integrate the functions of daycare centers and kindergartens, are among the social welfare services that will be expanded by raising the consumption tax, as well as a symbolic feature of the new child-rearing system that will be instituted in fiscal 2015.
 消費増税で拡充する社会保障の数少ない目玉であり、来年度から始まる子育て新制度の象徴的な存在が幼稚園と保育所を一体化した「認定こども園」だ。

There has been a move, however, by such facilities to give up their government certification out of fears that subsidies will be slashed once the new system goes into effect. To make a society in which no children are placed on waiting lists for nursery schools a reality, the government must dedicate itself to securing a budget and improving the system.
ところが、新制度になると補助金が減るとの理由で認定を返上しようという動きが起きている。これでは「目玉」が泣く。待機児童の解消のためにも予算の確保と制度の改善に全力を尽くすべきだ。
   
Kodomoen, of which about 1,360 currently exist, were launched in 2006 as preschool facilities for children through the age of five.
 認定こども園は0〜5歳児が利用できる施設として2006年に導入され、現在は約1360カ所ある。

Among them are facilities that are collaboratively run by certified daycare centers and certified kindergartens, those that are run by certified kindergartens that also take on the function of childcare centers, and those that are based in childcare centers.
認可保育所と認可幼稚園が連携する「幼保連携型」、認可幼稚園が保育機能を持つ「幼稚園型」、認可保育所が母体となる「保育所型」などがある。

Their services are available to families in which parents do not work, which is not true of traditional daycare centers. In addition, hopes have been pinned on the facilities to help reduce the number of children waitlisted for daycare facilities by allowing kindergartens where enrollment has been on the decline to take in younger children who would traditionally not be eligible to enroll.
親が就労していなくても利用できるほか、定員割れが増えている幼稚園が低年齢児の保育を担うことで待機児童解消にも一役買うことが期待されている。

However, according to a government survey carried out in July, 11 percent of the 535 kodomoen that are collaboratively run by certified daycare centers and certified kindergartens intend to give up their certification.
ところが、政府が7月に実施した調査では「幼保連携型」の535園のうち11%が認定を返上する意向を示した。

Currently, the daycare divisions of certified kodomoen operate on "daycare operation funds" provided by the central and municipal governments, while the kindergarten divisions operate on "private school subsidies" from the central and prefectural governments.
 現在、認定こども園の保育所部分は国と自治体による「保育所運営費」、幼稚園部分は国と都道府県の「私学助成金」で運営されている。

Kindergartens are given the freedom to set how much to charge families for attending, and private school subsidy amounts vary by region.
幼稚園は利用者の自己負担を自由に設定できるほか、私学助成金も地域によって水準が異なる。

However, because such subsidies will be made uniform nationwide starting next April, kindergartens that have until now received high levels of private school subsidies and attendance fees will see a significant drop in revenue.
ところが、来年4月からは全国一律の補助金制度に一本化されるため、これまで高水準の私学助成金や利用料を得ていた幼稚園の中には大幅な減収となるところが出てくるというのだ。

According to the Cabinet Office, preschool facilities will be able to continue receiving a portion of their private school subsidies under the category of "special subsidies" even after next April, but because many of the facilities calculated their projected revenue based on the misunderstanding that all such subsidies will be eliminated, they have come under the false impression that they will experience a major drop in revenue.
 内閣府によると、実際には私学助成金の一部は「特別補助」として来春以降も得られるが、すべてなくなるとの設定で計算したため大幅減収になると勘違いしている施設も多いという。

However, as the new system now holds, the greater the enrollment of a facility, the smaller the subsidy per child will be. Moreover, subsidies that now pay for the salaries of two kodomoen directors -- one for the kindergarten division, the other for the daycare division -- will be reduced to enough for just one. In other words, predictions of reduced revenue are not just a result of misunderstandings.
ただ、定員が多い施設ほど園児1人あたりの単価を低く設定し、現在は幼稚園部分と保育所部分の計2人の園長の給与として出されている補助金を1人分しか出さなくなることも事実で、これが減収を招いているのは間違いない。

The backdrop to this problem has been a difficulty in securing funds.
 背景には財源をめぐる問題もある。

Initially, 700 billion yen was to be allotted to child-rearing support once the consumption rate was raised to 10 percent, but during Diet deliberations, it was decided that the goal would be to secure over 1 trillion yen in funds. 当初は10%への消費増税時に子育て支援は7000億円を充てるとされていたが、国会審議の中で「1兆円を超える財源確保を目指す」ことが確認された。

However, the possible procurement of only 700 billion yen has been confirmed thus far.
しかし、確実に確保できるのは当初の7000億円にとどまっている。

Furthermore, because the current administration has not officially decided that a consumption tax hike from 8 percent to 10 percent will take place in October 2015, the amount of subsidies in current estimates are lower than they would be if there were certain plans for a tax hike.
しかも、現政権は来春の10%への引き上げをまだ正式決定していないこともあり、現時点では抑えめの補助金設定を余儀なくされているというのである。

The active participation of women and remedying the declining birthrate are two of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's pet policies.
 女性の活用や少子化の改善は安倍晋三首相が看板に掲げる政策である。

The government must recognize that dramatic leaps must be made in child-rearing support if women are to work and bear children with peace of mind.
女性が安心して働き、子どもを産むには、子育て支援を飛躍的に拡充する必要があることを政府はもっと自覚すべきだ。

毎日新聞 2014年09月24日 02時32分

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アフガン新政権 挙国一致で治安を確保せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Ghani will be tested on multiple fronts in newly unified Afghanistan
アフガン新政権 挙国一致で治安を確保せよ

The international community must be persistent in providing aid to Afghanistan if it wants to prevent the nation from reverting to its former status as a hotbed of terrorism.
 この国がテロの温床に逆戻りしないよう、国際社会が粘り強く支援を続けることが重要だ。

Former Finance Minister Ashraf Ghani has been declared the winner of the nation’s presidential election and is expected to take the helm of the government as early as next week.
 アフガニスタン大統領選で、アシュラフ・ガニ元財務相の当選が決まった。来週にも就任する。

In the June run-off vote, Ghani clinched a landslide victory over his rival, former Foreign Minister Abdullah Abdullah. The result was disputed by Abdullah as being rigged against him, delaying the announcement of the final vote counts.
 6月の決選投票では、ガニ氏がアブドラ・アブドラ元外相に大差をつけた。しかし、アブドラ氏が「不正投票」を主張し、選挙結果の確定がずれ込んでいた。

Bowing to diplomatic pressure from the United States, the Abdullah camp, drawing its support from Tajiks, accepted the victory of Ghani, a Pashtun, in return for gaining the post of “chief executive officer,” which will be upgraded to that of prime minister within two years.
 米国の外交圧力により、タジク系のアブドラ氏陣営が、2年以内に首相に格上げされる行政長官ポストを得る代わりに、パシュトゥン人のガニ氏の当選を認めた。

We welcome the birth of a unified government, aimed at defusing ethnic confrontation. It is significant for Afghanistan to achieve the transfer of power through a democratic vote, albeit after a myriad of problems in the process of voting and vote-counting.
 民族対立を避ける「挙国一致政権」の誕生を歓迎したい。投開票手続きに多くの問題があったにせよ、民主的な選挙で権力の移譲が達成されたことは意義深い。

Securing public safety in that nation is the most pressing issue for Ghani. Militants from the former Taliban regime wield clout over the country’s south and other regions. There have been a succession of terrorist attacks in the capital, Kabul.
 ガニ氏の喫緊の課題は治安維持だ。旧支配勢力タリバンが南部などで勢力を維持し、首都カブールでもテロが後を絶たない。

The Islamic State, which is drastically expanding its sphere of influence in Iraq and Syria, has been calling on Taliban fighters to join forces with it. Some of the militants have joined the Islamic State’s cause.
 イラクとシリアで伸長する過激派組織「イスラム国」がタリバンなどに共闘を呼びかけ、一部の武装勢力は呼応している。

Security forces led by the U.S. military and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, with a total of 40,000 members, will withdraw from Afghanistan within this year. From next year and beyond, about 10,000 U.S. troops assisting the Afghan military are scheduled to provide training for about 350,000 members of the Afghan security forces.
 米軍や北大西洋条約機構(NATO)主体の治安維持部隊計約4万人は、年内で撤収する。その後は、米軍の軍事支援要員約1万人が、約35万人のアフガン治安部隊の訓練に従事する見通しだ。

Economic woes

Ghani should work to promptly seal an accord necessary for the U.S. military to remain in the nation and expedite efforts to enhance the capability of the Afghan security forces. To ensure long-term stability, he needs to find a way to coexist with the Taliban.
 ガニ氏は、米軍の駐留継続に必要な協定を早急に締結し、治安部隊の能力向上を急ぐ必要がある。長期的な安定には、タリバンとの共存の道も探らねばなるまい。

Furthermore, Afghanistan must urgently build economic and social foundations. The ability of Ghani, an international economist who has worked for the World Bank, will be tested in these areas.
 経済と社会の基盤作りも急務である。世界銀行で勤務した経験もある国際派エコノミストのガニ氏の手腕が試されよう。

Afghanistan has been plagued by persistent financial crises, with about 60 percent of the state budget covered by monetary aid from foreign countries, a situation sowing corruption among government employees and lowering the morale of soldiers and policemen, many of whom have called it quits.
 国家予算の約6割を外国の援助に依存する恒常的な財政難が、政府職員の汚職や、兵士や警官の離職・士気低下を生んでいる。

Farmers deprived of means to earn a legitimate living have turned to growing poppies and producing opium for sale, an industry that has generated funds for the Taliban. It is a serious problem.
 生計手段を欠く農民が、ケシを栽培し、麻薬を製造、販売する。これがタリバンの資金源となっている問題も深刻である。

The international community, for its part, should concentrate on providing support to develop human resources such as policemen, promote agriculture and improve education and medical care in Afghanistan, in addition to the provision of financial aid.
 国際社会は、財政支援に加え、警官などの人材育成、農業振興、教育・医療の充実などに重点的に取り組むことが大切である。

Japan, the second-largest donor to the nation after the United States, has a major role to play.
 米国に次ぐ世界2位の支援国である日本の役割は大きい。

The government is providing up to $3 billion (about ¥330 billion) in aid over five years from 2012.
 政府は2012年から、約5年で最大約30億ドル(約3300億円)の支援を実施している。

Japan’s program of providing vocational training to former Taliban soldiers to encourage them to reintegrate into society has been applauded. In cooperation with the United States and European nations, Japan should support Afghanistan’s nation-building efforts. The nation can also provide its own know-how for the endeavor.
 元タリバン兵に職業訓練を行い、社会復帰を促す事業は、高い評価を受けてきた。今後も欧米諸国と連携し、日本独自のノウハウを生かして国造りを支えたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 24, 2014)Speech

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維新の党結党 安倍政権との距離感が曖昧だ

新聞社が自民党を応援するのは勝手ですが。
日本の回復が、この道しかないというのは阿部さんの思い込みではないでしょうか。
異次元の金融緩和をしたら異次元の出口を模索するというつらい作業が待っています。
きちんと責任を取ってもらいましょう。
米国と明暗を分けるような気がしています。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Ishin no To should clarify its stance in confronting Abe administration
維新の党結党 安倍政権との距離感が曖昧だ

Opposition parties should understand that realignments are not enough to win the hearts of the public. What they need to do is reinforce their foundation and make steady efforts in burnishing their policies.
 政党の離合集散を繰り返すだけでは、国民の理解は得られない。地道に政策を磨き、党の足腰を鍛えるべきだ。

On Sunday, Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) and Yui no To (Unity Party) merged to create Ishin no To (Restoration Party). The new party comprises 42 members of the House of Representatives and 11 members of the House of Councillors, making it the second largest opposition party behind the Democratic Party of Japan. Ishin no Kai head Toru Hashimoto and Yui no To leader Kenji Eda were named coleaders of the new party.
 日本維新の会と結いの党が合流し、新党「維新の党」を結党した。衆院42人、参院11人が参加し、民主党に次ぐ野党第2党である。共同代表には、日本維新の会の橋下徹代表と、結いの党の江田憲司代表が就任した。

Ishin no To’s platform stipulated that the party’s goal is to “form a major political party capable of assuming the helm of the government.” The party plans to ask the DPJ and Your Party to join in this endeavor.
 党綱領は「政権担当可能な一大勢力の形成を目指す」と明記した。民主党やみんなの党などに合流を働きかける方針だ。

“It is essential to create a well-organized opposition party to put pressure on the [Prime Minister Shinzo] Abe administration,” Hashimoto said.
橋下氏は「安倍政権に緊張感を持ってもらうためには、きちんとした野党を作る必要がある」と強調した。

We understand the aim of Hashimoto and Eda to create a large opposition party to challenge the ruling Liberal Democratic Party’s dominance in the Diet.
 自民党の「1強」体制に対抗するため、政党の規模を拡大しようとする狙いは理解できる。

However, the realignment of opposition parties should be based on the consistency of their doctrines, policies and course of action — not on how many members they have.
 だが、野党再編は、数合わせではなく、理念・政策や政治路線の一致を前提とすべきである。

Ishin no Kai and Your Party both saw a dramatic rise in their numbers in the 2012 lower house election, but they later split after undergoing intraparty conflicts. This time, those who remained in the Ishin no Kai and lawmakers who seceded from Your Party to form Yui no To joined hands to create Ishin no To. However, the two groups exhibit a considerable number of inconsistencies in their policies and ideals.
 維新の会、みんなの両党は、2012年衆院選で躍進したが、いずれも内紛から分裂した。維新の会の一部と、みんなの党を離れた結いの党が今回、維新の党を結成したが、政策などで足並みがそろわない部分が少なくない。

Detailed explanations needed

Regarding the issue on whether to allow Japan to exercise the right of collective self-defense, the new party pledged to tackle it by clarifying Japan’s “appropriate range in exercising its right of self-defense.” This explanation makes the party’s policy difficult to grasp.
 集団的自衛権の行使については「自衛権行使の範囲の適正化」で対応するというが、分かりづらい。

The ambiguity appears to stem from the compromise between the two groups — former Ishin no Kai members have been positive on the exercise of collective self-defense right, while former Yui no To members have expressed a cautious attitude. The new party should give more detailed explanations on specific cases in regard to this issue.
前向きな旧維新の会と、慎重な旧結いの党との妥協の結果だからだろう。個別事例に基づき、より具体的に説明する必要がある。

The party’s relationship with the Abe administration is also ambiguous.
 安倍政権との関係も曖昧さが残る。

On one side is Hashimoto, who insists the new party should not be a mere naysayer, while on the other side is Eda, who claims the new party should clearly state its differences with the Abe administration. It seems Eda is more focused in taking a confrontational stance toward the Abe administration.
橋下氏は「反対するだけの野党ではいけない」と語るが、江田氏は「違いをはっきり打ち出すべきだ」と主張し、対決路線に軸足を置いているように見える。

Two top officials of the DPJ — President Banri Kaieda and Secretary General Yukio Edano — have taken a cautious approach on the realignment of opposition parties. For the time being, cooperation between opposition parties will likely be limited to Diet affairs and elections.
 野党再編について、民主党の海江田代表や枝野幹事長は慎重な立場だ。当面は、野党間で、国会対策での共闘や選挙協力などを進めることになるだろう。

The strong advantage of Ishin no To is its strong stance on key issues, represented by its policies on promoting Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and conducting reforms on agricultural regulations.
 維新の党の持ち味は、環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉の推進や農業の規制改革など、大胆な政策だ。

We recommend that the new party make its presence felt by proactively launching debates with the Abe administration on such topics.
こうした分野で安倍政権に論争を積極的に挑み、存在感を発揮してはどうか。

Meanwhile, the rift between Your Party head Keiichiro Asao and his predecessor, Yoshimi Watanabe, is becoming more serious day by day. Watanabe has urged the party to reinforce its cooperation with the Abe administration, an approach he claims would lead to a realignment of the ruling parties. Asao flatly rejected this proposal.
 みんなの党は、浅尾代表と渡辺喜美前代表の確執が深まっている。渡辺氏が、安倍政権との連携を強化する「与党再編」を主張するのに対し、浅尾氏がこの路線を否定しているためだ。

In April, Watanabe stepped down from the party’s top post to take responsibility for a scandal over ¥800 million in loans he received. The entire picture on how the money was used has yet to be clarified. Watanabe should accept his responsibility by giving a thorough explanation on the scandal before devoting himself to an intraparty power struggle.
 渡辺氏は4月、8億円の借入金問題の責任を取って代表を辞任した。その使途などは依然、未解明の部分がある。渡辺氏は、党内闘争より前に、自らの問題について説明責任を果たすべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 24, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月24日 (水)

社説:維新の党結成 なぜ再編か大義を示せ

September 23, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: 'Third force' opposition parties need big ideas more than mergers
社説:維新の党結成 なぜ再編か大義を示せ

The Japan Restoration Party (JRP) and fellow opposition party Yui no To have officially merged to become the Japan Innovation Party (Ishin no to), as well as the second-largest opposition bloc with 53 Diet seats.
 再編に足る旗印は何だろうか。日本維新の会と結いの党が合流、衆参53議員を擁し野党で2番目の勢力となる「維新の党」が発足した。
   
With internal strife rocking Your Party, the so-called "third political force" -- parties that are neither in government with the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and New Komeito nor joined to the main opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) -- is shifting quickly.
 第三極勢は、みんなの党で内紛が再燃するなど流動化が続いている。

No matter the new form it takes, however, as long as this revamped opposition force fails to differentiate itself clearly from the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, as long as its policy goals remain fuzzy, it is unlikely to inspire impassioned support from the Japanese electorate.
安倍政権との距離や理念、目標がはっきりしないまま新勢力を結集しても、国民の共感を呼ぶような躍動感は生まれまい。

Before these "third force" parties get too excited about their long-talked about "opposition realignment," they ought to create a solid policy foundation.
野党再編を気負う前に、足元の政策を固めるべきだ。

The new Japan Innovation Party (JIP) is led jointly by JRP leader and Osaka Mayor Toru Hashimoto, and Yui no To leader Kenji Eda.
 日本維新の会、結いの党でそれぞれ代表だった橋下徹、江田憲司両氏が共同代表に就任した。

Hashimoto -- who once shared JRP leadership duties with former Tokyo Gov. Shintaro Ishihara -- has said the formation of the new party is "just one phase in the (opposition) realignment process," and strongly expressed his desire to be in the forefront of a broad restructuring of the Japanese political world.
二枚看板だった石原慎太郎氏とたもとを分かって参加した橋下氏は「再編の一過程に過ぎない」と述べ、政界再編を主導する意欲を強調している。

The two-headed leadership model, however -- especially with Eda looking very much like he's being slotted into Ishihara's place -- speaks volumes about how hard opposition realignment will really be going forward.
 だが、江田氏が石原氏と交代したような印象すら一見与える橋下氏との双頭体制は、前途の厳しさを物語っている。

The breakup of both Your Party and the former JRP occurred because of serious internal divisions, and there are deep divides within the new JIP as well.
日本維新の会、みんなの党がそれぞれ深刻な内部対立を抱え分裂したように、合流した両勢力には深い溝が横たわっているためだ。

First and foremost, the JIP must illustrate how its goals differ significantly from those of the Abe administration.  肝心の安倍政権との距離がまず、判然としない。

Hashimoto has evinced a certain respect for the current government, saying the Abe administration has "tackled some things that politics in Japan has never dealt with before."
橋下氏は「安倍政権は今まで政治が取り組まなかったことに取り組んでいる」と一定の評価をする。

Eda, meanwhile, appears to place enormous importance on highlighting differences with the LDP-led administration. これに対し江田氏は政権と違いを出すことに重点を置いているようだ。

If the JIP cooperates with the Abe government even temporarily, how will it make itself into a power great enough to take over government itself?
仮に政権と協調するのであれば「政権担当可能な一大勢力の形成」とどう整合させるのか。

The party won't be able to do that, to make itself a genuine alternative, simply by supporting or opposing individual government policies.
政策ごとの是々非々では片付けられまい。

Furthermore, there is still a yawning policy gap within the new JIP.
 政策のギャップも解消されていない。

For example, the former JRP broadly supports the reinterpretation of the Constitution to allow Japan to exercise the right of collective self-defense, while the former Yui no To is more cautious.
憲法解釈変更による集団的自衛権行使容認をめぐっては肯定派の旧維新の会と慎重な旧結いの党に違いがある。

The JIP has released a 65-point policy outline, but its membership apparently still has yet to agree on the party's position on serious national issues including the consumption tax hike and the restart of Japan's nuclear reactors.
65項目の基本政策を発表したが、消費増税や原発再稼働など意見集約はこれからだという。

It looks a lot like the former JRP and Yui no To put a much higher priority on their merger than actual policy.
政策よりも合流優先だったのではないか。

Meanwhile, the ongoing internal strife within fellow "third force" Your Party is just plain ugly.
 一方、みんなの党の内紛はあまりにお粗末だ。

Former Your Party leader Yoshimi Watanabe has openly criticized current leader Keiichiro Asao, saying Asao "should resign if he seeks opposition realignment," thereby sparking yet more infighting and chaos.
渡辺喜美前代表が浅尾慶一郎代表を「野党再編に走るなら辞めるべきだ」と批判、党内は混乱している。

It's quite a surprise, we must say, that Watanabe -- a man whose own political funding scandal caused so much damage to his party -- now has the gumption to call for the resignation of his successor.
政治資金問題で党に打撃を与えた渡辺氏が党首に辞任を要求する感覚に驚いてしまう。

It's not inconceivable that Watanabe's sudden assault on Asao was in fact designed to prevent the Your Party leader from joining hands with Hashimoto and Eda, with whom Watanabe is in conflict.
浅尾氏に仕掛けた唐突な路線論争は渡辺氏と対立する橋下、江田両氏への接近阻止が本当の目的ではないか、という疑念をぬぐえない。

All in all, the prospects for opposition consolidation remain cloudy indeed.
 野党再編の展望は開けていない。

The DPJ has rebuilt its executive ranks, looking to solidify the party's political posture and differentiate itself from the fractious "third force" opposition realignment movement.
民主党は新たな執行部人事で挙党態勢を目指し、再編路線と一線を画した。

There are, however, questions on how much political fight the DPJ can put up on major issues.
野党として、どこまで対立軸を示していけるかが問われている。

The "third force" parties -- which did so well in the 2012 House of Representatives election -- slammed headfirst into the massive bulk of the ruling coalition, essentially disintegrating as they tried to make themselves seen and heard in the shadow of the Abe administration.
 2012年の衆院選で気を吐いた第三極勢が自壊したのは巨大与党を前に存在感発揮の壁に突き当たったためだろう。

So why, the voters must be asking, are these "third force" parties merging instead of taking a hard look at their post-election crash-and-burn and coming up with big ideas the country could get behind?
その反省に立ち、納得できる大義を掲げないようではなぜ合流なのか、有権者は戸惑ってしまう。

At the very least, we would like to see them fulfill their responsibilities as opposition parties and stand up to the government in the Diet.
国会論戦で政権に立ち向かう重責をまずは自覚してもらいたい。

毎日新聞 2014年09月23日 02時30分

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日露首脳協議 G7協調前提に対話続けたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan should talk with Russia, while cooperating with other G-7 nations
日露首脳協議 G7協調前提に対話続けたい

It is important for the government to maintain a dialogue with Russia, while at the same time cooperating with the United States and European countries.
 政府は、米欧との連携を重視しつつ、ロシアとの対話を続けることが重要である。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed in a phone conversation on the importance of their countries continuing bilateral dialogue.
 安倍首相がロシアのプーチン大統領と電話会談し、日露間の対話を継続することが大事だとの認識で一致した。

During the conversation, Putin expressed his willingness to hold summit talks at an early date. Abe proposed a meeting on the sidelines of the summit talks of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum in Beijing in November.
 大統領は、早期の首脳会談の開催に意欲を示した。首相は、11月に北京で開かれるアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議での会談を提案した。

If realized, it would be their first talks since they held a meeting in Sochi, Russia, in February.
 首脳会談が実現すれば、2月のロシア・ソチでの会談以来となる。

Abe sent a private letter to Putin, calling for talks between the two, through former Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori, who visited Russia recently.
首相は、先に訪露した森元首相を通じて、対話を呼びかける親書を大統領に送っている。

Bilateral relations between Japan and Russia have been affected adversely since Russia annexed Crimea, a territory of Ukraine, in March.
 日露関係は、3月のロシアによるウクライナ・クリミア半島編入を機に停滞している。

When Japan joined U.S. and EU sanctions against Russia in April, Russia expressed displeasure with the decision.
 日本が4月に米欧の対露制裁に同調すると、ロシアは強く反発した。

Although the governments of Japan and Russia have already agreed on a Putin visit to Japan this autumn, preparations for the visit have effectively been frozen since this spring, making it difficult for the visit to be realized.
日露両政府は、既に今秋の大統領来日で合意しているが、今春以降、両国間の準備作業は事実上ストップしており、来日の実現は極めて困難な情勢だ。

Abe proposed to Putin that they hold talks in Beijing, rather than in Tokyo, partly in consideration of the United States, which is displeased with the prospect of a Putin visit to Japan.
 首相が東京でなく、北京での首脳会談を提案したのは、プーチン大統領来日に強い不快感を示す米国に配慮したものだ。

U.S. shifts policy

The U.S. administration of President Barack Obama is very critical of Russia over the country’s continued armed intervention in eastern Ukraine. It can be said that the United States has been forced to shift its post Cold-War policy toward Russia, which was based on cooperation with the country.
 オバマ政権は、ウクライナ東部への軍事的介入を続けるロシアを厳しく批判している。協調を基本としてきた冷戦後の対露政策の転換を余儀なくされたと言える。

A Putin visit to Japan at this stage could strain Japan-U.S. relations. A realistic option for Tokyo is to continue dialogue with Russia, while maintaining a cooperative relationship within the Group of Seven major powers.
 今の段階で、プーチン大統領が来日すれば、日米関係がきしみかねない。日本としては、先進7か国(G7)内の協調関係を維持しながら、ロシアとの対話も断たないのが現実的な選択肢だろう。

As the United States and the European Union decided in the middle of this month to strengthen sanctions against Russia, mainly in the financial and energy sectors, Japan is considering taking additional sanctions against Russia.
 米欧が今月中旬、金融やエネルギー分野が中心の厳しい対露追加制裁を発動したことを踏まえ、日本も、ロシアへの新たな制裁措置を検討している。

Emerging sanctions include expanding an entry ban and a freeze on assets, which are both currently limited to Russian government officials and others involved in the annexation of Crimea.
 クリミア編入に関与したロシア政府関係者らに限定した現在の入国禁止や資産凍結の対象を拡大する案などが浮上している。

Japan firmly maintains its stance of not tolerating “change of the status quo by force,” regarding territorial sovereignty. As long as Russia does not alter its policy on Ukraine, it is reasonable for Tokyo to take additional sanctions.
 日本は、領土などに関して「力による現状変更」を許さない立場を堅持している。ロシアがウクライナ政策を修正しない以上、追加制裁を講じるのは妥当だろう。

It is also important for Japan to continue bilateral negotiations with Russia, without isolating the country. At the same time, Japan must continue communicating with countries concerned, including the United States and Britain, to prevent creating disarray in the G-7 countries.
 日本は、G7の足並みを乱さない範囲で、米英など関係国との意思疎通を図りつつ、ロシアを孤立させず、2国間協議を続けることも大切である。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida is coordinating a schedule to hold talks with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov on the occasion of the U.N. General Assembly session in New York this week. If the talks take place, Kishida must hold an in-depth exchange of views with Lavrov not only over bilateral relations but also over the situation in Ukraine.
 岸田外相は今週のニューヨークでの国連総会で、ラブロフ露外相との会談を調整している。会談した場合は、日露関係だけでなく、ウクライナ情勢についても突っ込んだ意見交換をすべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 23, 2014)Speech

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円安の進行 景気への副作用に目配りせよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Govt, BOJ must watch carefully for economic side effects of weak yen
円安の進行 景気への副作用に目配りせよ

The yen’s weakness, which has served as a tailwind for the national economy, will no longer be welcomed without reserve if it goes too far.
 日本経済の追い風となってきた円安も、行き過ぎれば手放しでは歓迎できなくなる。

The government and the Bank of Japan must conduct policy management that also keeps an eye out for side effects from the weak yen.
 政府・日銀は、円安の副作用にも目配りした政策運営に努めるべきだ。

The yen’s exchange rate, which recently stabilized at around ¥100 to the U.S. dollar, has seen a radical swing to the weaker side in the past month, with the rate approaching the ¥110 level Friday for the first time in six years.
 1ドル=100円近辺で安定していた円相場が、ここ1か月で大きく円安に振れ、先週末には約6年ぶりの110円台に迫った。

One of the primary factors behind the shift is that prospects of a U.S. interest rate hike became stronger due to the country’s firm business climate. As a result, the selling of yen for dollar purchases has accelerated.
 景気が堅調な米国の利上げ観測が強まり、円売り・ドル買いが加速したことが主因である。

The Federal Reserve Board has announced that its quantitative easing policies such as purchasing government bonds will end in October. The U.S. central bank also disclosed an “exit strategy” for returning to a more normal monetary policy by ending its zero-interest policy.
 米連邦準備制度理事会(FRB)は、国債購入などの量的金融緩和策を10月で終えると表明した。ゼロ金利政策を解除し、異例の金融緩和を通常に戻す「出口戦略」の計画も公表した。

On the other hand, Japan has limped along in terms of business recovery since the consumption tax rate was raised to 8 percent in April. Central bank Gov. Haruhiko Kuroda has showed a willingness to carry out additional monetary easing.
 これに対し、日本は消費税率引き上げ後に景気がもたつき、黒田東彦日銀総裁が追加金融緩和も辞さない構えを見せている。

Speaking at a news conference held after a meeting of finance ministers and central governors from a Group of 20 principal economies, U.S. Treasury Secretary Jack Lew expressed disappointment with the economic growth of Japan and the eurozone. The strong dollar is expected to continue for the time being.
 主要20か国・地域(G20)財務相・中央銀行総裁会議の記者会見でルー米財務長官は、「ユーロ圏と日本の成長には失望させられている」と述べた。「強いドル」の局面は当面、続くと見られる。

Radical changes in foreign exchange rates are another concern. The government and the central bank are urged to bolster their monitoring of any speculative moves that could cause violent fluctuations.
 気がかりなのは、為替相場の動きが激しいことだ。乱高下につながる投機の動きはないか、政府・日銀は監視を強めてほしい。

The big picture

The weak yen expands corporate exchange gains from exports and revenues raised overseas. The Nikkei Stock Average at the Tokyo Stock Exchange has recovered to the ¥16,000 level for the first time in eight months, obviously reflecting the market’s straightforward appreciation of the favorable effect of the weaker yen on corporate performance.
 円安は、企業の輸出代金や海外で上げた収益の為替差益を拡大させる。東京市場の平均株価が約8か月ぶりに1万6000円台を回復した。業績への円安メリットを素直に評価しているのだろう。

But looking at the Japanese economy as a whole, there are negative aspects to a weak yen.
 ただ、日本経済全体を見ると、円安には「負の側面」もある。

A weakening of the yen by ¥10 against the dollar will push up the combined profits of listed companies by ¥1.9 trillion, according to an estimate by Mizuho Bank. Unlisted firms, on the other hand, will see a profit decrease of ¥1.2 trillion.
 みずほ銀行の推計によると、円安が10円進めば、上場企業には計1・9兆円の増益効果がある一方、非上場企業は逆に1・2兆円の減益になるという。

The weak yen gives meager benefits to small and midsize firms not engaged in exports or overseas operations, as well as retail and service companies relying on domestic demand. Furthermore, these businesses will have to shoulder additional costs caused by steeply rising prices for imported raw materials and power rates. Thus, their operations are facing additional financial pressure.
 輸出や海外展開に縁のない中小企業や、小売り、サービスなど内需産業は円安メリットが乏しい。それに加え、輸入原材料や電気料金の高騰などでコストはかさむため、経営は圧迫される。

It is worrying that excessive weakening of the yen may put small and midsize firms into a predicament.
 過剰な円安で、中小企業が苦境に陥らないか心配である。

Structural changes of the national economy are also a factor that cannot be overlooked. With progress in transferring production centers overseas, domestic production and exports cannot expand as greatly as before even if the yen weakens.
 経済の構造的な変化も見過ごせない観点だ。生産拠点の海外移転が進み、円安でも国内生産や輸出が以前ほど増えなくなった。

It is safe to say that it has become difficult for the benefits of the weak yen to be translated into the expansion of job opportunities and wage hikes. It is feared that continued sharp price increases for necessities such as imported food and gasoline amid stagnant household income could keep consumption sluggish, thereby stalling business recovery.
 円安の恩恵が、雇用増や賃上げとして国内に還元されにくくなったと言える。家計の所得が伸びない状況で、輸入食品やガソリンなど必需品の高騰が続けば、消費が低迷し、景気回復の足を引っ張る懸念があろう。

It is urgent to analyze in detail the impacts of the weaker yen on the national economy.
 円安が景気に与える影響を、詳細に分析することが急務だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 23, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月23日 (火)

社説:視覚障害と社会 無関心という罪の重さ

September 22, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Harassment of visually-impaired people shameful
社説:視覚障害と社会 無関心という罪の重さ

A girl at a high school for visually-impaired students in Saitama Prefecture suffered serious injuries that are expected to take three weeks to heal after being kicked in the leg by a man from behind at a train station on Sept. 8.
 埼玉県内の盲学校に通う高等部の女子生徒が今月8日、JRの駅構内で何者かに背後から強く足を蹴られ、全治3週間のけがをする事件があった。

The victim, who is completely blind, was using a white stick and walking on Braille blocks at the time of the incident. 生徒は全盲のため白杖(はくじょう)をつき、点字ブロック上を歩いていた。

She obviously not only suffered physical pain but also was horrified.
突然の暴力に遭遇した生徒は痛みだけでなく、恐怖も大きかっただろう。
   
Based on testimonies provided by eyewitnesses as well as other information, police are questioning a man in his 40s, who is intellectually handicapped, as a suspect on a voluntary basis. Police should thoroughly get to the bottom of the incident.
 警察は目撃情報などから、知的障害のある40代の男を容疑者として任意で取り調べている。捜査を尽くしてもらいたい。

The latest case has highlighted how many obstacles visually-impaired people face when they walk outside.
 視覚障害者が外を歩くのに、いかに障壁が多いか。今回の事件をきっかけに浮き彫りになったことだ。

An organization representing visually-impaired people says it is a daily occurrence that such people have their white sticks broken after colliding with other people or objects, or they are subjected to verbal abuse.
 視覚障害者団体によると、人や物とぶつかって白杖が折れたり、暴言を浴びたりといったことが日常茶飯事だという。

In April this year, a blind woman who was sitting on a bench at a supermarket in Kobe suffered a broken bone in her face after being hit by a man who stumbled over her leg.
神戸市では今年4月、白杖を手にスーパーの通路のいすに座っていた全盲女性が、足につまずいた男に殴られ顔面を骨折した。

The man under arrest over the case was quoted as telling investigators, "I was furious after stumbling over her leg."
逮捕された男は「女性の足に引っかかり腹が立った」と供述したという。

For what purpose are there white sticks and Braille blocks?
 白杖や点字ブロックは何のためにあるのか。

While there are growing calls for achieving a society in which people with and without handicaps can coexist, there are too many people who do not pay attention to difficulties that visually-impaired people are facing in society.
健常者と障害者が共生する社会の実現が長く言われながら、関心のない人があまりに多い。

The Road Traffic Act requires visually-impaired people to carry a white or yellow stick or be accompanied by a guide dog when they walk along roads.
 道路交通法のきまりで、視覚障害者が道路を歩く時はつえをつくか盲導犬を連れなければならない。

Their sticks are not just tools but also a kind of life rope that serve as their eyes or legs.
つえの色は白か黄色と決まっている。つえは単なる道具ではなく、視覚障害者の目や足の代わりとなる命綱だ。

Braille blocks are plates with projections that visually-impaired people can sense with the bottoms of their feet.
 点字ブロックは、視覚障害者が足の裏の触感覚で認識できるよう突起をつけたプレートだ。

Local governments across the country are pressing forward with the installation of Braille blocks on sidewalks, at railway stations and other public places in accordance with their respective ordinances.
各自治体が条例に基づいて歩道や駅、公共施設などで設置を進めている。

Braille blocks were invented in Japan in 1965.
 点字ブロックは1965年に日本で考案された。

Such blocks were first laid in Okayama Prefecture, and have since spread to over 150 countries.
岡山県内に世界で初めて設置され、今では世界150カ国以上に普及している。

Despite the history of Braille blocks, people frequently park their cars or bicycles on the blocks or lay their baggage on them. Many pedestrians are indifferent to Braille blocks.
そんな歴史がありながら、その有用性が社会に浸透しているとはとても言えない。
 点字ブロック上への駐車や駐輪は日常的で、物も置かれる。多くの歩行者も点字ブロックの存在に無関心だ。

It is easy to imagine that if pedestrians operate their smartphones while walking, they may overlook and bump into visually-impaired people with sticks.
歩きながらスマートフォンを操作していれば、つえをつく視覚障害者に気付かず、ぶつかる危険が高いことは容易に想像がつく。

Relevant legislation has gradually come into force and society is becoming increasingly barrier-free.
 法律が徐々に整備され、社会のバリアフリー化が進む。

Slopes and restrooms for handicapped people have been set up at a growing number of railway stations and other public spaces.
スロープや障害者対応トイレが駅や公共の場所で増えている。

Still, one cannot help but wonder whether people are sufficiently aware of these efforts to improve facilities for handicapped people.
だが、そうした施設の整備に人の心が追いついているだろうか。そんな疑問が湧いてくる。

Concerns remain over people failing to keep in mind that they should pay close attention to handicapped people on streets to see if they face any potential danger and extend a helping hand to those in trouble -- which is no more than basic common sense.
 障害者と街で出会えば、危険な目にあいそうにないか目配りをする。困っていれば手を差し伸べる−−。学校や家庭の教育を通じて身についているはずの常識が、どこかですっぽりと抜け落ちていないか心配だ。
 障害者の立場を思いやることが大切だ。私たち一人一人の振る舞いが問われている。

毎日新聞 2014年09月22日 02時31分

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結核の予防 早期治療で感染拡大を防ごう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Tuberculosis must be treated early to prevent widespread transmission
結核の予防 早期治療で感染拡大を防ごう

We should not shrug off tuberculosis as a “disease of the past.” Tuberculosis Prevention Week, which begins on Wednesday, should be used as an opportunity to recognize once again the importance of detecting and treating the disease at an early stage.
 結核を「過去の病気」と侮ってはならない。
 結核予防週間が24日から始まるのを機に、早期発見・治療の重要性を再認識したい。

According to the World Health Organization, 8.6 million people contracted TB worldwide in 2012 and 1.3 million died from it that year. In Japan, about 20,000 people come down with TB every year and more than 2,000 die.
 世界保健機関(WHO)によると、世界では2012年に860万人が結核に罹患りかんし、130万人が死亡した。日本でも毎年、約2万人が発病し、2000人以上が亡くなっている。

The TB bacteria cause inflammation in the lungs and can be transmitted between humans though coughing and sneezing. TB was once feared in Japan as a “disease that can ruin the nation.” In 1950, soon after the end of World War II, 120,000 people died of TB.
 結核菌は肺に炎症を引き起こし、せきやくしゃみで人から人に感染する。日本ではかつて「亡国病」と恐れられ、戦後間もない1950年は12万人が死亡した。

The threat of contracting the disease has since waned as medicines were developed and hygiene improved. Even so, the number of new Japanese TB patients per 100,000 people in 2013 was 16, five times larger than that of the United States.
 治療薬の開発や衛生状態の向上とともに、脅威は薄れた。それでも、2013年時点の人口10万人に対する新規患者数(罹患率)は16人で、米国の5倍に上る。

In July, the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry, the Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association and other entities compiled an action plan aimed at lowering the contraction rate to less than 10 per year by the end of 2020.
 厚生労働省や結核予防会などは7月に行動計画を策定し、20年までに罹患率を10人以下に抑えるという目標を掲げた。

To attain this goal, the first thing Japan must to do is improve measures to prevent TB among the elderly. In some cases, people contract the TB bacteria when they are young but symptoms do not appear for many years because they have latent tuberculosis. As people age, however, they develop symptoms when the bacteria become active due to weakened immune systems or diabetic conditions. There has been a conspicuous increase in such cases, and mass TB infections have been reported at facilities for the elderly.
 その達成のために、まず必要なのは、高齢者対策の拡充だ。若い頃に感染し、休眠状態にあった結核菌が、免疫力の衰えや糖尿病などにより活発化し、発病する患者が増えている。高齢者施設での集団感染も起きている。

Many elderly people do not develop typical symptoms, such as coughing or producing phlegm. Delays in detecting the disease can cause patients to develop serious symptoms and spread the disease widely. Weight loss and a slight fever are initial symptoms of the disease.
 高齢者は、せきやたんなどの典型的な症状が表れないケースも多い。発見の遅れは、重症化や感染の拡大につながる。体重減少や微熱も結核の兆候だ。

It is therefore important for patients to have their chests X-rayed and undergo other physical examinations at an early stage.
 早期に胸部エックス線検査などを受けることが大切である。

Poor affected most

TB is common among poverty-stricken people. Osaka city has given priority to providing homeless people with examinations free of charge and dispatching nurses to give medication to those with the disease, a program that succeeded in halving the contraction rate in 10 years.
 生活困窮者の発病も多い。大阪市は、ホームレスの人を対象に、無料検診や看護師による訪問服薬支援を重点的に実施し、罹患率を10年間でほぼ半減させた。

In one case, young people contracted the disease from a person who stayed for an extended period at an Internet cafe. This shows the danger of contracting the disease in places frequented by people in their daily lives.
 インターネットカフェに長期滞在していた患者から、若者に感染が広がった例もある。身近な場所にも感染の危険は潜んでいる。

There has also been a rise in the number of foreign patients who visit Japan from countries with high TB rates. The United States and Britain conduct TB checks on foreigners before they enter either country. This is a measure worth considering for Japan.
 結核の流行国から来日した外国人の患者も増えている。米英では入国前の検査を実施している。日本でも今後の検討課題だろう。

Particularly worrisome is an increase in the number of people with strains of tuberculosis that are resistant to multiple kinds of drugs. Ordinary TB medicines are not effective in treating these strains of TB, which can lead to a high fatality rate. About 4.5 million people in the world are afflicted with multidrug-resistant strains of TB.
 懸念されるのは、多剤耐性結核の患者の増加だ。通常の治療薬が効かず、死亡率が高い。世界で45万人が罹患している。

In Japan, less than 1 percent of all patients are infected with drug-resistant TB strains. But there is a risk these TB strains could spread, as more and more people travel between Japan and other countries.
 日本では、結核患者の1%未満にとどまっているが、海外との往来の活発化により、感染拡大の危険性は常にある。

A new Japanese drug effective in treating patients with multidrug-resistant TB strains has been approved in Japan and Europe this year. We hope it will help fight TB throughout the world.
 耐性菌に効く日本製の新薬が今年、欧州と国内で承認された。世界の結核対策に役立てたい。

BCG vaccines are widely administered to infants, but the effects wear off in 10 to 15 years. It is therefore essential to expedite the development of vaccines for adults as well.
 乳児用の予防ワクチンとして、BCGが普及しているが、効果は10~15年で失われる。成人用ワクチンの開発も急ぐ必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 22, 2014)Speech

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公明党大会 政権の合意形成へ役割果たせ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Komeito should continue to work for consensus in coalition govt
公明党大会 政権の合意形成へ役割果たせ

We expect New Komeito to fulfill its role for the political stability and implementation of important policies by continuously working for a consensus within the coalition government.
 政治の安定と重要政策の遂行に向けて、公明党は連立政権の合意形成に引き続き努力し、役割を果たしてもらいたい。

Komeito held its 10th national convention on Sunday, where Natsuo Yamaguchi was elected as its chief representative for the fourth time and appointments of new executives were approved.
 公明党が第10回全国大会を開き、山口代表の4選と新役員人事を正式決定した。

The party’s Secretary General Yoshihisa Inoue and Policy Research Council Chairman Keiichi Ishii retained their posts, while Yoshinori Oguchi, its deputy Diet affairs chief, was promoted to head the party’s Diet affairs council.
井上義久幹事長、石井啓一政調会長は留任し、国会対策委員長には大口善徳国対委員長代理が昇格した。

“We are going to support [the reshuffled Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe] firmly as a ruling coalition party and work hard with unwavering resolve to realize policy measures for the good of the people,” Yamaguchi said in a speech at the convention.
 山口代表はあいさつで、安倍改造内閣について「連立与党としてしっかり支え、国民のための政策実現に不退転の決意で邁進まいしんする」と語った。

“I would like to work together with the ruling coalition parties to achieve results,” said Abe, who was invited to the convention as a guest, in calling for Komeito to band together with his Liberal Democratic Party.
来賓の安倍首相も、「与党と協力して結果を出したい」と述べ、結束を呼びかけた。

Yamaguchi and Inoue have maintained a partnership and cooperative relations with the LDP since they took their posts in September 2009, including the three years when both parties were in opposition.
 山口、井上両氏は2009年9月の就任以来、3年余の野党時代を含め、自民党との連携・協力関係を維持してきた。

Next month will mark the 15th anniversary since the LDP and Komeito formed a coalition government under then Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi. The two parties deserve praise for contributing to political stability by making mutual concessions through talks to form agreements on a range of policy issues, including those the two parties differed on.
 小渕内閣で自公両党が連立してから、来月で15年を迎える。主張が異なる政策についても、双方が協議を重ねて歩み寄り、合意を形成してきたことは、政治の安定に貢献したと評価できる。

Greater constructive effort

The Abe Cabinet is now facing many policy issues including the recovery of the Japanese economy, revitalization of local economies, restoration of areas damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake and social security system reforms. To help resolve these issues steadily, Komeito should make a greater constructive effort.
 安倍政権は今、経済再生、地方創生、震災復興、社会保障制度改革など、多くの政策課題に直面している。これらを着実に前進させるため、公明党には、一段と建設的な取り組みが求められる。

In national security affairs, the Abe Cabinet approved three new principles on the transfer of defense equipment and technology in April, which replaced the three principles banning arms exports, and in July decided on the new government view that allows Japan to exercise its collective self-defense right in a limited manner. Both changes have historical significance.
 安全保障政策でも、安倍政権は今年4月、武器輸出3原則に代わる防衛装備移転3原則を、7月には集団的自衛権の行使を限定容認する政府見解を決定した。いずれも歴史的な意義を持つものだ。

However, many members of Komeito were particularly cautious about or had objections to changing the government’s constitutional interpretation on the nation’s collective self-defense right because it has called itself a party for peace since its inauguration 50 years ago.
 50年前の結党以来、「平和の党」を標榜ひょうぼうする公明党には、特に集団的自衛権の憲法解釈変更について慎重・反対論が強かった。

However, Yamaguchi and other Komeito leaders held meetings with party members, including representatives of its local chapters, many times and patiently kept explaining to and convincing them until a consensus was finally reached. Komeito acted in a responsible manner as a ruling coalition party.
 だが、山口執行部は、地方組織代表を交えた会議を何度も開き、粘り強く説明と説得を繰り返して党内の意見をまとめた。政権与党として責任ある対応だった。

Meanwhile, Inoue said in a report at the convention as Komeito’s secretary general that the party’s middle-of-the-road stance was of such significance today that it is able to adjust the nation’s political sector whenever it swings or slants to the right or left, and making new policy proposals that are suitable with the changing times. Inoue also pointed out the party’s action on the nation’s collective self-defense right as one such example.
 党大会での井上幹事長報告は、公明党の中道路線の「今日的意義」として「政治の左右への揺れや偏りを正す」「時代の変化に応じた新しい政策提言」などを挙げた。集団的自衛権をめぐる対応はその実例だとも指摘した。

Based on the government’s new view on the collective self-defense right, the Abe administration will need to develop the legislative framework for national security. We expect Komeito to respond more positively to the issue, so as to create legislation that enhances the deterrence of the Japan-U.S. alliance and allow Self-Defense Forces to engage in viable activities.
 今後は、新政府見解に基づく安全保障法制の整備が課題となる。日米同盟の抑止力を強化し、自衛隊が実効性ある活動をできる法制となるよう、公明党には、一層の前向きな対応を期待したい。

Yamaguchi also stressed once again that the party aims to introduce reduced consumption tax rates on some items when the rate is raised to 10 percent.
 山口代表は、消費税率を10%に引き上げる際の軽減税率の導入を目指す方針を改めて強調した。

Komeito should play a leadership role in the coalition in working out a detailed plan for reduced consumption tax rates on these items.
 公明党は与党内で、軽減税率の具体的な制度設計の議論を主導することが重要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 22, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月22日 (月)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「敵」の健闘たたえる余裕 /東京

September 21, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Learning how to praise our 'enemies'
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「敵」の健闘たたえる余裕 /東京

I recently went to Tokyo Dome to watch a professional baseball game.
 東京ドームにプロ野球を見に行く機会があった。

The Yomiuri Giants were not playing that evening, as this was one of the several games hosted there yearly by the Nippon Ham Fighters.
とはいっても、ジャイアンツ戦ではない。年に何回かある日本ハムファイターズ主催試合だ。

They were playing against the Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks, who are presently at the top of the Pacific League.
対するは現在パ・リーグ首位のソフトバンク。

The Fighters were on top of the game from start to finish. The climax occurred when Atsunori Inaba, who recently announced his retirement, went up to bat as a pinch hitter in the eighth inning -- likely the last time he would appear during a game hosted by his team at the Tokyo Dome.
試合は終始ファイターズ優位で進んだが、クライマックスは何といっても引退を表明している同チームの稲葉篤紀選手が代打で登場した八回だった。東京ドームでの主催試合では最後の登場になるはずだ。

When Inaba was called to the plate, a murmur could be heard rippling through the crowd.
 「代打・稲葉」とコールされると、球場全体がどよめき、

Shortly afterward, the entire stadium audience rose to their feet.
すぐにほぼ全員が立ち上がった。

Fighters' fans leaped into the air and broke out with a rendition of the famous "Inaba jump" -- but it soon became clear that they were not alone. On the left side of the stands, as well as behind third base, SoftBank supporters were jumping right along with them.
稲葉選手の打席ではファンはピョンピョン跳びはねる「稲葉ジャンプ」を行って応援するのだが、なんとレフトスタンドや三塁側に陣取ったソフトバンクファンまでもがいっしょにジャンプ。

Inaba unfortunately did not manage to score a hit, but as he left the plate, he was accompanied by loud applause from all around the stands.
残念ながらヒットは打てなかったが、打席を去るベテランに球場全体から大きな拍手が送られた。

He waved to both sides of the crowd, wiping away tears several times. Fighters Manager Hideki Kuriyama later told him, "I was moved as well."
そして試合後、栗山監督から「オレも感動した」と声をかけられたという稲葉選手は、両チームのファンに手を振りながら何度も涙をぬぐっていた。

There is an expression in the Japanese language that may be loosely translated as "praising someone even though they may be an enemy."
 日本語に定着しているフレーズに「敵ながらあっぱれ」がある。

The phrase is said to have originated in the act of military commanders lauding their opponents' brave fights -- a description that seems to describe the feelings on the part of the SoftBank fans at that moment.
武将が敵の健闘をたたえて発した言葉ともいわれるが、相手チームの選手を応援するソフトバンクファンもそんな心境だったのだろうか。

This incident also called to mind the proverb that refers to "sending salt to one's enemy."
また「敵に塩を送る」ということわざも思い出す。

It goes without saying, but this refers to the conscious decision of offering support to one's enemies while not engaged in battle with them.
言うまでもないが、「戦い以外の場ではあえて敵を支援する」という意味だ。

The origin of the phrase is an incident that occurred during the Sengoku ("Warring States") period, when Uesugi Kenshin refused to comply with the Imagawa clan's demand that he halt salt exports to his enemy Takeda Shingen -- instead providing him with the shipments of salt.
戦国時代、今川家から武田信玄への「塩止め(塩の輸出禁止)」を要請された上杉謙信が、それを断り敵対関係にある信玄に逆に塩を送ったというエピソードが元になっているとされる。

While the topic at hand is of course sports, which is a world unto itself, I must say that this incident I witnessed -- whereby an entire group of people naturally began congratulating someone else, without having been told to do so, and irrespective of whether that person was an associate or an opponent -- left a very strong impression upon me indeed.
 もちろんこれはスポーツという特別な世界のできごとだが、誰に指示されたわけでもないのに誰もがごく自然に、敵味方に関係なく健闘をたたえ合う行動に出た姿は私にとってとても印象的だった。

We are constantly subjected to intense competition in our daily lives, and we often consume all of our energy trying to seek out our rivals' vulnerabilities while in turn concealing our own.
日常生活では、私たちはいつもシビアな競争にさらされ、ライバルの欠点を探したり自分の弱点を見せないようにしたりすることで精いっぱいだ。

After we have cut down someone else whom we have identified as an "enemy," and gone on to declare our own victory, however, I wonder: Can we really feel good about ourselves?
しかし、そうやって“敵”と見なした相手を完全にたたきのめして自分が勝ち残りさえすれば、その後も心豊かにすごすことができるのだろうか。

I had many thoughts after I watched baseball fans passionately bidding farewell to Inaba that evening, including this one: Somewhere along the line, have many of us not forgotten the lesson from the Sengoku period to treat enemies and vanquished persons with respect, and to wish them well?
私たちはいつのまにか、戦国時代から大切にしてきたはずの敵や敗者の健闘をたたえる心の余裕を忘れてしまったのではないか。
 今シーズンで球界を去る稲葉選手へのファンたちの熱い応援から、さまざまなことを考えさせられた一夜であった。

(精神科医)
(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年09月17日 地方版

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女性活躍法案 働き方の見直しにつなげたい

即戦力だったら女性の活用よりも退職者の活用のほうが効果がありそうです。
企業の年功序列制度とそれに連動した給与体系がネックとなっています。
とはいえメリットも大きいので大企業ではやり方(年功序列)をすぐに変えることが出来ないのでしょう。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Bill to boost women’s roles in society must lead to review of working styles
女性活躍法案 働き方の見直しにつなげたい

Creating a society where women can make full use of their skills and abilities and actively participate in various sectors in society has now become a priority in Japan.
 女性が能力を十分に発揮し、活躍できる社会を作る――。

The government plans to submit a bill to the upcoming extraordinary Diet session aimed at encouraging women to take a greater role in society.
政府は、女性の活躍推進のための新たな法案を臨時国会に提出する方針だ。

One of the pillars of the planned legislation is to prompt businesses to draft action plans to promote women to higher positions.
 企業に女性登用の行動計画を策定するよう求めるのが柱である。

Specific details to be incorporated into the bill are being discussed by a council of the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry.
厚生労働省の審議会が具体的内容を検討している。

The proposed legislation’s effectiveness must be ensured by contriving ways to promote women’s activities, such as throwing government support behind businesses eager to make better use of their female employees.
企業の取り組みへの支援策などを工夫し、実効性を持たせることが重要だ。

According to a report released earlier this month by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), women with college degrees or higher academic achievements who have paid jobs account for no more than 69 percent of such women in Japan, ranking 31st among 34 OECD member countries. In the same category, the ratio of males with paid jobs stands at 92 percent, ranking second on the OECD list.
 経済協力開発機構(OECD)が今月公表した報告書によると、日本では、大卒以上の学歴を持つ女性の就業率は69%で、加盟34か国中31位にとどまる。同様の男性の就業率は92%に達し、2位にランクされている。

It is reasonable for the OECD report to note Japan’s failure to effectively utilize highly educated women with skills and abilities.
 報告書が、能力のある女性が活用されていないと指摘しているのは、うなずける。

In Japan, about 60 percent of women quit work when they have their first baby. The major contributing factors for this include shortages of day care facilities and the corporate practice of working long hours, which makes balancing work and family life difficult for women.
 日本では、第1子出産を機に職場を去る女性が6割に上る。保育所不足や長時間労働の慣行など、仕事と家庭の両立が難しいことが背景にある。

After quitting a job, most women seldom have the opportunity to reenter the workforce as regular employees. Of the nation’s entire workforce, women account for a little over 40 percent, but more than half are part-timers and other nonregular employees. Opportunities for promotions and pay raises as well as on-the-job training are limited for women.
 いったん退職すると、正社員として再就職するのは難しい。就業者全体のうち、女性は4割強だが、その半数以上はパートなどの非正規労働者だ。昇進・昇給や研修の機会も限られる。

Career or family?

The lack of jobs that match women’s abilities seems to have discouraged them from seeking employment.
 能力を発揮できる働き口が少ないことが、女性の就労意欲をそいでいるのではないか。

The ratio of women in managerial positions is about 10 percent, far lower compared to 30 percent to 40 percent in the United States and Europe. Forty percent of women promoted to managerial posts in Japan are unmarried, while 60 percent of women in managerial posts have no children. These figures indicate that women have been forced to choose between a career or family life.
 管理職に占める女性の割合は1割程度で、欧米諸国の3、4割と比べ、際立って低い。管理職に昇進した女性の4割は未婚だ。6割は子供がいない。日本の女性が、仕事と家庭の二者択一を迫られている現状がうかがえる。

The fact that highly educated women have not been utilized effectively is a great loss to society. The current situation where women are being deprived of opportunities to work because of such constraints as child-rearing, which limits their working hours, is a problem involving all women, irrespective of their educational backgrounds.
 高い教育を受けた人材が活用されないのは、社会的に大きな損失だ。子育てなどで働く時間に制約があると、活躍の機会が奪われるのは、学歴にかかわらず、女性全般の問題でもある。

To improve this situation, it is imperative to change how workplaces operate as a whole, including the working style of men.
 男性を含め、職場全体の働き方を変えることが肝要だ。

Attention should be paid to what should be done to enable both men and women to take charge of household chores and child-rearing, by reviewing what jobs entail and how they can be more advantageously assigned to reduce long working hours.
 仕事の内容や配分を見直して長時間労働を減らし、男女とも家事・育児を担えるようにする。

In addition, measures should be taken to allow for flexible working hours and working at home.
その上で、フレックスタイムや在宅勤務など、柔軟な働き方を広げる。

Steps also are needed to promote the so-called limited regular employee system, or job-based regular employees, whose scope of duties, including working hours, is limited.
勤務時間などを限った限定正社員の普及も有効だろう。

To prevent diversified types of work from becoming detrimental to career development, building effective personnel evaluation methods is key to fairly judge the results of work, by clarifying the scopes and goals of jobs for respective employees.
 こうした多様な勤務形態が、キャリア形成の上で不利にならないよう、仕事の範囲と目標を明確にし、成果を判断する人事評価システムが求められる。

Effectively utilizing human resources with a wide variety of job experiences and values is indispensable to enhance the creativity of businesses and expedite the growth of business activities.
 様々な経験や価値観を持つ人材の活用は、企業の創造性を高め、成長を促進する上で欠かせない。

The new government-envisioned legislation should serve to help businesses deepen their understanding of the importance of effectively utilizing female employees.
新たな法案を、企業の理解を深める契機としたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 21, 2014)Speech

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調査捕鯨 再開へ日本の主張は通るのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can the world accept Japan’s stance on resumption of research whaling?
調査捕鯨 再開へ日本の主張は通るのか

Faced with a chorus of condemnation from antiwhaling countries, Japan has been pushed further into a corner.
 反捕鯨国の攻勢を受けて、日本は一段と苦しい立場に追い込まれた。

At its general assembly Thursday, the International Whaling Commission passed a resolution aimed at getting Japan to postpone its resumption of research whaling in the Antarctic Ocean with a majority vote.
 国際捕鯨委員会(IWC)の総会で、日本による南極海での調査捕鯨再開を先延ばしするよう求める決議が、賛成多数で採択された。

The resolution, which was proposed by New Zealand — a staunch whaling opponent — is meant to stop Japan’s research whaling until the IWC discusses the issue in its next general meeting in 2016.
 決議は、強硬な反捕鯨国であるニュージーランドが提案したもので、2016年の次回総会で審議されるまで、日本の調査捕鯨を認めないとする内容だ。

Although the International Court of Justice ordered Japan to halt research whaling in March, Japan announced Wednesday that it would resume its program in 2015. The latest resolution was aimed at stopping the resumption.
 日本は今年3月に国際司法裁判所から中止を命じられた調査捕鯨を、15年から再開する方針を表明している。決議は、これに待ったをかける狙いがあるのだろう。

As the resolution is nonbinding, Japan is set to resume research whaling as planned. However, the country is braced for intensified criticism from the international community for “violating” the resolution.
 決議に拘束力はなく、日本は予定通り調査を再開する構えだ。とはいえ、「決議に反する」などとして、国際社会の風当たりが強まることは避けられまい。

If it insists on resuming research whaling, Japan needs to make convincing arguments by presenting scientific data that would support the significance of research whaling.
 あくまで再開を目指すのなら、調査捕鯨の意義を裏付ける科学的なデータを示し、説得力のある主張を展開する必要がある。

Japan has stressed it obtained tangible results from research whaling, such as learning how whales damaged fishery resources by eating huge amounts of fish.
 日本は、クジラが大量の魚を食べ、漁業資源に打撃を与えている実態の解明など、調査捕鯨の成果を強調してきた。

It is important for the nation to cite more specific examples like this to win a wider acceptance of research whaling from the world. As it stands, however, resumption of whaling operations could invite intensified calls for Japan to halt research whaling not only in the Antarctic Ocean, but also in the northwestern Pacific.
 こうした実例をもっと示し、国際理解を広げることが大事だ。このままでは南極海だけでなく北西太平洋の調査捕鯨についても、中止を迫る声が強まりかねない。

Hauls less than quotas

Japan has set the annual whale quota for research in the Antarctic Ocean at about 1,000, but its actual hauls have been less than 300 a year for four consecutive years.
 日本は南極海での調査捕鯨の年間捕獲枠を約1000頭に設定してきたが、実際の捕獲数は4年連続で300頭を下回った。

Even if the obstruction of Japan’s operations by the antiwhaling organization Sea Shepherd is factored in, the figures have been much smaller than the quota. Japan’s claim that it must catch that many whales to obtain necessary samples for research purposes has become less convincing.
 反捕鯨団体「シー・シェパード」に妨害された影響を考慮しても、「必要なサンプル数を得るための捕獲調査」との主張が通りにくくなっているのも事実である。

Japan is set to submit a new plan for research whaling to the IWC Scientific Committee by the end of November. It must use its ingenuity to devise a plan to win support from as many countries as possible by, among other means, reducing the haul to the minimum necessary.
 日本は、11月までにIWC科学委員会へ調査捕鯨の新たな計画書を提出する。最低限の捕獲数に絞り込むなど、多くの国に認めてもらうための工夫が求められる。

Japan aims to revive the commercial whaling it withdrew from in 1988, but the demand for whale meat has been sluggish. There is only a limited demand from consumers and fishery businesses for commercial whaling.
 日本は1988年に撤退した商業捕鯨の復活を掲げているが、国内の鯨肉需要は低迷している。商業捕鯨に対する水産会社や消費者のニーズは限られよう。

Now, it may be less significant to continue large-scale research whaling as a precursor to resuming commercial whaling.
 商業捕鯨の再開を期し、大規模な調査捕鯨を続けていく意味は薄れてきたのではないか。

Research whaling is conducted with huge amounts of funds from the state coffers. The government must thoroughly explain to taxpayers why the nation needs to continue research whaling.
 調査捕鯨は多額の国費を投入して実施されている。政府は国内向けにも、継続する必要性を、丁寧に説明しなければならない。

In coastal seas along Hokkaido, Wakayama Prefecture and other areas, whalers catch small species of whales, a practice that is not subject to the IWC control.
 北海道や和歌山県などでは、小型クジラを対象とした沿岸捕鯨が行われている。これらはIWCの管理対象外だ。

We hope the precious food culture based on Japan’s tradition will be handed down to later generations.
日本の伝統に根ざした貴重な食文化を、しっかり後世に伝えていきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 21, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月21日 (日)

社説:辺野古掘削調査 知事選まで作業中断を

September 20, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Put new base survey on hold till after Okinawa gubernatorial election
社説:辺野古掘削調査 知事選まで作業中断を

One month has passed since the Defense Ministry's Okinawa Defense Bureau began a boring survey on the seabed off the Henoko district of Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, in preparation to build a substitute facility for the U.S. military's Air Station Futenma.
 防衛省沖縄防衛局が、米軍普天間飛行場(沖縄県宜野湾市)の名護市辺野古への移設に向け、海底を掘削して埋め立て地盤の強度や地質を調べるボーリング調査を開始して1カ月たつ。

We are concerned about the way in which the national government is pressing forward with the project as if it is overriding resistance from local residents and creating a fait accompli one after another.
県民の反対を押し切って、既成事実を積み上げようとするかのようなやり方を、私たちは憂慮する。

To avoid further deepening the rift within Okinawa, the central government should suspend the boring survey to see how voters in the southernmost prefecture will react to the project through the Nov. 16 Okinawa gubernatorial election.
沖縄との亀裂をこれ以上、深めないよう、政府は掘削調査を中断し、11月16日に投開票される沖縄県知事選の結果を待つべきだ。
   
The national government initially planned to launch a boring survey in 2004 but its attempt was blocked by opponents. As such, the government is guarding the site by designating a larger area off Henoko as an off-limit zone, and has come under fire from opponents of the project and others for being on excessively high alert.
 政府は、2004年にも掘削調査を実施しようとしながら反対派の阻止行動で中止に追い込まれたことから、今回は立ち入り禁止水域を拡大して警戒を強めており、反対派などから過剰警備との批判が出ている。

The government's tough stance is supported by the fact that Gov. Hirokazu Nakaima granted the government permission to reclaim offshore areas of Henoko.
 政府が強硬方針を貫く支えは、昨年末に仲井真弘多(ひろかず)知事が辺野古埋め立てを承認したことだ。

However, Nakaima deserves criticism that he violated his campaign pledge that he would stick to his demand that Futenma base, situated in a densely populated area of the city of Ginowan, be moved out of the prefecture.
だが、前回知事選で「県外移設」公約を掲げて再選された仲井真知事が、辺野古埋め立てを承認したことは「公約違反」と言われても仕方がない。

Numerous Okinawa residents reacted sharply to Nakaima's about-face. In January this year, Nago voters re-elected Mayor Susumu Inamine, who is opposed to the relocation of Futenma base to Henoko, while pro-mayor candidates won a majority in the municipal assembly in a recent election.
 県民は反発し、1月の名護市長選では移設に反対する稲嶺進市長が再選され、先の名護市議選でも市長派が過半数を維持した。

Furthermore, the prefectural assembly adopted a resolution on Sept. 3 protesting against the national government for going ahead with the boring survey and calling for an immediate halt to the work, with the support of not only four opposition parties but also New Komeito that supports Nakaima.
今月3日には県議会で、野党4会派のほか与党の公明党も賛成して、掘削調査に着手した政府に抗議し、工事の即時中止などを求める意見書が可決された。

Such being the case, whether Nakaima's decision reflects local residents' views on the issue will be a key point of contention in the upcoming gubernatorial race.
 名護市長と多くの県民が辺野古移設に反対する中で、埋め立てを承認した知事の判断は、民意を代表したものだったと言えるのか。11月の知事選はそれが問われる選挙になる。

However, the government of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe appears unwilling to listen to local communities' opinions on the issue.
 しかし、安倍政権はあまり聞く耳を持たないようだ。

Rather, it appears that the stiffer local residents' opposition grows to the project, the further the Abe administration presses forward with the work on the substitute facility for Futenma base in a bid to prevent Nakaima's possible election loss from adversely affecting the project.
それどころか、沖縄で反対の声が高まれば高まるほど、仮に知事選で仲井真氏が敗れても辺野古移設に影響しないようにするため、工事を進めて既成事実化を図ろうとしているように見える。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga told a recent news conference, "Primary attention had been focused on whether the Okinawa Prefectural Government would approve the reclamation, but it's already a past concern." However, the remark Suga made as if he dismissed opposition to the project can hardly convince local residents.
 菅義偉官房長官は、先日の記者会見で、辺野古移設について「最大の関心は沖縄県が埋め立てを承認するかどうかだった。この問題はもう過去のものだ」と語った。反対意見を「過去の問題」と切り捨てるような発言は、納得できない。

In an article he contributed to the U.S. news site The Huffington Post last month, former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense Joseph Nye pointed out that as China's ballistic missile technology advances, U.S. bases in Okinawa Prefecture become increasingly vulnerable. He also pointed to Okinawa residents' anger at the burden of U.S. bases on them, and called for reconsidering the structure of the Japan-U.S. alliance, such as the way U.S. forces should be deployed in the Japanese archipelago.
 米国のジョセフ・ナイ元国防次官補は先月、米ニュースサイト「ハフィントン・ポスト」に寄稿した論文で、沖縄の米軍基地が中国の弾道ミサイル技術の進展で「脆弱(ぜいじゃく)」になっていることや、沖縄の人々の基地負担に対する怒りを指摘して、在日米軍の配備のあり方など日米同盟の構造を再考するよう求めた。

Why does the national government view the planned construction of a substitute facility for the Air Station Futenma off Henoko as the only way to settle the issue of relocating the base while even an expert in diplomacy and security like Nye has made such a proposal?
 外交・安全保障の専門家までがこう提言する中で、政府が辺野古移設を「唯一の解決策」とするのはなぜか。

The government bears responsibility to provide a sufficient explanation to Okinawa residents. As such, the boring survey should be put on hold until after the gubernatorial election.
政府は沖縄の人々に十分な説明をする責任がある。掘削調査は、知事選が終わるまで中断すべきだ。

毎日新聞 2014年09月20日 02時30分

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北の拉致報告 「初期段階」の説明は通らない

The Yomiuri Shimbun
EDITORIAL / N. Korea must tackle abduction issue sincerely, not give details piecemeal
北の拉致報告 「初期段階」の説明は通らない

North Korea should deal with the issue of Japanese nationals abducted by its agents in good faith, without resorting to such cheap tricks as producing information on them piecemeal.
 北朝鮮は日本人拉致問題で、情報を小出しにするなどの小細工をやめ、誠実に対応すべきだ。

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said Friday that North Korea is expected to fall behind schedule in releasing an initial report on its new investigation into the Japanese abductees. Japan and North Korea agreed in July that the first report would be released in late summer to early autumn, but Pyongyang reportedly told the Japanese side that the investigation is still in an early stage and there is no more information available beyond that level.
 菅官房長官は、北朝鮮による拉致問題の再調査に関する1回目の報告時期が遅れる見通しを明らかにした。
 日朝両政府は7月、報告時期について「夏の終わりから秋の初め」で合意していた。
しかし、北朝鮮が「調査はまだ初期段階にあり、この段階を超えた説明はできない」などと連絡してきたという。

This represents a de facto postponement of the report’s submission.
報告の事実上の先送りである。

North Korea established a special investigative panel in early July that it said was authorized by the National Defense Commission, a body headed by supreme leader Kim Jong Un, to investigate all the organizations in the country.
 北朝鮮は7月上旬、特別調査委員会を設置した。金正恩第1書記をトップとする国防委員会から北朝鮮の全機関を調査する権限を付与された、と説明してきた。

With more than two months having passed since the probe began, North Korea’s statement that the investigation is still in an initial stage is far from compelling.
 調査開始から2か月以上を経過しているのに、なお「初期段階」とする北朝鮮の言い分は到底、納得できるものではない。

Suga called on Pyongyang to deal with the issue “in good faith,” saying that “North Korean authorities are supposed to obtain all information on the abductees.” He makes a good point.
 菅長官が「拉致された人(の情報)は、北朝鮮当局がすべて掌握していると思っている。誠意を持って対応してほしい」と強調したのは、当然である。

The probe is expected to be conducted over about a year. North Korea should disclose the content of its investigation frankly and sequentially, without resorting to diplomatic maneuvering.
 調査期間は1年程度とされるが、北朝鮮は、外交上の駆け引きに走ることなく、調査内容を隠さずに順次、開示すべきだ。

Subject to the investigation are 12 confirmed abductees who have yet to return home and other Japanese nationals who are believed to have been abducted. Many of the victims were kidnapped in the 1970s and ’80s. Aging family members and other relatives want them to be returned as soon as possible.
 調査対象は、未帰国の拉致被害者12人に加え、拉致の可能性のある特定失踪者なども含む。被害者の多くは1970~80年代に拉致されており、被害者家族らの高齢化が進んでいる。家族は一日も早い被害者の帰国を望んでいる。

Substantive report urged

Speaking at a lecture meeting Friday, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said: “It’s meaningless to receive [from North Korea] a report that is just for form’s sake and has no substantial content. I urge [Pyongyang] to submit a report that is substantive and reliable.”
 安倍首相は講演で、「形ばかりの中身のない報告をもらっても仕方がない。しっかりと確実な報告をしてもらいたい」と語った。

The government needs to accelerate efforts to agree on the timing for submission of the first report through negotiations with North Korea and call strongly for it to provide accurate information on the abductees in the report.
 政府は、北朝鮮と交渉し、1回目の報告時期を早急に詰めるとともに、正確な情報を提供するよう強く促す必要がある。

Abe maintains the principle of rewarding action with action. If North Korea is forthcoming in addressing the abduction issue, Japan will respond to that favorably.
 首相は、「行動対行動」の原則を掲げている。北朝鮮が前向きな対応を示せば、日本もそれに見合う措置を取るものだ。

In response to North Korea’s commitment to launch a reinvestigation into the abductees, Japan partially lifted the sanctions it had imposed against Pyongyang over the latter’s nuclear and missile development programs. So the delay in release of the first report could be considered a betrayal of the faith Japan put in North Korea.
 日本は、再調査の開始に合わせて、北朝鮮に対する制裁を一部解除した。今回の北朝鮮の対応は、それを裏切るものと言える。

The fact that North Korea has repeatedly test-launched ballistic and other missiles toward the Sea of Japan — in defiance of repeated protests by Japan — cannot be overlooked.
 看過できないのは、北朝鮮が最近も、日本海に向けて、弾道ミサイルなどの発射を繰り返していることだ。日本の再三の抗議を無視し続けている。

It is essential for the government to maintain a policy of resolving the abduction, nuclear and missile development issues in a comprehensive manner. It is imperative to cooperate closely with the United States and South Korea by taking advantage of such occasions as the U.N. General Assembly meeting scheduled for next week, so the international net around North Korea is not loosened.
 政府は、拉致と核・ミサイルの問題を包括的に解決する方針を堅持することが重要である。来週の国連総会の機会などを通じて、米国や韓国と緊密に連携し、北朝鮮に対する国際包囲網を崩さないことが求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 20, 2014)Speech

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スコットランド 独立否決でも難題は残った

The Yomiuri Shimbun
United Kingdom holds together, but challenging issues remain
スコットランド 独立否決でも難題は残った

Britain has been spared the worst-case scenario of the United Kingdom being ripped apart, which would have thrown the country into turmoil, but it is still confronted by such thorny issues as how to give greater autonomy to Scotland.
 英国が分裂し、混乱に陥る最悪の事態は回避された。だが、自治権限をどう拡大するかなど、難題が残っている。

In Thursday’s referendum, 55 percent of residents voted against the independence of Scotland, in the north of the British Isles, which means the country will remain in the United Kingdom.
 英北部スコットランドの独立の是非を問う住民投票は、反対が55%に上った。スコットランドが英国にとどまることが決まった。

The United Kingdom’s national power would have been diminished if Scotland — which occupies 32 percent of Britain’s entire area and is home to 8 percent of the nation’s population — had seceded. Scotland’s independence would have caused a plunging drop in the value of the British pound, dealing a blow to the European economy, and resulted in a rupture of the nation’s security policy as it forced the home port for submarines armed with nuclear missiles to be relocated.
 英国の面積の32%、人口の8%を占めるスコットランドが独立すれば、英国の国力低下は避けられなかった。英ポンド急落に伴う欧州経済への打撃や、核搭載潜水艦の母港移転による安全保障政策の綻びを招く恐れもあった。

“The people of Scotland have spoken,” British Prime Minister David Cameron said about the referendum’s results. “They have kept our country of four nations together. Like millions of other people, I am delighted.” He added that “it is time for our United Kingdom to come together, and to move forward.”
 キャメロン首相は投票結果について、「英国が団結を維持できたことは喜ばしい」と述べ、国民に結束を呼びかけた。

The referendum pitted the pro-independence Scottish National Party (SNP) against the major ruling and opposition parties — the Conservative and Labour parties — both of which opposed Scotland’s split from the United Kingdom.
 住民投票は、独立を目指すスコットランド民族党(SNP)と、反対する与野党の保守、労働両党などが対決する構図だった。

The SNP, which controls the Scottish government, has argued that independence would bring improved social welfare, which would be funded by tax revenues from the North Sea oil fields.
 スコットランド自治政府を掌握するSNPは、独立すれば、北海油田などからの税収を基に社会福祉を充実できる、と訴えた。

Financial foundations unclear

But the SNP’s forecast for securing financial sources was not well founded. It also failed to present an alternative option for its future currency after continued use of the sterling upon independence was rejected by the British government. Furthermore, its assertion that Scotland would be able to stay in the European Union even after independence was baseless.
 しかし、財源確保の見通しは甘く、英ポンドの使用継続も英政府から拒否され、代替案を示せなかった。欧州連合(EU)残留が可能だとの主張も根拠を欠いた。

British business circles had been intensifying their opposition to the breakaway, with several major companies announcing that they would move their head offices from Scotland if it left the United Kingdom.
 複数の大手企業が、独立すれば本社をスコットランドから移すと公表するなど、経済界には独立への反対論が強まっていた。

The majority vote against independence can be attributed mainly to concerns over the grave consequences independence would have on the Scottish economy and its relations with foreign countries. It was a realistic decision.
 独立反対が過半数を占めたのは、経済面や対外関係での悪影響への懸念が主な理由だろう。現実的な判断だったと言えよう。

It is nonetheless significant that the number of pro-independence residents has grown dramatically since Cameron gave the go-ahead for the referendum two years ago.
 ただ、2年前に投票実施が決まった後、独立賛成派が大幅に伸長したことの意味は大きい。

The Cameron administration has pledged to give considerably greater autonomy to Scotland, possibly in the fields of social welfare and the taxation system, in addition to areas in which Scotland already enjoys autonomy, such as education.
 キャメロン政権は、スコットランドの自治権限の大幅拡大を約束した。既に権限が移譲されている教育分野などに加え、社会福祉や税制も対象となる見通しだ。

The administration now has a challenge in how it will respond to demands for greater autonomy from Wales and Northern Ireland, which have been stimulated by what happened in Scotland.
 スコットランドに刺激を受けたウェールズや北アイルランドからの権限拡大の要求に、どう応えるかも課題である。

Europe has seen the rise of independence movements in various regions that have their own histories and cultures, including Spain’s Catalonia.
 特定地域の住民が独自の歴史、文化を背景に独立を求める動きはスペインのカタルーニャ自治州など欧州各地で活発化している。

These separatist regions may have been unduly encouraged by the notion that even a small country can be sustainable as an independent nation under the umbrella of the European Union, which has grown to put less importance on current national borders.
 欧州統合の進展により、現在の国境を絶対視せず、EU傘下にいれば小国でも独立を維持できる、と安易に考える風潮が助長されている面もあるのではないか。

The Scottish referendum has attracted global attention, an interest possibly growing out of shared concerns that demands for autonomy linked with nationalism could compromise the international order.
 今回の住民投票は、世界的な注目を集めた。民族主義などと結びついた自治要求が国際秩序をも揺るがしかねない、という問題意識が共有されたからだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 20, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月20日 (土)

社説:地方の地価下落 格差拡大防ぐ手立てを

毎日、評判は芳しくないけれども、読売の社説よりはまともな視点をしています。
(スラチャイ)

September 19, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Measures needed to end continuing decline in land prices
社説:地方の地価下落 格差拡大防ぐ手立てを

The government has released data on so-called "standard" land prices across the country as of July 1. The figures show that the price of land in residential areas within three urban regions around Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya rose 0.5 percent from a year earlier on average, marking the first time in six years that standard land prices have turned upward in these areas. In contrast, land prices in most of the other areas show no sign of bottoming out -- those in residential and commercial districts outside the big three urban areas saw a 1.8 percent decline, falling for the 22nd consecutive year. Similarly, those in commercial districts dropped an average of 2.2 percent, marking the 23rd straight year of decline.
 7月1日時点の基準地価が公表された。東京、大阪、名古屋の3大都市圏の住宅地の平均は前年に比べ0.5%上昇と6年ぶりにプラスに転じ、商業地は2年連続上昇だった。大都市の地価は回復の動きを続けている。しかし、地方圏は住宅地が1.8%下落し22年連続のマイナス、商業地が2.2%下落し23年連続のマイナスで、長期の地価下落に歯止めがかかっていない。
   
To a certain extent, a fall in land prices in regional areas is inevitable due to the declining birthrate, dwindling population and aging. It is impossible to judge immediately whether a rise or decline in land prices is good or bad. Still, a downward trend in land prices in less urbanized regions reflects the fact that the declining birthrate and aging of the population, as well as the outflow of younger residents, has hindered the utilization of land and caused regional economies to shrink.
 少子高齢化や人口減で、地方は構造的に地価下落が避けられない面はある。地価の上昇、下落を単純に良い、悪いと決めつけることはできない。ただ、地方の地価下落が長く続くのは、少子高齢化や若者の流出で、土地の利用が先細りになり、地域経済が衰退していることを映し出している。

With the Tokyo Summer Olympics and Paralympics scheduled for 2020, fears persist that economic disparities between urban and rural areas and differences in the values of assets in rural and urban assents will grow. The gaps will only expand if effective countermeasures aren't implemented.
2020年の東京五輪を控え、大都市との経済格差、資産格差が一段と広がる懸念は強い。手をこまねいていては大都市との格差が拡大するばかりだ。

Some 15,000 locations outside the big three urban areas were also covered by the latest survey. Only about 10 percent of them marked increases in land prices. Land prices remained at the same level as a year earlier in another 10 percent of these locations, while those in the other 80 percent declined.
 地方圏は全国約1万5000の調査地点のうち、上昇は1割にすぎず、横ばいが1割で、残る8割は下落だった。

In the three urban areas, 50 percent of some 5,800 surveyed locations saw their land prices grow, while land prices fell in over 20 percent of these locations. Such being the case, it is obvious that regional areas are getting left behind when it comes to recovery in land prices.
3大都市圏は約5800地点中5割が上昇し、下落は2割強だった。地方圏は地価回復から取り残されていることは明らかだ。

By prefecture, Akita saw the largest decline in land prices, with those in residential areas falling 4.4 percent, and those in commercial districts diving 5.5 percent. Aomori and Tottori prefectures followed. In Akita Prefecture, land prices remained unchanged in only one of its 306 surveyed locations, while those in all the other locations fell.
 都道府県別でみると、下落率が最も大きかったのは秋田県で、住宅地は4.4%下落、商業地は5.5%下落した。次いで青森県、鳥取県などだった。秋田県は住宅地と商業地の調査地点306地点のうち、1地点だけが横ばいで、あとはすべて下落している。

Still, some cases give clues to reversing the downward trend in land prices in rural areas. In the Shizuoka Prefecture town of Nagaizumi, situated at the root of the Izu Peninsula, the average price of land in residential areas rose 0.7 percent, marking the fifth consecutive year of increases. Demand for residential land in the town remains strong thanks to the local body's measures to support childrearing, such as making medical services for children free of charge on a step-by-step basis since the 1970s, in addition to efforts to solicit companies to set up factories in the town.
 それでも、地価下落に歯止めをかける手がかりも見られる。伊豆半島の付け根に位置する静岡県長泉(ながいずみ)町は、住宅地が0.7%上昇し、5年連続でプラスになった。工場誘致に力を入れる一方、1970年代から段階的に子どもの医療費無料化を実施するなど、早くから子育て支援に取り組んだことが人口増につながり、宅地需要が堅調だ。

Land prices in residential areas of Toyama and Kanazawa decreased, but the rate of decline was much smaller than before. Those in commercial districts of both cities turned upward. These trends are attributable largely to the extension of the Hokuriku Shinkansen Line between Takasaki and Nagano to Kanazawa in March 2015. However, some experts have pointed out that these local bodies' efforts to renovate housing and increase subsidies for rented houses for elderly people to prevent an outflow of residents from downtown to suburban areas or surrounding cities also played a part in these trends.
 富山市と金沢市は、住宅地は下落したが、下落率が目立って圧縮し、商業地は両市とも上昇に転じた。来年3月の北陸新幹線開通が大きな要因だが、居住者が市中心部から郊外や他の都市に転出する流れを抑えるため、住宅改修や、高齢者向け賃貸住宅への補助の充実といった取り組みが底流にあるとの指摘がある。

Efforts to develop areas to attract people boosts utilization of land, which eventually helps stabilize land prices. The government places emphasis on vitalizing local economies in its national policy. However, if numerous shops along shopping arcades in rural areas remain closed, such efforts will be meaningless, even if major highways are built. Both national and local governments should consider ways to redevelop towns into areas that match local characteristics and can attract people from other areas.
 「住みたい」「行きたい」と思わせる街づくりが土地の利用を活発にする。それが地価の安定にも結びつく。政府は「地方創生」に重点を置く。だが、公共事業ばかりに力を入れて、道路が立派になっても商店街がシャッター通りでは意味がない。行政は、地域の特性に合わせた魅力ある街づくりをする工夫が必要だ。

毎日新聞 2014年09月19日 02時32分

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ウナギ養殖規制 資源保護の実効性が問われる

ウナギは食うな、クジラは食うな。
いやな時代になりました。
でも、一番いやなのは、金融緩和政策による円安なんです。
海外円建て生活者の生活(暮らし向き)を直撃しています。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
New glass eel farming restrictions must have bite as well as bark
ウナギ養殖規制 資源保護の実効性が問われる

We hope efforts to protect eel resources will be strengthened so people can continue to eat Japanese eel.
 ウナギを食べ続けられるよう、資源保護の取り組みを強化したい。

Japan, China, South Korea and Taiwan have agreed to reduce eel farmers’ procurement of young Japanese eels by 20 percent from 2015. This is the first international framework created to manage stocks of the Japanese eel.
 日本と中国、韓国、台湾が、ニホンウナギの養殖量を、2015年から2割減らすことで合意した。ニホンウナギの資源管理に関する初の国際的な枠組みだ。

Wild stocks of glass, or young, eels that are used for farming are rapidly decreasing due to overfishing. In 2013, Japan caught about five tons of glass eels, barely one-tenth of the figure netted in the mid-1970s.
 養殖に使う稚魚の「シラス」は乱獲で激減している。日本の13年の漁獲量は約5トンで、1970年代半ばの10分の1にすぎない。

China and other nations that export eel to Japan also are struggling with poorer catches.
日本にウナギを輸出する中国などでも漁獲量は低迷している。

Japan is the biggest consumer of Japanese eel. To prevent the depletion of eel resources, Japan proposed the restrictions during unofficial talks with the three other governments. The agreement will control the volume of glass eels that can be used at eel farms.
 資源の枯渇を防ぐため、最大の消費国である日本が非公式協議で提案し、養殖場に入れるシラスの量を規制することになった。

Although this is a “gentleman’s agreement” with no legally binding power, we welcome the fact that the international parties involved share a sense of crisis about the state of eel stocks, and are now aligned on protecting this resource.
 法的拘束力のない「紳士協定」とはいえ、4か国・地域が危機感を共有し、資源保護で足並みをそろえたことは評価できる。

The drive to reach this agreement on managing eel resources stemmed from critical views in the international community about overfishing of Japanese eel.
 資源管理で合意した背景には、ニホンウナギの乱獲に対する国際社会の厳しい見方がある。

In June, the International Union for Conservation of Nature designated Japanese eel as an endangered species.
 国際自然保護連合(IUCN)は今年6月、ニホンウナギを「絶滅危惧種」に指定した。

Consequently, it is possible restrictions on the export and import of Japanese eel could be set at a meeting of the Washington Convention due to be held in 2016. The convention is an international treaty to protect endangered animals and plants.
このため2016年に開かれるワシントン条約の会議で、輸出入制限の対象になる可能性が出ている。

If trade in the eels were to be restricted, it would generate significant problems in Japan, because 60 percent of eel consumed here is imported. Eel farmers in China and other nations would also suffer a blow if exports were restricted.
 対象になれば、国内消費の6割を輸入に頼る日本が困るだけでなく、輸出が制限される中国などの養殖業者も打撃を受ける。

Will 20% be enough?

China and Taiwan initially opposed Japan’s proposal to scale back the volume of young eels introduced into eel farms. Their about-face is probably aimed at protecting their own eel farmers.
 日本提案に当初は反対した中国や台湾が受け入れたのは、自国の養殖業者を守る狙いだろう。

To ensure that Japanese eel does not become restricted by the Washington Convention, it is essential to steadily reduce the volume of young eels being moved from the wild to eel farms and demonstrate clear results in the protection of eel resources.
 ワシントン条約の制限を受けないためには、養殖量の削減を着実に実行し、資源保護の成果を上げることが重要だ。

There was apparently no scientific basis for choosing 20 percent as the figure for reduction. It will be necessary to verify the agreement’s effectiveness in replenishing eel stocks. If this 20 percent reduction is found to be insufficient, additional cuts may need to be considered.
 2割の削減幅には科学的な根拠はないという。資源回復の効果を検証し、不十分な場合は削減幅の上積みが求められよう。

Eel farmers and others in the four parties to this agreement will be entrusted with managing eel resources.
 資源管理の対応は、各国・地域の業者などに委ねられる。

Private-sector bodies comprising eel farm operators and others will confirm the new rules are being followed.
 規制の順守状況の確認は、養殖業者らが作る民間の自主管理組織が担う。

An international nongovernmental organization will be established to oversee these bodies and share reports on the state of eel stocks.
これらの上部団体として国際的な非政府組織を設立し、状況を報告し合うという。

If these rules are not thoroughly enforced and stocks of Japanese eel continue to decline, eel farmers will end up shooting themselves in the foot. We urge them to be keenly aware of this fact and positively go along with the four-way agreement.
 規制を徹底せずに、ニホンウナギの減少が続くようだと、養殖業者は自らの首を絞めることになる。それを自覚し、積極的に取り組んでもらいたい。

Looking ahead, it will be worth considering elevating the status of the agreement to an accord based on international treaties and making it legally binding.
 合意を国際条約に基づく協定に格上げし、拘束力を持たせることも、今後の検討課題だ。

Many observers have suggested the restrictions on the amount of glass eels that can be used for farming will result in a shortage of eel and keep prices high. While it is certain this agreement will hit consumers in the pocket, it is a cost that must be paid to protect an important element of Japanese cuisine.
 養殖規制によってウナギが品薄になり、価格が高止まりするとの見方は多い。消費者の懐に響くのは確かだが、ウナギという大切な日本食を守るために、必要なコストである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 19, 2014)Speech

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基準地価 都市の回復を地方に広げたい

少子高齢化時代です。
インフレ政策よりも、物価の安定のほうが望ましいです。
多少のデフレでも、それでしあわせであれば十分なんです。
アベノミクス、そのうちに崩壊するでしょう。
いやな時代となりました。
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Big city land price increases should spread to revitalize regional economies
基準地価 都市の回復を地方に広げたい

The trend toward higher land prices should spread across the country, with moderate increases continuing in large metropolitan areas. It is very important for land prices to recover, to ensure the rejuvenation of regional economies outside major urban areas.
 大都市圏の緩やかな地価上昇を持続し、全国に波及させる。地価の回復は、地方再生を図るうえでも大切だ。

Prices of residential land in the nation’s three largest metropolitan areas — Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya — picked up for the first time in six years in the 12 months to July 1, according to data released Thursday by the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry. Commercial land prices in the key metropolitan areas posted year-on-year growth for a second straight year during the one-year period, with growth rates rising from a year before, the ministry said.
 国土交通省が発表した7月1日の基準地価は、東京、大阪、名古屋の3大都市圏で、住宅地が6年ぶりに上昇に転じた。商業地は2年連続で前年比プラスとなり、上昇率も拡大した。

It can now be safely said that drops in land prices due to the economic downturn triggered by the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy in 2008 have bottomed out in large cities, and prices are beginning to get back on a recovery track. Because of such factors as the favorable effects of the Abenomics economic policy of the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, corporate performance has been improving, which has pushed up demand for office properties.
 2008年のリーマン・ショック後の景気悪化で落ち込んだ地価は、大都市で底入れし、回復過程に入ったと言えるだろう。
 安倍政権の経済政策「アベノミクス」の効果などで企業業績が改善し、オフィスの需要が伸びている。

Housing sales were high in the year to July 1, also pushing land prices upward, thanks to such tailwinds as low interest rates due to the Bank of Japan’s quantitative monetary easing and the government’s tax breaks for housing loans, according to the annual survey.
日銀の金融緩和を背景とした低金利や住宅ローン減税の追い風を受け、住宅販売が好調だったことも、地価を上向かせた。

Increases in the value of real estate properties held by individuals and businesses are expected to boost consumption and capital investment. This should buoy business activities, which in turn would further revitalize the real estate market. We hope to see this virtuous circle come to be.
 個人や企業の保有する不動産の資産価値の上昇が、消費や設備投資の拡大を後押しし、好景気が不動産市場を一段と活性化させる。そうした「好循環」が実現することを期待したい。

However, there are still many causes for concern regarding future land prices.
 ただし、地価の今後を展望すると、不安材料は少なくない。

Housing demand has been clouded, as illustrated by such facts as continuing dips in sales of condominiums in the Tokyo metropolitan area in recent months. There was a spike in demand in the housing sector ahead of the three-percentage-point increase from April 1 in the consumption tax to 8 percent. The current downturn should be considered the reverse effect of that last-minute jump in demand.
 首都圏のマンション販売戸数の減少が続くなど、住宅需要に陰りが見える。今年4月の消費税率引き上げ前は、住宅市場で駆け込み需要が盛り上がった。その反動減が出ているのだろう。

Attractive city planning needed

Also worrying are increases in construction personnel costs due to labor shortages and hikes in prices of construction materials. Higher construction costs, if left unabated, could hamper real estate investments such as purchases of plots of land for office buildings and condominiums.
 人手不足による人件費の上昇や資材の値上がりも心配だ。建設費がかさみ、ビルやマンションの用地取得などの不動産投資を阻害しかねない。

A “mini bubble,” in which land prices rise in excess of real demand, could also destabilize land prices.
 地価が実需より上がる「ミニバブル」も地価の安定を脅かす。

In the coastal areas of Tokyo near major venues for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games, there are many locations where land prices have increased by around 10 percent year on year. Attention must be paid to guard against speculative land purchases.
 20年東京五輪・パラリンピックの主会場となる東京・臨海部では、地価の上昇率が10%前後と高い地点が目立つ。投機的な資金の動きに警戒せねばならない。

In contrast, the national average price of land has declined for 23 years in a row for residential land and for seven straight years for commercial locations. This is due primarily to delays in the recovery of economies of regions other than big cities.
 一方、全国平均の基準地価は、住宅地が23年連続、商業地も7年連続で下落した。地方圏の回復が遅れているためだ。

Although land prices have risen in many locations in major regional cities such as Sapporo and Sendai, the faltering prices of land in regions that are seeing an exodus of their populations or the rapid graying of their communities are serious.
 札幌や仙台など地方の中核都市では上昇した地点が多いが、人口流出や高齢化が進んでいる地域の地価低迷は深刻である。

If and when progress is made in redevelopment projects aiming to make communities attractive enough that people want to live there, those communities would certainly be reinvigorated, leading to higher land prices there. Price trends for land in regions other than big metropolitan areas will be a barometer for gauging the success or failure of the policies to develop regional economies, one of the key priorities of the Abe administration.
 多くの人が「住みたい」と思う魅力的な街づくりが進めば、地域が活気づき、地価も改善するはずだ。地方の地価動向は、安倍政権が重要課題に掲げる「地方創生」が成果を上げているかどうかのバロメーターともなろう。

There are many tasks that should be addressed in this regard, such as promoting industries characteristic of respective regions and tourism there, as well as strengthening assistance with child-rearing. The central and local governments should work together closely to accelerate the implementation of measures to reinvigorate regional economies in ways suited to the realities of different areas.
 地場産業や観光の振興、子育て支援など、やるべきことは山積している。政府と自治体が連携し、各地域の実情に合った再生策を加速してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 19, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月19日 (金)

社説:原発の支援強化 脱依存政策に逆行する

September 18, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Nuclear plant support measures run counter to official policy
社説:原発の支援強化 脱依存政策に逆行する

The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry is considering boosting support for nuclear power plants as Japan moves toward full liberalization of its electricity retailing market.
 電力小売りの全面自由化に備え、経済産業省が原発支援の強化策を検討している。

Under the system eyed by the ministry, consumers would shoulder the huge costs of building and decommissioning reactors so that even if there were an electricity price war, power companies wouldn't go into the red. In essence, the system makes it easy to build and rebuild nuclear power plants and maintain them in the future.
電気の価格競争が起きても、巨額の建設費や廃炉などのコストを消費者に負担させ、電力会社が赤字にならない仕組みを導入するという。新設や建て替えを容易にし、将来にわたって原発を維持するための仕組みと言える。
   
But proposals that attempt to extend the life of nuclear power plants when the government has yet to present a picture for the future of the nation's energy policies cannot be justified.
 エネルギー政策の将来像を示さないまま、原発の延命ばかりを図ろうとする政策には納得できない。

Nuclear power costs much more than thermal and other forms of power, yet for decades power companies have recovered expenses, protected by regional monopolies and the full cost pricing method that tacks the cost of producing electricity onto power bills.
 原発は火力発電などに比べて巨額のコストがかかる。電力会社は発電費用を電気料金に転嫁させる総括原価方式と地域独占という制度に守られ数十年にわたって、そうしたコストを回収してきた。

With the full liberalization of electricity retailing set to be implemented in fiscal 2016, however, those power companies will lose their regional monopolies. And then the full cost pricing method will be abolished. If more newcomers enter the electricity market and the price of electricity drops, it will become even harder for power companies to recover costs associated with nuclear power.
 ところが2016年度に予定される電力小売りの完全自由化で地域独占は失われる。総括原価方式もその後、廃止される。新規参入が増えて電気の市場価格が下がれば、原発のコスト回収は一段と難しくなる。

The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry therefore proposed new measures to support nuclear power at a meeting to deliberate the role of the nation's nuclear power plants. With respect to the system guaranteeing a set price for electricity produced though nuclear power, the ministry proposed that the cost of decommissioning nuclear reactors and the disposing of spent nuclear fuel be made part of a standard price, with consumers forced to cover the difference if the market price falls below that standard.
 そこで経産省は、原発のあり方などを議論する審議会で新たな原発支援策を提案した。そのうち原発で発電した電気に一定の販売価格を保証する制度は、廃炉や使用済み核燃料の処分に必要な費用も含めて基準価格を設け、市場価格がそれを下回った場合は、その差額分を全国の消費者の電気料金に上乗せすることで穴埋めする仕組みだ。

The ministry is also reportedly set to consider revisions to accounting systems to ease the effects of reactor decommissioning on management.
 さらに、廃炉による経営への影響を緩和するための会計制度見直しなども検討するという。

In terms of fuel alone, nuclear power plants can be run more cheaply than oil-fired power plants or those running on liquefied natural gas. This is probably why power companies are rushing to restart reactors. But when it comes to building a new nuclear plant or rebuilding an existing one, then the circumstances are entirely different. The latest support measures indicate that if market principles were to be given free reign, then the option of maintaining nuclear power would vanish.
 原発は、燃料費だけで比べれば液化天然ガス(LNG)や石油火力などに比べて安上がりだ。電力会社が再稼働を急ぐのもそのためだろう。しかし新設や建て替えとなると事情は一変する。今回の支援策は市場原理に任せた場合、原発を維持し続けるという選択肢はないことを物語っている。

The basic energy plan that the Cabinet approved in April this year states that Japan will aim to reduce its reliance on nuclear power "as much as possible." At the same time, it describes nuclear power as an "important base-load power source" and says the government will determine the level that should be secured. The proposed measures run counter to the policy of breaking with nuclear power. When considering the government's keenness to restart nuclear power plants, it seems that its real intention is to rely on nuclear power.
 政府が今年4月に閣議決定したエネルギー基本計画は、原発依存度を「可能な限り低減させる」として脱原発依存の方針を示す一方、原発を「重要なベースロード電源」と位置づけ、「確保していく規模を見極める」とした。今回の支援策は脱原発依存政策に逆行する。再稼働に前のめりの姿勢などを合わせると、政府の本音は原発依存にあるとうかがえる。

It is probably difficult to do away with nuclear power immediately when considering the importance of a stable supply of electricity, global warming countermeasures, energy security and other such issues. But Japan has gone through the Fukushima nuclear disaster, and it should be aiming to achieve a society that does not rely on nuclear power.
 電力の安定供給や地球温暖化対策、エネルギー安全保障などの観点から原発の即時全廃が困難であることは確かだろう。しかし、福島の原発事故を経験した我が国が目指すべきは、原発に依存しない社会であるはずだ。

The government should therefore outline a path for solving these issues and provide an explanation to the public. Policies that take nuclear power for granted will not win public support.
 政府はそのための課題と解決の道筋を描いて国民に説明すべきである。原発の存続ありきという政策では、国民の理解は得られまい。

毎日新聞 2014年09月18日 02時30分

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再生エネ普及 過大な料金負担は看過できぬ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Renewable energy use must not result in excessive financial burdens
再生エネ普及 過大な料金負担は看過できぬ

It is important for solar, wind and other renewable energy sources to be widely used at affordable rates, a task that must be completed without imposing an excessive financial burden on ordinary households and the corporate sector.
 太陽光や風力など再生可能エネルギーは、家計や企業への過大な負担を避け、無理なく普及させることが重要だ。

About two years have passed since the launch of the government-backed renewable energy purchase program. The number of power generation plans approved under the system has been increasing faster than expected.
 約2年前にスタートした再生エネ買い取り制度に基づく発電計画の認定が、予想を上回る勢いで増えている。

If all approved renewable energy production plans are put into action, the amount of electricity generated through such means will add up to 90 percent of the government’s numerical target. The government said it aims to make renewable energy account for more than 20 percent of the nation’s total electric output by the end of 2030.
 これまで認定された再生エネ発電がすべて稼働すれば、「2030年に全発電量の2割以上を賄う」とする政府目標の、9割を達成できる計算になる。

Under the government-initiated scheme, power from renewable sources will be bought at high prices over the three-year period following the start of the system, which is designed to encourage the use of renewable energy. Moreover, the program will ensure that renewable energy produced under each power generation plan is bought at prices set at the time when the plan is approved, with such a purchase mechanism to be kept in place for up to 20 years.
 制度導入当初の3年間は、再生エネの普及を促進するため、買い取り価格は高く設定されている。しかも、買い取りは最長20年間、認定時の価格で行われる。

This favorable mechanism appears to have set off a flood of applications for the purchase program from business operators seeking to obtain high-price energy purchase rights as soon as possible.
 このため、電気を高値で買い取ってもらう「権利」を早く確保しようとする事業者の申請が殺到したのだろう。

Though the spread of renewable energy is a welcome change, it must be remembered that the purchase cost is covered by money accrued from electricity bills paid by ordinary households and business corporations.
 再生エネの拡大は歓迎すべきだが、買い取りコストは家計や企業の支払う電気料金で賄われる事実も忘れてはならない。

According to one estimate, families and corporations will likely bear a renewable energy purchase cost of more than ¥38 trillion over the next 20 years, by paying electricity bills that include such additional charges.
 料金に上乗せされる形で、家計と企業が今後20年間に負担する買い取りコストは、総額38兆円に上るとの試算もある。

If renewable energy generation plans continue to be approved at a rapid pace, ordinary households and corporations will be forced to shoulder even an greater financial burden.
 今後もハイペースでの認定が続けば、負担はさらに増す。

The slow progress in restarting nuclear power plants has contributed to an increase in fuel expenses for thermal power generation. This has left electricity rates stuck at high levels.
 原発の再稼働が進まず、代替する火力発電の燃料費増大によって電気料金は高止まりしている。

Reexamine pricing

If the current situation goes unchecked, the renewable energy purchase program could impose an additional burden on ordinary families and corporations. This cannot be overlooked.
 再生エネ買い取りが、家計や企業の負担に追い打ちをかける事態は、看過できない。

If the government chooses to reduce purchase prices, it could lead to a last-minute rise in business operators submitting applications for the renewable energy purchase program. Therefore it may be worthwhile to temporarily stop examining and approving applications, and to consider whether it is necessary to adjust purchase prices to more appropriate levels.
 政府が買い取り価格の引き下げに動けば、「駆け込み申請」に拍車がかかる恐れもある。認定を一時停止したうえで、適正な価格への変更を検討してはどうか。

Another aspect of the current situation facing the renewable energy purchase scheme is the exceedingly large number of applications approved for solar power generation. This is partly attributable to the preferential prices at which electricity produced through solar power systems will be purchased. It is also much easier to maintain solar power generation systems than wind or geothermal power systems.
 再生エネのうち、太陽光発電の認定が突出して多いのも特徴だ。買い取り価格が有利なうえに、設備の整備も風力や地熱などより容易なためである。

However, one disadvantage of solar power generation is that its output can fluctuate widely according to the weather. Given this, it is important to achieve a proper balance in the overall composition of various renewable energy sources, including wind and geothermal power generation. Like solar power, wind power generation also varies, although at different times, while geothermal power generation is capable of steadily generating electricity.
 ただ、太陽光は天気によって発電量が大きく変動する欠点を抱えている。発電量が変わるタイミングの違う風力や、安定して電力を供給できる地熱も含め、多様な再生エネをバランスよく普及させることが求められる。

Another problem is that Hokkaido and the Tohoku district, both home to a large number of solar and wind power generation plans, lack the sufficient capability to transmit electricity from their regions to Tokyo and its neighboring areas, where a massive amount of electricity is consumed.
 太陽光や風力の発電計画が多い北海道や東北から、大消費地である首都圏に送電する能力が不足している問題もある。

If electric power corporations are required to foot the high costs of maintaining and upgrading their electrical transmission facilities, it may become another factor supporting the idea of an electricity rate hike.
 送電設備の増強にかかる多額のコストを電力会社が負担すれば、これも料金上昇の要因となる。

The question is the extent to which the public should be required to cover the rising financial burden that accompanies the widespread adoption of renewable energy. The government should closely listen to the opinions of consumers and business circles, and transform the renewable energy purchase program into a more realistic system.
 再生エネの普及に伴って増える国民負担は、どこまで許容できるか。政府は消費者や経済界の意見も十分聞き、より現実的な制度に改めるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 18, 2014)Speech

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食料自給率 農業再生へ穀物偏重を改めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
An outdated fixation on grains warps Japan’s agricultural policy
食料自給率 農業再生へ穀物偏重を改めよ

We believe agricultural policy that is fixated on increasing Japan’s food self-sufficiency rate could, ironically, be a major disadvantage to the revitalization of Japan’s agriculture.
 食料自給率の上昇にこだわった農政は、日本の農業再生にかえってマイナスではないか。

The Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry has established a head office in charge of implementing “aggressive agricultural policies.” It has started considering concrete ways of boosting exports of Japanese farm products, among other strategies.
 農林水産省は「攻めの農業」に関する実行本部を設け、農産品の輸出促進など具体策の検討を開始した。

The administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has trumpeted the revitalization of regional areas and an economic growth strategy as centerpieces of its policy lineup. Energizing agricultural policies and methods that harness the unique characteristics of individual regions is crucial for achieving both of these goals. We hope business developments across the entire process from production to processing to retail will generate growth industries that enable regional areas to flourish.
 安倍政権が掲げる成長戦略と地方創生を後押しするためにも、各地の特性を生かした農業の活性化は急務だ。生産から加工、販売まで一貫した事業展開により、地域を潤す成長産業に育てたい。

However, we find it disconcerting that the government has touted agricultural policies aimed at “maintaining and then increasing the nation’s food self-sufficiency rate” with the aim of ensuring a stable supply of food.
 気がかりなのは、政府が食料の安定確保の観点から、「食料自給率の維持・向上」を農業政策の目標に掲げていることである。

The food self-sufficiency rate is the proportion of food consumed in Japan that is domestically produced. Japan’s food self-sufficiency rate is 39 percent on a caloric intake basis. The government has set a target of raising this figure to 50 percent by fiscal 2020.
 食料自給率は国民が消費する食料のうち国産品が占める比率だ。食物のカロリーを基に算出した自給率は現在39%である。政府は2020年度までに、50%に引き上げることを目標にしている。

While that might sound admirable, it is a stretch to say that a self-sufficiency rate based on caloric intake is an accurate barometer of the true ability of Japan’s agricultural sector.
 ところが、カロリー基準の自給率は、日本の農業の実力を正しく示している指標とは言い難い。

As an example, even pigs and cattle raised by dairy farmers in Japan are not considered to be domestically produced if they eat imported feed, so they are not included in calculations for the self-sufficiency rate.
 例えば、国内の酪農家が育てた牛や豚であっても、輸入した飼料を使った分は国産と見なされず、自給率に算入されない。

Japan grows many of its own fruit and vegetables. But because they are less calorie-dense than rice and other grains, they do not contribute much to the overall self-sufficiency rate.
 野菜や果物は国産が多いのに、コメなどの穀物よりカロリーが低いため、自給率にあまり貢献していない。

However, when measured on a production value basis, Japan’s self-sufficiency rate rises to 65 percent.
生産額を基準に算出すると、自給率は65%に上がる。

Reforms needed

As the quality of Japanese fruit and vegetables improves and more areas develop their own brands of produce, they hold great promise as export products. Focusing too much on a calorie-based self-sufficiency rate has undeniably sidetracked the development of growth industries.
 野菜や果物は品質向上やブランド化が進み、輸出品としても有望だ。カロリー基準の自給率を重視するあまり、成長分野の振興が後回しになった面は否めまい。

The government has set a target of fiscal 2018 for abolition of the policy of reducing acreage used for rice cultivation, which was designed to maintain steady rice prices. And yet at the same time, it plans to expand subsidies to farmers who switch to growing rice to be used as animal feed.
 政府は18年度をメドに、コメの価格維持を目的とした減反政策を廃止する。ただ一方、飼料用米への転作補助金などは拡充する。

Increasing production of domestically grown feed will lead to a higher food self-sufficiency rate.
 国産飼料の増産は、自給率向上につながる。

However, it will also incur huge costs that will protect small farms that have low productivity. This runs counter to the concept of “aggressive agricultural policies.”
だが、高いコストをかけ、生産性の低い零細農家を保護することになる。「攻めの農業」には逆行しよう。

Japan’s self-sufficiency rate was almost 100 percent in the years after World War II when food was scarce. This was because Japan could not afford to import much food. There is little point in using this food situation as a yardstick. Only a handful of other nations and territories, including South Korea and Taiwan, have set self-sufficiency targets.
 戦後の食糧難の時代、日本の自給率は100%近かった。輸入する余裕がなかったためだ。食料事情の目安としての意味も薄い。自給率を目標にしているのは、海外では韓国や台湾などわずかだ。

New Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Minister Koya Nishikawa has said he will “consider which figure should be the goal” for the nation’s food self-sufficiency rate, an indication that the government might revise down its target. This is an opportunity to review current self-sufficiency goals, and should be a major turning point in an agricultural policy that has attached too much emphasis to grains.
 西川農相は食料自給率について「どの辺りを目標にすべきか検討したい」と述べ、下方修正を示唆した。自給率向上を目標としている現状を見直し、穀物偏重の農政を転換すべきだろう。

Stricken by a shortage of people willing to take over farms and an increasing amount of arable land and paddies that have become abandoned, Japan’s agricultural sector is standing on a precipice. It is vital to force through reforms that will boost productivity and the nation’s competitiveness by promoting large-scale farming and encouraging more businesses to enter the agriculture sector. This will transform agriculture into a sector that attracts more people and more investment.
 農家の担い手不足や耕作放棄地の拡大で、日本農業は存亡の危機にある。農地の大規模化や企業参入などの改革を断行して生産性と競争力を高め、農業を魅力ある産業に転換することが肝心だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 18, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月18日 (木)

3倍速の高速化ソフトで仕事も遊びも楽々にこなせます

Windowsを高速化するソフトは無料のものから有料の本格的なものまで数多く見受けられます。
ですが法人導入実績があるソフトウェアはあまり見かけることがありません。
MATSUKAZE-TUNEというすばらしいソフトウェアがなんとネットでダウンロードできるんです。
このソフトウェアはただものではありません。
法人導入実績のノウハウを蓄積して生まれた、実力のあるソフトウェアなんです。
オフィスなどの仕事でつかうソフトウェアは高速化されますし、さらに安定化までしてくれます。
遊びでは断然ユーチューブでしょうね。
もう、画像がぷつぷつと切れるあの不愉快の状態は笑い話しとなります。
これはすごいですよ。
使ってみればすぐに体感できます。
ダウンロードはワンタッチ、きわめて簡単なんです。
パソコンの高速化 ならば、断然MATSUKAZE-TUNEです。



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社説:IWC総会 守るべきは湾岸捕鯨だ

September 17, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Japan must give up Antarctic whaling, focus on preserving coastal hunt
社説:IWC総会 守るべきは湾岸捕鯨だ

The Japanese government will unveil plans to resume research whaling in the Antarctic Ocean at the International Whaling Commission meeting now in session in Slovenia.
 政府は開催中の国際捕鯨委員会(IWC)総会で、南極海で調査捕鯨を再開する計画を示す。
   
It is an absolute certainty, however, that the move will be strongly opposed by a number of anti-whaling nations, while the International Court of Justice has already ordered Japan to cease research whaling. As such, Japan should switch strategies. It should abandon Antarctic whaling -- the necessity of which is doubtful in any case -- and emphasize instead coastal whaling around Japan, which has a foundation in traditional Japanese food culture.
 しかし、国際司法裁判所(ICJ)から中止命令を受けた調査に対し、反捕鯨国が強く反発するのは確実だ。必要性の乏しい南極海での捕鯨からは撤退し、伝統的な食文化といえる沿岸捕鯨に理解を求める戦略に転換すべきだ。

The international court ordered Japan to halt its Antarctic whaling program in March this year, stating that the program did not meet international standards for what constitutes scientific research. The court also took issue with Japan's insistence that the take of 103 minke whales in the 2012-2013 season was scientifically useful, despite the country's assertion that a "sample size" of about 850 was necessary for its scientific objectives. The court said that this and other parts of Japan's case "cast doubt" on the "characterization of JARPA II (the research whaling project) as a programme for the purposes of scientific research."
 ICJが今年3月に中止命令を出したのは、南極海での日本の調査捕鯨が国際条約で認められる科学調査に該当しないと判断したからだ。生態調査には科学的に850頭前後必要だとして捕獲枠を確保しながら、100頭余りしか捕っていない点などが合理性に欠けると認定された。

Japan accepted the international court's decision and called off the whaling expedition for fiscal 2014.
 判決を受けて今年度は南極海での調査を見送り、北西太平洋での調査も規模を縮小した。

The government apparently plans to consult experts in setting a vastly reduced annual whaling quota for missions in fiscal 2015 and beyond, and call on other nations for their understanding.
 今回は来年度以降の南極海での調査について、専門家の意見を踏まえて捕獲枠を大幅に引き下げるなどの見直し案を示し、各国の理解を求めるという。

Anti-whaling leader New Zealand, however, has already submitted a motion to the IWC meeting calling for Japan's research whaling to be postponed. The motion has already received the apparent backing of a number of countries including Australia, and Japan's plan faces a hard road that's quickly getting even harder.
 しかし、総会では既に反捕鯨国のニュージーランドが事実上調査の先延ばしを求める決議案を提出し、オーストラリアなどが賛成の姿勢を示すなど日本に対する風当たりは強まっている。

The Antarctic research whaling program was started to help establish a scientific basis for the resumption of commercial whaling, which has been suspended by the IWC since the 1985-1986 season. Whale meat consumption in Japan, however, has dropped significantly, with the amount of whale on the market now just around 2 percent of what it was at its peak in 1962. Japan furthermore imports whale meat from Iceland -- which has continued commercial whaling -- and there is now an oversupply. There is very little reason to restart commercial whaling in the Antarctic Ocean, which means there is no need to keep doing research whaling to that end.
 南極海での調査捕鯨はIWCが一時停止を決めた商業捕鯨再開のため科学的根拠を示そうと始まった。ところが国内の鯨肉消費は激減し、最近の流通量は最も多かった1962年の2%程度にとどまる。しかも商業捕鯨を続けるアイスランドなどからの輸入もあり、需給はだぶついている。南極海で商業捕鯨を再開する必要性は乏しい。それを目的とした調査も、もはや必要ないだろう。

Mind you, neither can Japan completely go over to the other side, joining nations completely opposed to whaling and eating whale meat. Coastal hunts for small whales continue in places such as Abashiri, Hokkaido, Ayukawa, Miyagi Prefecture, Wada, Chiba Prefecture, and Taiji, Wakayama Prefecture, where they are an important part of traditional culture and where whale meat is still a part of the local diet. Japan may have no great reason to seek the resumption of the Antarctic whale hunt, but it does need to protect these local culinary traditions.
 もっとも、鯨食を否定してすべての捕鯨を認めない反捕鯨国側の主張にもくみすることはできない。北海道の網走、宮城県の鮎川、千葉県の和田、和歌山県の太地などでは沿岸で小型捕鯨が伝統的に続けられ、鯨食が定着している。そうした地域に根ざした食文化は守る必要がある。

Japan's coastal whalers now take Baird's beaked whales, among other varieties, after the IWC banned the hunt for the previously most popular variety, the minke whale. The Japanese government has called on the IWC to set a limited minke catch for the northwestern Pacific, but has so far been denied. Japan has proposed the same measure again at the current IWC meeting, but support looks hard to obtain.
 沿岸小型捕鯨はミンククジラが主体だったが、IWCで禁じられたため、管理の対象外のツチクジラなどを捕っている。政府はIWCで北西太平洋沿岸でのミンククジラの捕獲枠設定を求め、否定され続けてきた。今回も提案しているが、理解を得るのは難しそうだ。

Japan's insistence on moving ahead with Antarctic whaling has invited the intense opposition of other IWC nations, which is then also extended to Japanese requests for a coastal whaling compromise. Japan must break the connection between Antarctic whaling and coastal hunts. To gain support from other countries, Japan must use the ecological data already collected to build a persuasive case. The government must make greater efforts to preserve the coastal whaling traditions of Japan.
 南極海での捕鯨に固執して参加国の反発を招き、沿岸での捕獲枠設定まで否定されるという負の連鎖からは脱却する必要がある。各国の理解を得るには、これまで積みあげた生態に関するデータを元に粘り強い説得が求められる。そうした努力は沿岸捕鯨を守るために重ねるべきだ。

毎日新聞 2014年09月17日 02時30分

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工藤会幹部逮捕 凶悪集団を壊滅する突破口に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Crackdown on Kudo-kai must boost efforts to tackle organized crime
工藤会幹部逮捕 凶悪集団を壊滅する突破口に

Contemptible, organized violence must not be tolerated. We hope the police will use their recent arrests of two leaders of an organized crime group in Fukuoka Prefecture to achieve a breakthrough in the complete destruction of the organization.
 卑劣な組織暴力は、断じて許されない。警察は「頂上作戦」を突破口にして、組織の壊滅を図ってもらいたい。

The Fukuoka prefectural police have arrested two top leaders of Kudo-kai, the largest organized crime syndicate in the Kyushu region, on suspicion of murder and another charge. In 1998, the two allegedly instructed some group members, including the leader of an organization affiliated with their syndicate, to shoot dead the former leader of a local fishermen’s cooperative in Kitakyushu. Kudo-kai has been officially listed as an organized crime organization posing specified dangers under the Antigang Law.
 福岡県警が、九州最大規模の指定暴力団「工藤会」の最高幹部2人を殺人などの容疑で逮捕した。2人は1998年、配下の組長らに指示し、北九州市で漁協元組合長の男性を射殺させた疑いが持たれている。

There seems to be no end to the list of cases in which private citizens and businesses have been subjected to attacks in Fukuoka Prefecture, including incidents in which firearms have been used. Though the prefectural police believe Kudo-kai has been involved in many of these incidents, nearly all the cases remain unsolved. The situation threatens to jeopardize the police authorities’ reputation.
 福岡県内では、市民や企業が拳銃などで襲撃される事件が後を絶たない。県警は、その多くに工藤会が関与しているとみているものの、ほとんどが未解決だ。警察の威信に関わる事態である。

On Tuesday, the National Police Agency directed local police authorities — the Fukuoka prefectural police and officials at other prefectural police authorities related to the cases — to do their utmost to deal Kudo-kai a fatal blow. In fact, the Fukuoka prefectural police have assigned 3,800 officers — about 30 percent of their total staff — to their investigation.
 警察庁は16日、福岡県警や、関係する他の県警幹部に対し、総力を挙げて、工藤会に致命的な打撃を加えるよう指示した。福岡県警は、全職員の3割にあたる3800人を捜査に投入している。

The arrests of the two crime group leaders have sparked speculation that Kudo-kai could choose to fight back. The prefectural police need to step up efforts to ensure local citizens are not put at risk, such as by increasing patrols around busy streets.
 トップの逮捕により、工藤会の反撃も予想される。県警は、市民に危害が及ばぬよう、繁華街の警備などを強化する必要がある。

The 1998 murder is believed to have been committed in retaliation for the former fishermen’s cooperative leader’s rejection of a Kudo-kai demand, intended to secure the group rights related to a port facilities improvement project in Kitakyushu.
 今回の逮捕容疑となった事件は、北九州市の港湾施設整備事業を巡り、利権を得ようとする工藤会の要求を、元漁協組合長が拒んだことへの報復とされる。

The murder, which has resulted in arrests of the two gangsters, was tantamount to use of violence against all local residents and companies that refuse to accept coercive demands from the organization for rights and interests. This conduct must be condemned as abominable. In 2012, the Antigang Law was revised and enforced to prohibit extortion exemplified by Kudo-kai’s methods.
 市民や企業に利益提供を強要し、従わなければ暴力に訴える。言語道断である。工藤会のやり口を封じるため、2012年に改正暴力団対策法が施行された。

Punishment clause not helpful

The revised law designates an organized crime group as a specified-danger syndicate if it is suspected of being involved in an attack on any business corporation. The legislation includes what is called a direct-punishment clause, a rule authorizing the police to immediately arrest members of an organized crime organization if they press undue demands on firms or others.
 企業襲撃に関与した疑いがある暴力団を「特定危険指定暴力団」に指定し、構成員が企業などに不当要求をすれば、即座に逮捕できる「直罰規定」を盛り込んだ。

In 2012, the 560-member Kudo-kai was listed as a specified-danger crime syndicate under the Antigang Law, becoming the only group to receive such a designation. However, there have been only two cases in which Kudo-kai members were arrested under the direct-punishment clause. It is difficult to say progress has been made in achieving the rule’s intended goal.
 構成員560人の工藤会は全国で唯一、特定危険指定暴力団となったが、直罰規定に基づく逮捕は2件にとどまる。効果を上げているとは言い難い。

In cities such as Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, a prefectural ordinance has been enforced that bans organized crime group members from entering eating and drinking establishments. However, there has been a succession of incidents involving violence and extortion by gang members, including a case in which a business operator was attacked with a knife. The victim had cooperated in efforts to eliminate the influence of crime groups. In another case, a shop owner was threatened by telephone, with the caller saying to him, “You’re next.”
 福岡市や北九州市などでは、飲食店への暴力団員の入店を禁止する県条例も施行された。しかし、暴力団排除に協力的な店の経営者が刃物で襲われたり、「次はおまえの番だ」などと電話で脅されたりする事件が相次ぐ。

It seems that the slow progress in eliminating Kudo-kai’s influence is due to hesitation by local residents and business corporations to provide information to the police about the organization’s activities, fearing they could be subject to retaliation by the group.
 工藤会の排除が思うように進まないのは、市民や企業が報復を恐れ、警察への情報提供をためらうためだろう。

Another factor underlying the situation may be the distrust felt by citizens and corporations about police authorities in connection with Kudo-kai. They seem to feel police will not protect them even if they offer information about the group.
「通報しても、警察は自分たちを守ってくれない」という市民の警察に対する不信感も背景にあるのではないか。

The police must implement every possible means to weaken Kudo-kai and restore the trust of local residents and companies. Measures should include cutting off the group’s sources of funds.
 警察は、資金源を断つなど、あらゆる手段を講じて、工藤会を弱体化させ、市民の信頼を回復せねばならない。

It is important for the crackdown on Kudo-kai to be used as a model for the drive against crime organizations nationwide.
 工藤会対策を全国の暴力団排除のモデルとすることが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 17, 2014)Speech

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民主党役員交代 バラバラ感を解消できるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can DPJ achieve unity at last under its new executive lineup?
民主党役員交代 バラバラ感を解消できるか

A lack of unity has been the Achilles’ heel of the Democratic Party of Japan ever since its foundation. The main opposition party has recently reshuffled its executive team, but questions remain on whether the new lineup can overcome the party’s longtime weakness.
 この新たな布陣で、結党以来の弱点である党のバラバラ感を解消できるのだろうか。

On Tuesday, the DPJ picked former Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano as secretary general, and appointed former Deputy Prime Minister Katsuya Okada as acting president in charge of national Diet elections. “We will unite ourselves as one and face off against the politics of the Liberal Democratic Party,” DPJ President Banri Kaieda said at a general meeting of party members of both houses.
 民主党の新しい幹事長に枝野幸男元官房長官、国政選担当の代表代行に岡田克也前副総理が起用された。海江田代表は両院議員総会で、「全員が一丸となり、自民党の政治に対峙たいじしていく」と強調した。

Both Edano and Okada held key posts in the past DPJ-led government, but they are also among six key party figures who distanced themselves from Kaieda and other top executives after the DPJ’s crushing defeat in the 2012 House of Representatives election.
 枝野、岡田両氏は民主党政権で要職を務めたが、2012年の衆院選後は海江田執行部と距離を置いてきた「6人衆」の一員だ。

Appointed as chairman of the Policy Research Committee was House of Councillors member Tetsuro Fukuyama, a policy expert with experience as deputy chief cabinet secretary. For the Diet Affairs Committee chairman post, Kaieda picked former Internal Affairs and Communications Minister Tatsuo Kawabata, a long-serving lawmaker who entered the political world from a labor union.
 政調会長に政策通で参院議員の福山哲郎元官房副長官、国会対策委員長にはベテランで労組出身の川端達夫元総務相を充てた。

The lineup shows Kaieda’s intention to endorse party heavyweights in consideration of the power balance between party groups, an effort apparently aimed at creating monolithic unity.
 党内バランスに配慮しつつ、有力議員を取り込んだのは、挙党態勢を構築する狙いがある。

However, it is still too early to conclude that the DPJ has succeeded in building a united front with the reshuffle.
 ただ、これで民主党が一致結束できるとみるのは早計だろう。

The trio of Kaieda, Edano and Fukuyama were officials in charge of dealing with the nuclear crisis at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant under the administration of then Prime Minister Naoto Kan. The memories of the administration receiving public criticism for its handling of the crisis are still fresh in our minds.
 海江田、枝野、福山の3氏は、菅政権が原発事故への対応で批判された際の当事者だ。

Smoldering discontent

Dissatisfaction with Kaieda is smoldering within the party, as the leader lacks the ability to make the party appealing to the public, and has been unable to lift the DPJ out of its slump.
 発信力に乏しく、党勢の低迷から抜け出せない海江田氏に対する党内の不満は根強い。

During the ordinary Diet session earlier this year, moves to dethrone Kaieda surfaced, with the party’s conservatives as the core instigators. They insisted that the party was unlikely to perform well in next spring’s unified local elections under his leadership. The party approved Kaieda remaining at the top at a July 31 meeting of DPJ members of both Diet houses, but the party is still far from becoming one.
 通常国会中には、保守系議員を中心に、「このままでは来年春の統一地方選を戦えない」として、「海江田おろし」の動きが顕在化した。7月末の両院議員懇談会で代表続投が決まったが、党内は依然、一枚岩とは言えない。

What the DPJ needs most as the top opposition party is to achieve consensus on key policies.
 野党第1党の民主党に最も求められるのは、政策の一致だ。

For example, the party has put off efforts to reach an agreement on whether to allow Japan to exercise the right of collective self-defense.
 民主党は今なお、集団的自衛権の行使の是非に関し、意見集約を先送りしている。

As the chairman of the party’s Research Commission on the Constitution, Edano has devoted himself to having his party issue an official opinion on the matter, helping the party conclude in February this year that it is unacceptable to revise the constitutional interpretation to allow Japan general exercise of the right of collective self-defense. However, the party is yet to decide its policy on whether a limited exercise of the right should be allowed.
 枝野氏は今年2月、党憲法総合調査会長として、「行使一般を容認する憲法解釈変更は許されない」との見解をまとめるのに尽力したが、行使の限定容認に関する方針は定まっていない。

In August, Kaieda took the bold step of stating his own opinion, opposing even a limited exercise of the collective self-defense right. However, his remarks drew criticism from the conservative camp within the party. Former DPJ President Seiji Maehara and other conservatives have been asking the government to establish a basic law on national security which allows Japan limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense.
 海江田氏が8月、限定容認への反対に踏み込むと、保守派からは批判が出た。前原誠司元代表らは、行使を容認する「安全保障基本法」の制定を求めている。

If Kaieda and other top executives hoist their liberal colors higher, it will likely widen the rift between them and conservative members. We also need to point out that the party’s efforts to review its manifesto from the 2009 lower house election, which overflowed with lavish spending policies, are still only half-finished.
 海江田執行部がリベラル色を強めれば、保守系議員との亀裂が深まる可能性が大きい。バラマキ政策が目立った09年衆院選の政権公約の見直しも、まだ道半ばだ。

It is essential for the DPJ to come up with a concrete stance on key policy issues, such as national security, as soon as possible to regain public trust.
 国民の信頼の回復には、安全保障分野などの重要政策で党の軸足を早急に定める必要がある。

Another task for the DPJ is to build cooperation with other opposition parties, in Diet affairs and key elections. Kaieda has recently referred to the idea of forming a joint Diet group with other opposition parties. However, even within his own party, the majority of members doubt the possibility that the idea could be realized. It is sad to point out that Kaieda’s strategy for dealing with the LDP’s dominance is still unclear.
 国会対策や重要選挙での野党協力も課題である。海江田氏は、国会での野党統一会派構想に言及したが、党内でも「実現は困難」との見方が大勢だ。自民党の「1強」にどう立ち向かうのか、海江田氏の戦略が見えない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 17, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月17日 (水)

社説:法科大学院 提携や統合で質高めよ

September 16, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Law schools should form alliances, merge to improve quality of education
社説:法科大学院 提携や統合で質高めよ

A total of 1,810 people passed the national bar examination this year, falling below 2,000 for the first time since 2006. The pass rate came to 22.6 percent, the lowest since that year -- when the first group of law school graduates took the bar exam for the first time.
 今年の司法試験の合格者は1810人で、2006年以来8年ぶりに2000人を割り込んだ。合格率も22.6%で、法科大学院修了者の受験が始まった同年以降最低だった。
   
Law schools have failed to produce as many legal experts as expected. The number of those who passed this year's bar exam was less than 10 at 39 of 74 law schools across the country. Ten years have passed since law schools were set up as the core institutions for developing legal experts, but such schools have come to the crossroads. Twenty such schools have stopped accepting new students because their graduates' pass rate in the bar examination has been hovering at a low level.
 法科大学院の苦戦が際立つ。74校のうち39校が合格者1桁で、4校がゼロだった。法律家養成の中核として発足から10年がたったが、残念ながら大きな曲がり角に直面している。合格率が振るわず、既に20校が募集停止に追い込まれている。

It is only natural that schools cannot attract students unless they provide high-quality education and make certain achievements. The national government is set to decrease its subsidies to law schools where the pass rate of graduates in the national bar examination remains low. These schools cannot survive unless they form alliances with other schools or merge with others in efforts to improve the quality of their education.
 質の高い教育を実施し、一定の成果を上げなければ、学生が集まらないのは当然だ。政府は、成績の振るわない法科大学院への補助金削減をさらに進める方針だ。そうした法科大学院は、他校との提携や統合など一層の経営努力を迅速に進めなければ生き残れないだろう。

Law schools were set up partly out of reflection on the old national bar examination in which critics said applicants were forced to cram knowledge into their heads. The government set a goal of making sure that 70 to 80 percent of graduates pass the national bar examination by having such institutions provide highly concentrated education that includes practical training for a few years. However, the pass rate remains low and the number of applicants has kept decreasing.
 詰め込みの弊害も指摘された旧司法試験の反省から法科大学院は誕生した。実務も取り入れた密度の濃い教育を2〜3年受けることで、「修了者の7〜8割が司法試験に合格」という目標が掲げられた。だが、現実は厳しく、合格率は低迷し、入学者も近年減り続けている。

The number of applicants, who pass the bar exam after taking a preliminary examination for those who cannot afford to attend law schools, has been rising year by year. In particular, numerous young applicants take the preliminary examination in an attempt to pass the bar exam in a short period of time.
 さらに、経済的な理由から法科大学院で学ぶことができない人のために例外的に設けられた予備試験経由の合格者が年々増加している現実がある。今では、法科大学院で学ぶことを省ける最短コースとして特に若い学生が利用している。

Still, the philosophy behind the establishment of law schools -- in which emphasis is placed on lectures by legal experts -- should be respected. But the government's ongoing review of the preliminary examination is essential.
 だが、社会人など幅広い人材を法曹の世界に送り込むためにも、実務家によるきめ細かな授業を重視する法科大学院の理念は今後も尊重してもらいたい。政府が進める予備試験の見直しは不可欠だ。

The poor performances of law schools are attributable to the fact that the demand for legal experts is weaker than initially estimated.
 法科大学院不振の背景には、法曹界に求められる人材の需要が当初の想定を下回っていることがある。

In 2001, the government set a goal of increasing the number of successful applicants in the national bar examination to 3,000 a year by 2010 on the assumption that 50,000 legal experts would be working in 2010.
 政府は01年、18年時点での法曹人口を5万人と見込んだうえで、司法試験合格者数を10年には3000人とする目標を掲げた。

The government believed that legal experts would be needed in a wider diversity of fields with the globalization of the economy and an increase in the number of international legal disputes.
経済の国際化や法的紛争の増加で法律家の活躍の場が広がると見たのだ。

Moreover, the authorities also estimated that the number of job opportunities at local bodies and private companies would increase.
自治体や企業などの雇用も増えると考えた。

However, the demand turned out to be weaker and there are young lawyers who cannot join legal firms even though they passed the bar exam or cannot get enough work.
 だが、実際には想定した需要はなく、司法試験に合格しても法律事務所に入れなかったり、十分な仕事がなかったりする若手弁護士が増えている。

Last year, the government abandoned its goal of increasing the number of successful applicants in the national bar exam to 3,000. Amid such a vicious circle, the judicial profession is less attractive to young people.
 そうした中で、政府は昨年、合格者3000人の目標を撤回した。さまざまな悪循環の中で、司法の道に進むことが若者にとって魅力を欠く結果になっている。

The government intends to conduct a survey on the appropriate number of legal experts while considering expanding the areas where lawyers can work to overseas. The government and judicial circles should work closely to revitalize the law field.
 政府は、現時点での法的なニーズなど適正な法曹人口について調査する方針だ。また、海外を含め、弁護士の活動領域の拡大についても本格的に検討を進めている。政府、法曹界一丸となった取り組みで法曹の世界の活性化を図ってほしい。

毎日新聞 2014年09月15日 02時35分

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iPS細胞移植 再生医療普及への試金石だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Clinical trial using iPS cells litmus test for promoting regenerative medicine
iPS細胞移植 再生医療普及への試金石だ

The latest clinical trial is the first step of epoch-making research that could evolve into regenerative medicine. After careful safety assessment, putting the latest result into practical use should be promoted.
 画期的な研究成果を再生医療に発展させる第一歩である。安全性を慎重に評価し、患者への実用化を進めたい。

A team led by RIKEN ophthalmologist Masayo Takahashi transplanted retina cells produced from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into the eyes of a woman suffering from age-related macular degeneration. The patient is said to be doing well.
 理化学研究所の高橋政代・プロジェクトリーダーらが、iPS細胞(人工多能性幹細胞)から網膜の細胞を作製し、目の難病である加齢黄斑変性の患者に移植する手術を行った。術後の経過は順調だという。

It was the world’s first clinical trial of transplanting iPS cells, which can develop into the cells of various types of tissues, into a human body.
 様々な組織の細胞に変化するiPS細胞を人間の体に移植し、治療に使う世界初の試みだ。

This clinical trial can be considered a litmus test for regenerative medicine using iPS cells, which could eventually be used widely.
iPS細胞による再生医療の普及に向けた試金石とも言えよう。

About 700,000 people are estimated to be suffering from the age-related macular degeneration, the symptoms of which include distorted vision.
 視界がゆがむ加齢黄斑変性の国内の患者は、約70万人に上る。

The current treatment is symptomatic therapy to prevent the patient’s condition from further deteriorating. With the transplant of retina cells, the patient could make a full recovery. Expectations among patients over the effectiveness of such a transplant are believed to be running high.
現在の治療は、症状の悪化を止める対症療法だが、網膜細胞の移植手術なら完治できる可能性がある。患者の期待は大きいだろう。

Over the past seven years, since Prof. Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University successfully produced human iPS cells, the risk of the iPS cells becoming cancerous — a key issue to be tackled — has almost been resolved, while the efficiency of production has been enhanced.
 山中伸弥・京都大教授が、人のiPS細胞の作製に成功してから7年、課題とされた細胞のがん化のリスクはほぼ解消され、作製効率も向上した。

The latest surgical procedure carries important implications as a clinical study to confirm the safety of medical technology using iPS cells. Is there an absolute guarantee the iPS cells will not turn cancerous? Are there any unknown risks? These issues will be examined over the next four years.
 今回の手術は、技術の安全性を確かめる臨床研究として重要な意味を持つ。iPS細胞から作った網膜細胞は本当にがん化しないのか、未知のリスクはないのか。4年間にわたり検査を続ける。

In an effort to have research results using iPS cells linked to regenerative medicine, the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry plans to spend ¥110 billion from fiscal 2012 to 2022.
 文部科学省はiPS細胞の研究成果を再生医療につなげるため、2012~22年度に計1100億円を投じる方針だ。

Faster approval needed

Clinical research using iPS cells in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and serious cardiac failure are planned from next fiscal year.
 来年度以降には、iPS細胞を使ったパーキンソン病や重症心不全の治療の臨床研究が計画されている。

Also under way is research to determine the mechanisms behind intractable diseases and develop new medicines for such diseases by producing iPS cells from patients with incurable diseases and transforming them into nerve and muscle cells.
難病患者からiPS細胞を作って神経や筋肉の細胞に変化させ、病気のメカニズムの解明や、創薬につなげる研究も進む。

It is hoped that with the successful retina cell operation, the transition from basic research to clinical research in regenerative medicine — in which Japan tends to lag behind other major countries — will advance smoothly.
 今回の手術を契機に、日本では滞りがちな基礎研究から臨床研究への移行を円滑に進めたい。

Following the enforcement of the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in November, the time needed to put cells and tissues for regenerative medicine into a practical use will be shortened from the current six years to about three years. If the safety of only a few trials is confirmed and their effectiveness deemed reliable, the ministry will give the go-ahead for practical use, although with conditions attached.
 11月の改正薬事法施行後は、約6年かかっている再生医療用の細胞・組織の実用化が、3年程度に短縮される。治験数が少なくても安全性が確認でき、有効性が推定できれば条件付きで承認する。

Takahashi has established her own venture firm for producing retina cells derived from iPS cells. Her firm plans to start clinical trials in 2016, with the aim of winning the ministry’s approval in 2018.
 高橋氏はiPS細胞由来の網膜細胞を製造するベンチャー企業を設立している。16年に治験を始め、18年の承認取得が目標だ。

A faster approval system must function effectively so patients can receive treatment as quickly as possible.
患者が一日でも早く治療を受けられるよう、迅速な承認制度を有効に機能させることが求められる。

The RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, where the clinical trial was conducted, is scheduled to undergo a drastic shakeup. This will include halving the number of research labs due to fraudulent research articles over the so-called stimulus-triggered acquisition pluripotency (STAP) cells.
 臨床研究の舞台である理研の発生・再生科学総合研究センターは、STAP細胞論文不正により、研究室の半減など解体的な出直しが決まっている。

We hope RIKEN proceeds with its research on regenerative medicine steadily and makes an effort to regain public trust.
再生医療の研究をしっかりと進め、信頼回復に努めてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 15, 2014)Speech

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創生本部初会合 若者が働ける「地方」を作ろう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Revitalizing local areas crucial to lure young people away from Tokyo
創生本部初会合 若者が働ける「地方」を作ろう

To enhance the vigor of regional areas, it is essential to create a social environment allowing young people to more easily find work, get married, give birth and raise children.
 地方の活力を高めるには、若い世代が安心して働き、結婚や出産、子育てができる社会環境を整えることが肝要だ。

The government held an inaugural meeting of the headquarters for regional vitalization Friday to discuss measures such as dealing with population decline and invigorating regional areas. The headquarters will supervise the compilation of measures for “town-building, local residents and job creation.” Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who heads the headquarters, said during the meeting the government “will come up with an extraordinary drastic policy.”
 政府が、人口減対策や地域活性化など地方創生の司令塔「まち・ひと・しごと創生本部」の初会合を開いた。本部長の安倍首相は「異次元の大胆な政策をまとめる」と強調した。

To reduce the excess concentration of people and industry in Tokyo, those at the meeting agreed, among other things, to establish regional centers and create jobs as measures to attract young people to regional areas.
 会合では、東京一極集中を是正するため、地方に若者を呼び込む拠点作りや雇用創出などを進めるとの基本方針を決めた。

It was also confirmed that the vertically segmented administrative system would be eliminated and the Cabinet ministers and bureaucrats concerned would actively visit regional areas.
 縦割り行政を排し、関係閣僚や官僚が積極的に地方の「現場」に足を運ぶことも確認した。

To cope with declining populations in local areas, the movement of people into Tokyo and its surrounding prefectures must be halted, particularly in regard to young people, and a new demographic shift from Tokyo must be created. To this end, it is indispensable to ensure the availability of jobs and a living environment whereby young people can move to, and settle in, local areas.
 地方の人口減対策では、若い世代を中心とする東京圏への人口流出に歯止めをかけ、東京から地方への新たな流れを作る必要がある。そのためには、若者が移住・定住できる職場と生活環境を地方に確保することが欠かせない。

The headquarters will work out a long-term vision this year to ensure the national population of at least 100 million 50 years hence and an overall strategy for a five-year period starting next fiscal year. Some projects are scheduled to be reflected in budgetary requests for fiscal 2015.
 創生本部は年内に、50年後に人口1億人を維持するための長期ビジョンと、来年度から5年間の総合戦略を策定する。一部は来年度予算案にも反映させる予定だ。

Centerpiece of growth strategy

The Abe administration regards regional revitalization as a new centerpiece of its growth strategy. In the upcoming extraordinary Diet session, the government will seek to enact relevant bills, including one for regional revitalization that would define the roles to be played by central and local governments in carrying out relevant policies.
 安倍政権は、地方創生について、成長戦略の新しい目玉政策に位置づけている。秋の臨時国会には、政府や自治体の役割を定める地方創生基本法案など関連法案を提出し、成立を図る方針だ。

Abe has directed Shigeru Ishiba, state minister in charge of overcoming population decline and vitalizing local economy, to “carry out policies effectively in an integrated manner without taking a handout approach.” This is an important point of view.
 首相は、石破地方創生相に「バラマキ型の対応をせず、一元的・効果的に政策を実施する」よう指示している。大切な視点だ。

In their budgetary requests for the next fiscal year, government ministries and agencies competed with each other in listing projects in the name of “local vitalization.” It stood out that there were projects that have similar contents and are the same as conventional public works projects. The Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry, for one, requested a budget even for the expansion of Shinkansen bullet train lines.
 来年度予算の概算要求では、各府省が「地方創生」名目の事業を競って計上した。内容が類似した事業や、従来型の公共事業も目立つ。国土交通省は整備新幹線の予算まで盛り込んでいる。

It is imperative to examine the effects of the proposed policies and concentrate budgets on the implementation of policies on a priority basis. We hope that Ishiba will display his ability as a coordinator.
 政策の効果を検証し、優先度の高い政策に予算を集中させねばならない。石破氏は、その調整役として手腕を発揮してほしい。

The crucial point is for the government to have frequent constructive dialogues with the private sector and local governments, and adopt frontline ideas positively.
 重要なのは、政府が、自治体や民間との建設的な対話を重ねて、「現場発」のアイデアを積極的に取り入れることだ。

The government has decided to establish a 12-member expert panel including former Internal Affairs and Communications Minister Hiroya Masuda, who has been warning of the possible disappearance of some local communities due to sharp population declines. The experts will give the government advice in connection with the compilation of a long-term policy vision.
 政府は、人口急減による自治体消滅に警鐘を鳴らす増田寛也元総務相ら12人の有識者会議の設置を決めた。有識者らは長期ビジョン策定に向け、政府に助言する。

Various proposals were offered by the experts during an exchange of opinions at a meeting with Abe late last month. They included the establishment of a human resources agency to spur the employment of skilled personnel in local areas as well as a center to assist with migration to local communities, moving corporate head office functions to local areas and increasing local recruitment.
 首相が先月末に行った有識者との意見交換会では、様々な提言が出た。技能を持つ人材の地方での就労を促す人材バンクや地方移住支援センターの設置、企業の本社機能の地方移転や地方採用枠の拡大などである。

Such ideas must be steadily molded into concrete policies.
 こうした発想を具体的な政策に着実に反映させたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 15, 2014) Speech

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2014年9月16日 (火)

社説:読書の秋 若者よ、本を開こう

September 15, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Time to pick up a book
社説:読書の秋 若者よ、本を開こう

The autumn book-reading season is again upon us. Reading not only boosts our knowledge, hones our sensitivities and nurtures our ability to think, but it also helps to broaden our perspective and develop our imagination. It's been said people today are spending less time reading. Now is a good time to take a fresh look at the benefits of books and call upon the young to turn to reading.
 灯火親しむ季節になった。読書は知識を蓄え、感覚を磨き、考える力を養うだけでなく、視野を広げ、想像力を鍛える。「読書離れ」がいわれて久しいが、今こそ、書物の効用を見直し、特に若者が本に向かうように呼びかけたい。
   
The Japanese publishing industry has suffered recently from slumping sales. According to Shuppan Nenkan, an almanac published by Shuppan News Co., sales in the domestic publishing industry stood at some 1.77 trillion yen last year. Of that amount, books accounted for roughly 843 billion yen, and magazines 928.1 billion yen. Last year's sales stood at just two-thirds of the peak figure of 2.698 trillion yen recorded in 1996.
 日本の出版不況が続いている。「出版年鑑」(出版ニュース社)によると、昨年の出版界の売り上げは約1兆7711億円。内訳は書籍が約8430億円、雑誌が9281億円だった。出版界全体のピークは1996年の2兆6980億円で、3分の2に減ってしまったことになる。

Declining sales are especially serious in the magazine industry. Most likely, this is largely due to the prevalence of smartphones and other devices. Sagging magazine sales lead to declining ad revenues for publishers, which adversely affects bookstores and eventually pushes their numbers down. Today's Internet-oriented society calls into question the roles magazines can play.
 特に雑誌の落ち込みがひどい。スマートフォンなどの普及が大きな理由だろう。雑誌の不況は、出版社にとっては広告収入の減少になり、街の書店の不振や書店数の減少も招く。ネット社会において雑誌に何ができるかが問われている。

That said, Japanese people as a whole are not necessarily turning away from books. In fact, the number of books lent out at libraries across the country remains high. According to the Japan Library Association, there are at least 3,200 public libraries nationwide, which lent out a total of over 710 million books, CDs and DVDs to individuals in fiscal 2012. Compared to a decade earlier, the number of libraries in Japan has increased by at least 400. As a result, the number of books lent out has risen by more than 100 million.
 だが、日本人全体が読書から離れているのかというと、そうとばかりもいえない。図書館の貸出数は多い。日本図書館協会によると現在、全国に3200以上の公共図書館があり、2012年度の館外個人貸し出しは7億1000万点以上(CDやDVDを含む)だった。10年前に比べて館数が400以上増えたが、貸し出しも1億数千万点増加した。

According to a survey jointly conducted by the Mainichi Shimbun and the School Library Association (SLA), children today are not reading less. Rather, the average number of books read by children slightly increased over the past decade. At the same time, the ratio of children who don't read any books in the month of May -- a gauge for determining the level of book-reading -- has been on the decline. The next challenge, many say, is having children read higher quality books.
 毎日新聞と全国学校図書館協議会(全国SLA)が合同で実施している学校読書調査でも、子供たちは読書離れをしていない。この10年間でも、平均読書量は微増傾向だし、不読率(その年の5月に本を読まなかった人の割合)も減っている。ただ、「読む本の質を高めることが今後の課題」という声はよく聞く。

In the meantime, one particular trend requires serious attention. According to a survey by the National Federation of University Co-operative Associations, the number of university students who said they didn't read any books reached 40.5 percent last year, topping 40 percent for the first time since the survey was first conducted in 2004. The revealing survey sent shockwaves through society, as university students are expected to read piles of books.
 一方、深刻な数字もある。全国大学生活協同組合連合会の昨年の調査によると、「まったく本を読まない」という学生が40.5%に達し、調査を始めた04年以降、初めて4割を超えた。書物に親しむべき大学生の実態は衝撃的だった。

At elementary and junior high schools, teachers' efforts to encourage reading have been producing results. Morning reading time in classes has played a part in this. However, high school and university students are apparently spending more time on games, the Internet, entrance exam preparations, part-time jobs and other activities, and less time on reading. It can be said that teachers' efforts at high schools and universities are insufficient in encouraging students to read. The trend among those in their late teens of not reading books apparently continues when they grow older.
 小・中学校では学校での読書指導(朝の一斉読書など)が効果を上げている。しかし、高校、大学と進むにつれて、ゲームやネット通信、受験勉強、アルバイトなどで、読書がおろそかにされているのだろう。高校や大学での読書指導も不十分なのではないか。この傾向が20代以降にもつながっていると思われる。

It is no easy task to change the status quo, but SLA counselor Isao Kobayashi proposes expanding the drive to distribute book coupons at coming-of-age ceremonies, following in the footsteps of the so-called Bookstart movement that offers books to babies and infants. We embrace his idea.
 現状への対策は難しい。全国SLAの小林功参事は、乳幼児に本を配る「ブックスタート運動」にならって、成人式に図書カードを配ることをさらに広めるなどして、読書を勧めてはどうかと提案する。面白い考えではないだろうか。

Educational institutions, society and households are urged to exercise their ingenuity in providing younger generations with more opportunities to enjoy reading.
 教育機関や社会、家庭を挙げて、若者たちが大いに読書に親しむ工夫を考えたい。

毎日新聞 2014年09月15日 02時30分

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2014年9月15日 (月)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「女性ならでは」の意味 /東京

September 14, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: The meaning of a 'perspective unique to women'
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「女性ならでは」の意味 /東京

The new Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe was launched on Sept. 3. He appointed a record-tying five women to ministerial positions, and has established a new post -- minister in charge of promoting women's active participation. He told a news conference that he hopes the new women ministers make creative changes from a "perspective unique to women." I think the latest ministerial appointment reflects the prime minister's policies on encouraging women in the workforce.
 第2次安倍改造内閣が発足した。女性閣僚は過去最多の5人、新たに「女性活躍担当相」も置かれることになり、安倍晋三首相は記者会見で「女性ならではの目線で旋風を巻き起こしてほしい」と語った。「輝く女性応援会議」を開催するなど、女性の活用に積極的な首相ならではの人事だと思う。

In addition, the Cabinet Office has recently invited women of different ages to a meeting to discuss women's participation in the workplace.

But what I don't quite understand is what Prime Minister Abe means by a "perspective unique to women."
 ただここで気になるのは、首相の言う「女性ならでは」とはどういう意味だろう、ということだ。

Abe's wife First Lady Akie talked passionately about "peace-making from a women's perspective" at a seminar last year in Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture, which was hosted by a local women's group. She went on to say, "Women are straightforward, driven by their instincts. Men want to rationalize themselves."
 首相自身の発言ではないが、夫人の昭恵さんは昨年、山口県下関市で行われた女性団体主催の講演で「女性ならではの平和の作り方をしていきたい」と意気込みを語った。同じ講演では「私のように直感で一直線にいけるのが女性。理屈が必要なのが男性」とも述べており、

I believe what First Lady Akie meant by "women's peace-making" was that women "don't want wars, but want to protect lives and get along with foreign countries" -- a straightforward way of thinking about peace -- and I am all for that.
おそらく「女性ならではの平和」は「戦争はイヤ、命は大切、外国とも仲良くしたい、とストレートに感じて求める平和」と考えてよいのだろう。それには全面的に賛成したい。

So, when her husband says making "creative changes from a perspective unique to women," is he saying that he means what she said?
 安倍首相の言う「女性ならではの目線での旋風」も、同じ意味なのだろうか。

Women in general value people's lives and health, as well as community and solidarity, and they care for the weak. They feel that what they need is a feeling of security, rather than surviving through fierce competition, and that people of all kinds need to get along. Those are the beliefs that are unique to women, as women have been forced into a socially vulnerable position and struggled for a long time in a man's world.
 外交のかけ引き、経済戦略や各分野とのしがらみを度外視してでも、「厳しい競争より、安心して生活できるのがいちばん」「どんな人たちとも分け隔てなく、仲良くやっていきましょうよ」などと命や健康、人との交流や連帯、弱者への配慮を理屈抜きに大切にする。それが、いわゆる“男社会”で長い間、弱い立場に置かれ、苦労してきた女性たちならではの視点と言えるはずだ。

Some of the new women ministers, however, have made bitter remarks toward neighboring Asian countries. At least one minister has said she became a politician to "defend Japan's honor." Of course, I'm not saying that these comments would directly affect their duties as ministers, but I can't help questioning their position, because they don't necessarily appear to care about the weak or minorities. They seem to lack a cooperative attitude of "let's get along and help each other."
 ところが、今回入閣した女性大臣たちの中には、地方での講演で「私が議員になったのは、日本の名誉を守りたいから」と断言したり、アジアの国々に手厳しい発言を繰り返したりする人もいる。もちろんそれが直接、大臣としての執務に影響するとは言えないが、決してその目が、少数者や弱者のほうを向いているとは言えなかったり、「みんな仲良く」「助け合って」という協調路線ではなかったりするように思うのだ。

I wonder what kind of "perspective" Prime Minister Abe expects from these women ministers.
 首相は、そういった女性閣僚たちにどんな「女性ならではの目線」を期待しようとしているのだろう。

I see many women at my clinic who suffer from problems that particularly affect women, such as poverty, domestic violence and enduring stress from taking care of their elderly parents. I sincerely hope that these women ministers take notice of less fortunate women and help them survive in difficult times.
 診察室には、貧困や夫からの暴力、介護ストレスなど「女性ならではの問題」で苦しむ人が大勢やって来る。今回、入閣した女性大臣たちの目が少しでも彼女たちのほうに向けられ、その苦しみが解決に向かうようサポートしてもらいたい、と願っている。(精神科医)

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年09月09日 地方版

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ストーカー対策 凶行から被害者を守りたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Steps must be beefed up to protect stalking victims from stalker attacks
ストーカー対策 凶行から被害者を守りたい

After being hounded over an extended period by a stalker, a woman may eventually lose her life. To prevent such a tragic end, stronger measures are needed to handle stalking cases.
 執拗しつようにつきまとわれた末に、命まで奪われる。悲惨なストーカー被害をなくすため、対策を充実させる必要がある。

The National Police Agency has requested a ¥364 million budgetary appropriation for fiscal 2015 to deal with stalkers. The figure is 1.7 times the amount for tackling stalking problems for this fiscal year. The NPA says it will place greater weight on protecting stalking victims and improving investigation capabilities on stalking offenses.
 警察庁は、来年度予算の概算要求にストーカー対策費として、総額3億6400万円を計上した。今年度予算の1・7倍の規模だ。被害者保護や捜査体制の強化に重点を置く。

The number of confirmed stalking cases exceeded 20,000 nationwide last year. In October, a high school girl was stabbed to death by a stalker in Mitaka, Tokyo. The stalker once had a relationship with the victim.
 ストーカー被害の認知件数は昨年、2万件を超えた。10月には東京都三鷹市で、女子高生が元交際相手の男に刺殺された。

After the turn of the year, there has been one case after another in which women have been victimized by stalkers. A woman in Iwate Prefecture was murdered earlier this month and a man who formerly went out with her was arrested on suspicion of killing her.
 今年に入ってからも、女性が犠牲になる事件が後を絶たない。今月には岩手県で女性が殺害され、元交際相手の男が逮捕された。

Although the victims in both cases had contacted police for help, their appeals did not save their lives. The need to beef up measures to combat stalking is definitely growing.
 いずれも、被害者は警察に被害を相談していたが、凶行を防げなかった。対策強化の必要性は、一段と高まっている。

One pillar of the NPA-envisaged measures is to sharply increase the number of police officers in charge of stalking problems in prefectural police headquarters, as well as in Tokyo and Hokkaido, by around 2,000 within three years. The agency plans to have them offer stalking victims consultations and provide them with better personal protection. The planned steps should lead to fine-tuning police responses to stalking victims.
 対策の柱は、今後3年間で各都道府県警の担当警察官を2000人程度増員することだ。被害者からの相談や身辺警戒などに振り向ける。きめ細かな被害者対応につなげてほしい。

In addition to increasing the number of antistalking police officers, it is also imperative to enhance the quality of their investigative capabilities. Through improved training and hands-on experience, the police officers should enhance their capabilities in dealing with stalking cases by swiftly determining the urgency of a case.
 増員だけでなく、捜査員の質的なレベルアップも欠かせない。研修や実践によって、被害者や加害者の言動から、事態の切迫性を的確に見極め、迅速に対応する能力を身に付けたい。

Beef up remedies for stalkers

Whenever a stalking victim is seen to be in great danger of being harmed by a potential assailant, it is vitally important to keep the victim in a safe place. There have been many cases in which victims have been assaulted when returning home because of their inability to secure safe havens or because they could not bear the financial burden of continuing to pay for lodging.
 加害者から危害を加えられる恐れが高いケースでは、まず被害者が身を隠すことが肝心だ。避難先を確保できなかったり、宿泊費の負担が重荷になったりして、被害者が自宅に戻ったところを襲われるケースは少なくない。

In light of this, the NPA is considering creating a system to cover the entire expense needed to accommodate stalking victims in hotels and other places to help them temporarily escape from possible danger. The plan deserves attention as a new step to ensure the safety of victims.
 警察庁は、被害者が一時避難のためにホテルなどを利用した際、宿泊費用を全額補助する制度を導入する方針だ。被害者の身を守る新たな試みとして注目したい。

It is also important to improve measures to handle stalking offenders to prevent them from repeating offenses.
 ストーカー行為を繰り返させないための加害者対策も重要だ。

Many stalking offenders have psychological problems such as an obsession and rancor reaching psychotic proportions. A framework should be crafted to enable police and medical institutions to work together to help rehabilitate stalking offenders.
 加害者の多くは、病的な執着心や恨みなど、心理的な問題を抱えている。警察と医療機関が連携し、加害者を更生に導く仕組みが求められよう。

Starting this fiscal year, the NPA has launched on an experimental basis a program to encourage stalkers who have been warned by police about their behavior to undergo psychiatric treatment. Expenses for psychiatric counseling are fully covered by the government.
 警察庁は今年度から、警察が警告を発した加害者に、精神科医の治療を受けるよう促す取り組みを試験的に始めた。カウンセリング費用を政府が負担している。

About 35 people have undergone this program or will do so this fiscal year. The figure will be expanded to about 100 in fiscal 2015, according to the agency. By accurately evaluating the effects of the program, the NPA should work out an effective psychological treatment system for stalkers.
 今年度の対象者は、約35人だ。来年度は110人程度に拡大するという。効果を検証し、治療プログラムを構築すべきだ。

On top of these moves, it will be necessary to further increase the number of doctors with expert knowledge to treat stalkers.
 治療の専門的ノウハウを持つ医師をさらに増やす必要があるだろう。

It is also a task that should be addressed in the future to have volunteer organizations and other institutions in local communities across the country extend support to help stalkers straighten themselves out.
更生を支援するボランティア組織などを各地に根付かせることも、今後の課題である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 14, 2014)Speech

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米軍空爆拡大へ 有志連合でイスラム国掃討を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Forming international coalition only way to destroy Islamic State group
米軍空爆拡大へ 有志連合でイスラム国掃討を

Wiping out bloodthirsty extremist militants and restoring stability to the Middle East will require the swift creation of an international coalition prepared to stand united in this fight.
 残虐な過激派の掃討と中東の安定回復に向け、国際的な共闘態勢の構築を急がねばならない。

U.S. President Barack Obama has announced a plan to destroy the Islamic State, a Sunni extremist group that has been expanding its grip over swaths of northwest Iraq.
 オバマ米大統領が、イラク北西部で勢力を拡大するイスラム教スンニ派過激派組織「イスラム国」の壊滅を目指す方針を表明した。

Obama declared that U.S. air strikes conducted against the Islamic State in Iraq since early August will be widened to targets in neighboring Syria.
 8月上旬以降、イラク国内で実施してきた空爆をシリア領内に拡大するとも明言した。

The U.S. strategy aimed at the Islamic State is supported by more than 40 nations, including Japan. These countries share a sense of growing alarm that the threat of terrorism could spread. The recent brutal murder of two U.S. journalists by the extremist group has helped tip U.S. public opinion in favor of expanding the air strikes.
 イスラム国を標的とする米国の作戦は、日本など40か国以上から支持されている。テロの脅威が拡散することへの危機感を共有しているためだ。米国人ジャーナリスト2人が惨殺され、米世論も空爆拡大支持へと傾いた。

“I can announce that America will lead a broad coalition to roll back this terrorist threat,” Obama said in a televised speech. Although this is an issue that will involve difficulties, we hope the United States will exercise its leadership in the fight against the Islamic State.
 大統領は「米国は広範な有志連合を率い、テロリストの脅威を後退させる」と強調した。困難を伴う課題だが、米国は指導力を発揮してもらいたい。

U.S. military forces will not be directly involved in combat operations on the ground. Indirect support will be provided to the Iraqi military and Kurdish forces fighting the Islamic State, and to moderate rebel groups in Syria.
 米軍は、地上での戦闘には直接参加せず、イスラム国と戦うイラク軍やクルド人組織、シリアの穏健反体制派を側面支援する。

Prerequisites for the U.S.’ indirect support are whether the new administration of Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi can help domestic Sunni and Shiite groups reconcile, restore the military’s organizations and ability to fight the extremists.
 イラクのアバーディ新政権が、国内のスンニ派とシーア派の融和を図り、軍の組織と戦闘能力を立て直すことが前提となる。

The United States plans to cooperate with Saudi Arabia to help organize and train moderate rebel groups in Syria. While this likely will take some time, it is vital that capable fighting forces are developed.
 シリアでは、米国がサウジアラビアと協力し、穏健反体制派を組織化して、訓練する予定だ。時間はかかろうが、能力ある部隊を育成することが重要である。

Japan should lend hand

About 10 nations, including the United States and Britain, have decided to provide military support to Iraq, with Germany, Italy and Canada supplying weapons and ammunition to Kurdish forces. France also indicated it will join U.S.-led air strikes in Iraq. A coalition of willing nations, including major Arab countries, is steadily coming together.
 米英など10か国がイラクへの軍事支援を、独伊やカナダはクルド人部隊向けの武器・弾薬供与をそれぞれ決めた。フランスもイラク領内の空爆に加わる意向を示し、アラブ主要国をも含む有志連合の輪が着実に広がりつつある。

The Islamic State has an estimated 30,000 fighters from about 50 nations. Weakening and defeating this organization will require even wider, more multifaceted cooperation from the international community.
 50か国前後から約3万人の戦闘員を集めたイスラム国を弱体化させるには、国際社会のより幅広い多角的な協力が欠かせない。

To prevent these fighters from entering and leaving Iraq and Syria, all affected nations will need to closely share information and monitoring of state borders must be tightened. It is also crucial that the Islamic State’s sources of funds are cut off, and that a public information campaign be stepped up to counteract the extremists’ propaganda efforts.
 戦闘員の出入国を制限するため関係国が緊密に情報交換し、国境での監視を強化せねばならない。イスラム国の資金源を遮断し、その宣伝工作に対抗する広報戦略を強化することも大切だ。

The growing reach of the Islamic State has displaced thousands of people and left many more as refugees. Providing humanitarian aid to them is becoming ever more important. We hope Japan will actively provide financial and other support to the Middle East, a region on which the nation depends for much of its energy sources.
 大量に発生した難民・避難民に対する人道支援も、重要性を増している。エネルギーを中東に依存する日本も、資金面などで積極的に貢献したい。

Thirteen years have passed since the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States.
 米国で「9・11同時テロ」が起きてから、13年が過ぎた。

The “war on terror” started in Afghanistan, where the Al-Qaida international terrorist network behind the 9/11 attacks was hiding out.
 「テロとの戦い」は、国際テロ組織アル・カーイダの潜むアフガニスタンで始まった。

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization will finish its operations to maintain security in Afghanistan at the end of 2014. The fight against extremist groups will continue.
北大西洋条約機構のアフガンでの治安維持活動は今年末で終わるが、過激派との戦いは今後も続く。

Every party involved in this fight must be prepared for a long battle.
 長期戦の覚悟が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 14, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月14日 (日)

社説:参院選挙改革 自民の身勝手さに驚く

September 13, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: LDP's selfishness exposed in friction over electoral reform
社説:参院選挙改革 自民の身勝手さに驚く

It has been said that achieving consensus over reform of the electoral system for the House of Councillors is no easy task. But the utter confusion within the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) leaves us dumbfounded.
 元々、合意は難しいと言われていたが、ここまで混乱するとはあきれるばかりだ。参院の選挙制度改革をめぐる自民党の話だ。
   
Masashi Waki, an LDP legislator who heads a consultative body on electoral reform for the upper house, laid out a new reform plan at a meeting of the panel on Sept. 11. The consultative body comprises both ruling and opposition party members, focusing on how to correct vote-value disparities among upper house constituencies.
 経過はこうである。参院選挙区の「1票の格差」是正策を与野党で検討している参院選挙制度協議会の11日の会合で脇雅史座長(自民党)が新たな案を各党に提示した。

Waki's proposal, however, met a backlash from within the LDP. The following day, the party decided to dismiss him from the post of secretary-general of its upper house caucus. Waki is also expected to be ousted as head of the consultative body.
ところが足元の自民党の反発は収まらず、12日には脇氏を参院自民党幹事長から外す更迭人事を決定。協議会の座長も交代する見通しで、

The ruling and opposition camps are now likely to face difficulties reaching an agreement over the issue by the end of the year -- the initial target deadline. The incident exposes the LDP's selfishness and reluctance to engage in electoral reform.
この結果、目標としていた年内の与野党合意は難しい状況となっている。自民党の身勝手さとやる気のなさが明らかになったといっていいだろう。

At the Sept. 11 meeting, Waki proposed a plan to merge 10 prefectural constituencies into five electoral districts -- modifying an original plan to integrate 22 prefectural constituencies into 11 electoral zones. However, LDP legislators -- especially those whose electoral districts were to be affected by the plan -- expressed dissatisfaction with the proposal.
 脇氏が11日提示したのは参院選挙区の10県を5区に合区する案で、22府県を11選挙区に統合するとの当初案を修正したものだ。しかし、肝心の自民党は議席減となる関係選挙区の議員を中心に合区案そのものに対する不満は変わらなかった。

When Waki first presented the proposal of merging upper house constituencies, Kensei Mizote, head of the LDP's upper house caucus, reportedly resisted, saying, "This is the first that I've heard of it." His response reveals a fundamental lack of intra-party coordination within the LDP.
 今春、脇氏が合区案を最初に示した際、同じ参院自民党幹部の溝手顕正参院議員会長は「初めて聞いた」と反発したという。当初から党内調整はずさんだったということだ。

So far, the party has produced no workable alternative. It cannot escape criticism that its legislators, with their vested interests, are inherently reluctant to implement electoral reform.
しかも現状では自民党に合区案に代わる有力案があるわけでもない。これではそもそも自分たちが不利益をこうむる選挙制度改革自体に後ろ向きだと見られても仕方があるまい。

Ahead of the recent Cabinet reshuffle, there was a move within the LDP's upper house caucus to have Waki appointed as a Cabinet minister, in order to unseat him from the head of the consultative body on electoral reform. The attempt to oust Waki failed after he refused the proposed appointment. The idea of linking a ministerial appointment to legislators' own electoral interests leaves us astonished.
 合区案に突き進む脇氏を外すためだったのだろう。先の内閣改造に際しては一時、参院自民党内に脇氏を入閣させ協議会座長から降ろす動きがあった。脇氏が入閣を拒否して見送られたが、議員自らの選挙事情と閣僚人事をからめる発想にも驚く。

The merger proposal may not be the best plan, but it is one possible method to rectify vote-value disparities among electoral districts. Some opposition party members have voiced support for the plan. Even within the LDP, a number have reportedly endorsed the plan, saying they may have no other choice. Waki, on the other hand, doesn't seem to have made sufficient efforts to ease conflict within the LDP, as all he did was to denounce Mizote and other opponents of the plan.
 合区案は私たちもベストとは考えていないが、格差是正の一つの方法ではある。野党の中には賛成する意見も出ており、実は自民党内にも「結局、合区案しかないのでは」との声があるという。一方の脇氏も溝手氏らを非難するだけで党内の取りまとめに努力したとは思えない。

The Supreme Court has ruled that the 2010 upper house election was held "in a state of unconstitutionality." A supplementary provision was subsequently added to the revised Public Offices Election Law, stating that a drastic review of the electoral system would be carried out ahead of the next upper house election to be called in 2016. However, the Diet has thus far only taken the stop-gap measure of reducing the number of seats in the most sparsely populated constituencies by four and increasing that in the most densely populated districts by four. There is little time left to conduct drastic electoral reform for the upper chamber.
 参院選挙区の1票の格差に関しては最高裁が4年前の参院選挙について「違憲状態」との判断を下している。これを受け再来年の次の参院選までに制度の抜本的な見直しを図ることが改正公職選挙法の付則に記された。だが、これまで選挙区定数を「4増4減」する応急措置にとどまっており、抜本改革は待ったなしだ。

In the meantime, a third-party advisory panel to the speaker of the House of Representatives has started discussing reform of the lower house electoral system. This has sparked criticism from Waki and other LDP members. They say it is irresponsible for lawmakers to leave their own electoral system in the hands of a third-party organization. The members stressed that upper house legislators were carrying out reforms "on their own."
 衆院の選挙制度改革では議長の諮問機関による協議がスタートした。脇氏ら参院側は「自らの選挙制度について第三者機関に委ねるのは国会議員として無責任だ」と衆院を批判し、「自前」の改革をアピールしていたはずだ。

Now, however, it seems that the upper chamber will also end up having to outsource the task to a third-party body, as the LDP is making no ground in coordinating the opinions of its members.
自民党が意見をまとめられないとすれば、参院も第三者に委ねるしかなくなるだろう。

毎日新聞 2014年09月13日 02時32分

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脇幹事長更迭 選挙制度改革を内紛で潰すな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Upper house electoral reform mustn’t be hampered by LDP’s internal discord
脇幹事長更迭 選挙制度改革を内紛で潰すな

Grave doubts are unavoidable as to whether the Liberal Democratic Party is tackling reform of the House of Councillors electoral system in a serious manner.
 自民党は参院選挙制度改革に真剣に取り組むつもりがあるのか。重大な疑問を禁じ得ない。

Masashi Waki, who led the upper house electoral reforms, has been replaced as secretary general of the LDP caucus in the chamber.
 選挙制度改革を主導してきた自民党の脇雅史参院幹事長が更迭された。

Chuichi Date, chairman of the LDP’s upper house Diet Affairs Committee, has been promoted to take over Waki’s post. Waki reportedly will also be removed from the chair of the electoral reform council comprising representatives from various parliamentary groups of the upper house.
 後任には、伊達忠一参院国会対策委員長が昇格した。参院各会派で作る選挙制度協議会の座長からも、脇氏は外れるという。

As the council’s chair, Waki presented a plan for a drastic overhaul in April. To rectify the vote-value disparity, the plan calls for creating “combined constituencies” by integrating underpopulated prefectural constituencies with neighboring prefectural electoral districts, among other measures.
 脇氏は4月、座長として抜本改革案を示した。「1票の格差」を是正するため、人口が少ない県の選挙区などを隣接区と統合する「合区」を導入するものだ。

Originally, he proposed the creation of 11 combined constituencies, including Tottori-Shimane and Tokushima-Kochi. He later came up with a compromise plan to reduce the number of integrated electoral districts to five, which would lower the vote-value gap to 2.48-to-1.
 当初は、「鳥取・島根」「徳島・高知」など11の合区を提案した。その後、合区を5に減らす調整案を提示している。1票の格差は2・48倍に縮小する。

LDP upper house members representing constituencies subject to the integration opposed the plan. Kensei Mizote, chairman of the LDP caucus in the chamber, feels greater distrust of Waki, whose opponents claim he presented the reform plan and went ahead with council proceedings without having done consensus-building spadework.
 合区の対象となる選挙区の自民党議員らは反発した。自民党の溝手顕正参院議員会長は、脇氏が事前の根回しなしで改革案を示したり、協議会の議事を進めたりすることに不信感を強めていた。

For his part, Waki has publicly criticized the LDP for its reluctance to compile an electoral reform plan and sought to pursue the issue of Mizote’s responsibility for the delay, thereby deepening a rift within the party.
 脇氏も自民党が選挙制度改革の見解をまとめないことを公然と批判し、溝手氏の責任を追及するなど、対立が深まっていた。

The chair of the LDP caucus in the upper chamber has the authority to name a secretary general for a one-year term. Mizote suggested replacing Waki, citing the expiration of his one-year term, which won approval at a general meeting of LDP upper house members.
 議員会長は、1年任期の幹事長を指名する権限を持つ。溝手氏は、任期満了を理由に脇氏の交代を提案し、議員総会で了承された。

Don’t quash reform drive

Waki’s impartial leadership of the council, however, was appreciated by opposition parties. The party’s continued passive stance toward electoral reforms is irresponsible, as the LDP holds the largest share of seats in the upper chamber. It cannot be helped if the recent replacement of Waki is criticized as a move aimed at halting the reform drive.
 だが、脇氏の中立的な協議会運営は、野党に評価されていた。そもそも、選挙制度改革に対する自民党の一貫して消極的な姿勢は、最大会派として無責任である。今回の更迭人事は、「改革つぶし」と批判されても仕方がない。

The LDP has an unwritten rule that its leadership in the House of Representatives cannot interfere with the personnel and other affairs of the upper house. Without sitting back and watching how things develop, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe must display leadership to prevent the electoral reform drive from losing momentum.
 自民党には、参院の人事などには衆院側が口を出さない不文律があるが、安倍首相は、事態を傍観せず、選挙制度改革が失速しないよう指導力を発揮すべきだ。

Concerning the upper house poll in July last year that recorded a maximum disparity of 4.77-to-1, the gap was determined by 14 high courts and their branches across the country as “being in a state of unconstitutionality” or “unconstitutional.” The Supreme Court will hand down its judgments on appeals of those cases before the year-end. The correction of vote-value disparity is an urgent matter that must be fixed.
 1票の格差が最大4・77倍だった昨年7月の参院選について、全国の高裁・支部は「違憲状態」や「違憲」の判断を示している。最高裁は年内にも判決を下す。格差是正は喫緊の課題だ。

There is little time left for deliberations on electoral reform, as a new system will take effect from the next upper house poll set for 2016.
 2016年の次期参院選から新制度へ移行することを考えれば、残された時間は多くない。

How to deal with the proposal on combined constituencies will be a focal point.
 焦点は、合区案の扱いだ。

Seen as a plan aimed at correcting the disparity while maintaining the current system that combines constitutional and national proportional representation bloc elections, the proposal is supported by the Democratic Party of Japan and People’s Life Party.
 合区は、選挙区選と全国比例選を組み合わせた現行制度を維持しながら、格差是正も追求した案と言える。民主党や生活の党は、理解を示している。

If the combined constituencies are to be adopted, it is indispensable to coordinate the selection of a candidate to run in such electoral districts. The LDP must accelerate efforts to consolidate intraparty opinions on concrete steps, including on the choice of candidates, and hold a constructive debate at the upper chamber’s election system reform council.
 合区を採用する場合は、対象選挙区の候補者調整が欠かせない。自民党は、そうした工夫も含め、具体案に関する党内の意見集約を急ぐとともに、協議会で建設的な議論を行うことが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 13, 2014)Speech

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原発事故調書 危機管理強化へ重い教訓だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Yoshida file contains harsh lesson about improving crisis management
原発事故調書 危機管理強化へ重い教訓だ

The so-called Yoshida file illustrates how badly the government handled crisis management at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, and how serious the situation was.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故で、政府の危機管理はいかに迷走したか。調書が深刻な状況を物語っている。

The government released the file, which is a record of interviews with Masao Yoshida, the late former manager of the power plant, former Prime Minister Naoto Kan and 17 others. A government panel investigating the nuclear crisis compiled the file.
 政府事故調査・検証委員会が、吉田昌郎元福島第一原発所長や菅元首相ら19人から聴取した調書を、政府が公開した。

Eleven of the interviewees are Diet members from the then Democratic Party of Japan-led administration. Although their interviews do not contain any new facts left out of the panel’s report on the crisis, what they said is important in verifying how the administration dealt with the situation.
 うち11人は、民主党政権の国会議員だ。政府事故調の報告書に記された以上の新事実は見当たらないものの、当時の事故対処を検証する上で、重要な証言だろう。

A case in point is Kan’s inspection tour of the plant the day after the crisis began. There were various opinions regarding the trip, which involved the nation’s top leader leaving the Prime Minister’s Office.
 一例が、菅氏による福島第一原発の事故翌日の視察だ。最高指揮官が首相官邸を離れることには、当時から様々な意見があった。

“I decided I’d better have face-to-face talks with the person in charge, as our communications were being bungled [with the plant and others],” Kan said in justification of his inspection tour.
 菅氏は、「(現場などとの)コミュニケーションがスムーズにいかず、責任者ときちんと会って話をした方がいいと判断した」と、視察を正当化している。

Then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano supported the visit. “I thought things would go smoothly if Mr. Kan went to the site and I oversaw the entire situation,” he told the panel.
 官房長官だった枝野幸男氏も、「菅さんが現地に行って、私が全体を見ている。その方がものは回ると思った」と容認した。

However, people at the plant responded to Kan’s visit differently, as the situation did not give them a moment to spare. “I don’t think I was able to explain fully. The atmosphere was such that I never felt free to speak,” Yoshida told the panel.
 だが、寸秒を惜しむ状況だった現場の受け止め方は違う。吉田氏は「十分に説明できたとは思っていない。自由発言できる雰囲気じゃなかった」と答えている。

Leader’s visit no help

Motohisa Ikeda, a former senior vice minister at the Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry who was at the plant dealing with the crisis, did not support Kan’s inspection. “It would have been easier for us to deal with the crisis if [the prime minister] had remained in Tokyo,” Ikeda said.
 現地で対応していた池田元久・元経済産業副大臣も、「(首相は)東京にいた方が事故対応がしやすい」と視察に否定的だった。
These remarks underscore a wide gap in the perception of the visit between people at the site and the Prime Minister’s Office.
官邸サイドとの認識の差は大きい。

The panel’s 2012 report on the crisis pointed out that “it is the prime minister’s role to make final judgments, while he leaves the tasks of gathering information and coming up with measures to deal with the situation to the relevant organs and sections.” It went on to conclude, “The prime minister’s intervention could cause confusion at a site and lead to misjudgments. It could do more harm than good.”
 政府事故調の報告書は「首相は各機関・部局に情報収集と対応策を任せ、最終判断を行うのが役割」と指摘した。その上で、「介入は現場を混乱させ、判断を誤ることにつながりかねず、弊害の方が大きい」と結論づけた。

Considering what Yoshida said, it is a matter of course for the report to level sharp criticism against Kan.
 吉田氏の証言と重ねると、菅氏に対する事故調報告書の厳しい評価は当然と言えよう。

The Yoshida file also revealed the state of affairs at the Prime Minister’s Office, which failed to gather vital information. When there was a hydrogen explosion at the plant’s No. 1 reactor, the only material the office had was news footage of the explosion.
 調書からは、官邸に情報が集まらない実態も浮かぶ。第一原発1号機が水素爆発した際も、ニュース映像しか情報はなかった。

“There was no information available at the office even just before press conferences held by the chief cabinet secretary,” Tetsuro Fukuyama, deputy chief cabinet secretary when the crisis began, told the panel. “I thought, ‘What on earth is this?’”
 官房副長官だった福山哲郎氏は「官房長官会見の前でも全然情報が上がってこない。何なのだこれは、という感じだ」と語った。

Diet members who dealt with the crisis had little knowledge of nuclear power plants. “It was the first time I had heard the word,” said then Economy, Trade and Industry Minister Banri Kaieda regarding “venting,” an operation to lower the pressure inside a reactor.
 事故対応に当たった国会議員は、原発に関する知識も乏しかった。原子炉の圧力を下げる「ベント」について、経済産業相だった海江田万里氏は「初めて聞く言葉だった」と述べている。

The DPJ administration failed to fully utilize bureaucrats with expertise, rendering itself dysfunctional. It is a weighty lesson to be learned.
 民主党政権が専門知識を持つ官僚を使いこなせず、機能不全に陥っていた。重い教訓である。

Regrettably, interviews with relevant TEPCO officials have not been disclosed. To better clarify what happened in the crisis, the utility company should cooperate in making them public as much as possible.
 残念なのは、東電の関係者の調書が公開されていない点だ。事故の検証を深めるため、東電も可能な限り、公開に協力すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 13, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月13日 (土)

社説:吉田調書公開 次は「幸運」に頼れない

September 12, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Nuclear plants cannot rely on luck
社説:吉田調書公開 次は「幸運」に頼れない

A document detailing testimony by the late former head of the tsunami-hit Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant conveys the terror of the serious accident at the atomic power station that occurred 3 1/2 years ago.
 原発過酷事故の恐ろしさが3年半たった今も生の言葉から伝わってくる。

The record of the government fact-finding panel's hearing of Masao Yoshida, former head of the power plant, over the accident has been released along with those on interviews with 18 others.
東京電力福島第1原発の事故当時の所長、吉田昌郎氏が政府の事故調査・検証委員会のヒアリングに答えた「吉田調書」が、他の18人分の調書とともに公開された。
   
The document quotes Yoshida as saying, "Nobody came to help us," "Necessary supplies didn't reach us," and "there was a wide perception gap between the plant, the Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) headquarters and the prime minister's office."
 「誰も助けにこなかった」「必要な物資が届かない」「現場と東電本店や官邸の認識の差が大きい」。

Both power companies including TEPCO and the government should pay close attention to Yoshida's testimony and clarify whether each problem he pointed out has been improved.
電力会社も政府も、吉田氏の訴えに再度耳を傾け、それが改善されているか、ひとつずつチェックすべきだ。

When the nuclear disaster broke out, the biggest challenge Yoshida and other workers encountered was to inject water into the plant's reactors, and they were asking for outside help. However, no one extended substantive or effective assistance to the plant. A lot of equipment that plant workers needed, such as power-supply vehicles, batteries, fire engines and diesel fuel, reached a nearby supply depot, but there was nobody who was able to transport the supplies to the power station. As a result, workers at the plant were forced to come to the depot to pick up the supplies despite a serious shortage of personnel at the power station. Such a frustrating situation is apparently attributable to high radiation levels inside the plant.
 事故当時、吉田氏らの最大の課題は原子炉に水を入れることであり、外からの支援も求めていた。しかし、実質的で効果的な助けはなかなかこなかった。電源車、バッテリー、消防車、軽油など現場が必要とする資材も途中の基地まではくるが、運ぶ人がいない。結果的に人手が足りない現場から取りに行かざるを得なかった。こうしたもどかしい状況が生じた理由は、現場の放射線量が高かったためと考えられる。

Power companies are primarily responsible for dealing with any accident at power plants they operate. Regardless, it is imperative to address in advance how to support workers at a nuclear power plant where radiation levels have surged in case of a serious nuclear accident and how the national and local governments, the Self-Defense Forces and firefighters should cooperate in responding to the accident.
 事故対策は一義的には電力会社の責任だとしても、過酷事故が起きた場合、放射線量の高い現場をどう支援するのか。政府や自治体、自衛隊、消防などがどう連携するのか。きちんと解決しておかなくてはならない重要課題だ。

During the hearing, Yoshida repeatedly pointed out a perception gap between plant workers, the TEPCO headquarters and the prime minister's office. The headquarters and the prime minister's office did not understand the situation of the plant at the time of the accident. As such, the headquarters ordered plant workers to stop injecting sea water in the reactors at the strong urging of the prime minister's office, obstructing worker's efforts to bring the crisis under control instead of extending support to the workers. The central government and utilities should clearly show whether they have implemented remedial measures to prevent a recurrence of such a problem.
 東電本店や官邸との認識の隔たりについても、吉田氏は繰り返し述べている。本店や官邸は現場の状況を理解せず、支援するどころか、官邸の意向をくんだ本店が海水注入の停止を命じるなど妨害さえした。そんなことが起きないための改善策をきちんと講じているのか、政府や電力会社は明確に示してほしい。

The government stiffened regulatory standards for nuclear plants following the accident but emphasis is primarily placed on the hardware aspect. It is necessary to verify how far countermeasures in the software aspect, such as information and personnel, the flow of supplies and the chain of command, have been taken.
 事故後、規制基準は厳しくなったが、主としてハード面に重きが置かれてきた。情報や人、物資の流れ、指揮命令系統といったソフト面の対策がどこまできちんとなされたか、さらなる検証が必要だ。

Yoshida, who faced a difficult response to the crisis in which the plant's No. 1 to 4 reactors fell into critical condition, pointed out problems involving the concentration of nuclear plants in small areas. However, Japan still faces risks arising from multiple nuclear plants in many areas, and it is necessary to seriously consider how to rectify the situation.
 1〜4号機が次々に危機的状況に陥る中で困難な対応を迫られた吉田氏は、原発の集中立地の問題も指摘している。しかし、現実には日本の原発は複数立地のリスクを抱えたままであり、もっと真剣に改善策を考えなくてはならない。

Yoshida's testimony suggests that the Fukushima No. 1 plant barely evaded a further catastrophe thanks to good luck.
 調書からは、これほどの惨事もある意味で「幸運」に支えられており、さらなる大惨事を紙一重で免れたことも感じとれる。

Recalling the critical situation in which workers had been unable to inject water into the No. 2 reactor over an extended period, Yoshida was quoted as saying, "We were afraid that all radioactive substances would leak and spread. We visualized all of eastern Japan being devastated."
水が入れられない状況が続いた2号機について吉田氏は、「放射性物質が全部出て、まき散らしてしまう。我々のイメージは東日本壊滅」とさえ述べている。

Keeping in mind that the worst-case scenario cannot be prevented by good luck, the government and power suppliers that are aiming to reactivate idled nuclear plants should learn lessons from the Yoshida testimony and all documents released by the government's fact-finding panel.
 原発再稼働を目指す政府や電力会社は、「次の幸運はない」と肝に銘じてほしい。その上で、吉田調書をはじめとする事故調の資料からあらゆる教訓を学びとるべきだ。

毎日新聞 2014年09月12日 02時30分

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吉田調書公開 朝日が「撤退」取り消して謝罪

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Asahi bears heavy responsibility over ‘comfort women,’ Fukushima fiascoes
吉田調書公開 朝日が「撤退」取り消して謝罪

 ◆国際的に誤解広めた責任は重い

The Asahi Shimbun has retracted a set of articles concerning the “Yoshida file” on the crisis at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
 朝日新聞が、東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故を巡る「吉田調書」の記事を取り消した。

The crux of the articles — which focused on the words “retreat in violation of an order” and caused wide repercussions not only at home but overseas as well — has now been admitted to be erroneous. The newspaper’s decision to issue a retraction was a matter of course.
 海外まで波紋を広げた「命令違反」「撤退」という記事の根幹が誤りだった。撤回は当然の判断である。

Regarding its reports on the issue of so-called comfort women, the newspaper’s executives also have expressed a formal apology for the first time for the delay in correcting the misreporting. Considering that the Asahi’s series of stories on the comfort women issue has deeply hurt Japan’s national interests, the newspaper’s apology is obviously long overdue.
 いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題報道でも、訂正が遅れたことを初めて明確に謝罪した。朝日新聞の一連の慰安婦報道が、日本の国益を大きく損なったことを考えれば、謝罪は遅きに失した。

Such problems threaten to erode public trust in the newspapers. The Asahi Shimbun bears an extremely heavy responsibility.
 これらの問題は、新聞に対する国民の信頼を失墜させかねない。朝日新聞の責任は極めて重い。

Defaming TEPCO workers
 ◆東電作業員名誉損なう

The Yoshida file is the statement given by the late Masao Yoshida, the manager of the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant at the time of the disaster. He was interviewed before his death last year by a government committee tasked with investigating the outbreak of the nuclear crisis. Claiming to have had exclusive access to a copy of the Yoshida testimony, the Asahi in its May 20, 2014, morning edition reported that “90 percent of TEPCO workers who were at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant on the morning of March 15, 2011 ... went against Yoshida’s order to wait for further instructions and withdrew to the Fukushima No. 2 nuclear plant 10 kilometers to the south.”
 吉田調書は、政府の事故調査・検証委員会が、福島第一原発の吉田昌郎元所長から生前に聴取した証言だ。その記録を入手したとする朝日新聞は5月20日朝刊で、「所員の9割が所長命令に違反し、約10キロ離れた第二原発に撤退した」と報じた。

One reading of the Yoshida file, which the government disclosed to the public Thursday, makes it clear that the facts were not as the Asahi reported.
 政府が11日に公開した吉田調書を読めば、そのような事実がないことは明らかである。

Plant chief Yoshida strongly denied using the word “retreat.” He never issued any instruction calling for the workers to withdraw from the nuclear plant and had no perception that the workers failed to comply with an order issued by him, according to the Yoshida file.
 吉田元所長は「撤退」という言葉を強く否定している。撤退の指示も出しておらず、所員や作業員が自らの命令に違反したとの認識もない。

It is a fact widely known both at home and abroad that many TEPCO workers remained at the nuclear plant amid the disaster, courageously confronting the crisis. Since shortly after the publication of the Asahi reports in question, many people have expressed skepticism regarding their contents.
 現場に多くの作業員が残り、事故対応に当たっていたことは、国内外で周知の事実だ。朝日新聞の報道直後から、記事内容について疑問を呈する声が出ていた。

In a news conference Thursday, Tadakazu Kimura, president of The Asahi Shimbun, said, “Since other news organizations also obtained copies of the Yoshida file and began to report factual discrepancies [in Asahi reporting], we started an in-house investigation into the matter and reached the conclusion that our reporting was erroneous.”
 この点について、記者会見した朝日新聞の木村伊量社長らは、「他の報道機関が調書を入手し、事実関係の食い違いを報じ始めたため、社内で調査を始め、誤りと判断した」と説明した。

“A limited number of our staff members shared the document, and our fact-checking system did not operate properly,” the Asahi head stated, announcing the dismissal of the newspaper’s executive editor over the coverage of the Yoshida account. Kimura went on to say he would decide whether he himself should resign as Asahi president after carrying out an in-house reform plan.
 「調書を見る人間が限られ、チェックが働かなかった」とも釈明し、取締役編集担当を解職した。社長自らについても、社内改革後に進退を判断するという。

In the statement, plant manager Yoshida made such remarks as “I thought it proper” that the TEPCO workers decided to evacuate to the Fukushima No. 2 complex. The reporting in question by the Asahi, however, failed to make any reference to that part of the statement, instead highlighting a “violation” of Yoshida’s order.
 吉田元所長は、調書の中で、所員たちが第二原発に退避したことを「正しいと思った」などと述べている。朝日の記事は、その部分に一切触れず、「命令違反」をクローズアップしている。

It cannot be helped if people think that the Asahi’s approach was designed to select only those portions of Yoshida’s statement that the newspaper considered convenient.
 都合の良い部分だけを取り上げて記事にした、と受け取られても仕方があるまい。

The Asahi coverage of Yoshida’s account has damaged the reputation of TEPCO employees domestically and internationally, even though they did their utmost to combat the worst phase of the crisis, even risking their lives, in the extraordinarily harsh conditions at the time of the nuclear disaster.
 朝日の記事は、事故当時の過酷な状況の中で、体を張って最悪の事態と闘っていた作業員たちの名誉を国内外で傷つけた。

National interests hurt
 ◆国益害した慰安婦報道

The Asahi also said it would issue a retraction of the article in question overseas. It is essential to correct the misperception that has spread globally due to the article.
 朝日は、記事撤回を海外にも発信するという。海外での誤った認識を正すことが重要だ。

The newspaper’s erroneous reports on the comfort women issue have also had an impact both at home and abroad.
 朝日新聞の誤った報道が、内外に大きな影響を及ぼしたのは、慰安婦問題も同様である。

In a special feature in its Aug. 5 morning edition, the Asahi carried the results of an in-house investigation into its past reports on comfort women.
 朝日新聞は8月5日朝刊の特集面で、これまでの慰安婦報道についての検証結果を掲載した。

The newspaper admitted that the account given by Seiji Yoshida — who said comfort women had been forcibly gathered on South Korea’s Jeju island — was false and retracted at least 16 articles that were based on it. But it did not offer any apology for publishing the articles, drawing a barrage of harsh criticism.
 その中で、韓国・済州島で慰安婦を強制連行したとした吉田清治氏の証言が虚偽であったことは認め、証言をもとにした少なくとも16本の記事を取り消した。しかし、それに対する謝罪の文言はなく、厳しい批判を受けていた。

Kimura apologized Thursday, saying, “I apologize to our readers for carrying the erroneous articles and being too late in making the correction.”
 この点について、木村社長は「誤った記事を掲載し、訂正が遅きに失したことについて、読者におわびする」と謝罪した。

The Asahi said it would establish a third-party panel consisting of lawyers, historians and journalists to conduct a thorough review of the impact of its comfort women coverage on Japan-South Korea relations and the international community.
 今後は、社外の弁護士や歴史学者、ジャーナリストらで構成する第三者機関を設け、慰安婦報道が日韓関係や国際社会に与えた影響などについて徹底検証していく方針という。

At the same time, Kimura stressed that he “has confidence” in the results of his company’s vetting of the articles.
 一方で、木村社長は、自社の検証結果に「自信を持っている」と強調している。

Global media impact
 ◆新聞の影響自覚したい

The essential problem with The Asahi’s articles on comfort women is that the newspaper brushed aside doubts about Yoshida’s account — which claimed the forcible state recruitment of comfort women — and did not rectify its reports based on the account for a long time, thereby seriously hurting Japan’s national interests.
 朝日新聞慰安婦報道の問題点の本質は、国による強制連行があったという吉田氏の証言に疑義が持たれても、それを黙殺し、修正しなかったことによって、日本の国益を大きく損ねた点にある。

Yoshida’s account was quoted in the report that Radhika Coomaraswamy submitted to the U.N. Human Rights Commission in 1996.
 国連人権委員会に1996年に提出されたクマラスワミ報告でも吉田氏の証言が引用された。

The Asahi’s argument that it is important that there was coercion in a broad sense is simply switching the point of contention.
 広い意味での強制性があったことが重要だとの朝日の主張は論点のすり替えにほかならない。

During a radio program on Thursday, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said: “Media reports have a great impact both at home and abroad. [Media organizations] are constantly asked to provide accurate and credible reports while fully recognizing that they might harm the reputation of our country.” This is a reasonable view.
 安倍首相は11日のラジオ放送で、「報道は国内外に大きな影響を与える。時として我が国の名誉を傷つけることもあると十分に認識しながら、正確で信用性の高い報道が常に求められる」と述べた。もっともな指摘である。

News media bear a heavy responsibility to serve “the people’s right to know.”
 報道機関は「国民の知る権利」に奉仕する重い役割を担う。

The Asahi is suspected of deviating significantly from the principle of accurate reporting that is fundamentally required of media organizations, as it has spread a misperception around the globe through articles written based on sloppy news gathering and fact-checking.
 ずさんな取材により、誤解を世界に広めた朝日新聞は、事実を正確に伝えるという報道機関としての基本を大きく踏み外したのではないだろうか。

The Yomiuri Shimbun will endeavor to provide quality reports while taking care not to make errors similar to those made by The Asahi.
 読売新聞も十分に自戒しながら、質の高い報道に取り組んでいきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 12, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月12日 (金)

社説:川内原発再稼働 なし崩し的に進めるな

September 11, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Move to restart reactors without sufficient debate a huge mistake
社説:川内原発再稼働 なし崩し的に進めるな

The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) has approved a screening document giving the No. 1 and 2 reactors at Kyushu Electric Power Co.'s Sendai Nuclear Power Plant a pass under new screening standards -- a first in Japan.
 九州電力川内(せんだい)原発1、2号機(鹿児島県薩摩川内市)の安全審査で、原子力規制委員会は新規制基準への合格証となる審査書を決定した。全国の原発で初めてだ。

The power company is now stepping up efforts to gain local consent to restart the reactors. But many issues have been left unaddressed, and we cannot accept reactivation without proper debate on these issues.
九電は再稼働に向け、地元への同意手続きを本格化させる。しかし、多くの課題が残されたままで、なし崩し的に再稼働を進めることは認められない。
   
Two months before the screening document was adopted, the Mainichi Shimbun proposed two minimum conditions for restarting the reactors: preparing a way to curb damage to residents based on lessons learned from the Fukushima nuclear disaster, and having the government outline a roadmap for eliminating dependence on nuclear power and clarify where the reactivation of nuclear reactors is positioned within the nation's overall energy strategy.
 私たちは審査書案がまとまった2カ月前に、次の二つを再稼働の最低条件として挙げた。福島第1原発事故を教訓に、住民の被害を食い止める手立てを整えておくこと。政府が脱原発依存の道筋を描いた上で、エネルギー政策全体の中に再稼働をどう位置付けるか明示することだ。

This month the government sent workers to Kagoshima Prefecture, among other areas, to help formulate evacuation plans that would be implemented in the event of a nuclear accident. It is also considering making power companies present maintenance plans for aging reactors and urging utilities to reach a decision on whether to decommission or extend the life of their reactors.
 政府は今月に入り、鹿児島県などに職員を派遣し、事故に備えた避難計画の策定支援に乗り出した。電力会社に老朽化した原発の整備計画を提出させ、稼働延長か廃炉かの決断を促すことも検討している。

But these measures have come too late, and even if they guarantee the effectiveness of evacuation plans, we still have no outline of how the nation can free itself from reliance on nuclear power.
だが、これらの対応は遅すぎたほどで、避難計画の実効性確保も、脱原発依存の道筋を描くこともできていない。

The government says it plans to proceed with restarting nuclear power plants that have passed NRA screening. But it has not explained how it plans to obtain the consent it needs from local bodies for the plants to go into operation.
 政府は、規制委の審査に合格した原発の再稼働を進める方針を掲げるが、そのために必要な地元同意を得る手順も示さないままだ。

Under current rules, power companies must obtain consent from prefectural governments, as well as cities, towns or villages, where the nuclear power plants are located. But that leaves restarting nuclear reactors entirely in the hands of power companies and local bodies.
 現行ルールでは、電力会社が原発立地県や立地市町村の同意を得れば再稼働できる。しかし、それでは、再稼働の判断を電力会社と地元自治体に丸投げすることになる。

Kagoshima Gov. Yuichiro Ito has asked the government to state in writing why it is necessary to reactivate the Sendai plant's nuclear reactors. In doing so he has expressed the position that the government bears responsibility for restarting the reactors. The government intends to comply, but this must not end up a mere ceremony.
 鹿児島県の伊藤祐一郎知事は政府に、再稼働の必要性を文書で示すよう要請した。再稼働を判断する責任は国にあるという態度表明だ。政府も応じる考えだが、単なるセレモニーに終わらせてはならない。

It is feared that if nuclear power plants are not restarted, then imports of fossil fuels will be pushed up, which could negatively affect the economy. But the risk of accidents that goes hand in hand with reactivation of nuclear reactors remains. So why are officials deciding to restart these reactors? Are we perfectly prepared for any accident that could occur?
 原発が稼働しなければ化石燃料の輸入増加が続き、経済への影響が懸念される。だが、原発稼働に伴う事故のリスクは残ったままだ。そうした中で再稼働をなぜ決断するのか。事故が起きた時の態勢は万全か。

The government has a responsibility to spend time explaining the issue to the public, deepen discussion, and reflect this in its policies.
政府は国民に説明を重ね、議論を深め、政策に反映する責務がある。

When proceeding to gain consent for reactivation from local bodies, the government must deeply respect the opinions not only of the municipalities where the reactors are located, but also those within a 30-kilometer radius of the nuclear power plant, where evacuation plans must be prepared.
 再稼働の同意手続きに際しては、立地市町村に加え、避難計画の策定を義務付けられた原発30キロ圏の市町村の意見を最大限尊重すべきだ。

In July, the municipal assembly of the city of Aira, which lies within 30 kilometers of the Sendai Nuclear Power Plant, expressed opposition to restarting the plant's reactors, stating that residents felt uneasy about evacuation plans. It approved a document calling for the reactors to be decommissioned. In the Kagoshima Prefecture city of Ichikikushikino, meanwhile, more than half of the city's residents signed a petition opposing reactivation.
 川内原発から30キロ圏の姶良(あいら)市議会は7月、「住民は避難計画に不安を持っている」として川内原発の再稼働に反対し、廃炉を求める意見書を可決した。いちき串木野市では住民の半数を上回る再稼働反対署名が集まった。

However, as is the case with the Sendai Nuclear Power Plant and many other nuclear facilities, there exists no mechanism enabling the opinions of residents in these neighboring municipalities to be reflected in decisions on whether or not nuclear reactors should be restarted.
しかし、川内をはじめ多くの原発では、こうした近隣市町村の意見を再稼働の判断に反映する仕組みがない。

Municipalities hosting nuclear power plants tend to favor reactivation due to the strong economic ties they have to those plants. If the government and power companies are hoping they can restrict consent for activation of nuclear power plants to as small a sphere as possible, then they are making a huge mistake.
 経済面で原発との結びつきが強い立地市町村は再稼働を望みがちだ。同意の範囲をなるべく狭く抑えたいと政府や電力会社が考えているとしたら、大きな間違いだ。

毎日新聞 2014年09月11日 02時35分

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司法試験 法科大学院の不振は深刻だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Underperforming law schools pose serious problem for legal profession
司法試験 法科大学院の不振は深刻だ

A considerable number of candidates have been unable to pass the state-administered bar exam after completing their studies at law school. What should be done to address this problem?
 法科大学院を修了しても、司法試験に合格できない。その傾向に、どう歯止めをかけるか。

Successful applicants for this year’s National Bar Examination numbered a modest 1,810, a decrease of 239 from last year. This year’s figure marked the first drop below 2,000 in eight years.
 今年の司法試験の合格者は、前年より239人少ない1810人にとどまった。合格者が2000人を割ったのは8年ぶりである。

As part of its efforts to reform the judicial system, the government has sought to increase the number of legal professionals. The move aims to transform our nation from a society where social problems are prevented in advance with administrative regulations into one where such problems are checked after they occur through legal means.
 司法制度改革で、政府は「事前規制型」から「事後チェック型」の社会への転換を目指し、法曹人口の増加を図った。

But the number of lawyers employed by local governments and business corporations has not increased as much as anticipated. A large number of people are unable to find jobs after passing the bar exam.
 だが、自治体や企業による弁護士の雇用は想定したほど拡大していない。司法試験に合格しても就職先が見つからない人が多い。

Given the circumstances, the government had no choice but to retract its goal — of increasing the number of successful applicants for the bar exam to 3,000 annually — in July last year. The Liberal Democratic Party and its junior coalition partner, New Komeito, have proposed lowering the numerical target to 1,500. The modest number of those who passed this year’s test seems to partly reflect the LDP-Komeito move.
 政府が昨年7月、司法試験の合格者数を3000人にまで増やす目標を撤回したのは、やむを得まい。自民党と公明党は「合格者1500人」を提言している。今回の合格者減の背景には、こうした動きもあるのだろう。

The government should consider setting a new numerical target after studying the issue from various perspectives while also considering potential needs for legal services.
 政府は、潜在的な法的ニーズも考慮し、法曹人口の新たな目標を多角的に検討すべきだ。

The judicial system must be reformed in a manner that will provide people with easy access to legal advice whenever they need it to settle problems that may arise in their daily lives. If an increase in the number of legal professionals helps foster fair competition among lawyers, it would do much to improve the quality of their legal services.
 国民が日常のトラブルについて、手軽に相談できる「身近な司法」を実現することは大切だ。法曹人口を増やし、弁護士の間で適正な競争が生まれれば、司法サービスの向上につながろう。

The bar exam results this year are another clear indication that law schools, a central component in the production of legal specialists, are poorly performing in this respect. This is evident in the percentage of law school graduates — just 21 percent — who passed this year’s bar exam.
 今回、改めて浮き彫りになったのが、法曹養成の中核である法科大学院の不振だ。修了生の合格率は21%と低迷した。

Preliminary test takers do better

Yet solid results were achieved by those who took the bar exam after passing a preliminary test. Success in the latter test makes applicants eligible to take the bar exam even if they have not attended law school.
This year, 163 people passed the bar exam after qualifying to take the test through their success in the preliminary exam. Among applicants who followed this path, 67 percent passed the bar exam.
 対照的に、法科大学院を修了しなくても司法試験の受験資格を得られる予備試験を経た合格者は、過去最多の163人に上った。合格率は67%に達した。

The preliminary examination system was established as an alternate route to the bar exam, to allow candidates to qualify for the bar exam despite being unable to attend law school for financial and other reasons.
 予備試験は、経済的理由などで法科大学院に通えない人にも、司法試験に挑戦する道を開く「例外ルート」として設けられた。

But in many cases, the preliminary test system has been used as a shortcut by university students and others who hope to save themselves the time and trouble of attending law school.
ところが、法科大学院で学ぶ過程を省く「近道」として、現役学生らが利用するケースが目立つ。

If more and more people seek to pass the bar exam after passing the preliminary test, it could shake the foundation of the current system for producing legal professionals. Efforts to reform law schools must not be delayed.
 予備試験組が増え続ければ、現在の法曹養成制度の根幹が揺らぎかねない。法科大学院の改革は待ったなしである。

Some law schools have been increasingly inclined to withdraw from their field of education in recent months. The move has accelerated since last autumn, when the education ministry said it would curtail grants-in-aid to law schools whose graduates perform poorly on the bar exam.
 文部科学省が昨秋、成績不振校に対する補助金の削減方針を表明して以降、法科大学院の間で撤退の動きが加速している。

There was a time when law schools bloomed, with their number peaking at 74. But the number of law schools accepting applications for admission next spring is expected to decrease to 54. It is only natural for law schools to quit if their students do badly on the exam.
 ピーク時には74校が乱立したが、来春も学生を募集するのは54校にまで減る見通しだ。実績を残せない法科大学院の淘汰とうたが進むのは、自然な流れと言えよう。

There are also concerns about an anticipated decrease in the number of people wishing to serve in the legal profession, partly due to the declining popularity of law faculties at universities. It is imperative for universities and law schools to join hands in trying to attract gifted students through such measures as granting early admission to high-achieving undergraduate students.
 法学部人気が低下し、法曹志願者の減少も懸念される。大学と法科大学院が連携し、成績優秀な学部生の飛び入学を柔軟に認めるなど、有能な人材を惹ひきつける取り組みが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 11, 2014)Speech

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川内原発「合格」 再稼働へ課題の解決を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Expedite efforts to clear remaining hurdles for restart of nuclear plants
川内原発「合格」 再稼働へ課題の解決を急げ

The latest development marks a great step toward the restart of nuclear power plants, which have long been suspended. Yet expeditious efforts must be made to solve the remaining issues to bring them back online.
 長期にわたって停止している原子力発電所の再稼働へ向け、大きな前進だ。なお残る課題の解決を急がねばならない。

On Wednesday, the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) decided to issue a screening certificate, which verifies that a plant meets safety standards, for the No. 1 and No. 2 reactors at Kyushu Electric Power Co.’s Sendai nuclear power plant in Kagoshima Prefecture.
 鹿児島県にある九州電力川内原発1、2号機について、原子力規制委員会が、安全審査の合格証にあたる「審査書」を決定した。

Safety criteria for nuclear plants have been strengthened following the outbreak of the crisis at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture. The Sendai plant is the first to meet the new criteria.
 原発の規制基準は、東京電力福島第一原発の事故を踏まえて強化された。それに適合すると判断された初の原発である。

The authority has presumably concluded that the risk of a crisis similar to the one at the Fukushima plant has been greatly lowered at the Sendai plant, with its checks indicating that sufficient safety measures are in place against earthquakes and tsunami and that the reactors’ cooling functions have been reinforced.
 規制委が、福島第一原発のような事故の危険性は大幅に下がったと判断した結果だろう。地震や津波への安全対策は十分に講じられ、原子炉の冷却機能なども強化されたと認定した。

It took 14 months after Kyushu Electric applied for the safety screening in July last year for the NRA’s decision to be made. We wonder if the NRA could have conduct the screening more quickly.
 昨年7月に九電が安全審査を申請してから、今回の決定までに1年2か月を費やした。もっと速やかに審査できなかったのか。

As both the NRA and Kyushu Electric were unfamiliar with the new criteria, the two failed to agree on a number of issues, including how far the safety measures must be taken.
 規制委、九電とも新基準に不慣れで、どの程度まで対策を施せばいいのか、両者の主張がかみ合わないことが多かった。

The NRA must not repeat the mistakes it made at the Sendai plant in its safety screenings for other nuclear plants.
 他の原発の審査で、同じ轍てつを踏んではならない。

From now on, the NRA will confirm the appropriateness of improvement measures at the Sendai plant on the basis of the screening certificate. The body will also examine the assignment of personnel and emergency response procedures.
 規制委は今後、審査書に基づき、改良工事の妥当性を確認する。人員配置や緊急時の対応手順などもチェックする。

Volcanic study just begun

The Sendai plant is located in an area with volcanic activity. The NRA has only recently begun a full-fledged study of measures concerning active volcanoes. At the current pace of the study, reactivating the reactors by the end of the year may be difficult. Careless examinations must be avoided at all costs. We hope the NRA will proceed efficiently with the on-site inspections.
 川内原発は火山活動が活発な地域にある。規制委は、火山対策の検討を本格化させたばかりで、今のペースでは、年内の再稼働は難しい。拙速は禁物だが、効率的に審査を進めてもらいたい。

Regarding the restart of the Sendai plant, the central government and Kyushu Electric intend to win consent from the Kagoshima prefectural government and the city government of Satsumasendai, where the plant is located. Both must explain in detail the safety of the plant and the importance of its reactivation.
 再稼働について、政府と九電は、鹿児島県と川内原発が立地する薩摩川内市の同意を得ることにしている。原発の安全性と重要性を丁寧に説明せねばならない。

The central government will have to deal sincerely with the issue through such measures as having Economy, Trade and Industry Minister Yuko Obuchi visit the prefecture at an appropriate time.
 小渕経済産業相らが適切な時期に現地に出向くなど、誠実な対応が求められよう。

Another pending task is to improve evacuation plans for local residents living in nine cities and towns within a 30-kilometer radius of the plant.
 川内原発の周辺30キロ・メートル圏内にある9市町の住民避難計画を充実させることも課題である。

Evacuation plans proved inadequate in the wake of the outbreak of the nuclear crisis at the Fukushima plant, and the lack of cooperation between the central government and local governments only added to the confusion.
 福島第一原発事故では、避難計画が不備だった。政府と地元自治体は連携を欠き、混乱に拍車をかけた。住民を安全に避難させるには、綿密な計画が不可欠だ。

The nine cities and towns in question have already decided on their evacuation plans. But some remain skeptical about the measures, including one to secure buses for evacuation.
 9市町は既に避難計画を策定しているが、避難用バスの確保策などを疑問視する声がある。

The central government will dispatch five officials from the Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry to the prefecture and the municipalities to help improve their plans. This is an appropriate action.
政府は、経産省から5人を鹿児島県などに派遣し、計画の改善を支援する。妥当な措置と言える。

Besides the Sendai plant, the NRA is now examining the safety of 18 other reactors, including one at Kyushu Electric’s Genkai nuclear power plant and another at Kansai Electric Power Co.’s Takahama plant.
 規制委が安全審査を進めているのは、川内原発以外に、九電玄海原発や関西電力高浜原発など、18基に上る。

The steps taken for the Sendai plant will serve as a litmus test of whether the reactivation of nuclear power plants can get on track.
川内原発の取り組みは、原発の再稼働が軌道に乗るかどうかの試金石となる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 11, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月11日 (木)

今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

「趣味・特技・ノウハウを収益化」セミナーDVD販売開始!【一般社団法人ライフスタイルスポーツ協会】 一般社団法人ライフスタイルスポーツ協会

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ハイリターンを狙うのならば日産センチュリー証券の商品先物取引とFX

日産センチュリー証券の商品先物取引とFXは自宅のPCを利用して管理画面を立ち上げるだけで、お手軽に投資の世界が楽しめます。使い勝手の良い管理画面なので売り買いのタイミングを逃すことがありません。
ハイリターンを狙うのならば日産センチュリー証券の商品先物取引とFXが一番だと思いますが、そのほかにも商品が用意されています。
ハイリスクハイリターンになりますが、海外デリバティブ取引だって日本でできるのです。

阿部首相はそれなりにがんばっていますが、所詮自民党は大企業の味方なんです。
庶民の懐具合が良くなるには時間がかかります。
自分で道を切り開く必要があります。
自分の財産を膨らませるのは自分自身の決断にかかっているのではないでしょうか。

キャンペーンのご紹介です。
今、日産センチュリー証券 に口座を開設して取引を開始するだけで3000円のキャッシュがもらえます。



取引した分だけキャッシュバックがもらえる!取引応援キャンペーンについて



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

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社説:全米テニス 歴史を刻んだ錦織選手

September 10, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Nishikori makes history at U.S. Open
社説:全米テニス 歴史を刻んだ錦織選手

In an essay shortly before he graduated from elementary school and moved to the United States at age 13, Kei Nishikori wrote that his dream was to be the world champion in tennis. Nishikori has added a new page in the history of tennis although he will have to wait a bit longer for his dream to maybe come true.
 13歳で単身渡米する前、少年は小学校の卒業作文に「ぼくの夢」は「世界チャンピオン」と書いた。その夢は持ち越しとなったが、歴史に新たなページを刻んだ。

Nishikori, 24, was overwhelmed by the powerful serve of Croatia's 25-year-old Marin Cilic in the final of the U.S. Open. After the match, Nishikori said "it wasn't my best tennis," and apologized for failing to win the trophy. However, he does not have to apologize. He should be proud that he became the first Japanese tennis player to advance to the final of a singles event at one of the four major tennis championships -- the Australian Open, the French Open, Wimbledon and the U.S. Open.
 テニスの全米オープン最終日。男子シングルス決勝に進んだ24歳の錦織圭選手は25歳のチリッチ選手(クロアチア)の強烈なサーブに圧倒された。試合後、錦織選手は「自分のテニスができなかった。(優勝)トロフィーを獲得できず申し訳ない」と話した。頭を下げる必要はない。4大大会(全豪、全仏、ウィンブルドン、全米)でシングルスの決勝コートに日本選手として初めて立ったことを誇りに思ってほしい。

Nishikori was not highly evaluated before the tournament began. He underwent surgery to his right big toe in early August, and expressed concern about the condition of the toe at a news conference prior to the event. However, he won his more than four-hour-long fourth match by beating one of the world's top-ranked players and won the quarterfinal with his tenacious play, becoming the first Japanese tennis player in 96 years to advance to the semifinal. He then won the semifinal by stunning favorite Novak Djokovic of Serbia.
 大会前の評判は高くなかった。8月初旬、右足親指にメスを入れ、開幕前の記者会見では本人も不安をもらしていた。世界ランキング上位の相手に4時間を超える戦いとなった4回戦と準々決勝は粘り強いプレーでものにした。日本選手として全米では96年ぶりの進出となった準決勝では世界ランク1位のジョコビッチ選手(セルビア)を破った。

In recent years, the men's tennis world has been dominated by top four players led by Djokovic. This time, Nishikori joined the top-ranked players along with Cilic, who won a major championship for the first time, possibly changing the rankings in the men's tennis world dramatically.
 男子テニス界は近年、ジョコビッチ選手を中心に4強時代が続いてきた。錦織選手はそこに、準決勝で世界ランク3位のフェデラー選手(スイス)を倒すなどして4大大会で初優勝したチリッチ選手とともに割って入った格好だ。世界の勢力図が変わるかもしれない。

Nishikori told a news conference following the final that he hopes to advance to the finals of a major tournament again. His international ranking has risen from 11th prior to the game to eighth. The public can place high expectations on the possibility that his dream will come true next season or beyond.
 記者会見で錦織選手は「また4大大会の決勝に戻ってきたい」と言った。世界ランクは大会前の11位から自己最高の8位に上がった。来季以降、夢の実現に期待したい。

Nishikori's outstanding performance at the U.S. Open has also shed light on the great Japanese players of yesteryear.  歴史に埋もれていた日本の偉大なプレーヤーたちに光を当てたことも錦織選手の功績だろう。

Many people have learned that Japanese tennis had its golden age from the late 1910s to the 1930s. Ichiya Kumagai became the first Japanese player to advance to the semifinal of the U.S. Open in 1918. Zenzo Shimizu played in the semifinals of Wimbledon while Jiro Sato made it to the semifinals of the French Open, Wimbledon and the Australian Open.
 日本選手が4大大会でベスト4に進んだのは1918(大正7)年全米の熊谷一弥が初めて。その後、清水善造がウィンブルドン、佐藤次郎が全仏、ウィンブルドン、全豪で4強入りするなど日本テニス界は1930年代にかけて黄金期を迎えていたことを多くの人たちが知った。

Nishikori is not the only Japanese player who performed outstandingly in the latest U.S. Open. Kimiko Date-Krumm, 43, advanced to the semifinals of women's doubles for the first time, and made it to the semifinals of women's singles -- for the third time in a major championship. Date retired from tennis at the age of 26 but made a comeback in 2008 at age 37 after getting married. Many people apparently sympathize with Date who says she enjoys both tennis and her private life.
 今大会は錦織選手だけではない。43歳のクルム伊達公子選手は女子ダブルスで4大大会自身初のベスト4に。4大大会のシングルスで3度の4強入りを果たし、26歳で現役引退した後、結婚を経て2008年、37歳でカムバックした。「テニスと人生を楽しんでいる」という彼女の姿に共感を覚える人も多いだろう。

Shingo Kunieda, 30, won the championship in wheelchair men's singles -- for the first time in three years and fifth time overall -- while Yui Kamiji, 20, won her first championship in wheelchair women's singles. Both of them also won doubles. Their performances tended to be overwhelmed by Nishikori's play during the competition, but their achievements should also be highly praised.
 車いすの部ではシングルスで男子の国枝慎吾選手(30)が3年ぶり5回目、女子の上地結衣(かみじ・ゆい)選手(20)が初優勝を果たしている。2人はダブルスも制し、2冠を達成した。錦織選手の活躍の陰に隠れがちだったが、その快挙を改めてたたえたい。

毎日新聞 2014年09月10日 02時32分

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錦織圭全米準V 「世界一」は次にとっておこう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
You did us proud, Nishikori, and you’ll beat ’em next time!
錦織圭全米準V 「世界一」は次にとっておこう

A Japanese man has become a finalist at a Grand Slam event. Kei Nishikori has fought magnificently on the world stage — we would like to hail his strenuous efforts.
 世界の大舞台で、堂々の準優勝である。奮闘をたたえたい。

Nishikori reached the men’s singles final at the U.S. Open, but was beaten by Marin Cilic of Croatia there on Monday.
 テニスの全米オープン男子シングルス決勝で、錦織圭選手は、クロアチアのマリン・チリッチ選手に残念ながら敗れた。

He narrowly missed the chance of realizing his childhood dream of becoming a world tennis champion. Nonetheless, no Japanese player, man or woman, had progressed to the finals of a Grand Slam singles event before Nishikori.
 世界一になるという少年時代からの夢は、あと一歩でかなわなかった。しかし、四大大会のシングルスで日本選手が決勝に進出したのは、男女を通じて初めてだ。

It is certain that Nishikori’s achievement will be highlighted in Japan’s sports history.
 日本のスポーツ史に、深く刻まれる快挙である。

In Monday’s final, Nishikori was unable to demonstrate his style of tennis, as Cilic took the initiative in the match with his strong serves. The loss may have been a blow to Nishikori’s pride, but we are sure that he will make the disappointment a springboard for further development. “I’m looking forward to returning here next year,” he said after the match.
 決勝では、強烈なサーブが武器のチリッチ選手に主導権を握られ、思うようなテニスができなかった。「来年も、ここに戻ってきたい」。今回の悔しさは、さらなる飛躍の糧となるに違いない。

In this tournament, Nishikori grounded top players one after another, including world No. 1 Novak Djokovic of Serbia. This proved that Nishikori’s style of play, represented by his risk-taking but accurate groundstrokes, has climbed to the level of the world’s top class.
 今大会、錦織選手は、世界ランキング1位のノバク・ジョコビッチ選手(セルビア)ら強豪を次々と撃破した。攻撃的かつ正確なストロークを身上とする彼のテニスが、世界のトップレベルにあることを証明した。

Ichiya Kumagai, Zenzo Shimizu and Jiro Sato — great tennis players who made spectacular showings in Grand Slam events before World War II — were mentioned in media as Nishikori advanced through the U.S. Open. But on the other side of the coin, this shows that Japan has failed to produce players that can compete at the world’s top-level for such a long time after those three.
 熊谷一弥、清水善造、佐藤次郎――。錦織選手が勝ち進むごとに、戦前に四大大会で活躍した名選手が引き合いに出された。裏を返せば、それだけ長い期間、世界の強豪と互角に渡り合える選手が、日本にいなかったということだ。

How Air-Kei grew strong

Nishikori started tennis at 5. He moved to the United States eight years later to hone his skills, receiving support from a tennis fund established by Masaaki Morita, former president of the Japan Tennis Association.
 5歳でテニスを始めた錦織選手は、13歳で渡米した。日本テニス協会の盛田正明・前会長が設立した「テニス・ファンド」の支援を受け、技を磨いた。

Nishikori struggled initially to communicate in English, and experienced various forms of harassment while abroad. However, he did not give up and worked hard, turning pro at 17.
 当初は英語が分からず、嫌がらせも受けたというが、頑張り通し、17歳でプロに転向した。

We assume that Nishikori’s never-say-die fighting spirit stems from the mental toughness he obtained through his life in a foreign country. We can also say that Nishikori’s advancement to the final reflects the long efforts of Japan’s tennis world to produce players who can compete on the world stage.
 異国での生活で身に付けたたくましさが、粘り強い戦いぶりに生きているのだろう。今回の決勝進出は、「世界で戦える選手を育てよう」という日本テニス界の取り組みの成果でもある。

The influence of Michael Chang, an American who began coaching Nishikori from the end of last year, is also substantial. Chang is just three centimeters shorter than the 1.78-meter tall Nishikori. Chang, who won the French Open despite being small for a tennis player, is the perfect model for Nishikori.
 昨年末から師事する米国人コーチ、マイケル・チャン氏の存在も大きい。身長1メートル78の錦織選手に対し、チャン氏は1メートル75。トップ選手としては小柄な体格で全仏オープンを制したチャン氏は、錦織選手の手本だと言える。

According to reports, Chang spends time before sending Nishikori onto the court instilling in him the belief that he is stronger than his opponent. This underscores the significance of coaches who support athletes both in mental and technical aspects.
 チャン氏は「お前の方が強い」と、暗示をかけるように錦織選手を送り出すという。技術面、精神面で選手をサポートする指導者の役割の大切さを改めて感じる。

We assume many Japanese tennis players have become inspired by Nishikori’s achievement. He must have also prompted many children to decide to try tennis.
 錦織選手の活躍に刺激を受けたテニス選手は多いだろう。ラケットを握りたいと思った子どもたちもいるのではないか。

Nishikori’s achievement is a reminder that a dazzling performance of a star player contributes hugely to the spread of a sport, as well as raising its level. This is, of course, not limited to tennis.
 テニスに限らず、スター選手の活躍は、競技のすそ野の拡大、レベルアップに大きく貢献する。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 10, 2014)Speech

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経団連献金関与 企業の政治参加を促す契機に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Keidanren’s decision should boost firms’ participation in politics
経団連献金関与 企業の政治参加を促す契機に

The latest decision by the Japan Business Federation (Keidanren) on political donations should serve as a trigger for increased cooperation between business and political circles — an important task for revitalizing our nation’s economy.
 日本経済再生に向け、経済界と政治が連携を強化する契機としたい。

Keidanren has decided to resume its involvement in the contribution of funds from business corporations to political parties for the first time in five years. The nation’s largest economic organization is set to encourage its member corporations to make political donations at their own discretion.
 経団連が5年ぶりに政治献金への関与を再開することを決めた。会員企業に、自主的な判断に基づく政治献金を呼び掛ける。

The federation has also said it intends to reveal the results of its assessment of political parties’ policies, hoping to see its members use the assessment as a basis for decisions on political contributions.
判断材料として、政党の政策評価を示す方針も明らかにした。

“Business and political circles should join hands in rebuilding Japan,” Keidanren Chairman Sadayuki Sakakibara said at a press conference.
 経団連の榊原定征会長は記者会見で、「経済と政治が手をつないで日本を立て直さなくてはならない」と述べた。

His sentiment was echoed by Sadakazu Tanigaki, secretary general of the Liberal Democratic Party. Tanigaki commented on Keidanren’s latest move, saying the decision “probably shows [Keidanren’s belief] that, as part of their contribution to society, business corporations must fulfill their share of responsibility in the sound progress of democracy,” Tanigaki said.
 自民党の谷垣幹事長も、「民主主義の健全な発展のためには、社会貢献の一環として、企業も責任を果たさねばならないということだろう」と指摘した。

Keidanren and the LDP are set to reopen a policy meeting of senior officials from both organizations.
 経団連と自民党は近く、幹部による政策懇談会を再開する。

It is highly significant for the corporate sector, a central player in economic activities, to play a role in this nation’s politics through legitimate donations given according to the rules.
 経済の主役である企業が、ルールを守った透明な献金を通じ、政治に参加する意義は大きい。

Relations between Keidanren and the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe have improved, as indicated by his government’s decision to appoint Sakakibara as a private-sector member of the Council on Economic and Fiscal Policy. This is in contrast to the strained ties felt while Sakakibara’s predecessor, Hiromasa Yonekura, was in office.
 政府が経済財政諮問会議の民間議員に榊原会長の起用を決めるなど、米倉弘昌前会長の時にぎくしゃくした経団連と安倍政権の関係は改善した。

There is reason to believe Keidanren’s latest decision is also aimed at making it easier for the opinions of the business community to be reflected in government policies.
献金関与再開には、経済界の声を、さらに政策に反映させやすくする狙いもあろう。

During the post-World War II years, Keidanren continued to act as an intermediary in the donation of funds from the corporate sector to political parties. In conducting this task, the federation made arrangements regarding the amount of donations to be made by each business corporation and association. In 1994, however, Keidanren decided to stop playing its intermediary role, largely in the wake of a bribery scandal involving major construction companies and political circles.
 経団連は戦後、企業・団体に献金額を割り振る「あっせん」を続けていたが、ゼネコン汚職などを受けて1994年に中止した。

Reliance on grants questionable

In 2004, Keidanren resumed involvement in this respect by encouraging business corporations to give political donations, using the results of its policy assessment as a yardstick to make decisions on such contributions. However, the economic association dropped its action after the opposition Democratic Party of Japan came into power in 2009.
 2004年に、政策評価を目安に献金を促す方式で関与を再開したものの、09年の民主党政権発足を機に、これも取りやめた。

All this has led to a sharp decrease in the amount of corporate donations to political parties. As circumstances stand today, corporate donations account for about 10 percent of the LDP head office’s annual income of ¥14 billion. Meanwhile, about 70 percent of the ruling party’s yearly income comes from government grants to political parties.
 政党への企業献金は激減し、自民党本部の場合、年間収入140億円の1割ほどだ。代わりに政党交付金が約7割を占める。

Some people within political circles have argued there is no need for political donations from the corporate sector. However, many questions can be raised about the excessive extent to which political parities rely on government grants to cover their operational expenses nowadays. It should be noted that such subsidies are derived from tax revenue, a resource subject to deliberations by the government, political parties and lawmakers regarding how the money should be used. Measures should be studied to increase the percentage of political donations by business corporations and private individuals vis-a-vis the total amount of political parties’ income.
 政界には、企業献金は不要とする意見もあるが、政党の運営費を、政治が使途を決める税金に、過度に依存する現状は問題が多い。企業や個人による献金の比率を高める方策を考えたい。

It is disturbing to see the nature of Keidanren’s policy assessment remains ambiguously defined.
 気がかりなのは、経団連による政策評価の位置づけがあいまいなことである。

Sakakibara has said the policy assessment can be used as one yardstick to be adopted by each corporation in making decisions about its political donations. In the meantime, however, he explained the results of the policy assessment will not be directly linked to the corporate sector’s decision-making regarding its political donations.
 榊原会長は政策評価を、企業が献金を判断する「一つの材料にしてもらえばいい」と述べる一方、「献金と政策評価はリンク(関連)させない」と説明した。

Sakakibara’s comments may be regarded as an attempt to prevent critics from accusing Keidanren for “buying government policies with money.” Nonetheless, the thrust of his statement is difficult to understand. There is concern a number of corporations may be unsure about how to respond to his stance and, therefore, may hesitate to make donations.
 「献金で政策を買うのか」といった批判をかわす狙いと見られるが、分かりにくい。多くの企業が対応に迷い、献金をためらうのではないか。

Keidanren should be advised to make an intelligible assessment of each major political party’s policies by disclosing what kind of argument it has brought forward and whether it has striven to accomplish its policy goals. The federation should then encourage business corporations to consider making political donations, with the results of its policy assessment used as a yardstick to make decisions in this respect.
 重要政策で主要政党がどのような主張を展開し、実現を図ってきたのか、分かりやすい評価を示す。それを目安に献金を検討するよう企業に働きかける。

Keidanren should adopt such an easy-to-understand approach.
そうした明快な対応を取るべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 10, 2014)Speech

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พ่อทาสีบ้าน

พ่อทาสีบ้าน
ฉันชูมือ
ฉันเห็นกาดำ
ฉันกลัวเสือดุ
เพื่อนหัวเราะ
ฉันเสียใจ
ฉันมีขนมเยอะแยะ
ฉันกินลำใย
ฉันใจดี
ฉันแบมือ

words:

Show translationพ่อ ทาสี บ้าน

pôr taa sĕe bâan
 

พ่อ pôr father ; dad ; daddy
I (used by a father when talking to his children)
you (used by children when addressing their father)

ทาสี taa sĕe paints

บ้าน bâan home ; house

Show translationฉัน ชูมือ

chăn choo meu
 

ฉัน chăn I ; me

ชูมือ choo meu raise one's hand ; lift one's hand

Show translationฉัน เห็น กาดำ

chăn hĕn gaa dam 
 

ฉัน chăn I ; me

เห็น hĕn see

กาดำ gaa dam  black crow

Show translationฉัน กลัว เสือดุ

chăn glua sĕua dù 
 

ฉัน chăn I ; me

กลัว glua be scared ; fear

เสือดุ sĕua dù  fierce tiger

Show translationเพื่อน หัวเราะ

pêuan hŭa rór
 

เพื่อน pêuan friend ; mate ; pal

หัวเราะ hŭa rór laughs

Show translationฉัน เสียใจ

chăn sĭa jai
 

ฉัน chăn I ; me

เสียใจ sĭa jai [to be] sorry ; upset ; apologetic

Show translationฉัน มี ขนม เยอะแยะ

chăn mee kà-nŏm yúh yáe
 

ฉัน chăn I ; me

มี mee have ; there is

ขนม kà-nŏm sweets ; candy

เยอะแยะ yúh yáe many ; much ; abundantly

Show translationฉัน กิน ลำใย

chăn gin lam-yai
 

ฉัน chăn I ; me

กิน gin eat ; consume (As well as food, กิน is also used when referring to drinks and medicines in Thai.)

ลำใย lam-yai Longan

Show translationฉัน ใจดี

chăn jai dee
 

ฉัน chăn I ; me

ใจดี jai dee [to be] kind-hearted ; kind ; generous

Show translationฉัน แบมือ

chăn bae meu
 

ฉัน chăn I ; me

แบมือ bae meu hold out one's hand

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2014年9月10日 (水)

社説:昭和天皇実録 国民に開く近現代史に

September 09, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Emperor Showa's annals important material for modern history
社説:昭和天皇実録 国民に開く近現代史に

The Imperial Household Agency has released the annals of Emperor Showa that records his words and deeds throughout his 87-year-long life. The official record has provided an important temporal axis for research on the history of Emperor Showa, but it is still necessary to clarify the true meaning of, and evaluate the significance of his words and deeds. The release of the annals should be an important step toward fruitful research on the history of the Showa Era that is open to the public.
 87年の生涯にわたり、日々の動静や言行を記録した「昭和天皇実録」を宮内庁が公開した。昭和史研究は重要な「時間軸」を得たが、個々の事象の意義づけや実態解明にはまだ余地を残している。これを大きなステップとして、国民に開かれた実り豊かな研究へとつなげたい。

Modern history, including the history of the Showa Era, is complex just like a maze in a deep forest. The annals of Emperor Showa were expected to shed light on how he made decisions at various stages of that era, what he said and how he changed, or was unable to change, certain situations.
 昭和史など近現代史は深い森に分け入る迷路のように複雑だ。昭和天皇がその中のさまざまな局面でどう判断し、何を語り、事態を動かしたか、あるいは動かし得なかったか。こうしたことに新たに光を当てる期待も担った実録だった。

However, the 60-volume annals contain nothing that could overturn what are regarded as established historical facts.
 だが、60巻に上る記録には、これまで定説とされてきた史実や構図を大きく変えるものはなかった。

 ◇平和求める像変わらず

Based on constitutional monarchy under the Meiji Constitution, Emperor Showa was wary of the military's tyrannical behavior and had some feuds with the military because he hoped for peace, according to the annals. As such, the record confirms the well-established image of Emperor Showa.
 立憲君主制の自制的ルールに立ちつつ、軍部の専横を警戒し、平和を求めて確執もあったという、これまでの昭和天皇像を改めて示したといえるだろう。

Still, it may be somewhat disappointing to those who expected the annals to reveal Emperor Showa's anguish and wavering as well as other details.
 しかし、その苦悩や迷い、錯誤も含め、もっと具体的に細部にわたる内情や事態の推移がここに明らかになることを求めていたなら、「期待はずれ」の感を持った人も少なくないだろう。

The annals quote Emperor Showa and describe how he expressed his views in a restrained manner.
 この実録は、昭和天皇の肉声や見解表明の記述について抑制的姿勢を通している。

None of Emperor Showa's words were blacked out, as opposed to the annals of his father Emperor Taisho. However, some researchers have pointed to the possibility that the editor of the annals of Emperor Showa may have chosen to use non-committal descriptions instead of blacking out any of his words it quotes.
 大正天皇実録で公開時に一部を伏せて批判された「黒塗り」はしない、としていたが、むしろそれで当たり障りのない記述に傾いたきらいはないか、と指摘する研究者もいる。

Regarding this point, the Imperial Household Agency explained, "Once the details of his remarks are written in his annals, the words have wings. We cautiously considered each of his words and chose mainly to write the points of his remarks instead of directly quoting him."
 この点について宮内庁は「発言内容にしても、いったん書いてしまうと、実録に書かれているということでひとり歩きする。個別に慎重に検討し、原則、(昭和天皇の)ご発言についてはその趣旨を記述して、直接引用しない傾向となった」と説明している。

However, the editor could have made up for a lack of direct quotes from Emperor Showa by explaining what he said in notes. Moreover, some of what are widely regarded as his well-known words are omitted in his annals.
 しかし、注釈などで工夫の余地はあるはずだ。これまで定説とされてきたような発言でも実録に用いられなかったものもある。

Some critics say that the standards for selecting historical materials and deciding whether to record events in his annals remain obscure, with one of them saying, "The selection appears arbitrary and is hard to understand."
 また、史料の選択、採否の線引き、基準があいまいで、「恣意(しい)的なようで、とてもわかりにくい」という批判が出ている。

There are problems with the way the sources of information are identified. The annals do not show the dates, pages and chapters of books from which it quotes information, making it difficult for researchers to assess the official record or conduct further research on the history of Emperor Showa.
 典拠の示し方についても問題がある。列記してある文献の日付やページ、章、節などがないため、それがどの部分によっているのか判然としない。これでは後に検証や発展的な研究をしようとしても、大きなネックになる。

One of the most important achievements in the annals is the discovery of new historical materials, which will certainly contribute to future research activities.
 今回の実録の大きな収穫の一つは新史料の発見である。これは今後の研究発展に寄与するに違いない。

A total of 3,152 historical materials were used to compile the official record, which took nearly a quarter of a century to complete, according to the Imperial Household Agency. About 40 of these materials are believed to be documents that had not been publicized before the release of the annals.
 宮内庁によると、四半世紀近い年月を費やした実録の作成過程で、使った史料は3152件に上った。そのうち、約40件がこれまで公になっていなかったとみられる。

For example, the diary and other materials kept by former Grand Chamberlain Saburo Hyakutake, who served Emperor Showa during World War II, can be important research objects. Moreover, diaries kept by other chamberlains shed light on Emperor Showa's daily activities.
 例えば、戦時期に側近として仕え、昭和天皇の信頼を得ていた百武三郎侍従長の日記や関係資料など、新史料自体が重要な研究対象になり得る。また侍従日誌なども日常の動静記録に大きな役割を果たした。
   
Measures to release these materials to the public and effectively use them for research should be implemented without being bound by precedent. The Imperial Household Agency intends to withhold chamberlains' diaries without designating them as official documents. Still, the annals are important records.
 その公開や研究協力などによって生かす方策を、前例にとらわれることなく講じるべきだろう。侍従日誌などは皇室が管理する「お手元文書」として公文書扱いせず、公開されないというが、今回その貴重な記録性は証明された。

 ◇なぜいま昭和史なのか

The Showa Era is already part of history. What happened in that era has been regularly discussed in the past, and the annals of Emperor Showa have drawn extensive attention from the public.
 「昭和」は既に歴史である。
 その時代が後世も絶えず論じられてきた。そうした中で今回は実録が広く注目された。

Why do we look back on the history of the Showa Era and try to learn from that period? It is because many challenges we face now are rooted in that era. The challenges involve not only politics, diplomacy and the economy but also a wide diversity of matters including lifestyles and values.
 なぜ私たちが昭和史を絶えず振り返り、そこから学び取ろうとするのだろうか。今の時代が抱える大きな課題の根っこが、昭和にあるからだ。政治、外交、経済のみならず、生活様式や価値観まで多岐にわたる。

Moreover, we must continue to ask why Japan was unable to avoid the catastrophic war. In the annals, one of the important points that have drawn special attention from the public is the change in the situation concerning Japan before and after the war broke out. However, the matter is far from being clarified.
 そして、続けなければならないのは「なぜ、あの破滅的な戦争は回避できなかったのか」という問いかけである。この実録の中でも、開戦前後の事態の推移がとりわけ注目されたポイントの一つだった。しかし解明にはまだ遠い。

The annals should be open to the public as a source that allows people to learn lessons from the Showa Era and put them to good use in the future all the more because the number of those who were involved in or experienced the war, which brought unprecedented hardships and changes to both Japan and the world, have significantly decreased.
 まして、国内外に空前の苦難と大転換をもたらした戦争の当事者や体験者が少なくなった今、実録を、昭和に学び、未来に生かす基礎史料として国民に開かれたものとしたい。

The process of Japan snowballing from crisis to crisis and eventually collapsing in the war is complex and difficult to clarify. However, clarifying this process would provide important lessons for us.
 あの戦争で、坂道を転じるように、雪だるま式に危機を膨らませ破綻したプロセスは、決して単線的ではなく、その解明は容易ではない。しかし、それは今極めて重要な教訓になるものである。

There are various ways of utilizing the annals.
 実録の活用法はさまざまにある。

It records the names of those who were allowed to meet with Emperor Showa as well as the details of their meetings. Although the purposes of their meetings are summarized or omitted, the names of individuals who met with Emperor Showa, the timing of their meetings and the frequency and how much time was spent on the meetings could be a clue to in-depth research.
 実録は、日々の昭和天皇の「謁を賜った」さまざまな会見者、会話者を、時間とともに詳しく記録している。その用件は略記、あるいは省略されていても、時期と人物、回数、費やした時間などを指標に深層探究の糸口となり得るという。

The writings of Emperor Showa in his childhood, as well as the wide variety of Japanese and overseas films he enjoyed, which the annals introduce to its readers, shed more light on his human side. This is also an important achievement of the annals.
 また、今回、実録で紹介された昭和天皇の幼少期の文章、鑑賞した数多い内外の映画などから、人間的な側面もより多彩になった。こうした側面も成果といえよう。

It goes without saying that journalism has the responsibility to ensure that information recorded in the annals is open to the public so that researchers study the Showa Era from various angles and people can share the information as common property.
 開かれた情報のもと、実録の多様な切り口から研究を豊かにし、国民共有の財産とする。
 その責任が研究者のみならず、ジャーナリズムにあることはいうまでもない。

毎日新聞 2014年09月09日 05時15分(最終更新 09月09日 06時48分)

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南アジア外交 海洋安保協力を拡大したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Expand maritime security cooperation through diplomacy with South Asia
南アジア外交 海洋安保協力を拡大したい

Strengthening ties with economically vibrant nations on the rim of the Indian Ocean will be in Japan’s national interest. Long-term, strategic efforts should be made to ensure greater mutual benefits can be shared by both sides.
 高い経済成長を続けるインド洋沿岸国との関係強化は、日本の国益にかなう。相互利益を拡大するため、長期的かつ戦略的に取り組むべきだ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe recently completed a visit to Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. It was the first visit to Sri Lanka by a Japanese prime minister in 24 years, and the first to Bangladesh in 14 years.
 安倍首相がスリランカとバングラデシュを訪れた。日本の首相の訪問は、スリランカが24年ぶり、バングラデシュは14年ぶりだ。

Abe and Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa agreed during their talks to strengthen cooperation in maritime security. Abe announced a plan to provide Sri Lanka with patrol vessels free of charge to improve the South Asian nation’s coast guard capabilities.
 安倍首相とスリランカのラジャパクサ大統領は、海洋安全保障面での協力を強化することで合意した。安倍首相は、スリランカの沿岸警備隊の能力向上のため、巡視船を供与する方針を伝えた。

The leaders also agreed the Maritime Self-Defense Force and the Sri Lankan Navy will conduct joint training exercises.
 海上自衛隊とスリランカ海軍の合同訓練を行うことも決めた。

Sri Lanka sits in a strategically important position near vital sea-lanes that link Japan and the Middle East. Ratcheting up maritime cooperation between Japan and Sri Lanka will also help keep China in check.
 スリランカは、中東と日本を結ぶ海上交通路(シーレーン)の要衝に位置する。両国の海洋協力は中国を牽制けんせいする意味を持つ。

With a view to eventually establishing military bases overseas, China has been assisting the construction of port facilities in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and other nations. This network of bases and docking facilities that will partially encircle India has been called the String of Pearls, and India, Japan and the United States are becoming increasingly vigilant about this development.
 中国は、将来の軍事拠点化も視野に入れ、パキスタン、スリランカ、バングラデシュなどの港湾整備を支援してきた。インドを取り巻く各拠点を結んだ形状から「真珠の首飾り」と呼ばれ、インドや日米などは警戒を強めている。

A long civil war that arose out of ethnic tensions ravaged Sri Lanka until 2009. While the United States and European nations criticized alleged human rights abuses that occurred during the war, China stepped up its support for Sri Lanka. In 2009, China overtook Japan as the biggest aid donor to Sri Lanka.
 スリランカでは2009年まで民族対立による内戦が続いた。欧米が内戦期の人権状況を批判する中、中国はスリランカ支援を強化した。09年には、日本を逆転し、最大の援助国となった。

Ensuring sea-lanes remain safe is a foundation of free economic activity. Japan needs to work closely with the United States, coastal nations and other countries in pressing China to abide by international law and refrain from its self-righteous drive to expand its maritime rights and interests.
 シーレーンの安全確保は自由な経済活動の基盤だ。日本は、米国や沿岸国などと連携し、中国に独善的な海洋権益確保の自制や、国際法の順守を促す必要がある。

Seat all but in the bag

During his talks with Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, Abe agreed to promote investment by Japanese companies in that country. Both leaders agreed to boost bilateral trade. They also confirmed Japan would provide up to ¥600 billion in official development assistance over five years for the construction of major roads and other infrastructure.
 安倍首相はバングラデシュのハシナ首相との会談で、日本企業の投資を促進し、両国間の貿易拡大を図ることで一致した。5年間で最大6000億円の政府開発援助(ODA)を投入し、基幹道路整備などを行うことも確認した。

With a population of 150 million people, Bangladesh has massive potential for economic growth. To tap this potential, it will be crucial for the private and public sectors to work closely together and steadily promote cooperation.
 人口1億5000万人のバングラデシュの経済的な潜在力は大きい。官民連携により、協力を着実に進めることが重要だ。

Hasina announced that Bangladesh will withdraw its candidacy for a nonpermanent seat on the U.N. Security Council in the election to be held in October 2015 and will instead support Japan’s bid. With this, the likelihood of Japan winning the seat has increased significantly. The two-year mandate for the nonpermanent seat starts in 2016.
 ハシナ首相は、来年10月の国連安全保障理事会の非常任理事国選挙に立候補せず、日本支持に回る方針を表明した。これで、日本が当選する公算は大きくなった。任期は16年から2年間だ。

In the past, Japan has been elected as a nonpermanent member 10 times, more than any other U.N. member nation. Japan has lost a membership race just once — to Bangladesh. That nation’s decision to pull out of the upcoming race can be considered the culmination of Japan’s multifaceted diplomatic efforts.
 日本は、国連加盟国で最多の過去10回、非常任理事国に選出されているが、唯一の敗北がバングラデシュとの選挙だった。今回の同国の不出馬決定は、日本の多角的な外交努力が実ったと言える。

Next year will mark the 70th anniversary of the United Nations. Reform of the international body, including the Security Council, is the focus of much attention. It is essential for Japan to continue to make its voice heard in the United Nations, and actively participate in the creation of new U.N. rules.
 来年は国連創設70周年で、安保理を含む国連改革が焦点となる。日本は、新しい様々な国連のルール作りに積極的に関与し、発言権を確保することが大切である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 9, 2014)Speech

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昭和天皇実録 史実解明へ一層の情報公開を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Annals of Emperor Showa important, but more historical facts needed
昭和天皇実録 史実解明へ一層の情報公開を

The annals of Emperor Showa have been released, representing an extremely important historical record to be passed down to later generations.
 昭和天皇の事績を編年体で記した「昭和天皇実録」が公表された。
 実録は、国の歴史を後世に伝える上で、極めて重要な資料である。

A quarter century has passed since the era changed from Showa to Heisei. The annals will provide a means of looking back on the tumultuous Showa era that went through a period of militarism and the end of war to postwar reconstruction and high economic growth.
 昭和から平成となって、既に四半世紀が過ぎた。軍国主義の時代から終戦、戦後の復興、高度経済成長へ――。実録は、激動の昭和を振り返る縁よすがともなろう。

The annals of Emperor Showa was compiled following those of Emperor Meiji and Emperor Taisho. The life of Emperor Showa, who died in 1989 at age 87, has been recorded in 60 volumes comprising more than 12,000 pages.
 実録の編纂へんさんは、「明治天皇紀」「大正天皇実録」などに続くものだ。1989年に87歳で崩御した昭和天皇の生涯を60巻、1万2000ページにわたり詳述した。

Roughly 3,000 articles of historical data, including the yet-to-be disclosed diaries written by Emperor Showa’s chamberlains, were used to compile the annals. The annals are said not to include any records that would dramatically contravene the generally accepted views of the history of the Showa era. But the daily activities of Emperor Showa were written based on historical documents.
 未公開だった侍従日誌をはじめ、約3000点の史料が活用された。昭和史の定説を大きく覆すような記載はないとされるが、昭和天皇の日々の動静が、確たる史料に基づいて記されている。

The annals are the first historical record covering crucial events in modern history in precise chronological order — including the attempted military coup on Feb. 26, 1936, and developments leading to the end of World War II. Emperor Showa’s sentiments and thoughts early in his reign were revealed due to the newly discovered private diary of a former grand chamberlain and other records.
 2・26事件や、終戦に至る過程など、近現代史の重大な局面が、正確な時系列で明らかにされたのは初めてだ。新たに発掘された元侍従長の私的日記などにより、昭和初期の天皇の心情や思想も、改めて浮き彫りになった。

The Imperial Household Agency was initially wary of releasing the annals of Emperor Showa. The annals of Emperor Meiji were published in 1968, 35 years after its completion, as an event to mark the 100th anniversary of the beginning of the Meiji era.
 宮内庁は当初、昭和天皇実録の公開に慎重だった。
 明治天皇紀は完成から35年後の1968年、明治100年記念事業としてようやく刊行された。

Criticism led to release

The authentic records of Emperor Taisho have yet to be published. They were made public to meet disclosure requests filed since 2002 based on the Freedom of Information Law, but accounts related to Emperor Taisho himself were blacked out.
 大正天皇実録は、未いまだに刊行されていない。2002年以降、情報公開法に基づく請求を受け、開示されたが、天皇個人に関わる記述が黒塗りにされた。

As this censorship drew criticism, the Imperial Household Agency decided to release the annals of Emperor Showa in their entirety. This is reasonable, given the fact that the annals of an emperor are a valuable addition to the public domain.
 この措置が批判を浴びたため、宮内庁は昭和天皇実録の全面公開に踏み切った。天皇実録が、国民にとって大切な資産であることを考えれば、妥当な措置だろう。

But in the case of the postwar period, it is worth noting that Emperor Showa’s words, including those on the enshrinement of Class-A war criminals together with the war dead at Yasukuni Shrine, have not been presented in concrete terms. The agency said it had made “judgments on individual cases from a comprehensive perspective.” This is disappointing.
 しかし、戦後に関しては、「A級戦犯」の靖国神社合祀ごうしに対する感想など、昭和天皇の言葉が具体的に紹介されていない部分が目立つ。宮内庁は「個々の場面で総合的に判断した」と説明するが、肩すかしの感は否めない。

To help shed further light on historical facts, it is indispensable to disclose the diaries of chamberlains and ladies-in-waiting that were used to compile the annals of Emperor Showa.
 今後、史実の解明をより進めていくためには、実録の編纂に使用した侍従日誌、女官日誌などの開示が欠かせない。

Historical records written by such people are regarded as private documents made by Imperial Household Agency officials on behalf of emperors and Imperial family members. Therefore, requests for public disclosure cannot be filed for these documents.
 「お手元文書」と呼ばれるこれらの史料は、天皇や皇族に代わって宮内庁職員が作成した私的文書と位置づけられ、情報公開請求の対象外となっている。

But disclosure requests can be made for copies of such documents used to compile annals. The agency plans to study whether the requested documents should be released by “making meticulous judgments on each requested case.”
 ただ、実録編修に使用したお手元文書の写しは、公文書として情報公開請求の対象となる。宮内庁は、開示について「個々に慎重に判断する」方針という。

Crucial public records must be disclosed. Further public disclosure is called for on the part of the agency.
 重要な公的記録は、積極的に開示すべきだ。宮内庁には一層の情報公開が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 9, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月 9日 (火)

ทานไข่กระทะอาหาร

比較的読みやすいタイ語に感激!

มาอุดรธานีครั้งนี้ อดไม่ได้ที่ต้องแวะมาทานไข่กระทะอาหารมื้อเช้าที่ขึ้นชื่อของที่นี่ ซึ่งจังหวัดอื่นๆ ในภาคอีสานก็มีเมนูมื้อเช้าแบบนี้เช่นกัน
ไข่กระทะต้องกินคู่กับขนมปังฝรั่งเศสที่กรอบนอกนุ่มใน หรืออาจจะเป็นขนมปังญวนซึ่งเข้ากันได้ดีค่ะ ใครแวะมาแถบภาคอีสานขอแนะนำอย่าลืมเมนูไข่กระทะกับขนมปังญวนนะคะ

https://www.facebook.com/Y.Shinawatra/photos/a.106877456023385.4057.105044319540032/850665521644571/?type=1

words:

มา maa come ; arrive

อุดรธานี u-don taa-nee Udon Thani

ครั้งนี้ kráng née  this time ; now

   · 
อด òt refrain ; go without ; miss out on

ไม่ได้ mâi dâai didn't ; did not
can't ; cannot

ที่ têe to ; at
that ; which ; who

ต้อง dtông have to ; must

แวะ wáe stop ; call at ; call on

มา maa to ; in ; into ; towards (The translation of มา in this context depends on the primary verb, but it frequently has no direct equivalent in English and so may be untranslatable.)

ทาน taan eat

ไข่ kài egg ; eggs

กระทะ grà-tá pan ; frying pan

อาหาร aa hăan food

มื้อเช้า méu cháo breakfast

ที่ têe that ; which ; who

ขึ้น kêun enter ; get on ; get in
develop ; progress
go up ; rise ; increase

ชื่อ chêu to be named

ของ kŏng of

ที่นี่ têe nêe here

   · 
ซึ่ง sêung which ; that ; where ; what

จังหวัด jang-wàt province

อื่นๆ èun èun others

ใน nai in ; of

ภาคอีสาน pâak ee-săan Isaan (the north-eastern part of Thailand)

ก็ gôr also ; likewise
then ; so ; therefore
well ; umm ; err (often used when trying to think what to say)
(a marker used when joining clauses of a sentence together)

มี mee have ; there is

เมนู may-noo menu

มื้อเช้าแบบนี้ méu cháo bàep née  breakfast like this

เช่นกัน chên gan also ; as well ; too

ไข่ kài egg ; eggs

กระทะ grà-tá pan ; frying pan

ต้อง dtông have to ; must

กิน gin eat ; consume (As well as food, กิน is also used when referring to drinks and medicines in Thai.)

คู่ kôo to match ; to be paired with

กับ gàp with ; together with

ขนมปัง kà-nŏm bpang bread ; biscuit

ฝรั่งเศส fà-ràng-sàyt France

ที่ têe to ; at
that ; which ; who

กรอบ gròp frame ; border ; margin
[to be] crisp ; brittle ; fragile

นอก nôk outside ; outdoor ; external ; outward

นุ่ม nûm [to be] soft ; gentle

ใน nai in ; of

   · 
หรือ rĕu or
(question particle used when seeking confirmation of something thought to be true, or to make a question sound softer)

อาจจะ àat jà might ; maybe ; may

เป็น bpen be

ขนมปัง kà-nŏm bpang bread ; biscuit

ญวน yuan Vietnamese

ซึ่ง sêung which ; that ; where ; what

เข้ากันได้ kâo gan dâai be compatible ; be in harmony

ดี dee [to be] good ; nice

ค่ะ kâ (particle used by female speakers at the end of sentences to make them more polite)

   · 
ใคร krai who
someone ; anyone

แวะ wáe stop ; call at ; call on

มา maa (a marker that puts the main verb in the present perfect tense)

แถบ tàep strip ; band ; stripe
zone ; area

ภาคอีสาน pâak ee săan  Isaan (the north-eastern part of Thailand)

ขอ kŏr would like

แนะนำ náe nam to introduce
to advise ; to recommend

อย่าลืม yàa leum don't forget

เมนู may-noo menu

ไข่ kài egg ; eggs

กระทะ grà-tá pan ; frying pan

กับ gàp with ; together with

ขนมปัง kà-nŏm bpang bread ; biscuit

ญวน yuan Vietnamese

นะ ná (particle used to make a sentence seem softer, more persuasive or less abrupt)

คะ ká (particle used by female speakers at the end of questions to make them more polite)

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社説:原発と火山災害 巨大噴火を侮るなかれ

September 08, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Volcanic threat no light matter for Japan's nuclear plant operators
社説:原発と火山災害 巨大噴火を侮るなかれ

The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) has released a "basic concept" for dealing with major volcanic eruptions threatening the nation's nuclear power plants. If abnormal volcanic activity posing a threat is detected near a nuclear plant, the regulatory body will ask the power company in charge to halt the plant's reactors and remove nuclear fuel -- even if it might turn out to be a false alarm. The NRA is set to convene a meeting of experts to determine standards for taking such action.
 原発に影響を及ぼす巨大噴火に備えた「基本的な考え方」の案を原子力規制委員会が示した。前兆の可能性がある異常を検知したら、「空振りも覚悟の上」で原子炉の停止や燃料の運び出しを電力会社に求める。そのための判断基準についても、有識者を集め、検討を進めるという。

Experts are aligned on the view that the No. 1 and 2 reactors at Kyushu Electric Power Co.'s Sendai Nuclear Power Plant in Kagoshima -- recently judged by the NRA to meet new safety standards -- together face the greatest risk of being damaged in a major volcanic eruption. This should have been considered before the plant underwent safety screenings. Japan is one of the most volcanic countries in the world, and neither the NRA nor the nations' power companies should make light of the threat of eruptions.
 規制委が新規制基準に適合していると判断した九州電力川内1、2号機(鹿児島県)は、巨大噴火に襲われる危険性が全国の原発の中で最も高い、というのが専門家の一致した見方だ。本来なら原発の安全審査の前に、こうした検討を進めておくべきだった。日本は世界有数の火山国であり、規制委や電力会社は、噴火の脅威を侮ってはならない。

The landscape around the Sendai plant is marked by calderas -- cauldron-like geographical features that form when a large amount of magma spews out from under the ground, causing it to collapse. Mount Aso and Kagoshima Bay are two examples. In Japan, a major caldera-forming eruption is said to occur about once every 10,000 years.
 川内原発周辺には、阿蘇や鹿児島湾など、マグマの大量噴出で土地が陥没したカルデラ地形が複数ある。日本ではカルデラ式の巨大噴火が1万年に1回程度起きている。

Nuclear safety regulations established last year require power companies to conduct surveys on the possible effects of eruptions of volcanoes located within 160 kilometers of any nuclear power plant. Under the regulations, if there is a chance that an eruption could occur while the plant is in operation and produce a pyroclastic or lava flow that reaches the plant, then the land will be deemed unfit for nuclear power generation, and the plant will not be able to operate.
 昨年施行された原発の新規制基準は、原発から160キロ圏の火山の影響調査を電力会社に義務付けた。運用期間中に噴火が起き、火砕流や溶岩流が到達する恐れがあれば、立地不適格で原発は稼働できない。

Kyushu Electric Power Co. has said the chance of such an eruption occurring while reactors at the Sendai plant are in operation is "sufficiently low." It says the plant could endure an eruption of the Sakurajima volcano that produced 15 centimeters of volcanic ash. Additionally, it says that even if a major eruption were to occur, then magma would build up several decades in advance, and if changes in the earth's crust were observed, then officials could perceive the danger.
 九電は、川内原発の運用期間中にそうした噴火が起きる「可能性は十分低い」と評価し、桜島の噴火で火山灰が15センチ積もる場合を想定すれば足りるとした。巨大噴火が起きるとしても、数十年前からマグマの蓄積が生じるので、地殻変動などを監視すれば事前に察知できるという。

In its safety evaluation, the NRA basically accepted Kyushu Electric Power Co.'s arguments.
 規制委は安全審査で、九電の考え方を基本的に了承した。

However, during a subsequent meeting of experts, it was pointed out that it is difficult to predict the size and timing of a major eruption. An opinion was also put forward that measures should not be left entirely in the hands of power companies but be addressed at the national level.
 しかし、その後開かれた規制委の有識者検討会では「巨大噴火の時期や規模の予知は困難」との指摘が相次いだ。原発に影響する火山活動の監視では「電力会社任せにせず、国レベルの体制を作るべきだ」との意見も出された。

There are many nuclear facilities around Japan that could be affected by volcanic eruptions. The Sendai Nuclear Power Plant is a benchmark for those facilities in measures against eruptions.
噴火の影響を受ける恐れのある原子力関連施設は日本各地にある。川内原発は、それらの施設の火山対策の試金石となる。

NRA Commissioner Kunihiko Shimazaki, who currently serves as acting chairman of the regulator, says he doesn't know how far the body can go in setting standards for decisions pertaining to major eruptions. But unless officials remain on the safe side when forming standards, there could well be confusion when responding to an abnormality.  規制委の島崎邦彦委員長代理は、巨大噴火に関する判断基準の策定について「どこまでできるか分からない」と述べた。だが、安全サイドに立った基準をあらかじめ作成しておかなければ、異常が検知された時の対応に混乱が生じかねない。

Of course, if a major eruption does occur, it could threaten Japan's very existence.
 そもそも、巨大噴火が起きれば日本という国の存亡にかかわる。

In May last year, a Cabinet Office panel advised that monitoring be stepped up and evacuation plans quickly formulated, due to fears that volcanic activity could increase as a result of the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. At the same time, delays in research on major eruptions have been pointed out.
 内閣府の検討会は昨年5月、東日本大震災をきっかけに火山活動が活発化する恐れがあるとし、監視体制の強化や避難計画の早期策定を提言した。巨大噴火に関する研究の遅れも指摘している。

To avoid an "unexpected event" such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster, we hope officials will take NRA's planned formulation of standards for its decisions as an opportunity to promote research and countermeasures against major volcanic eruptions.
「想定外」を避けるためにも、規制委による判断基準の検討を、巨大噴火に関する研究や対策を促進する契機としたい。

毎日新聞 2014年09月08日 02時32分

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北極海航路 日本も戦略的関与を強めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan’s strategic involvement essential in utilizing Arctic Ocean shipping routes
北極海航路 日本も戦略的関与を強めたい

It is essential that Japan strengthen its strategic involvement in exploiting resources and using maritime routes in the Arctic Ocean, both of which have attracted keen interest around the globe.
 国際的な関心が高まる北極海の航路利用や資源開発について、日本は戦略的に関与を強化することが重要である。

Mitsui O.S.K. Lines has announced a plan for the major Japanese shipping company to transport liquefied natural gas via the Arctic Ocean starting in 2018. The company will build three icebreaker tankers specifically for the project and transport LNG from a production base in northern Russia to Japanese and European destinations.
 海運大手の商船三井は北極海の航路を使い、2018年から液化天然ガス(LNG)を輸送する計画を発表した。海氷を砕いて進める専用の輸送船3隻を建造し、ロシア北部のLNG基地から日本や欧州に運ぶ予定だ。

LNG delivery to European countries will be made throughout the year, while the company will ship the gas to Japan and other Asian countries between June and November, when there is less sea ice.
 欧州方面は通年、日本などアジア方面は海氷が減る6~11月に、それぞれ運航するという。

Maritime routes along Russia’s coast have become easier to use as global warming has decreased the amount of sea ice.
 ロシア沿岸の航路は近年、地球温暖化に伴う海氷減少で航行しやすくなった。

The Arctic routes will be about 60 percent of those connecting Japan and European countries via the Suez Canal. Using the northern routes also reduce the risk of encountering pirates significantly.
スエズ運河経由に比べて、日欧間の距離は約6割に短縮される。海賊に遭遇する危険性が小さいという利点もある。

When Arctic routes become operational, companies will be able to cut distribution costs and diversify their routes to procure resources.
 航路が実用化すれば、物流コストの節減、資源調達ルートの多様化などの効果が期待される。

The Arctic seabed is said to have rich reserves of oil, natural gas and other resources, but exploiting these resources requires thorough research and massive funding. For the time being, the government should concentrate on collecting information in cooperation with the private sector.
 北極海の海底には、石油・天然ガスなどが豊富に埋蔵しているとされる。資源開発は、十分な事前調査と巨額の費用を要する。政府は当面、民間とも連携し、情報収集に努めることが求められる。

Environmental destruction has been reported in the Arctic Ocean. Global warming has increased acidification of the ocean, raising concerns of grave consequences for fish, shellfish and other marine life. It has been pointed out that environmental changes in the Arctic are causing some of the abnormal weather seen across the globe, but studies of this issue by countries concerned have progressed at a snail’s pace.
 北極海では環境問題も生じている。温暖化に伴い、海水の酸性化が進み、魚介類などへの悪影響が懸念される。北極圏の環境変化が地球全体の異常気象を招く一因になるとの指摘もある。だが、各国の研究は遅れている。

Monitoring acidification

The Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry plans to develop a new system to monitor acidification in the Arctic year-round by using an unmanned underwater vehicle and other means. The ministry, which hopes to practically apply the system in the latter half of the 2010s, included ¥1.1 billion in its budgetary request for fiscal 2015 for related costs.
 文部科学省は、10年代後半の運用開始を視野に、北極海の酸性化の状況を無人潜水探査機などで一年中観測できる新システムを開発する。来年度予算の概算要求に約11億円の関連費を計上した。

In line with Japan’s proposal, an international conference will be held in the Philippines next May to discuss how climate change is affecting the Arctic.
 来年5月には、日本の提案で、気候変動が北極海に与える影響などに関する国際会議がフィリピンで開かれることも決まった。

Contributions by Japan to the environmental field would certainly enhance its say in the international community, making it easier for the nation to use sea routes and exploit ocean resources.
 日本が環境面で貢献すれば、発言力が高まり、航路利用や資源開発に参入しやすくなるだろう。

In May last year, Japan was allowed to participate as an observer at a meeting of the Arctic Council, an intergovernmental forum where the United States, Russia and other Arctic coastal nations discuss mainly marine development. But work done by the government since then has been lackluster.
 日本は昨年5月、米露など沿岸国を中心に北極圏開発などを協議する「北極評議会」へのオブザーバー参加が認められた。ただ、それ以降の政府の取り組みは、十分とは言い難い。

China, on the other hand, is reinvigorating its activities in the Arctic by conducting research with icebreakers — apparently with an eye on securing its maritime interests. It is essential for Japan, too, to compile a comprehensive strategy regarding the use of the Arctic as early as possible and pursue its own national interests.
 中国は、海洋権益の確保をにらみ、砕氷船による調査航海など、北極海での活動を活発化させている。日本も、北極海の利用に関する総合的な戦略を早期に策定し、国益を追求することが肝要だ。

The schism between Japan, the United States and European nations on one side and Russia on the other is widening over the Ukrainian situation. But as Russia’s cooperation is a prerequisite to use the routes and exploit resources, the challenge is to sort out how to build a relationship of trust with Russia in the long run.
 日米欧は現在、ウクライナ情勢を巡り、ロシアとの対立を深めている。航路利用や資源開発はロシアとの連携が前提となるだけに、中長期的にロシアとどんな信頼関係を築くかも課題だろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 8, 2014)Speech

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医療費適正化 ビッグデータ活用で質高めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Analyze, utilize ‘big data’ to ensure appropriate medical costs, quality
医療費適正化 ビッグデータ活用で質高めよ

While continuing to enhance the quality of medical services, curbs should be placed on swelling medical expenses. This is a challenge that our super-graying society cannot avoid tackling.
 医療の質を高めつつ、費用の膨張を抑制する。超高齢社会における避けて通れない課題だ。

Utilizing vast amounts of medical service-related data has drawn attention recently as a reliable means of helping achieve cost-efficient services. The data include those contained in medical treatment expense statements or detailed breakdowns of medical bills issued to individuals by hospitals, pharmacies and related institutions.
 効率的な医療を実現する有力な手段として注目されているのが、レセプト(診療報酬明細書)などの膨大な医療データの活用である。

The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry is in charge of administering “big data” such as those relating to medical treatment expense statements and findings in medical checkups. This amounts to 8.2 billion pieces of information.
 厚生労働省は、82億件ものレセプトや健康診断のビッグデータを管理している。

To examine specific ways of utilizing the data and methods of analyzing them, the government has set up an expert study panel under the Headquarters for the Promotion of Social Security System Reform. The panel started deliberations on the issue in August.
 その具体的な活用法や分析の手法を検討するため、政府は、社会保障制度改革推進本部の下に専門調査会を設置し、8月から議論をスタートさせた。

Analysis of the big data will make it possible to ascertain regional trends in illnesses and medical services. Based on such findings, it may also become possible to prevent illnesses from developing or keep symptoms from becoming serious, while helping rein in excess provision of medical services.
 ビッグデータを分析すれば、地域ごとの疾病や治療の傾向が把握できる。これを基に、発症や重度化を予防したり、過剰な診療を減らしたりすることもできよう。

In addition, analysis of big data will make it possible to predict future needs in health care services and the number of hospital beds necessary, through estimated demographic changes and projected morbidity rates. The studies’ findings are expected to motivate adjustments in the number of hospitals and hospital beds in different areas.
 人口推計や有病率を踏まえて、将来の医療ニーズや必要な病床数の予測も可能になる。病院数や病床数の調整を進める動機付けになるとの期待がある。

It is reasonable to use objective data to prompt medical institutions to provide appropriate medical services.
 客観的データを使って適切な医療の提供を促す狙いは妥当だ。

Based on the law enacted in June for comprehensive promotion of medical and nursing care services, prefectural governments, including those in Tokyo and Hokkaido, will prepare visions for their regional health care services, incorporating projections about needs for medical services and the number of hospitals needed as of 2025. Big data are essential for crafting adequate future visions of regional medical services.
 6月に成立した医療・介護総合推進法に基づき、都道府県は来年度から、2025年時点での医療ニーズや病床の必要数を盛り込んだ地域医療ビジョンの策定作業に入る。適切なビジョン作りにも、ビッグデータは欠かせない。

Situation differs by region

Some municipal governments and health insurance associations have already started utilizing data, including medical treatment expense statements and results of medical checkups, to slash excessive medical services and prevent lifestyle-related diseases from developing or their symptoms from becoming serious.
 すでに、一部の市町村や健康保険組合では、レセプトや健診のデータを活用して、過剰診療の削減や、生活習慣病の発症・重度化の予防に取り組んでいる。

Kure, Hiroshima Prefecture, has a system to identify patients who make particularly frequent hospital visits and are administered especially large volumes of medicine. Municipally appointed public health nurses visit their homes to give them health care guidance.
 広島県呉市では、通院回数や投薬量が多い患者を抽出し、保健師が訪問指導している。

Some health insurance associations are also assessing subscribers’ risk of lifestyle-related diseases and other illnesses, and devising measures to prevent those ailments in ways tailored to the specific stage of a subscriber’s condition. Such efforts should be encouraged to spread in other areas.
加入者ごとに生活習慣病などのリスクを判定し、各段階に応じた予防事業を展開している健保組合もある。こうした試みを広げたい。

It is concerning that the government is poised to set prefectural ceilings for medical expenses, by projecting regional needs for medical services.
 気がかりなのは、政府が医療ニーズの推計を用いて、都道府県ごとに医療費の目標値を定めようとしている点だ。

Medical bills per capita differ significantly among prefectures. Expenses in the costliest prefecture of Kochi are 1.56 times higher than those in the least expensive, Chiba Prefecture. The government appears likely to ask regions where medical expenses are high to cut back on the expenses by a large margin.
 住民1人当たりの医療費は、都道府県ごとの格差が大きい。最も高い高知県と最も低い千葉県では、1・56倍の開きがある。医療費の高い地域に、大幅な削減を求める考えなのだろう。

However, necessary medical services differ according to regional circumstances, such as local demographic makeups, geographical conditions and the number of hospitals and doctors available.
 しかし、人口構成や地理的条件、病院や医師の数など、地域事情によって、必要とされる医療は異なる。

People involved with local health care services are deeply worried that the government’s move to establish target ceilings for medical expenses could prevent them from providing residents with the medical services they need.
目標設定に対しては、地域の医療関係者の間に、「必要な医療が提供できなくなる恐れがある」という懸念が強い。

Any attempt to impose a uniform target for expense reductions, such as calling for a certain percentage of cuts, could be harmful. The government must scrupulously conduct studies on the matter.
 「何割カット」といった一律の目標を押しつけることは弊害が大きい。慎重な検討を求めたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 8, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月 8日 (月)

今年もまたその季節がやってきました 2015極楽ねこカレンダー

日本の愛猫家たちだったらアイシアを知らない人はいないでしょう。
猫たちがとび上がって喜ぶほどおいしくて、質の高い食品を販売されています。
毎年恒例となっていますが、一年に一度、日本全国の愛猫家たちから猫の写真を投稿してもらっています。猫カレンダーをつくるためなんです。

2015極楽ねこカレンダー は猫たちがモチーフの日めくりカレンダーなので、こちらのカレンダーに掲載される猫は全国でわずか365匹となります。
インターネット申込とハガキ申込で応募できます。
気になる締切期限なんですが、2014年11月14日(金)24時まで有効です。
ハガキでは2014年11月14日当日消印有効なんです。

審査に合格して愛猫たちをカレンダーに刻み込み、末永くその栄誉をたたえたいものですね。
愛猫家たちのすなおな心なんです。
カレンダーの代金はわずか2000円です。



期間限定で今年も販売!愛され続けて24年のロングセラー!
“2015極楽ねこカレンダー”発売!
~毎日かわいいニャンコを楽しめる“日めくり”タイプ~



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ビジネスフォンはネットと連動もできるクラウド型IPビジネスフォンが良いです

インターネットの世界では近年クラウド技術ということばがもてはやされています。
どんな技術なのでしょうか?
クラウドとは英語の雲(cloud)からきているIT用語です。
ネット技術も実際、雲のように実態がつかみにくいものなので、その名前がつけられたそうです。

世界標準のクラウド型IPビジネスフォンサービスが開設されましたので紹介します。
すでに世界中でこのクラウド型IPビジネスフォンサービスは流行の兆しなんですが、大きな特徴があります。
インターネット技術を駆使して運営するので低価格でサービスが利用できるのが、なんといっても一番大きな特徴なんです。

数あるIP-PBXでも世界トップの3CX Phone Systemを国内ホスティングで提供されているのです。
電話会議やチャットは他社に秘密が漏れないようなセキュリティ対策が万全なので安心して使うことができます。
無料通話なんて、大きな魅力ではないでしょうか。

会社で丸ごとシステムを雇う方式なので、そのうち電話の交換手なんかも不要になるのかも知れませんね。すばらしい機能をお楽しみください。



FlatAPI、3CX Phone Systemベースのクラウド型IPビジネスフォンサービスFlat-Phoneをリリース。



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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:目に見えない敵は怖い? /東京

September 07, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Fear of an invisible threat
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:目に見えない敵は怖い? /東京

For the first time in 70 years, cases of dengue fever have been confirmed originating within Japan.
 70年ぶりに国内での発症が確認されたデング熱。

There are said to be around 100 million new cases of dengue fever around the world a year, and hundreds of people are believed to bring cases of the diseases into Japan every year after catching it in tropical climates. However, the recent cases that have made the news are said to be the first instances in post-World War II Japan for people who had not traveled abroad.
とはいっても、世界では年間約1億人が発症しており、日本でも熱帯地域などへの海外旅行で感染し、国内で発症する人は毎年数百人はいるのではないかといわれる。今回は渡航歴もないのに発症したのが戦後初めてということなのだ。

People needn't be excessively worried, as dengue fever does not pass directly between people, and most who catch the disease recover from their symptoms in around a week. Mosquitos are believed to be the source of the recent infections, and workers have conducted large-scale spraying with insecticide in Yoyogi Park, where the infected mosquitoes are thought to be. Looking at the imposing footage of these workers doing their job, some people have probably conjured up images of the Ebola pandemic, and become anxious.
 しかも、人から人への感染はなく、たいていは1週間ほどで自然治癒するので、必要以上に警戒することはないはずだ。感染源とされる蚊が生息する代々木公園では大規模な殺虫剤散布などが行われたが、そのものものしい映像を見ると世界でのエボラ出血熱の流行を連想してしまい、それだけで不安になる人もいるのではないか。

A big reason why we sometimes become unnecessarily scared by infectious diseases like dengue fever is because we can't see the viruses that are behind them. We can protect ourselves from traffic accidents by looking both ways before we cross the road, but when it comes to viruses and bacteria, it is not so simple. There are probably people who, no matter how much they wash their hands, worry that they still have bacteria or viruses somewhere that they missed.
 こういった感染症に対して私たちが時として必要以上の恐怖を感じる大きな理由は、感染をひき起こすウイルスが目に見えないことにある。自動車事故にあわないためには、まわりをよく見て道路を横断するなどの対策が打てるが、相手が細菌やウイルスとなるとそうもいかない。いくら手を洗ってもまだどこかについているのではないか、と心配がつのるばかり、という人もいるだろう。

There are also scam artists who take advantage of people's fear of invisible threats. "Termites are trying to eat away the foundations of your house," they may lie, proceeding to charge a heavy fee for termite extermination. There is also a continuing problem with scam artists who will tell people they are cursed by the ghosts of their ancestors, even if they cannot see them, and sell them various things to "lift the curse."
 こういった“目に見えない敵の恐怖”を悪用した詐欺もある。「おたくの家の土台を白アリが食いつくそうとしている」などと事実とは異なることを言っておどし、高い駆除代を取ろうとするニセ業者。「あなたには見えないかもしれないが、先祖の霊がついている」などと告げ、除霊のための品々を買わせる霊感商法もいまだに問題となっている。

The victims of these scams may originally dismiss the scam artists' claims, but since the "threat" is invisible, they start to doubt themselves and then wonder whether even though they can't see anything, maybe the scam artists can. In the end they are tricked into paying extraordinary sums to deal with the imagined threat.
いずれも、そう持ちかけられた人は最初は「そんなバカな」と思っていても、次第に「敵が見えないのだから、ウソとも言えない」と疑い始め、ついには「あの人には見えているのかも」と信じて法外なお金を払って駆除や除霊を頼んでしまうのだ。

Of course, unlike with these scams, dengue fever is a real threat, so we shouldn't treat it in the same way. However, if we become neurotic, we will be scared just by going outdoors, and our health can deteriorate just by thinking we are infected. As for the media, it is important to release correct information, and I would like the media to refrain from posting lots of big pictures of mosquitos, or workers spraying insecticide in the darkness just because they are photos with "impact." Meanwhile, we should all keep in mind that an invisible threat is twice as scary just for being invisible.
 もちろん、デング熱はこういったインチキとは異なる実際の病なのだから、安易にいっしょにすることはできない。しかし、あまり神経質になりすぎると、外に出るだけで恐怖を感じたり、「もう感染したのでは」と体調がすぐれなくなったりすることもありうる。報道機関に対しても、正しい知識の伝達は大切だが、「インパクトがあるから」という理由だけで蚊を大写しにした写真や闇の中で駆除作業をする光景の写真を多用するのは控えてほしい、と思う。“敵”が目に見えないものはそれだけで恐怖が倍増する、という原則を、私たちも心にとめておきたいものだ。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年09月02日 地方版

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次世代テレビ 無理せずに普及を進めよう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Spread of next-generation TV services should be encouraged, but not hastily
次世代テレビ 無理せずに普及を進めよう

What should be done to help spread next-generation, ultrahigh-definition TV broadcasts? The introduction of the new broadcasting services should be undertaken steadily, but in no particular hurry, by taking into full account the needs of viewers and the costs necessary for the introduction of the emerging formats.
 次世代の高画質テレビをどう普及させるか。視聴者のニーズやコストを勘案し、無理のない導入を図るべきだ。

There are two next-generation TV video formats: 4K, in which images are four times as detailed and sharp as the current full high-definition TVs, and 8K, offering 16 times the current levels. Of the two, 4K programming has been broadcast on a trial basis on CS (communications satellite) channels since June.
 次世代テレビには、現行のフルハイビジョン映像より4倍きめ細かい「4K」と、16倍の「8K」の2規格がある。このうち4Kは、CS放送で今年6月から試験放送が始まっている。

Broadcasting of 4K and 8K programming on BS (broadcasting satellite) channels, which have considerably more viewers than CS channels, was scheduled to start in 2020. The Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry, however, has just made a major change in policy, bringing forward the schedule significantly, with 4K and 8K experimental broadcasts on BS to start in 2016, paving the way for full-scale broadcasting of both in 2018.
 CS放送より視聴者の多いBS放送は、2020年に4Kと8Kの放送を開始する予定だった。総務省は計画を大幅に前倒しして、16年に試験放送、18年には本放送を始める方針に切り替えた。

The ministry’s policy change is apparently aimed at spurring demand for ultrahigh-definition TV receivers prior to the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics, with a view to helping spread next-generation TVs.
 20年の東京五輪・パラリンピック前に需要を喚起し、普及に弾みをつける狙いだろう。

This may encourage Japan’s electronics makers to enhance their imaging technology so they can regain international competitiveness in TV production, which was once referred to as this country’s specialty in the global market.
 日本メーカーが映像技術をさらに磨き、かつてお家芸と言われたテレビで国際競争力を復活させるチャンスでもある。

No 4K or 8K broadcasts, however, are planned for terrestrial digital television channels because of the congestion of wave frequencies. Broadcasting under the current format will continue for both CS and BS channels, according to the communications ministry.
 ただ、地上波テレビは電波に余裕がなく、4Kと8Kを放送する予定はない。CSとBSも現行規格の放送は継続するという。

The ministry says it will not press viewers to replace their TVs if they prefer not to view ultrahigh-definition TV broadcasts.
 総務省は、より高画質な放送を希望しない視聴者に、テレビの買い替えなどの負担を強いることはしないと説明している。

Many challenges remain

On the other hand, the ministry has come out with a bullish projection that the penetration rate of 4K TVs, which accounted for 2 percent of the nation’s households in 2013, will likely shoot up to more than 50 percent in 2020. There are, however, many challenges that must be resolved before the projected spread of higher-definition TVs.
 一方で、13年に2%だった4Kテレビの世帯普及率が、20年に50%を超えるとする強気の予測も示している。だが、見込み通りに普及を進めるには課題も多い。

The actual ultrahigh-resolution images on 4K TVs will not be easily discerned unless a TV has a screen size of 50 inches or larger. And many people are sure to be satisfied with their current high-definition TVs.
 4Kの映像は、50型以上の大型の画面で見ないと、持ち味の鮮明さを実感しにくい。現在のハイビジョンで十分満足、という人も少なくないだろう。

The prices of 4K TVs are currently around ¥400,000 for a 55-inch model, more than double that for the current flat-screen TVs. To receive 4K broadcasts, users would have to purchase a tuner sold separately, which costs about ¥100,000. It is a moot question whether the advantages of possessing a 4K TV can offset the expense.
 4Kテレビは現在、55型で40万円程度と現行の薄型テレビの2倍以上と割高だ。受信するには10万円程度の別売りチューナーも必要となる。コストに見合う魅力があるかどうかが問われる。

The key to resolving this is whether TV broadcasters can successfully boost the quality of their software services, such as creating programs using images available only with the ultrahigh-definition format.
 超高画質ならではの映像を生かした番組など、ソフトを充実できるかどうかがカギとなる。

For broadcasters, the costs of producing programs are likely to swell more than 1.5 times as ultrahigh-quality cameras and high-resolution image processing will be needed for 4K broadcasting.
 高機能カメラの導入や高画質の映像処理のコストがかさみ、番組制作費は従来の1・5倍以上かかると言われる。

Given that broadcasters made colossal investments at the time of the changeover to terrestrial digital broadcasting, the additional costs of 4K broadcasts will be a heavy burden for them.
 地上デジタル放送への移行時に巨額の投資をしたテレビ業界にとっては、重い負担となろう。

Another problem is that there has been no decision on which broadcast format, 4K or 8K, will be the mainstream one.
 次世代テレビの主流が4Kと8Kのどちらになるのか、現時点ではっきりしない点も問題だ。

There is a possibility that TV broadcasters will find it inevitable to double their investment in preparation for both 4K and 8K broadcast services. It is also feared that some people, consequently, may become disgruntled to find it necessary to frequently buy new TVs.
 放送各社は二重投資を迫られる可能性がある。結果的にテレビなどを頻繁に買い替え、不満を抱く人も出てくるのではないか。

The government should waste no time in working out details of its ultrahigh-definition TV introduction plans and give clear-cut explanations to the businesses concerned and viewers.
 政府は、導入計画の詳細について詰めを急ぎ、業界や視聴者に丁寧に説明する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 7, 2014)Speech

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ウクライナ停戦 欧米は露の介入を排除せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
U.S., European nations must stop Russia’s intervention in Ukraine
ウクライナ停戦 欧米は露の介入を排除せよ

Halting battles between the Ukrainian military and Kremlin-backed separatists was a step forward, but Russia’s military intervention in Ukraine must be stopped to ensure a sustainable ceasefire.
 戦闘の停止は一歩前進だが、持続的な停戦にはロシアの軍事介入を排除することが肝心だ。

The Ukrainian military and the armed separatists, who have for months engaged in battles in eastern Ukraine, finally agreed to a ceasefire Friday, but the situation is fluid at best as sporadic fighting has since been reported.
 ウクライナ東部で戦闘を続けてきた政府軍と親ロシア派武装集団が、ようやく停戦に合意した。
 ただ、散発的な軍事衝突も伝えられ、情勢は流動的である。

Since the start of the fighting in April, more than 2,000 people have been killed. The Ukraine military suddenly found itself at a disadvantage around late August when Russian soldiers were discovered in Ukraine giving support to the separatists.
 4月以来の戦闘で、2000人以上が死亡した。8月下旬、武装集団を支援するロシア軍がウクライナに侵入した頃から、政府軍は一気に劣勢に立たされた。

As it would be difficult for his military to place the eastern part of the country under its control, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko was forced to agree to a ceasefire. Russia, on the other hand, apparently wanted to avoid widening the schism with the United States and European nations.
 政府軍が東部を軍事的に制圧するのは困難な状況にある。ポロシェンコ大統領には、停戦以外の選択肢はなかった。ロシア側にも、欧米との対立の深刻化を回避したい思惑があったと見られる。

The military and the armed rebels should refrain from taking military actions and cooperate with the international team trying to investigate the downing of a Malaysian airliner, whose mission has been suspended due to fighting.
 政府軍と武装集団は、軍事行動の自制を続けるべきだ。中断している国際調査団によるマレーシア航空機撃墜の真相究明作業にも、協力しなければならない。

Whether the ceasefire will hold hinges on the outcome of talks between the Ukraine government and the rebels.
 停戦維持の可否は、政府と武装集団の協議にかかっている。

Poroshenko is reportedly set to approve a decentralization plan to allow the official use of the Russian language and partial liberalization of economic activities in two eastern provinces. The separatists, on the other hand, are demanding a “special status” regarding sovereignty, including the authority to create their own military and appoint prosecutors and judges on their own. A huge gap, therefore, remains between the two camps.
 大統領は、ロシア語の使用や経済活動の一部自由化を東部2州に認める「地方分権」に応じる構えだ。だが、武装集団は、独自軍の創設や検事・裁判官の任命など、主権に関わる「特別の地位」を求めている。隔たりは大きい。

Ceasefire accord defective

The latest ceasefire accord is defective in that it does not mention the withdrawal of thousands of Russian troops from eastern Ukraine. Russia and the rebels are apparently aiming at maintaining their militaristic advantage in the east and eventually placing the area under Russia’s sphere of influence.
 問題なのは、今回の停戦合意が、ロシア軍兵数千人のウクライナ東部からの撤収について、一切触れていないことである。
 ロシアと武装集団は、東部での軍事的優位を固定化し、将来的にはロシアの勢力圏内に収めることを狙っているようだ。

It is essential to ensure the withdrawal of Russian troops and end Russia’s provision of arms to the rebels to maintain the integrity of Ukrainian sovereignty and territory. The United States and European nations must keep the pressure on the administration of Russian President Vladimir Putin through strengthened sanctions.
 ウクライナの主権と領土の一体性を守るには、ロシア軍兵の撤収と武装集団への武器供与の停止が急務だ。欧米は、対露制裁の強化などにより、プーチン政権に圧力をかけ続ける必要がある。

And if Ukraine wants to prevent Russian troops from freely entering its territory, it must beef up its border control.
 ロシア軍などが自由に越境できないように、国境管理を強化することも欠かせない。

Last week’s summit meeting in Newport, Wales, of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization agreed to provide €15 million (about ¥2 billion) in aid to modernize the Ukrainian armed forces. The leaders also agreed to create a rapid-reaction force comprising thousands of troops to defend NATO member countries.
 北大西洋条約機構(NATO)は英国での首脳会議で、ウクライナ軍の近代化に向けて1500万ユーロ(約20億円)の援助を決めた。NATO加盟国を防衛する数千人の即応部隊創設でも合意した。

The measures are aimed at responding to the increased menace from Russia. It is only natural for NATO to continue its support for a struggling Ukraine.
 ロシアの脅威の増大に対応する措置で、窮地にあるウクライナを継続して支援するのは当然だ。

Russia’s intervention in Ukraine is believed in part to have been a backlash from Moscow against NATO’s eastward expansion.
 ロシアのウクライナ介入は、長年のNATOの東方拡大に対する反発が一因だとされる。

But changing the status quo on the strength of its military might will never be condoned. The international community should unite to deal with the Ukraine situation.
 しかし、軍事力を背景にした現状変更は、到底容認できない。
 国際社会は、ウクライナ情勢に一致結束して対応すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 7, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月 7日 (日)

社説:リニア建設 本当に進めて大丈夫か

September 06, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Time still left to review maglev line
社説:リニア建設 本当に進めて大丈夫か

Plans to build a magnetically levitated (maglev) bullet train line that will eventually connect Tokyo and Osaka have moved a step forward with Central Japan Railway Co. (JR Central) applying to the land, infrastructure, transport and tourism minister for permission for construction.
 JR東海が国土交通相に着工の認可を申請したことで、リニア中央新幹線がいよいよ現実味を帯びてきた。
   
JR Central plans to begin operations on the Maglev Chuo Shinkansen Line between Tokyo's Shinagawa Station and Nagoya in 2027 and extend the line to Shin-Osaka Station by 2045. The line would cut the journey between Tokyo and Osaka down to one hour.

If permitted, the large-scale project will finally get under way 41 years after the central government mapped out its basic plan.
認可が下りれば、国による基本計画決定から41年を経て、巨大プロジェクトが動き出すことになる。

However, questions remain over whether the project should be given the green light without a review.
 だが、本当にこのまま突き進んでよいのか、と改めて問いたい。

JR Central intends to fully foot the costs of the project, which are expected to total approximately 9 trillion yen. Critics have expressed concern as to the profitability of the "super-superexpress" line.
 2027年の品川−名古屋開業、45年の品川−新大阪開業を目指すリニア中央新幹線計画は、総事業費が約9兆円に上る異例のスケールだ。JR東海が全費用をまかなうというが、採算面で大きな不安を抱えたまま、踏み出そうとしている。

If the maglev train line were to threaten the company's management, it would not just be a problem for JR Central alone, but could force the national government to use taxpayers' money to bail out the company, since the project is of a highly public nature.
 万一、経営を揺るがす事態になれば、JR東海だけの問題ではすまなくなるだろう。日本の大動脈を独占的に担う、極めて公共性の高い企業であり、税金を使った救済にも発展しかねない。

Nevertheless, the Diet has failed to hold comprehensive deliberations on the project and there has been no full-scale national debate on the issue. This is the biggest problem. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism should not easily allow the project to go ahead as if it has been decided in advance.
 それなのに、国会で包括的な審議がなされることも、国民的議論が盛り上がることもなかった。ここが一番問題だ。国交省は、計画ありき、でゴーサインを出すべきではない。

The maglev train line project aims mainly to make up for a capacity shortage on the Tokaido Shinkansen Line between Tokyo and Shin-Osaka, decrease the traveling time on this section, and secure an alternative route for the Tokaido Shinkansen in case the line is affected by a powerful earthquake.
 リニア中央新幹線には、限界に近付いた東海道新幹線の輸送能力を補うことや移動時間の短縮に加え、東海地震に備えた代替ルートの確保、東海道新幹線の老朽化対応という狙いがある。

However, some have expressed doubts and concerns over the project, not only with regard to the line's profitability but also over safety and its impact on the environment.
だが、経済性、環境面、安全性の観点などから、多くの疑問や懸念が指摘されている。

The construction of a tunnel passing through the South Alps is expected to present a challenge, and the entire project could be substantially delayed because of this. JR Central has recently revised upward the estimated costs of the construction on the line between Tokyo and Nagoya by 93.5 billion yen from the figure the company had announced five years ago. Considering uncertain factors such as the work period, the price of construction materials, personnel expenses and interest rates, moreover, there is no guarantee that the costs won't increase any further.
 南アルプスを貫くトンネルの工事は特に難航が予想され、大幅な長期化もあり得る。JR東海は名古屋までの工事について、5年前に発表した事業費を935億円上方修正した。しかし、工期、資材価格や人件費、借金の金利など不確実性は多く、大幅な追加もないとはいえない。

The company has admitted that the Maglev Chuo Shinkansen Line project will be unprofitable even if unexpected increases in expenses are disregarded.
 想定外の費用増がなくてもこの事業に採算性がないことをJR東海自身が認めている。

"The maglev line alone will never pay," JR Central Chairman Yoshiomi Yamada told a news conference in September last year when he was serving as its president.
昨年9月、山田佳臣社長(当時)は、「リニアだけでは絶対にペイしない(帳尻が合わない)」と記者会見で明言した。

JR Central apparently intends to use profits from the Tokaido Shinkansen Line to make up for deficit generated by the maglev train line, but it remains uncertain whether the company can increase or even maintain the current level of demand as the population is decreasing and aging. It is extremely difficult to predict what Japan will look like 31 years from now, when the construction work on the line to Shin-Osaka Station is expected to be completed.
 東海道新幹線のもうけで穴埋めする考えのようだが、人口減少と高齢化が進む中、需要の増加どころか現状維持さえ確かとは言い難い。新大阪までの工事が完了するとされる31年後の日本の姿を予測することは極めて難しいのである。

There have been numerous examples of large-scale projects in which operational costs snowballed from their initial estimations. For example, the Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Expressway has cost 3.8 times its initial estimate. Lessons should be drawn from reckless projects based on overly optimistic forecasts for demand.
 巨大プロジェクトの事業費が、当初の想定よりはるかに膨らんだという事例は少なくない。例えば本州四国連絡道路では3.8倍に跳ね上がった。甘い需要見通しで突っ走った過去の失敗に学ぶべきではないか。

If an alternative route is necessary for the Tokaido Shinkansen in case of a Tokai earthquake that could hit the line, it does not have to use a maglev train system, and the Hokuriku Shinkansen Line could be used as an alternative route. The project should be considered as an issue that affects the whole nation. It is not too late to launch in-depth debate now to review the project.
 東海地震の際の代替ルートというのであれば、リニアでなくてもよいし、北陸新幹線の活用もあろう。まさに国全体に関わる話として検討すべきテーマである。今から本気で議論をしても、遅すぎない。

毎日新聞 2014年09月06日 02時30分

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クロマグロ保護 「漁獲半減」を着実に実行せよ

翻訳ではこのような初歩的なミスは許されません。

Stocks of mature bluefin tuna in the Pacific dropped from an estimated peak of 130,000 tons to 2.6 tons in 2012. It is estimated the stocks will recover to 43,000 tons in 10 years if the catches of immature tuna are halved.

Stocks of mature bluefin tuna in the Pacific dropped from an estimated peak of 130,000 tons to 26,000 tons in 2012. It is estimated the stocks will recover to 43,000 tons in 10 years if the catches of immature tuna are halved.

(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Halving of catches must be carried out steadily to maintain bluefin tuna stocks
クロマグロ保護 「漁獲半減」を着実に実行せよ

To sustain a steady supply of bluefin tuna, which is popular as a high-end sushi topping, it is essential to prevent reckless fishing.
 高級なすしネタとして人気のクロマグロを、これからも食べ続けられるようにするには、乱獲の防止が欠かせない。

The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, an international organization that governs the management of tuna stocks, has worked out a new agreement to restrict hauls of immature bluefin tuna less than 3 years old.
 マグロ資源を管理している国際機関の「中西部太平洋まぐろ類委員会」が、0~3歳の未成魚に関する新たな漁獲規制で合意した。

Nine countries and territories — including Japan, the United States and South Korea — have agreed to halve catches from the average haul between 2002 and 2004, beginning in 2015. The accord is aimed at rebuilding tuna stocks by restricting catches of tuna too young to lay eggs.
 日米韓など9か国・地域の漁獲量を2015年以降、02~04年の平均から半減させる。産卵前の若いマグロの漁獲を抑え、資源回復を図るのが狙いだ。

Japan proposed halving the hauls after it was found by an international research institute that a 15 percent cut agreed upon last year was not adequate to rebuild tuna stocks.
 昨年に決めた「15%減」の規制では資源回復に不十分なことが、国際研究機関の調査で分かり、日本が半減を提案していた。

Stocks of mature bluefin tuna in the Pacific dropped from an estimated peak of 130,000 tons to 2.6 tons in 2012. It is estimated the stocks will recover to 43,000 tons in 10 years if the catches of immature tuna are halved.
 太平洋クロマグロは、親魚の資源量がピークの約13万トンから12年は2・6万トンに減った。未成魚の漁獲を半減すれば、10年後には4・3万トンに回復するという。

South Korea was very reluctant to go along with the halving proposal, but explanations based on scientific data gained support from a majority of the member countries and persuaded the country to eventually approve.
 半減の提案に、韓国は強い難色を示したが、科学的データに基づく説明が奏功して賛成論が大勢を占め、韓国も容認した。

Japan consumes 80 percent of the world’s bluefin tuna catch. Japanese fishery operators must take the lead in observing the fish quota allocated in the new accord.
 日本は世界でとれたクロマグロの8割を消費している。日本の漁業者は率先して、新たな漁獲枠を順守すべきである。

The important thing is to check closely whether countries concerned will observe the catch restrictions.
 重要なのは、関係国が漁獲制限を守っているかどうか、しっかりチェックすることだ。

Tuna stocks have started to recover in the Atlantic Ocean by implementing strict controls to prevent irregularities in distribution. The controls require the attachment to fish of such data as where they were caught and the names of boats that caught them. Such endeavors must be used as a reference.
 大西洋では、漁獲海域や漁船名などのデータを添えてマグロを流通させる厳格な管理で不正を防ぎ、資源が増加に転じた。こうした取り組みを参考にしたい。

Concerted action crucial

Tuna stocks in the eastern half of the Pacific are managed by a different international institution — the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. Mexico, a major fishing nation and a member of the commission, opposes the new restriction.
 太平洋の東半分は「全米熱帯まぐろ類委員会」という別の国際機関が資源を管理している。その主要な漁獲国であるメキシコは、新たな規制に反発している。

Conservation of tuna that migrate widely will not prove effective unless all the fishing nations of the Pacific act in unison. In cooperation with the United States, which takes a positive stance toward tuna catch restrictions, Japan must also seek to realize stronger controls in the eastern Pacific.
 広い海域を回遊するマグロの保護は、太平洋全体の漁業国が足並みをそろえないと、実効性が上がらない。漁獲制限に前向きな米国などと連携し、東太平洋についても規制強化を実現するべきだ。

Unless the reduction in bluefin tuna stocks is halted, it is feared the fish will become subject to control under the Washington Convention, which regulates international trade in wildlife. Efforts must be made to prevent the tuna from being listed as an endangered species for which trading is prohibited.
 クロマグロの減少に歯止めがかからないと、野生生物の国際取引に関するワシントン条約の規制対象になる恐れもある。禁輸などが義務づけられる「絶滅危惧種」の指定は避けねばならない。

It is imperative to closely watch the changes of tuna stocks to determine if additional conservation measures will become necessary.
 マグロ資源の動向を詳細に監視し、場合によっては追加的な資源の保護策も必要となろう。

Immature bluefin tuna are sold at lower prices than mature ones at supermarkets and other stores. Some consumers might be concerned about price increases due to the new catch restriction.
 クロマグロの未成魚は親魚よりも安くスーパーなどで売られている。漁獲制限による価格上昇を心配する消費者もいるだろう。

Japan’s tuna catches for 2012 were lower than the annual quota set under the new restriction. Given this, the Fisheries Agency expects there will be no big impact on retail tuna prices. However, a certain increase in the burden shouldered by consumers will be unavoidable.
 ただ、12年の日本の漁獲量は新規制を下回っており、水産庁は大きな影響はないと予想する。ある程度の負担増はやむを得まい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 6, 2014)Speech

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広報外交戦略 正しい日本の姿を発信したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Efforts are necessary to spread accurate understanding of Japan
広報外交戦略 正しい日本の姿を発信したい

If it wants to strengthen its presence in the international community and adequately inform a wider audience abroad about itself, Japan should strategically strengthen its public relations overseas and promote cultural exchanges with other nations.
 国際社会での日本の存在感を高め、正しい対日理解を広げるため、広報文化外交を戦略的に強化すべきである。

In its budgetary request for fiscal 2015, the Foreign Ministry has requested about ¥50 billion for a new key budgetary item called “strategic proliferation of information abroad.”
 外務省は2015年度予算の概算要求に、「戦略的対外発信」という重点項目を初めて設け、約500億円を計上した。

With this funding, the ministry plans to boost measures to spread information about Japan’s sovereignty over the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture and Japan’s postwar history as a pacifist nation, among other topics, in order to project an accurate portrayal of this country. Its projects also include analyses of international public opinion pertinent to Japan, improvement of the nation’s capability to inform people overseas and support for Japan studies conducted overseas.
 沖縄県の尖閣諸島の領有権や、戦後の平和国家の歩みなど、日本の「正しい姿」を伝える施策を強化する。日本関連の国際世論の分析と対外発信力を拡充し、海外での日本研究を支援する。

These measures are designed to counter one-sided, anti-Japan propaganda campaigns waged by China and South Korea.
 中国や韓国の一方的な「反日宣伝」に対抗するのが狙いだ。

China, while making an unjust claim of sovereignty over the Senkakus, is aggressively spreading the idea overseas that Japan “is shifting to the right.”
 中国は海外で、日本の「右傾化」をけん伝し、尖閣諸島の領有権も不当に主張している。

China has also established Confucius Institutes at more than 1,000 overseas locations, to promote Chinese culture and support Chinese language learning abroad. With massive funding from the government, they are dispatching teachers to local universities and providing teaching materials.
 中国文化の普及と中国語学習を支援する「孔子学院」などの海外拠点を1000か所以上も開設した。巨額の予算を投入し、地元大学などに教員を派遣するとともに、教材も提供している。

The undertaking is a part of the country’s “soft power strategy,” to improve its image abroad and win international support.
 自国のイメージを高め、国際的な支持を集める「ソフトパワー戦略」の一環だろう。

In some countries, including the United States, Confucius Institutes are criticized for violating academic freedom, as their selection of teachers and curriculums often reflect the intentions of the Chinese government.
 ただ、米国などでは、講師陣の選定や授業内容に中国政府の意向が反映されるケースが少なくないとして、「学問の自由が侵害されている」との批判がある。

Conducting a campaign of truth

In cooperation with the private sector, the Japanese government should thoroughly study ways to deploy public diplomacy with a longer term perspective, and to win over international public opinion to Japan’s position.
 日本政府は、民間と連携し、より長期的な視点に立った広報外交を展開して、国際世論を味方に付ける方策に知恵を絞るべきだ。

China and South Korea have agreed to start a joint study on the issue of so-called comfort women. It is feared that the two nations will intensify their pressure on Japan over issues related to history next year, in which the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II falls.
 中韓は、いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題に関する共同研究で合意している。戦後70年の節目に当たる来年は、両国が歴史問題で、対日圧力を一層強める恐れもある。

Japan must make adequately counterarguments against the two nations based on historical facts, and foster acceptance of Japan’s position in the international community. It would also be effective for Japanese ambassadors to cultivate greater knowledge of the country’s position through local media.
 日本は、歴史的事実を踏まえて的確に反論し、国際社会の理解を広げる必要がある。日本の各国大使が、地元メディアを通じて日本の立場を伝えることも有効だ。

To increase the number of Japan experts and Japanophiles abroad, it is essential to increase the number of overseas hubs for Japanese-language education and provide more opportunities for local people to mingle with current experts on the nation.
 各国の知日・親日派を増やすため、日本語教育の海外拠点を増やし、日本の有識者との交流を拡大することが重要である。

The ministry will also concentrate on promoting Japan’s charms abroad.
 外務省は、日本の魅力の売り込みにも力を入れる。

In its budgetary request, the ministry included ¥5.2 billion for establishing “Japan House” public relations hubs in London, Los Angeles and four other major cities. Japan House will allow visitors to experience Japanese cuisine, manga and anime — which are popular abroad — and will introduce Japanese products.
 概算要求では、ロンドン、ロサンゼルスなど6主要都市に広報拠点施設「ジャパンハウス」を新設する費用として、52億円を計上した。海外で人気の高い和食やマンガ、アニメなどを体験できるようにし、日本製品も紹介する。

Using official development assistance (ODA), the ministry plans to support the export of Japanese TV dramas and other cultural assets to developing countries.
 政府開発援助(ODA)を活用し、日本ドラマなどの途上国への輸出も後押しするという。

The ministry should also cooperate with the Cool Japan Fund, established by the government and the private sector to promote Japanese products and culture, and cooperate with as many Japanese entities as possible to attain its goals.
 日本製品や文化を海外に売り込む官民出資の「クールジャパン機構」とも連携し、オール日本の体制で取り組みたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 6, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月 6日 (土)

社説:刺された盲導犬 人の心も傷ついた

September 05, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Attacks on guide dogs hurt owners, too
社説:刺された盲導犬 人の心も傷ついた

A guide dog for a blind man living in Saitama was injured in July after being stabbed by an unknown assailant. Guide dogs serve as eyes for the blind and support their owners' daily lives. The heartless attack left the dog's owner fearful of venturing outside, and deserves harsh criticism.
 さいたま市の全盲の男性が連れていた盲導犬オスカーが7月下旬、何者かに腰付近を刺されけがをした。盲導犬は、視覚障害者の目の代わりになって生活を支える。男性は「ショックで外に出るのが怖い」と話したという。卑劣と言うほかない。

The perpetrator apparently harbors ill will and hostility toward visually impaired people. The incident has raised concerns that the Saitama case could trigger copycat crimes. The perpetrator in the latest incident not only inflicted deep physical and psychological damage on the guide dog, but also traumatized its owner. Police should thoroughly investigate the case.
 視覚障害者に対する悪意や敵意を感じさせる事件だ。模倣犯が出てくるのではと不安も募る。オスカーにとどまらず、全盲の男性の心にも大きな傷を負わせた罪は重い。警察は徹底的に捜査してもらいたい。

It is suspected that the guide dog, named Oscar, was stabbed while he was accompanying the man on his way to work.
 男性が仕事に向かう電車内でオスカーは被害に遭ったようだ。先のとがったもので刺されたとみられる。

Guide dogs and their owners share a close bond. They undergo training that lasts for nearly a year, and become partners for visually impaired people after going through a training camp with the owner over a period of about one month. Such guide dogs dedicate themselves to supporting their owners while the owners are legally required to look after the dogs in their daily lives in all aspects, including sanitation.
 盲導犬と障害者の関係は濃密だ。1年近い訓練を経た盲導犬は、最後に障害者と約1カ月間の合宿生活を経てパートナーになる。盲導犬が献身する一方で、障害者側は衛生面を含めた日常の世話を尽くす義務を法的に負う。深い信頼関係で結ばれ、生活を共におくる。

Dogs that can enjoy living with people and gently react to people are selected as candidates to become guide dogs. They are trained not to bark unless their owners are in danger. Oscar did not bark even when he was stabbed.
 人間との生活を楽しみ、穏やかに反応する犬が盲導犬に選ばれる。主人に危険が及んだ時以外はむやみにほえない。オスカーも刺された時にほえなかった。

Since the incident was reported by media outlets, misunderstanding has spread that guide dogs are trained to endure any pain. Some visually impaired people have received complaints from people with unimpaired eyesight that guide dogs are being suppressed. Such a lack of understanding deeply hurts the disabled and is intolerable.
 そのため、事件の報道後、「盲導犬は痛みをがまんする訓練を受けている」との誤解が広まった。「盲導犬は抑圧されてかわいそう」といった、矛先を障害者に向けるかのような言葉を投げかけられた人もいる。看過できないことだ。こうした無理解が障害者を深く傷つける。

There are also many cases in which people attempt to hit guide dogs or deliberately step on their tails.
 また傷害に至らなくても、盲導犬をたたこうとしたり、しっぽを踏んだりの嫌がらせは多くあるという。

The Act on Assistance Dogs for Physically Disabled Persons provides stipulations on guide dogs, hearing dogs, and service dogs, which help people with disabilities in their limbs. Enacted in 2002, the law stipulates that public facilities and public transportation systems as well as private facilities such as restaurants used by members of the general public are in principle forbidden from denying entry to people with such assistance dogs. Nevertheless, there are numerous incidents in which disabled people with assistance dogs are denied entry into such facilities.
 盲導犬のほか、肢体の不自由な人を助ける介助犬、さらに聴導犬について定めた身体障害者補助犬法が2002年に成立した。
 公共施設や交通機関、民間でも不特定多数の人が利用する施設は、原則として補助犬を伴った入店を拒んではならないと規定する。だが、入店拒否がいまだ後を絶たない。

In some cases, managers of restaurants and medical institutions cite sanitation as a reason for not allowing assistance dogs to accompany their owners into their facilities. However, assistance dogs have been trained to excrete strictly in designated locations and are kept clean on the responsibility of their owners.
 飲食店や医療機関などが衛生面などを理由に拒むことも多い。だが、補助犬は決まった場所でしか排せつしないようしつけられ、障害者の責任で清潔に保たれる。

It bears mentioning that the law requires facility managers to accept assistance dogs. Denying assistance dogs entry is tantamount to refusing to admit the disabled people they are accompanying.
 そうした前提で、法が同伴の受け入れを義務付けていることを理解したい。補助犬を拒むことは、その隣にいる障害者を拒むことと同じなのだ。

The motives behind the cruel attack on the guide dog in Saitama remain unclear. Still, the incident reminds members of the public that general understanding of disabled people and assistance dogs is far from sufficient.
 残忍な事件の動機は不明だが、障害者や補助犬への社会の理解がまだまだ足りない。事件をきっかけに、そんなことを考えさせられる。

Since the incident, however, organizations that train guide dogs and others supporting handicapped people have received messages from numerous citizens saying they want to help ensure the safety of guide dogs. Such voices will certainly lead to public understanding of disabled people and assistance dogs.
 ただし、盲導犬の育成団体などには事件後、「市民の一員として盲導犬の安全を見守りたい」との声が多く寄せられたという。そうした声が社会の力となることを信じたい。

毎日新聞 2014年09月05日 02時40分

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デング熱拡大 感染症の侵入に注意しよう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Measures must be taken to prevent entry, spread of infectious diseases
デング熱拡大 感染症の侵入に注意しよう

The dengue fever virus has been spreading. Confirmation of domestic infections with the virus is the first in about 70 years. Caution is a must.
 デング熱の感染が広がっている。国内感染が確認されたのは約70年ぶりだ。警戒を怠れない。

The infection seems to have spread when a person or persons infected with the virus overseas brought the virus to Japan and mosquitoes that had sucked the blood of those infected individuals went on to bite other people.
 海外でデング熱に感染した人がウイルスを国内に持ち込み、その感染者の血を吸った蚊が他の人を刺す。こうした経緯で感染が拡大したようだ。

The number of people infected with the virus has topped 50. All of them had visited Yoyogi Park in Tokyo or its environs. The virus has been detected in some of the mosquitoes caught in the park. The Tokyo metropolitan government, which administers the park, closed most of it on Thursday.
 感染者は50人を超える。全員が東京・代々木公園や周辺を訪れていた。公園の蚊からウイルスが検出され、管理者の東京都は4日、公園の大部分を閉鎖した。

A disaster drill was conducted in the park Monday with about 2,000 people participating. At the time, the infection had already been reported. So we wonder whether the metropolitan government had full awareness of possible risks.
 1日には、2000人規模の防災訓練が園内で実施されていた。当時、既に感染者は報告されていたが、東京都はリスクを十分認識していたのだろうか。

A mosquito’s range of activity is limited to a radius of 50 meters to 100 meters. The sites of infection may not go beyond the park’s environs, but guard should not be dropped. Extra caution must be taken until around late October when the mosquitoes disappear.
 蚊の活動範囲は半径50~100メートルだ。感染場所は公園周辺にとどまるが、油断はできない。蚊が消える10月末頃までは要注意だ。

Those infected with dengue virus develop symptoms such as a fever of 38 C or more, headache and joint pain, similar to the symptoms of a cold. If one runs a high fever three to seven days after being bitten by a mosquito, it is important to visit a medical institution as soon as possible. The number of dengue patients reaches about 100 million a year in the world as neither a vaccine nor specific drug have yet been developed.
 デング熱は38度以上の高熱や頭痛、関節痛など風邪に似た症状を示す。蚊に刺されて3~7日で高熱が出たら、速やかに受診することが重要だ。予防ワクチンや特効薬はなく、世界では毎年、約1億人の患者が発生している。

Excessive fear unnecessary

However, there is no need to be extremely fearful. This is because symptoms are developed by 10 percent to 50 percent of those infected with the dengue virus and a mere 1 percent to 5 percent of these patients suffer such serious conditions as melena or vomiting of blood. With adequate treatment, the fatality rate could be held to less than 1 percent even in serious cases.
 ただ、過度に恐れる必要はない。症状が表れるのは感染者の10~50%で、下血や吐血など重症化するのは、その1~5%だ。適切な治療をすれば、重症者でも致死率は1%未満に抑えられる。

The most effective preventive measure is to not be bitten by mosquitoes. We must protect ourselves by avoiding skin exposure and using insect repellent.
 蚊に刺されないことが最大の予防策だ。肌の露出を避け、虫よけスプレーなどで身を守りたい。

Japan sees about 200 cases annually in which people develop dengue fever after becoming infected with the virus in Southeast Asia or elsewhere and then returning home. It cannot be ruled out that domestic infections occurred in the past without being detected.
 東南アジアなどでデング熱に感染し、帰国後に発症する例は毎年200件前後ある。過去にも、気づかないまま、国内感染が起きていた可能性も否定できない。

Tests for the dengue virus are usually conducted on people who complain of symptoms after returning from areas where infection is rampant. In the latest case, a patient with a fever happened to see a physician with knowledge of dengue fever, and this led to the discovery of other infected people one after another.
 デング熱の検査は通常、流行地から帰国し、症状を訴えた人にしか実施されない。今回はたまたま、デング熱の知識がある医師が、発熱した患者を検査したのを機に、感染者が次々と見つかった。

Early identification of infected patients is essential for prevention of further infection. It is necessary to alert physicians treating such patients about the disease.
 感染の拡大防止には、患者の早期発見が欠かせない。診察する医師への注意喚起が必要だ。

As international movements of people and goods have become more active today, the danger of various kinds of infectious diseases being brought into Japan from overseas has increased. West Nile fever and Chikungunya fever, which originate in tropical and subtropical areas and are transmitted by mosquitoes like dengue fever, have seen outbreaks in Europe and the United States as well.
 ヒトやモノの国際的な移動が極めて活発になった今日、様々な感染症が海外から持ち込まれる危険性が増えている。デング熱と同様、熱帯・亜熱帯を起源とし、蚊が媒介する西ナイル熱やチクングニア熱が欧米でも発生している。

The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has been checking whether virus-carrying mosquitoes can be found in aircraft at airports as well as in port facilities.
 厚生労働省は、空港内の航空機や港湾施設などに、ウイルスを持つ蚊が潜んでいないかどうかをチェックしている。

There is a limit to what can be done to prevent viruses from crossing the national border. It is essential for local governments and health care centers to take measures such as catching mosquitoes regularly in an effort to keep a close watch against such viruses gaining a domestic foothold.
 水際での阻止には限界がある。自治体や保健所が定期的に蚊を捕獲するなど、ウイルスの国内侵入を監視することも大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 5, 2014)Speech

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抗日戦勝記念日 習氏は「関係発展」を望むのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China’s newly founded ‘Victory Day’ casts doubt on signs of Xi’s thawing
抗日戦勝記念日 習氏は「関係発展」を望むのか

We are concerned that China’s newly formalized “anti-Japan victory day” may be a source of future trouble in the relationship between Japan and China.
 「反日デー」の制度化は、日中関係に禍根を残さないか。

The Chinese administration of President Xi Jinping observed a ceremony on Wednesday to mark the 69th anniversary of China’s victory in the war of resistance against Japanese aggression near Marco Polo Bridge (Lugouqiao) on the outskirts of Beijing. The administration placed great importance on the observance of the anniversary, with all seven members, including Xi, of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party — the country’s highest leadership body — attending in extraordinarily high pomp.
 中国の習近平政権は3日、北京・盧溝橋近くで抗日戦争勝利69年記念式典を開いた。習国家主席以下、共産党政治局常務委員7人全員が出席する異例の対応で、記念日を重視する姿勢を見せた。

At the close of the war in 1945, a celebration was held on Sept. 3, the day after Japan signed the official document of surrender. The Xi administration has chosen Sept. 3 as the date for a national holiday known as “Victory Day” starting this year.
 1945年の終戦時、中国では、日本が降伏文書に署名した9月2日の翌日に祝賀行事を行った。習政権は今年から、3日を法定の戦勝記念日に決めた。

To be marked annually from now on, the Sept. 3 event will feature a string of anti-Japan campaigns accompanied by official commemorative events. There are fears that the newly formalized Victory Day may cause the currently frayed relations between China and Japan to remain that way for a long time to come.
 これに伴う反日キャンペーンや公式記念行事は、来年以降も続くだろう。日中間の摩擦を長期にわたり固定化させる恐れがある。

Delivering a speech at Wednesday’s commemorative ceremony, Xi criticized Japan, saying, “China will never allow any denial and distortion of this history of aggression or any return to militarism.” He also emphasized that China, as a victorious country in World War II, is “determined to abide by the postwar international order.”
 習氏は記念集会で演説し、「侵略の歴史の否認や歪曲わいきょく、軍国主義の再来を許さない」と、日本を批判した。戦勝国として「戦後国際秩序」を守る、とも強調した。

Xi’s remarks disregard Japan’s postwar development as a pacifist nation that has been strongly praised by the international community, and we cannot accept them. It is China that has posed a threat to the “postwar international order” in recent years by mounting “attempts to change forcibly the status quo” in the East and South China seas and elsewhere.
 国際社会から高く評価される戦後日本の平和国家としての歩みを無視しており、容認できない発言だ。最近、「戦後国際秩序」を脅かしているのは、東・南シナ海などで「力ずくの現状変更」を仕掛ける中国の方である。

Condition-free summit

It is worthy of attention that Xi did say, in the same speech, “China is ready to promote the long-term, steady and healthy development of Sino-Japanese relations.” This is the first time the Chinese president has referred to improvement in Japan-China relations since Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Yasukuni Shrine to honor the war dead last December.
 一方で、習氏が「中日関係の長期的で安定した健全な発展を推進する」と述べたことは、注目に値する。昨年末の安倍首相の靖国神社参拝以来、日中関係の改善に言及したのは初めてだ。

In fact, Xi has given signs that he is in favor of mending the strained bilateral ties, including his talks in Beijing with former Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda in July.
 習氏は7月に北京で福田元首相と会談するなど、対日関係の修復に前向きな兆候も見せている。

One factor behind this may be that Xi is to chair the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit scheduled for November in Beijing.
 この背景には、北京で11月に開かれるアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議で習氏が議長を務めることがあるようだ。

If China is unable to gain Japan’s cooperation at the APEC summit and international attention focuses on the friction between Tokyo and Beijing, China could be seen as unsuccessful in chairing the summit. China places high value on saving face, and it likely hopes to avoid such a failure.
 日本の協力が得られず、日中関係の対立に注目が集まれば、APECが失敗したと見なされかねない。メンツを重んじる中国としては避けたい展開だ。

The stagnation of bilateral relations has caused Japan’s direct investment in China to fall drastically, which has begun to adversely impact the Chinese economy.
 日中関係の停滞は、日本の対中直接投資を激減させ、中国経済にも悪影響を与えつつある。

As the Abe administration will likely continue for a long time, many analysts say that China will likely find it inevitable, at some point in the future, to amend its completely anti-Japan, hard-line diplomatic stance.
 安倍政権の長期化を想定すれば、中国もどこかの時点で、強硬一辺倒の対日外交を修正せざるを得ない、との見方は多い。

The APEC summit will certainly be a favorable opportunity for both countries to hold summit talks with no conditions attached. Both the Japanese and Chinese governments should come to a mutual compromise to realize a Japan-China summit meeting on the sidelines of the APEC summit. Even if strained bilateral relations may not be radically improved by a single summit meeting, it is quite possible to make the meeting the starting point toward a broader rapprochement between the two nations.
 APECは、前提条件なしに首脳会談を行う好機である。日中双方が歩み寄り、実現に向けて努力すべきだ。1回の首脳会談で両国関係の抜本的改善は望めないとしても、その出発点とすることは、十分可能ではないか。

Next year will mark the 70th year of the war’s end, and there are strong indications that history issues will become a focus of Japan-China relations in 2015. Despite the disparities in their views, the two sides should be well aware of the need to reaffirm the great importance of continuing dialogue.
 来年は戦後70年だ。歴史認識が日中関係の焦点となる可能性が高い。両国は、認識の相違があっても、対話を重ねる重要性を再確認することが大切である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 5, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月 5日 (金)

社説:原発事故調書 教訓のため全面公開を

September 03, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Fully disclose testimonies on Fukushima nuclear disaster
社説:原発事故調書 教訓のため全面公開を

The investigative committees on the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant disaster, set up both at the executive and legislative branches of the government, interviewed a large number of people over the cause of the unprecedented disaster.
To be precise, the government's Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) interviewed 772 individuals spanning a total of 1,479 hours, and the National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (NAIIC) interviewed 1,167 persons, which runs a total of over 900 hours.
 福島第1原発の過酷事故はどうして起きたのか。これを調査・検証する国会や政府の事故調査委員会は多数の人から話を聞いた。その数は政府事故調で772人、聴取時間1479時間、国会事故調では1167人、900時間を超える。

These investigation records are extremely priceless resources, which can serve to verify how people responded to the disaster and to prevent a recurrence of any similar accident. These documents must not be monopolized by a limited number of people but should widely be shared by the public -- even by the international community.
 これらの調書は、事故対応を検証し、今後の事故防止に役立てるための、きわめて貴重な資料である。限られた人のものではなく、国民のものであり、国際的にも重要だ。

Nevertheless, most of the vast volumes of the documents remain closed to the public, though some of them have been quoted in reports and released. While the interviews are said to have been conducted on an off-the-record basis on the grounds that no one should be held personally responsible for the enormous disaster, recent reports on the testimony of Masao Yoshida, the late former plant chief at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant, have catalyzed the move to disclose the government investigation committee records to the public.
 ところが、これらの記録は一部が報告書に使われたり、公開されたりしたものの、残る膨大な資料は公開されずに眠っている。個人の責任を問わないなどの理由で非公開が前提だったとされるが、事故当時、福島第1原発の所長だった吉田昌郎氏(故人)のヒアリング資料「吉田調書」の中身が報道されたことをきっかけに、政府事故調の調書を公開する動きが進んできた。

The government is now poised to declassify the testimonies of Yoshida as well as those of others who gave consent to their release. We should be able to learn a lot from those materials -- from the cause of the disaster to crisis management -- once experts from all walks of life scrutinize every word in the testimonies of the concerned parties. It is hoped that the move will spark the disclosure of all the other information on the disaster, including the NAIIC records.
 政府は近く、吉田調書に加え、本人の了解が得られた調書を公開するという。貴重な資料を眠らせているのは宝の持ち腐れだ。当事者の言葉そのものを多様な専門家が精査することによって、事故原因や危機管理について、新たに学べることがあるはずだ。この動きを国会事故調の資料も含めたすべての情報の公開につなげたい。

The Asahi Shimbun has sparked controversy after it reported in May that 90 percent of workers at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant withdrew to the Fukushima No. 2 nuclear plant in violation of Yoshida's orders on March 15, 2011 -- just a few days after the outbreak of the nuclear disaster. In his testimony, Yoshida concluded that the plant workers' evacuation to the No. 2 plant was in the end the correct decision though it was different from what he had originally intended. It is likely that the Asahi Shimbun reports highlighting only a portion of his testimony have led to widespread misunderstanding and hindered level-headed discussions over the matter.
 吉田調書をめぐっては、今年5月に朝日新聞が「所員の9割が吉田氏の待機命令に違反し、福島第2原発に撤退した」と報じたことが議論を呼んでいる。吉田氏は調書の中で、第2原発退避は当初の意図とは違うが結果的に正しかった、との判断を示している。調書の一部を強調した朝日の報道が誤解を広め、冷静な議論が妨げられた可能性がある。

That said, the essence of the issue is that orders given amid confusion sometimes fail to get across to workers on site. It is rather important to draw lessons from that incident about how the chain of command should be carried out. One such lesson we should learn is the significance of planning in advance who should evacuate whom to where and who should remain on site in the event of a severe accident.
 ただ、問題の本質は、混乱する現場で指示がうまく伝わらない場合があるということであり、ここから指揮命令系統のあり方について教訓を引き出すことこそが大事ではないだろうか。過酷事故が起きた時に誰をどこに避難させ、誰が現場に残るかを、想定しておくことの重要性も教訓のひとつだ。

Yoshida's testimony also underscores once again the lack of ability in the prime minister's office and TEPCO headquarters in Tokyo in providing support to the on-site workers in crisis. It is imperative for the government and power companies -- which are eager to reactivate idled nuclear reactors across Japan -- to thoroughly scrutinize whether these essential challenges have already been resolved.
 危機的状況にある現場を支援する能力が官邸や東電本店にまったく欠けていたことも調書から改めて浮かぶ。原発の再稼働を進めようとしている政府や電力会社は、こうした本質的な課題が解決されているのか、しっかりチェックすることが不可欠だ。

In the meantime, it is also important to remember Yoshida's testimony is a mere fragment of the whole picture of the nuclear catastrophe. What counts is we should compare all the testimonies by numerous people concerned and documents to re-enact in minute detail what exactly happened. Authorities should make efforts to gain approval of the interviewees in the investigative committee reports to disclose the entire documents to the public as soon as possible.
 吉田調書は全体像を知るためのひとつの断片であることも忘れてはならない。大事なのは、多くの人の証言や資料を突き合わせ、実際に起きたことを細かく再現することだ。そのためにも、当事者の了解を得る努力をし、事故調の資料全体を一刻も早く公開すべきだ。

毎日新聞 2014年09月03日 02時30分

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社説:改造内閣発足 中韓と関係構築を急げ

September 04, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Reshuffled Abe Cabinet should improve Japan's ties with neighbors
社説:改造内閣発足 中韓と関係構築を急げ

The reshuffled second Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and new leadership for the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) were launched on Sept. 3. While retaining most key Cabinet ministers, Abe appointed former Justice Minister Sadakazu Tanigaki, his predecessor as LDP president, as party secretary-general.
 第2次安倍改造内閣と自民党の新体制が発足した。安倍晋三首相は主要閣僚をおおむね留任させる一方で、党の要である幹事長に前総裁の谷垣禎一前法相を起用した。

While Abe named five women as members of his Cabinet, equal to the previous record and seen as a move to garner public attention, the overall line-up shows that the prime minister places priority on policy continuation. The time has come for the Abe Cabinet to review the way it has run the government in a high-handed manner since the LDP-led ruling coalition regained a majority in the House of Councillors, and to solve problems arising from its policies. In particular, it is an urgent task for the Abe government to improve Japan's strained relations with its neighbors and take countermeasures against the population decline.
 女性閣僚を過去最多に並ぶ5人起用してメリハリをつけたが、総じて政策の継続を意識した布陣と言える。衆参ねじれ状態を解消して以来強引さも目立つ政権運営のありかたを見直し、政策面で生じたひずみを修正すべき時だ。とりわけ近隣諸国との関係の再構築や、人口減少への対応に力を注がねばならない。

 ◇本気問われる女性登用

Twelve of the Cabinet ministers were replaced in Abe's first Cabinet reshuffle since he came to power again in late 2012. Among the newly established posts for which particular attention was focused on personnel selection, former LDP Secretary-General Shigeru Ishiba was named to take up the post of minister in charge of vitalizing local economies, while Akinori Eto was appointed as minister in charge of security legislation to open the way for Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense.
 初の改造人事で閣僚12人が交代した。人選が注目された新設ポストでは地方の人口減少対策を受け持つ地方創生担当相に石破茂前幹事長、集団的自衛権行使を可能とする法整備にあたる安全保障法制担当相に江渡聡徳衆院議員を起用した。

Many key Cabinet ministers stayed on, such as the chief Cabinet secretary, finance minister, foreign minister and the minister in charge of economic revitalization. Therefore, it is apparent that the latest reshuffle was aimed primarily at ending the double-headed party leadership by Abe and Ishiba, who clashed head-on with each other in the LDP's presidential election two years ago.
 官房長官、財務、外務、経済再生ら主要とされる閣僚の多くは留任した。それだけに総裁就任以来の石破氏との双頭体制にピリオドを打つことが人事の主眼だったと言える。

Ishiba has been widely viewed as the most hopeful candidate to succeed Abe as LDP leader, and there is a possibility that these two will battle in the next LDP presidential election in autumn next year. Abe decided to replace the secretary-general after an LDP-backed candidate lost the Shiga gubernatorial election earlier this year and to appoint former LDP President Tanigaki to the post in an apparent bid to achieve intraparty reconciliation. Expectations will be placed on a sense of balance from Tanigaki, who is known as moderate toward China and places emphasis on rehabilitating debt-ridden state finances.
 2年前の総裁選で首相と競った石破氏は「ポスト安倍」の最右翼と目され、来秋の総裁選で再度戦う可能性もある。滋賀県知事選の与党敗北などを受けて交代に踏み切るとともに総裁経験者として初めて谷垣氏を幹事長に起用するなど挙党態勢と党内融和に配慮した形だ。対中穏健派で財政再建論者としても知られる谷垣氏のバランス感覚に期待したい。

However, questions have been raised over the process of Ishiba declining Abe's request that he take up the post of minister in charge of security legislation because of his differences over security policy with the prime minister and assuming another Cabinet position. Ishiba, who has insisted that a basic law on national security be enacted at an early date to allow Japan to broadly exercise the right to collective self-defense, is reportedly at odds with the prime minister who is hesitant to enact such legislation. If he is to remain at odds with the prime minister over basic policy, Ishiba should not have joined the Cabinet and instead chosen to have debate on the issue in the next party leadership race.
 だが、石破氏が首相からの安保法制担当相への就任要請を安保政策をめぐる見解の相違を理由に拒み、結局は別のポストで入閣した経過には疑問を抱かざるを得ない。石破氏は集団的自衛権行使を幅広く認める「国家安全保障基本法」の早期制定が持論で、慎重派の首相と違いがあるとされる。基本政策をめぐり相いれないのであれば閣外に身を置き、総裁選で論争を挑むのが筋だ。

Critics have pointed out that Abe appointed Ishiba as minister in charge of vitalizing local economies because the prime minister feared that an intraparty conflict could intensify if Ishiba were removed from his Cabinet and Ishiba compromised with the prime minister for fear that he would otherwise be isolated within the governing party. If so, that would mean both Abe and Ishiba made light of the newly created post of minister for vitalizing local economies. Under the circumstances, it is highly doubtful if lively intraparty policy debate will be held.
 政権から石破氏を排除すれば対立が激化しかねないと懸念した首相と、孤立をおそれた石破氏が妥協した結果の地方創生担当相就任とすれば、せっかくの新設ポストが泣く。次期総裁選を控え、このところ低調な党内の政策論争が活発化するかどうかもこれでは危ぶまれよう。

Abe's proactive appointments of women with disregard for seniority and a balance between intraparty factions should be appreciated. Abe named Yuko Obuchi, former minister in charge of measures for the declining birth rate, as economy, trade and industry minister and upper house member Haruko Arimura as minister in charge of promoting women's active participation. However, questions remain as to whether some of the newly appointed Cabinet ministers empathize with old-fashioned family values. The Abe administration's attitude toward promoting women's participation in society as part of its growth strategy as well as its efforts to ensure true gender equality is being tested.
 小渕優子元少子化担当相を経済産業相、有村治子参院議員を新設の女性活躍担当相に起用するなど女性を積極登用し、派閥均衡、順送り色を薄めたことを評価したい。だが、入閣した議員の一部には復古的な家族観に同調する傾向もありはしないか。成長戦略としてだけでなく、男女共同参画の精神を共有して女性の社会進出を本気で進めていく姿勢があるかが問われる。

The new Cabinet is required to assess problems arising from policy measures being implemented by the LDP-led administration. Since the LDP scored a landslide victory in the upper house election in 2013, the Abe government has taken advantage of its majority in both chambers to run the government in a high-handed manner, such as changing the interpretation of the war-renouncing Constitution through a Cabinet decision to open the way for Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense. It also appears as if Japan's energy policy has returned to the pre-Fukushima nuclear disaster policy.
 改造内閣発足にあたり求められるのは生じ始めたひずみの検証である。参院選で自民党が圧勝して以来、特定秘密保護法の成立、閣議決定による解釈改憲など国会の「1強」状態を背に強引な政権運営が目立つ。エネルギー政策もまるで福島第1原発事故以前に回帰するかのようだ。
   
Work to enact legislation aimed at allowing Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense will be postponed until next year's regular Diet session to show consideration to the LDP's coalition partner New Komeito. One cannot help but wonder why the Abe government hastily reinterpreted the Constitution despite a perception gap between the prime minister and Ishiba. The ability of Eto, who serves as a Cabinet member for the first time, still remains to be seen. Whether legislation needs to be enacted to allow Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense will be called into question again.
 集団的自衛権行使を実際に可能とする法整備は公明党への配慮などから来年の通常国会に先送りになった。幹事長だった石破氏と見解の違いを抱えながら、いったい何のために解釈改憲を急いだのか。初入閣の江渡氏の力量も未知数だ。法整備の必要性が改めて問われよう。

 ◇人口減少に本格対応を

The most sticking diplomatic issue is improving Japan's ties with China and South Korea that have been chilled over territorial issues and historical perceptions. The prime minister has kept China in check as the core of his diplomatic and national security policy. Still, it is abnormal that Japan has been unable to hold summit meetings individually with China and South Korea since Abe took power.
 外交で積み残された最大の懸案は領有権や歴史認識問題をめぐり冷え込んだままの中国、韓国両国との関係改善である。首相の外交・安全保障政策は対中けん制を基軸としてきた。とはいえ政権発足以来、中韓両国と個別の首脳会談すら行われないという状態は異常である。

The prime minister also attaches importance to Japan's relations with Russia and India in addition to strengthening the Japan-U.S. security arrangement. Furthermore, North Korea's re-investigation into the safety and whereabouts of missing Japanese abduction victims will enter a crucial phase. However, the government cannot effectively conduct its diplomatic policies as long as Japan's relations with its two neighbors remain strained.
 首相は日米安保体制の強化に加えロシア、インドとの関係を重視し、いわゆる「地球儀を俯瞰(ふかん)する外交」の展開にも取り組む。北朝鮮による拉致被害者らの安否再調査報告も重要な局面を迎える。近隣2国との関係が不正常なままで外交力は発揮できない。

Both Japan and its neighbors should launch efforts to resume dialogue and rebuild their mutual relations such as by holding Japan-China and Japan-South Korea summit talks on the occasion of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum's summit conference in Beijing in November.
11月に北京で開催されるアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議における日中、日韓首脳会談実現など、双方が対話再開と関係再構築の努力を尽くす時だ。

Regarding economic and domestic policy, the growth strategy, which the government describe as the "third arrow" in "Abenomics," the economic policy mix promoted by the Abe administration, is coming to a deadlock. It is understandable that the prime minister is beginning to express enthusiasm about rectifying the population decline and the excessive concentration of the population and industry in Tokyo, even with disregard for the LDP's efforts to win votes in next year's nationwide local elections. To achieve this goal, it is an urgent task to create a system in which local governments and businesses can use their ingenuity and creativity to vitalize local economies.
 経済、内政もアベノミクス路線で「3本目の矢」とされた成長戦略が行き詰まりつつある。首相が人口減少や東京一極集中の是正に意欲を示し始めたのは統一地方選対策の要素を差し引いても理解できる。地方の創意を生かせる体制作りが急務だ。

On the other hand, it is extremely difficult for the government to achieve its goal of maintaining Japan's population at over 100 million for at least the next 50 years. The government continues to be required to create a social security system that can respond to the ultra-aging population and declining birthrate despite the critical fiscal situation. Japan is scheduled to raise the consumption tax again to 10 percent in October next year. After launching his reshuffled Cabinet, Prime Minister Abe told a news conference that he will decide by the end of this year whether to go ahead with the consumption tax hike as scheduled. The government should quickly consider introducing lower tax rates for daily necessities such as foodstuffs to help lessen the financial burden on taxpayers.
 一方で「50年後も人口1億人維持」という政府目標のハードルは極めて高い現実もわきまえねばならない。財政が危機的な状況で人口減少・超高齢化社会に対応できるような社会保障制度の構築を迫られる事情は変わらない。来年10月に消費税率を10%へ引き上げる政治日程が控える。首相は改造後の記者会見で年内に最終判断する考えを示した。軽減税率導入などの手だてを急ぐべきだ。

There is speculation among both ruling and opposition parties that the prime minister is exploring the possibility of dissolving the House of Representatives to call a general election at an early date. However, now is not the time for the prime minister to seek voter response to his policies. The reshuffled Cabinet should pursue steady policy achievements. Opposition parties also should be fully prepared to hold thorough and in-depth policy debate in the upcoming extraordinary Diet session.
 与野党の一部には首相が早期の衆院解散をうかがっているのではないか、との観測もあるようだ。だが、民意を問う大義名分がある状況とは言えまい。改造内閣は着実な成果を追求すべきだ。野党もまた、秋の臨時国会での徹底論戦に足る体制を整えねばならない。

毎日新聞 2014年09月04日 02時30分

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香港長官選挙 自治を形骸化する民主派排除

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China’s action against pro-democracy groups scuttling Hong Kong autonomy
香港長官選挙 自治を形骸化する民主派排除

There is reason to believe Hong Kong’s “high degree of autonomy” is on the wane.
 香港の「高度な自治」は、もはや形骸化しつつあるのではないか。

China’s National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee has decided to reform the electoral system for choosing the chief executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, a move that sets the stage for changes in the former British colony’s next leadership election in 2017.
 中国の全国人民代表大会(全人代)常務委員会が、2017年の次期香港行政長官選挙に向けた選挙制度改革を決定した。

Hong Kong’s chief executives have been chosen through an indirect election by a committee of 1,200 representatives from various sectors. Pro-China representatives account for a majority of representatives on the electoral commission, making it virtually impossible for any pro-democracy candidate to be elected chief executive.
 行政長官は従来、各界代表で構成する「選挙委員会」の委員1200人による間接選挙で選出されてきた。委員の大半は親中派が占め、民主派の候補者の当選は事実上、不可能だった。

The NPC’s latest decision has ruled that the special administrative region’s leader would be chosen through a popular election, that is, a direct vote by Hong Kong residents. The decision has been made under the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, which serves as the territory’s constitution.
 全人代は今回、憲法に相当する香港基本法に基づき、住民が直接投票する「普通選挙」の導入を認めた。

However, the decision made by the legislature’s powerful Standing Committee will be combined with a plan to create a special nominating committee that would largely comprise pro-China members, requiring all candidates for chief executive to receive support from more than half of the body before being allowed to run for office.
だが、同時に、親中派で固める「指名委員会」を新設し、その半数以上の支持を得ることを立候補の要件とした。

This means anyone critical of the Chinese Communist Party would be barred from running in Hong Kong’s leadership election. The NPC showed through its latest decision a virtually total disregard for calls by Hong Kong pro-democracy groups for significantly relaxing requirements for candidacy.
 中国共産党政権に批判的な人物は出馬すらできまい。立候補要件の大幅緩和を求めた民主派の主張は、ほとんど無視された。

Choosing the Hong Kong leader under such rules does not deserve to be called a popular election at all.
 これでは到底、「普通選挙」の名には値しない。

Following the electoral reform decision, Hong Kong’s Legislative Council will take specific measures to revise and create relevant legislation, including a bill aimed at introducing a popular election system. However, the legislature has no authority to overturn the NPC’s decision.
 今後、具体的な法整備を行う香港議会に全人代決定を覆す権限はない。

If Hong Kong lawmakers vote against the popular election bill, it means the current indirect election system will remain in place. All this clearly shows that the NPC’s decision is an attempt by Chinese President Xi Jinping to prevent the election of a pro-democracy candidate as Hong Kong chief executive.
「普通選挙」法案を否決すれば、間接選挙が続く。民主派の行政長官の誕生を阻止しようとする習近平政権の狙いは明確だ。

Economic driving force

When the former British colony returned to Chinese rule in 1997, China established the special administrative region’s basic law under a policy of “one country, two systems,” pledging to grant Hong Kong a high degree of autonomy. China’s move was intended to maintain the former colony’s capitalist economic system, supported by foreign corporations, so it could use Hong Kong’s economy as a driving force behind its own economic growth.
 香港が1997年に英国から中国に返還された際、中国は、「一国二制度」の名の下に香港基本法を定め、「高度な自治」を約束した。外資系企業が支える香港の資本主義経済を維持し、自国の成長を牽引けんいんさせるのが目的である。

In a sense, the latest election system reform was supposed to serve as a litmus test regarding the fate of Hong Kong’s self-rule.
 今回の選挙制度改革は、自治の行方を占う試金石だった。

However, the Chinese leadership’s decision fails to advance Hong Kong’s autonomy. The latest move is virtually tantamount to declaring Hong Kong’s true ruler is the Communist Party in Beijing.
 だが、習政権の選択は、自治の進展ではなかった。むしろ、香港の真の統治者は北京の共産党政権である、と宣言したに等しい。

The Chinese leadership’s inflexible stance seems to indicate its fears that any progress in advancing the former colony’s autonomy would allow the international community to significantly affect the region’s fate, a development that could make it difficult for China to control the territory.
 自治の進展を許せば、国際社会の影響が強まり、将来的に香港の制御が困難になりかねない。
そんな警戒心が、習政権の強硬姿勢の裏側にあるのだろう。

China’s attempt to rigidly control Hong Kong politically has been evident in many respects recently — not only its electoral system reform decision. In January, the chief editor of a leading Hong Kong newspaper critical of Beijing was abruptly dismissed. More than 500 Hong Kong residents were detained after attending a street demonstration in July.
 香港では最近、選挙制度以外でも、習政権による政治的な“締め付け”が目立っている。中国に批判的な有力紙編集長は突然、解任された。民衆デモに参加した500人以上が拘束された。

Beijing’s high-handed approach is adding to the anger and frustration felt by Hong Kong residents nowadays. Pro-democracy groups are poised to occupy Hong Kong’s Central District, its main business quarter, to protest the NPC’s decision.
 こうした強権的手法に対する香港住民の反発や不満も増幅している。民主派は、中心部の金融街・中環をデモ隊で占拠し、全人代決定に抗議する構えも見せる。

If that actually takes place, it could create turmoil not only in the Hong Kong economy but in Asia’s as a whole. China should understand that it would be hardest hit.
 実行されれば、香港だけでなく、アジア経済にも大きな混乱をもたらしかねない。最も不利益を受けるのは、中国自身だろう。

For its part, Japan needs to closely watch Hong Kong as the situation could deteriorate.
 日本も、不確実性の増した香港情勢を注視する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 3, 2014)Speech

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民法改正案 消費者保護の観点を忘れずに

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Consumer protection must be a factor in civil code revision
民法改正案 消費者保護の観点を忘れずに

It is vital to modify, in line with changing times, rules of contracts that are deeply linked with people’s daily lives.
 国民生活に深く関わる契約のルールは、時代の変化に応じて改めていくことが欠かせない。

A subcommittee of the Justice Ministry’s Legislative Council has compiled a proposal that would drastically amend provisions concerning contracts in the Civil Code. The ministry plans to submit the bill to revise the Civil Code to an ordinary Diet session next year.
 政府の法制審議会の部会が、民法の契約に関する規定を抜本改正する案をまとめた。法務省は来年の通常国会に民法改正案を提出する方針だ。

Since the code was enacted in 1896, no major amendments have been made to the contractual provisions, with disputes having been dealt with through accumulated judicial precedents.
 契約の分野は、1896年の民法制定以来、大きな改正がなく、裁判例の積み重ねで、個々の紛争に対処してきた。

The latest revision of the code is designed to have major judicial precedents reflected properly in statutory law.
今回の法改正は、これまでの裁判例をきちんと法律に反映させる狙いがある。

Clarifying by statute the rules of various types of contracts can be considered appropriate in protecting people’s rights.
 様々な契約のルールを法的に明確化することは、国民の権利を守る上で適切と言える。

A familiar case in point is a review of the statute of limitation over the discharge of debts. The limitations on claims for unpaid accounts or indebtedness differ among different types of businesses, such as one year for bar and restaurant tabs and three years for medical bills.
 身近な例が、お金の支払いを巡る時効の見直しだ。未払い金、いわゆるツケの債権が消滅する期間は、飲食代が1年、医療費は3年など、業種ごとに異なる。

Under the proposed rules, the limitation period for payment is uniformly set at five years, regardless of the types of businesses, beginning when a creditor becomes aware of their right to claim an unpaid account. It is quite important to simplify these rules and make them easier for people to understand.
 改正案は、業種にかかわらず、「債権者が請求できると知った時から5年」に統一した。ルールを簡素化し、分かりやすくするのは、重要なことだ。

Provisions concerning deposits for rented accommodation have also been included, for the first time, in the code.
 賃貸住宅の「敷金」に関する規定も新たに盛り込んだ。

Security for tenants

The deposit paid to a landlord when renting an apartment is often explained as money that will be refunded when leaving the property. In reality, however, there are more than a few cases in which scant refunds are made, as landlords subtract from the rental deposit those expenses needed to restore the room to the condition it was in when the lease began.
 アパートなどを借りる際、家主に支払う敷金は、退去時に返還されると説明を受けることが多い。だが、実際には、家主が部屋の原状回復費用を差し引くため、ほとんど戻らない例も少なくない。

Under the proposed provisions, the rental deposit is defined as security for house rent and it is stipulated that a landlord is obliged to return it to the renter upon the expiration of the lease. It has also been stipulated that, regarding interior damage from normal wear and tear, a renter will not be obliged to restore the rented property to its original condition. These provisions are reasonable in light of social common sense.
 改正案は、敷金を「家賃の担保」と定義し、賃貸借終了時に返還義務が生じると明記した。通常の使用による室内の傷みなどについて、借り主は原状回復の義務を負わないとも定めた。社会常識に照らし、妥当な内容だろう。

But other problems remain.
 一方で、課題も残っている。

Under the proposed revisions, personal surety for a loan to a business corporation is prohibited in principle. As an exceptional case, if someone other than the manager of the company intends to become a guarantor, a notarized document confirming the will of the guarantor must be prepared in the presence of a notary public.
 改正案は、企業向け融資などで個人保証を原則禁止し、例外として経営者以外の人が保証人になる際には、公証人が立ち会い、保証の意思を確認する公正証書を作成するよう義務づけた。

There is no end to tragic cases in which people cosign for loans out of kindness, only to end up being burdened with massive liabilities, having their daily lives collapse and even being driven to suicide. In light of these cases, we can understand that this provision is intended to prevent people from becoming guarantors carelessly.
 親切心から連帯保証を引き受けた結果、多額の債務を背負い、生活の破綻や自殺に至る悲劇は後を絶たない。安易な保証を防ごうという趣旨は理解できる。

But there are also cases in which relatives of managers of small companies have no choice but to become guarantors for loans. We are worried that such guarantors may end up facing harsh loan collection measures behind the cloak of a notary document.
 ただ、中小企業経営者の家族らが、やむを得ず保証人となることもある。公正証書を盾に厳しい取り立てを受けないか心配だ。

On a proposal to incorporate into the code the provisions of “clauses” that business corporations present to consumers as their contractual terms, there are opposing voices from the business world.
 企業が消費者に契約条項として示す「約款」の規定を民法に設ける案に対しては、経済界の中に反対の声がある。

As the clauses deal with diverse aspects of such contracts, they tend to cause trouble if a consumer does not understand them sufficiently. Establishing clear rules will be necessary from a viewpoint of protecting consumer interests.
 だが、約款の内容は多岐にわたるため、消費者の理解が不十分だと、トラブルを招きやすい。一定のルールを設けることは、消費者保護の観点から必要だろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 3, 2014)Speech

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安倍改造内閣 経済再生へ挙党態勢を固めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Abe’s new Cabinet must strengthen party unity, national economy
安倍改造内閣 経済再生へ挙党態勢を固めよ

 ◆「次」のリーダー育成も重要課題だ◆

The country is facing such major challenges as ensuring its escape from deflation, revitalizing the economy and preparing relevant national security laws to secure peace for Japan.
 脱デフレを確実にし、経済の活力を増す。日本の平和を確保する安全保障法制を整備する。

The new administration must tackle these issues unflinchingly through the concerted efforts of its new lineup.
 こうした重要課題に新たな陣容の総力を挙げ、果敢に取り組まねばならない。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has reshuffled the Cabinet and the leadership of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party.
 安倍首相が内閣改造・自民党役員人事を断行した。

At a press conference following the Cabinet reshuffle Wednesday, Abe said: “We’re only halfway through reforms. I’ve reshuffled my Cabinet so we can carry out various measures more boldly and vigorously,” emphasizing the significance of the shake-up.
 首相は記者会見で「改革は道半ばだ。諸政策を心機一転、さらに大胆かつ力強く実行する」と述べ、内閣改造の意義を強調した。

Eye on elections
 選挙にらむ重厚な布陣

For the party leadership roles, Abe appointed Sadakazu Tanigaki, a former LDP president and justice minister, as secretary general of the LDP, and Toshihiro Nikai, chairman of the House of Representatives Budget Committee, as chair of the General Council.
 自民党幹事長に前総裁の谷垣禎一法相、総務会長に二階俊博衆院予算委員長を起用した。

Abe also selected Tomomi Inada, who has been elected to the lower house three times and was state minister in charge of administrative reform, as chair of the Policy Research Council.
政調会長には衆院当選3回の稲田朋美行政改革相を抜擢ばってきした。

LDP Vice President Masahiko Komura retained his post, while Economy, Trade and Industry Minister Toshimitsu Motegi was appointed head of the Election Strategy Headquarters.
高村正彦副総裁は留任し、選挙対策委員長には茂木敏充経済産業相が就いた。

Abe apparently aims to stabilize his administration by maintaining a balance between veteran, middle-ranking and young lawmakers in the new party leadership. He likely attached importance to preparing for elections, with an eye on the Okinawa gubernatorial election in November, the nationwide local elections next spring or even a possible dissolution of the lower house.
 ベテランと中堅・若手のバランスを取り、重厚な布陣で政権を安定させる狙いがある。11月の沖縄知事選や来春の統一地方選、さらに衆院解散も見据えて、選挙対策を重視したのだろう。

Appointing a former party president as party secretary general is extremely unusual. Both Tanigaki and Nikai have connections to leading figures in China and enjoy good relations with New Komeito, the LDP’s junior coalition partner. Both are a type of politician quite different from Abe, who considers himself to be conservative.
 総裁経験者の幹事長起用は、極めて異例である。谷垣、二階両氏は、中国要人とのパイプを持ち、公明党との関係も良好だ。保守主義を標榜ひょうぼうする首相とは、タイプがかなり異なる。

With the appointments of Tanigaki and Nikai, it will be important to try to create harmony within the ruling camp and to expand the breadth of policy options. Top priority should be given to addressing major challenges through reinforced cooperation between the Prime Minister’s Office and the party leadership.
 両氏の起用により、与党内の融和を図り、政策の幅を広げることが大切である。首相官邸と党執行部が連携を強化し、重要政策を遂行することを最優先すべきだ。

At one point, a conflict emerged between Abe and Ishiba over what to do regarding former LDP Secretary General Shigeru Ishiba in the latest reshuffle.
 石破茂前幹事長の処遇をめぐって一時、首相と石破氏の対立が表面化した。

There were a number of unusual developments, including Ishiba publicly expressing his wish to continue as secretary general during a radio program. Abe reportedly considered giving no Cabinet post to Ishiba at all.
石破氏がラジオ番組で幹事長続投を公然と希望するなど異様な展開となり、首相は石破氏を無役にすることも検討した。

The two ultimately reached a compromise, leading Ishiba to become a Cabinet member.
 だが、最後は、双方が歩み寄り、石破氏は入閣した。

It was an appropriate decision for both Abe and Ishiba, who were candidates in the party presidential election in the autumn of 2012, to avoid a head-on confrontation and maintain a whole-party approach.
 一昨年秋の総裁選を争った両氏が、決定的な対立を回避し、挙党態勢を維持したのは妥当な判断である。

If party unity dissolved into chaos only 20 months after the LDP’s return to power, it would hardly win public confidence.
政権復帰から1年8か月余で党の結束が乱れるようでは、国民の信頼を得られない。

Stability maintained
 消費増税どう判断する

Six ministers, including Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga, who has earned a reputation for his crisis management abilities, kept their respective posts in the reshuffle, therefore maintaining the overall framework of the Cabinet. Key staff at the Prime Minister’s Office, including deputy chief cabinet secretaries and special advisers to the prime minister, all kept their jobs.
 改造内閣では、危機管理能力に定評のある菅義偉官房長官ら6閣僚が留任し、骨格は維持された。官房副長官、首相補佐官など官邸スタッフもそろって続投した。

Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister Taro Aso, who is in charge of the Abe administration’s economic policy package, dubbed Abenomics, and Akira Amari, state minister in charge of economic revitalization, also remain in their respective posts.
 経済政策「アベノミクス」を担当する麻生太郎副総理・財務相と甘利明経済再生相も留任した。

Multilateral talks over the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact are reaching a critical stage. The TPP negotiations are bound to determine the success or failure of the government’s growth strategy, which the prime minister calls the third arrow to be unleashed in his Abenomics economic policies.
 3本目の矢である成長戦略の成否を左右する環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉が、山場を迎える。

We hope our nation will be able to reach an agreement with other participants in the TPP talks. This goal should be pursued through cooperation between Amari, who is also in charge of the TPP talks, and Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Minister Koya Nishikawa, who previously served as chairman of an LDP panel charged with discussing how to deal with the TPP pact.
甘利TPP相や、党TPP対策委員長を務めた西川公也農相らが連携し、合意を目指したい。

One priority facing the reshuffled Cabinet is to revitalize economies outside major urban areas, a portfolio that has been given to Ishiba. Pursuing this goal requires comprehensive measures to halt the ongoing population decrease, as well as mid- and long-term strategies. Steps include encouraging a number of urban residents to live in provincial areas instead, while also creating more jobs in such districts and offering child-rearing support. The task should be tackled by the government as a whole, with Ishiba as a central player in this respect.
 改造内閣の最重要課題である地方創生は、地方移住、雇用創出、子育て支援など総合的な人口減対策と中長期的戦略が欠かせない。石破地方創生相を中心に、政権全体で取り組む必要がある。

Another cause for worry is the current economic conditions. The economy has been slow to improve, reflecting a decrease in consumer spending that followed a rise in the consumer tax rate to 8 percent in April. In December, the Abe administration must decide whether to increase the rate to 10 percent as initially planned. A key factor will be whether the government can prevent the economy from taking a downturn and put it back on a growth track.
 景気の現状も心配だ。8%への消費税率引き上げに伴う消費の反動減から、回復が遅れている。12月には、10%への税率再引き上げの是非を判断せねばならない。景気の腰折れを避け、経済を成長軌道に戻せるかがカギを握ろう。

Some members of Abe’s reshuffled Cabinet seem to have been chosen partly on the strength of their ideological affinity to the prime minister. They include Hakubun Shimomura, who stays on as education, culture, sports, science and technology minister. He is tasked with promoting education reforms.
 「安倍カラー」の人事も散見される。教育改革を担う下村博文文部科学相を留任させた。

Another similar minister is Eriko Yamatani, whose portfolio includes resolving the abduction issue. She is currently chairing the policy board at the LDP’s House of Councillors caucus. Yasuhisa Shiozaki, one of Abe’s close allies, has been named health, labor and welfare minister. He has been serving as acting chairman of the party’s Policy Research Council, and was chief cabinet secretary under Abe’s first Cabinet, which was in power about seven years ago.
拉致問題相には、山谷えり子参院政審会長を充てた。第1次安倍内閣で官房長官だった塩崎恭久政調会長代理を厚生労働相に起用した。

We hope Shiozaki will encourage bureaucrats at his ministry to fully utilize their expertise in striving to make progress in reforming the social security systems.
 塩崎氏は今度は、官僚を上手に使いこなし、社会保障制度改革に取り組んでほしい。

In July, the Abe administration revised its official view regarding the nation’s right of collective self-defense under the Constitution, a move that permits this country to exercise the right under limited conditions. The prime minister intends to present a comprehensive picture of legislation needed to complement the government’s new position on the right during an extraordinary Diet session expected to be convened in autumn. This will likely be followed by a plan to ensure pertinent laws are established at next year’s ordinary Diet session.
 安倍政権は7月、集団的自衛権の行使を限定容認する政府見解を決定した。秋の臨時国会で法整備の全体像を示し、来年の通常国会で関連法の成立を図る方針だ。

The new portfolio regarding security legislation has been given to Akinori Eto, chairman of the lower house Security Committee. A former senior vice defense minister, Eto has also been made defense minister. His appointment to these positions can be seen as reasonable.
 新設の安全保障法制相には、防衛副大臣も務めた江渡聡徳衆院安保委員長が、防衛相兼務で起用された。順当な人事だろう。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida will continue to serve in that position under the reshuffled Cabinet. This seems to indicate Abe’s intention to secure the continuity of our nation’s foreign policy.
 外交の継続性を重視する観点から、岸田文雄外相は留任した。

Efforts should be made to even more firmly cement the Japan-U.S. alliance through planned revisions to the bilateral defense cooperation guidelines toward the end of the year.
 年末に予定される日米防衛協力の指針の改定を通じ、より強固な日米同盟を構築すべきだ。

We also hope the government will work to ensure that summit meetings with China and South Korea take place, by taking advantage of such occasions as a meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum scheduled for November in Beijing.
 11月の北京でのアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)などの機会を利用し、懸案の中国、韓国との首脳会談も実現したい。

Female members to be tested
 真価問われる女性登用

Abe has appointed five female lawmakers as members of his reshuffled Cabinet, including Yuko Obuchi as economy, trade and industry minister, Sanae Takaichi as internal affairs and communications minister and Haruko Arimura as state minister to promote women’s more active participation in society. The appointment of five women ties the all-time record for the most women in a cabinet.
 改造内閣では、小渕優子経産相、高市早苗総務相、有村治子女性活躍相ら、過去最多と並ぶ5人の女性閣僚が誕生した。

The prime minister has advocated the need to transform our nation into “a society in which women can shine,” and several female officials have been given senior positions in the Kasumigaseki bureaucratic quarter. It is natural for Abe to appoint five women to his Cabinet in line with his own policy. They will be tested over whether they can successfully fulfill their duties.
 首相は「女性が輝く社会の実現」を唱え、霞が関でも女性官僚を登用している。閣僚人事にその方針を反映させたのは理解できる。今後は、成果が問われよう。

In 2003, Abe was appointed LDP secretary general when he was serving his third term as a lower house member — an apparently unusual appointment for a legislator with a relatively short political career. We hope the prime minister will properly train such future leaders as Ishiba, Kishida, Obuchi and Inada during his days in office.
 首相自身、衆院当選3回で幹事長に抜擢された経験がある。石破、岸田両氏に加え、小渕、稲田両氏ら、将来のリーダーをきちんと育成してもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 4, 2014)Speech

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2014年9月 3日 (水)

cite from Yingluck Shinawatra's facebook

cite from Yingluck Shinawatra's facebook

วันนี้ออกมาทานข้าวเลยถือโอกาสแวะมาที่ "ตลาดน้ำอโยธยา" จ.อยุธยาค่ะ บรรยากาศแบบไทยๆเป็นธรรมชาติ มีสินค้ามากมายทั้งOTOP, ของพื้นเมือง, สินค้าหัตถกรรม, ของทำมือ, ของที่ระลึก, ของเล่น เสื้อผ้าเครื่องประดับ อาหาร ขนมอร่อยๆหลากหลายชนิดและกาแฟโบราณ เป็นอีกแห่งหนึ่งนอกเหนือจาก"ตลาดโก้งโค้ง" ที่ดิฉันเคยไปถ่ายรายการรัฐบาลยิ่งลักษณ์พบ ประชาชน เลยถือโอกาสเอาบรรยากาศสบายๆแบบนี้มาฝากค่ะ

https://www.facebook.com/Y.Shinawatra/photos/a.106877456023385.4057.105044319540032/844987235545733/?type=1

words:

วันนี้ wan née today

ออกมา òk maa come out

ทานข้าว taan kâao to eat (a meal)

เลย loie (เลย is very commonly used as an intensifier in Thai, but an be difficult to translate directly into English. If it appears in combinations with abverbs such as มาก or จัง, which themselves serve to add emphasis to the sentence, then there's little need for a direct translation. If not, then a translation of "completely" or "totally" can work, or it might evade a direct translation and require a re-wording in English. In a negative sense, a ไม่....เลย combination can be translated as "not....at all" into English.)

ถือโอกาส tĕu oh-gàat take the opportunity ; take advantage

แวะ wáe to stop ; to call at ; to call on

มา maa (a marker that puts the main verb in the present perfect tense)

ที่ têe to ; at
that ; which ; who

   " 
ตลาดน้ำอโยธยา ตลาดน้ำอโยธยา ตลาดน้ำอโยธยา

  " 
จ.อยุธยา jang-wàt a-yút-tá-yaa Ayutthaya (province)

ค่ะ kâ (particle used by female speakers at the end of sentences to make them more polite)

   · 
บรรยากาศแบบไทย ban-yaa-gàat bàep tai  Thai style atmosphere

ๆ  (character used to indicate the previous word is repeated)

เป็นธรรมชาติ bpen tam-má-châat naturally ; spontaneously

   · 
มี mee have ; there is

สินค้า sĭn káa goods ; merchandise ; commodity

มากมาย mâak maai a lot ; many ; several

ทั้ง táng all ; entire ; whole

   OTOP, 
ของพื้นเมือง kŏng péun meuang local product ; native product

   , 
สินค้า sĭn káa goods ; merchandise ; commodity

หัตถกรรม hàt-tà-gam handicraft

   , 
ของ kŏng of

ทำ tam do ; make

มือ meu hand

   , 
ของ kŏng of

ที่ระลึก têe rá-léuk souvenir ; token ; memento

   , 
ของเล่น kŏng lên toy ; plaything

   · 
เสื้อผ้า sêua pâa clothes

เครื่องประดับ krêuang bprà-dàp decorations ; ornamentation ; embellishment

   · 
อาหาร aa hăan food

   · 
ขนมอร่อย kà-nŏm a-ròi  nice sweets

ๆ  (character used to indicate the previous word is repeated)

หลากหลาย làak lăai various ; several ; a lot of

ชนิด chá-nít kind ; sort ; type (ชนิด is a classifier for a type, sort or kind of something.)

และ láe and

กาแฟ gaa-fae coffee

โบราณ boh-raan ancient ; outdated ; archaic

   · 
เป็น bpen be

อีก èek again ; once more ; more

แห่ง hàeng of
place ; location ; spot (แห่ง is the classifier for a place.)

หนึ่ง nèung one

นอกเหนือจาก nôk nĕua jàak besides ; unless ; except ; aside from

   " 
ตลาดโก้งโค้ง dtà-làat-gôhng-kóhng Talatkongkhong

   " 
ที่ têe that ; which ; who

ดิฉัน dì-chăn I ; me

เคย koie once ; ever ; used to

ไป bpai go ; leave ; depart

ถ่าย tàai to take a picture ; to photograph

รายการ raai gaan catalogue ; list ; list of items

รัฐบาลยิ่ง rát-tà-baan yîng  extreme government

ลักษณ์ lák characteristic ; style

พบ póp finds ; meets ; discovers

   · 
ประชาชน bprà-chaa chon people ; inhabitants ; residents

   · 
เลย loie (เลย is very commonly used as an intensifier in Thai, but an be difficult to translate directly into English. If it appears in combinations with abverbs such as มาก or จัง, which themselves serve to add emphasis to the sentence, then there's little need for a direct translation. If not, then a translation of "completely" or "totally" can work, or it might evade a direct translation and require a re-wording in English. In a negative sense, a ไม่....เลย combination can be translated as "not....at all" into English.)

ถือโอกาส tĕu oh-gàat take the opportunity ; take advantage

เอา ao wanted ; desired
took ; brought

บรรยากาศสบายๆแบบนี้ ban-yaa-gàat sà-baai sà-baai bàep née  easy-going atmosphere like this

มา maa (a marker that puts the main verb in the present perfect tense)

ฝาก fàak deposit ; entrust ; leave with somebody

ค่ะ kâ (particle used by female speakers at the end of sentences to make them more polite)

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นักข่าวอเมริกันรายที่ 2 ไม่รอด !

นักข่าวอเมริกันรายที่ 2 ไม่รอด ! ไอเอสฆ่าตัดคออีก-อ้างสั่งสอนโอบามา
アメリカ人記者二人目の犠牲者、ISが首を切断、オバマ大統領への警告

words:
นักข่าว nák kàao journalist ; reporter ; correspondent
อเมริกัน a-may-rí-gan American
ราย raai case ; instance ; item
ที่ têe to ; at
that ; which ; who
2   sŏng  2
ไม่ mâi no ; not
รอด rôt survive ; escape from death ; save
ไอเอส ai àyt IS
ฆ่า kâa assassinates ; kills ; murders
ตัด dtàt to cut ; to cut off ; to cut out
คอ kor neck ; throat ; collar
อีก èek again ; once more ; more
  - 
อ้าง âang quote ; cite
claim
สั่งสอน sàng sŏn to teach ; to instruct ; to educate
to teach a lesson
โอบามา oh-baa-maa Obama

บีบีซีรายงานวันที่ 2 ก.ย. ว่า กลุ่มรัฐอิสลาม หรือไอเอส ที่ก่อการอยู่ในอิรักและซีเรีย แพร่คลิปวิดีโอฆ่าตัดคอนายสตีเวน ซ็อตลอฟฟ์ นักข่าวอเมริกันอีกราย อายุ 31 ปี ตามที่ไอเอสเคยขู่สังหารไว้ตั้งแต่คลิปฆ่าตัดคอนายเจมส์ โฟลีย์ นักข่าวอเมริกันรายแรกเมื่อ 2 สัปดาห์ก่อน แม้ว่าแม่ของนายซ็อตลอฟฟ์จะบันทึกคลิปเผยแพร่ถึงนายอาบู บาการ์ อัล-แบกแดดี หัวหน้ากลุ่มไอเอส ขอร้องให้ไว้ชีวิตลูกชายแล้วก็ตาม

นายซ็อตลอฟฟ์เคยทำงานส่งข่าวจากอียิปต์ ลิเบีย และซีเรีย ให้นิตยสารไทม์เว็บข่าวฟอเรนโพลิซี เว็บข่าวคริสเตียน ไซเอินซ์ กระทั่งถูกลักพาตัวระหว่างทำข่าวในซีเรียตั้งแต่เดือนสิงหาคมปีก่อน

เชื่อว่าการถูกสังหารครั้งนี้เป็นเพราะไอเอสต้องการแสดงให้รัฐบาลสหรัฐเห็นว่าการโจมตีทางอากาศต่อกลุ่มไอเอสในอิรักต้องแลกด้วยชีวิตของชาวอเมริกันเพราะนายซ็อตลอฟฟ์ถูกให้พูดก่อนถูกประหารว่า "ผมกำลังชดใช้" ในขณะที่สถานการณ์สู้รบทางภาคเหนือของอิรัก  ฝ่ายไอเอสเริ่มเสียเปรียบ ถูกกองกำลังเคิร์ดและอิรักที่มีสหรัฐช่วยเหลือยึดพื้นที่คืนไปได้หลายจุด รวมถึงเขื่อนโมซุล

ในคลิปดังกล่าว มีชื่อว่า "ข้อความครั้งที่สองถึงอเมริกา" นายซ็อตลอฟฟ์ถูกสวมชุดสีส้มแบบนักโทษเช่นเดียวกับคลิปข่มขู่ครั้งแรก ผู้ประหารครั้งนี้สวมหน้ากากเช่นเดิมและกล่าวว่า "ข้ากลับมาแล้ว โอบามา ข้ากลับมาเพราะความก้าวร้าวหยิ่งผยองในนโยบายต่างประเทศของแกต่อรัฐอิสลาม แม้ว่าเราเคยเตือนอย่างหนักหนาสาหัสไปแล้ว"

จากนั้นเพขฌฆาตกล่าวต่อว่า "เราขอใช้โอกาสนี้เตือนเหล่ารัฐบาลที่เข้าร่วมเป็นพันธมิตรปีศาจของอเมริกามาต่อต้านรัฐอิสลาม ขอให้กลับไปซะ ปล่อยให้คนของเราอยู่กันเอง"

ด้านรัฐบาลสหรัฐแจ้งว่า ตรวจสอบคลิปดังกล่าวอยู่ หากเป็นความจริง ขอแสดงความเสียใจอย่างยิ่งต่อครอบครัวเหยื่อและขอประณามการกระทำดังกล่าว

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クラウド型IPビジネスフォンサービスなら無料通話だってできます

インターネットのクラウド技術を駆使したビジネスフォンサービスが登場しました。
パソコンで無料通話(通信)ができるのは当たり前の時代ですが、携帯電話の世界でも、それが拡大する気配なのです。
二つの会社の業務提携により、この夢のプロジェクトは実現されました。
具体的にはFlatAPI社と3CX Japan社との業務提携なんです。
3CX Phone Systemというビジネスフォン向けのクラウドサービスはまったくすばらしいです。
どんなことができるのでしょうか?
ビジネスフォン向けの様々な機能が付帯されているのですが、極めつけは無料通話です。
これなら海外赴任で高額な電話料金に苦しむ事だって終わってしまいます。
Windows対応のソフトフォン機能はビジネスで大きな威力を発揮すること請け合いなんです。
会議やプレゼンテーションだって、こちらを使えば時間と経費の節約につながります。



FlatAPI、3CX Japanと業務提携、3CX Phone Systemの国内販売を強化。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

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社説:ヘイトスピーチ 差別許さない社会へ

September 02, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Discrimination should never be tolerated
社説:ヘイトスピーチ 差別許さない社会へ

Japan's response to racist hate speech demonstrations that are being staged across the country has been called into question. Until recently, hate speech campaigns were repeatedly conducted in urban areas where the population of ethnic Korean residents is concentrated, but they are now spreading to other areas.
 特定の人種への民族差別をあおるヘイトスピーチ(憎悪表現)への対応が今、問われている。ヘイトスピーチによる街宣活動は、在日韓国・朝鮮人が多く住む地域で繰り返されてきたが、最近は地方に広がる。

A Mainichi Shimbun survey on the nation's 47 prefectural governments and 20 ordinance-designated major cities has shown that some 90 percent of these local bodies view such campaigns as a problem. One of the respondents criticized hate speech as "a shameful act," while another replied that hate speech is "unforgivable as it fosters a sense of discrimination."
 毎日新聞が47都道府県と20政令市にアンケートを実施したところ、約9割が「恥ずべき行為」「差別意識を助長させ許されない」などと問題視した。

In a nationwide opinion poll that the Mainichi Shimbun conducted last month, nearly 70 percent of respondents expressed displeasure at such campaigns.
また、毎日新聞が先月実施した世論調査で「ヘイトスピーチをどう感じますか」と聞いたところ、7割近くが「不快だ」と回答した。

The U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination urged Japan on Aug. 29 to respond to hate speech in an appropriate manner. The government must implement appropriate countermeasures against such campaigns while sincerely listening to these opinions expressed in Japan and abroad.
 先月29日には国連の人種差別撤廃委員会が日本政府に対し、適切に対処するよう勧告した。国内外の声に真摯(しんし)に耳を傾け、政府は適切な対策を講じなければならない。

Hate speech constitutes slander and insult against different races and ethnic groups. It is intolerable to launch such mass campaigns on roads and other places open to the public in which participants repeatedly chant such violent words as "We'll kill you," or "Get out of Japan." Those who were targeted by such campaigns certainly feel intimidated. It is impossible to defend hate speech demonstrations by citing the freedom of expression, which is a fundamental human right.
 ヘイトスピーチは、人種や民族の異なる人たちに対する中傷であり、侮辱だ。「殺すぞ」「出て行け」といった乱暴な言葉をまじえた主張を集団で公道などで繰り返す行為は決して許されない。対象とされた人たちは恐怖も感じる。「表現の自由」という国民の基本的人権を持ち出して擁護することはできない。

Japan has no legislation that specifically bans hate speech. Such being the case, attention is now focused on whether such a law is necessary. Calm debate is necessary on how to rid Japanese society of discriminatory speech.
 ヘイトスピーチを直接罰する法制は日本にない。このため、法規制の必要性が今焦点になっている。差別的な言論をどうすれば社会から締め出せるか。冷静な議論が必要だ。

Priority should be placed on efforts to pursue both the criminal and civil responsibility of those who organized or are involved in hate speech within the current legal framework. Many members of organizations that stage hate speech marches were involved in violent behavior during past demonstrations. As such, it goes without saying that police officers must strictly crack down on them for illegal activities.
 現行法の枠組みの中、まず刑事、民事両面で責任追及を強めるべきだ。ヘイトスピーチを行う団体のメンバーは、デモをめぐり過去に暴力的なトラブルも起こした。警察が厳しく取り締まるのは当然だ。

In October 2013, the Kyoto District Court ordered an organization that staged hate speech demonstrations near a pro-Pyongyang Korean school in the ancient capital to pay the school 12 million yen in damages and banned the group from launching such activities near the school. The court calculated the amount of compensation at higher levels than usual based on provisions in the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, to which Japan is a party. The Osaka High Court upheld the ruling in July this year. Courts should make judicial judgment in tune with the common thinking of the international community.
 京都地裁は昨年10月、朝鮮学校を運営する学校法人が起こした訴訟で、約1200万円の賠償と学校周辺の街宣禁止をヘイトスピーチを行う団体に命じた。日本も加入する人種差別撤廃条約の規定を根拠に、賠償を高額に算定。この結論は7月に大阪高裁も支持した。国際常識を見据えた司法判断が今後も必要だ。

Politicians are beginning to take action to eliminate hate speech. A project team on the issue within the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) held its first meeting on countermeasures against hate speech. Some members pointed to the need to consider regulating loud demonstrations around the Diet Building, apparently with anti-nuclear power and other campaigns in mind. However, such an argument that treats hate speech the same as citizens' movements is out of the question. Such regulations could infringe on the freedom of expression. Politicians should seriously deal with discrimination that threatens individuals' dignity.
 政治も動き始めた。自民党のプロジェクトチームは先日、ヘイトスピーチ対策の初会合を開いた。その中で、国会周辺の大音量デモの規制も併せて検討せよとの意見が出た。脱原発などを訴える活動を念頭に置いた発言とみられるが、両者を同列視するかのような議論は論外だ。これこそ、「表現の自由」を侵害しかねない。政治家は、個人の尊厳を脅かす差別にこそ真剣に向き合うべきだ。

Japan has historically maintained relations with China and South Korea. It is necessary for each and every member of the public to squarely face up to the sense of discrimination that persists within their own society. Apparently behind the recent prevalence of hate speech are Tokyo's chilled relations with Beijing and Seoul. It is essential for Japan to improve its strained ties with these two countries and overcome differences through education and awareness-raising campaigns and create a society that never tolerates discrimination.
 中韓両国とは長い歴史がある。国民一人一人が、内なる差別意識と向き合うことも必要だ。両国との関係が冷え込んでいることもヘイトスピーチの背景にあるのではないか。関係を改善し、教育や啓発によって立場の違いを乗り越え、差別を許さない社会を築くことが大切だ。

毎日新聞 2014年09月02日 02時31分

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中間貯蔵施設 復興の加速へ課題はまだ多い

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Many challenges remain to accelerate post-disaster reconstruction efforts
中間貯蔵施設 復興の加速へ課題はまだ多い

The government has passed a critical juncture in accelerating decontamination work in Fukushima Prefecture and promoting its post-disaster reconstruction. Yet many challenges still remain.
 福島の除染の加速、ひいては復興の促進へ、一つのヤマを越えたが、課題はまだ多い。

Fukushima Gov. Yuhei Sato informed the central government Monday of his decision to accept a government plan to build interim facilities in the prefecture. The facilities are to be built for long-term storage of soil tainted with radioactive substances from the disaster-struck Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
 福島県の佐藤雄平知事が、中間貯蔵施設の建設を受け入れる意向を政府に表明した。東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故で生じた汚染土などを一括して長期保管する施設だ。

Tainted soil left over from decontamination work remains temporarily stored at over 50,000 locations within the prefecture, most of it piled up on the premises of private houses, public schools and other places. Though there is need for decontamination work to be accelerated, securing locations to accommodate the contaminated soil has become an ever more difficult task.
 除染作業ではぎ取った汚染土は、福島県内の5万か所以上に仮置きされ、滞留している。多くが、民家や学校などの敷地内に積まれたままの状態だ。除染を進めようにも、汚染土の置き場所の確保が困難になっている。

The interim storage facilities, to be built on a 16-square-kilometer site, are designed to store an amount of contaminated soil large enough to fill the Tokyo Dome about 20 times. The facilities are deemed essential in accelerating the decontamination work.
 16平方キロ・メートルに及ぶ中間貯蔵施設は、東京ドーム約20杯分の汚染土を保管できる。除染を加速させる上で、不可欠な施設である。

In the prefecture, where people have a strong sense of frustration over delays in the post-disaster reconstruction, there are rising calls for the interim storage facilities to be built as soon as possible. It can be said that the governor had no choice but to accept the construction plan.
 復興の遅れへの不満が強い福島県内では、中間貯蔵施設の早期建設を求める声が高まっている。知事には、建設受け入れしか選択肢はなかったとも言える。

On the other hand, the facilities to be built at a site straddling the two towns of Okuma and Futaba must be a nuisance to the two as well. In the two towns that host the crippled plant, where radiation levels still remain high, there are no prospects for local evacuees to return to their homes.
 一方で、建設地となる大熊、双葉両町にとっては、迷惑施設であることは間違いない。福島第一原発を抱える両町では、放射線量が依然として高く、避難住民が帰還できるメドは立たない。

Strong local worries

Approving construction of the facilities in their areas must have been a bitter decision for the two towns to make, in the light of the need to promote reconstruction across the entire prefecture.
 両町が建設を容認したのは、福島県全体の再建を考慮した苦渋の判断だったと言えよう。

The storage period at the facilities is set at a maximum of 30 years. But locals worry that the facilities could end up being a final disposal site where the soil will be stored permanently. The government will therefore have relevant laws stipulating that contaminated soil is to be moved out of the prefecture within 30 years and ultimately disposed of elsewhere.
 中間貯蔵施設での保管期間は、最長30年間だが、地元には、永続的に貯蔵する最終処分場になるのではないかという懸念がある。政府は、30年以内に県外へ汚染土などを運び出し、最終処分することを関連法に明記する。

The government has come to assume heavy responsibility for the selection of the final disposal site as well.
 政府は、最終処分場の選定にも重い責任を負った。

There are more than just a few local residents who do not want to relinquish their ancestral land. The government replaced its previous policy of nationalizing all plots of land needed for the interim facilities with one that also adopts a formula of utilizing them for the storage facility site while leaving the ownership of landowners intact, if necessary.
 先祖伝来の土地を手放したくないという住民も少なくない。政府は用地のすべてを国有化する方針を転換し、地権者に所有権を残したまま、貯蔵施設として利用する方式も採り入れることにした。

As a measure to help local residents rebuild their daily lives and to help reinvigorate local economies, the central government will allocate an additional ¥301 billion in funding, including a grant in connection with the construction of the interim storage facilities and another for the post-disaster reconstruction of the prefecture.
 住民の生活再建や地域振興の支援策としては、中間貯蔵施設交付金や福島復興交付金など、新たに計3010億円を支給する。

These measures are taken by paying maximum consideration to the desires of local municipalities.
 一連の対応は、地元の要望に最大限に配慮したものだ。

With a Cabinet reshuffle expected Wednesday, the government intends to set a process in motion to build the facilities under the current oversight. The prefecture’s decision was delayed to the very limit, largely because talks between the central and local governments ground to a halt after Environment Minister Nobuteru Ishihara, the minister in charge of the issue, made a remark in June implying that negotiations with candidate municipalities for the facilities would be resolved “with money.”
 3日の内閣改造を前に、政府には、現体制で建設に道筋をつけたいという思惑があった。ぎりぎりまでずれ込んだのは、政府側責任者である石原環境相が6月、「最後は金目でしょ」と発言し、協議を停滞させた影響が大きい。

Aiming to start shipments of contaminated soil to the facilities next January, the government will begin negotiations with local landowners, said to total 2,000 to 3,000 people. To win understanding and consent from the landowners, the government needs to carefully explain the importance of the facilities.
 政府は、来年1月の搬入開始を目指し、2000~3000人とされる地権者との交渉に入る。施設の重要性を丁寧に説明し、理解を得る必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 2, 2014)Speech

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日印首脳会談 高次元の戦略的関係を築こう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan, India must work toward building even greater strategic ties
日印首脳会談 高次元の戦略的関係を築こう

Japan and India must step up efforts to elevate their bilateral relations to a higher level by deepening cooperation in both security and economic sectors.
 安全保障と経済の両分野で協力を深め、日本とインドの関係をより高い次元に引き上げたい。

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi held a summit meeting with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in Tokyo on Monday. A joint statement, issued after the meeting, said that Abe and Modi “pledged to realize the full potential of the Japan-India Strategic and Global Partnership.”
 インドのモディ首相が来日し、安倍首相と会談した。日印の戦略対話を強化し、両国の「グローバル・パートナーシップの可能性を最大限に発揮する」との共同文書を発表した。

Speaking at a news conference afterward, Abe stressed the importance of Japan-India relations, saying: “They have the greatest potential in the world. Bilateral ties will be improved dramatically in all sectors.”
 安倍首相は、日印関係について「世界で最も可能性を秘めた関係だ。あらゆる分野で抜本的に強化していく」と強調した。

Modi responded by saying Japan takes a high place in India’s diplomacy.
モディ首相は「外交関係で日本は大変高い位置づけにある」と応じた。

Modi, who successfully brought about a change of government in his country for the first time in 10 years, chose Japan as the first major country to visit since taking office in May, indicating how highly he regards India’s relationship with Japan. When he was prime minister of the Gujarat State government in western India, he attracted investment from Japanese businesses. He is a Japanophile and has a personal friendship with Abe.
 10年ぶりの政権交代を果たしたモディ首相が、5月の就任後に初めて訪問する主要国に日本を選んだのは、日本重視の表れだ。インド西部のグジャラート州首相時代に日本企業を誘致した親日家で、安倍首相とも親交がある。

Based on the two leaders’ relationship of mutual trust, it is important to develop bilateral relations that are beneficial to both sides.
 首脳間の信頼関係を基に、双方が利益を享受できるよう、両国関係の発展を追求すべきだ。

As for the security issue, Abe and Modi agreed to increase dialogues between the foreign and defense ministers of the two countries and conduct joint exercises between the Maritime Self-Defense Force and the Indian Navy regularly. They also confirmed the two countries will accelerate talks on the export of Japan-made US-2 amphibian rescue aircraft. All these matters need to be carried out steadily.
 会談では安保分野で、外相、防衛相らの対話強化や、海上自衛隊とインド海軍の共同訓練の定例化で一致した。日本製の救難飛行艇US2の輸出に向けた協議を急ぐことも確認した。いずれも着実に実施する必要がある。

The sea-lane carrying crude oil from the Middle East to Japan passes through the Indian Ocean. Security cooperation with India is crucial from the viewpoint of ensuring maritime safety.
 日本にとって、インド洋は中東から原油を運ぶ海上交通路(シーレーン)に位置する。海上の安全を確保するうえで、インドとの安全保障協力は重要だ。

Security cooperation vital

China has been increasing its presence aggressively not only in the East China and South China seas, but also in the Indian Ocean. India has been increasingly wary about China’s actions, meaning that Japan-India cooperation on maritime security is beneficial to both nations.
 中国は東・南シナ海にとどまらず、インド洋にも強引な海洋進出を図っている。インドもこの動きに警戒感を強めており、協力は日印双方にメリットがある。

It is essential for Japan and India to expand three-nation cooperation — including the United States — to persistently pressure China to comply with international laws and resolve disputes peacefully.
 日印は、米国を交えた3か国協力を拡充し、中国に対し、国際法の順守や紛争の平和的解決を粘り強く働きかけることが大切だ。

On the economic front, Abe announced that Japan would provide India with investments and loans totaling about ¥3.5 trillion through the public and private sectors over a five-year period. The two leaders also concurred on expanding the advance of Japanese firms into India and doubling direct investment there.
 経済分野で安倍首相は、今後5年間でインドに対し、約3・5兆円の官民の投融資を行うと表明した。日系企業の進出と直接投資を倍増させる目標でも一致した。

Modi, who assumed power after campaigning for economic rehabilitation, places great expectations on strengthening economic relations with Japan.
 経済再建を掲げて政権を獲得したモディ首相は、日印経済関係の強化に期待を寄せている。

India, with a population of 1.2 billion, is a promising market. However, Japanese firms are strongly dissatisfied with India’s legal systems and regulations, which they say are inadequate and complex. Both governments must work together to improve the situation.
 12億人の人口を有するインド市場の将来は有望だが、日系企業には、インドの法制度の不備や複雑な規制に対する不満が強い。両政府が協力し、この状況を改善しなければならない。

Abe announced a plan to provide a yen credit of ¥50 billion to help India develop social infrastructure such as a high-speed railway. He also suggested that Japan might provide financial and technical support so India would be able to introduce the Shinkansen bullet train system. Joint efforts by the public and private sectors are indispensable to win orders for railway projects in India.
 安倍首相は、インドの高速鉄道など社会基盤整備を支援するため500億円の円借款供与を表明した。日本の新幹線システム導入に向けて資金や技術面で支援する考えも伝えた。受注の実現には、日本の官民連携が欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 2, 2014)Speech

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(社説)中間貯蔵施設 「福島の問題」にするな

September 02, 2014
EDITORIAL: Storing radioactive debris should not be regarded as Fukushima’s problem
(社説)中間貯蔵施設 「福島の問題」にするな

Fukushima Prefecture and two towns, Okuma and Futaba, have accepted the central government’s plan to construct an intermediate storage facility for radioactive soil and other polluted material generated by the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant.
 福島第一原発の事故で出た福島県内の汚染土などを保管する国の中間貯蔵施設の受け入れを同県と大熊、双葉の2町が決めた。

The central government will soon start negotiations with landowners in the two towns, which jointly host the crippled nuclear plant, to buy the necessary land for the facility.
政府は今後、用地取得に向け、地権者との交渉に入る。

Temporary storage sites for radioactive debris in the prefecture will soon be filled to the brim. This is causing delays in decontamination work.
 福島県内では汚染土などの仮置き場が満杯に近づき、除染作業の遅れにもつながっている。

An intermediate storage facility is vital infrastructure for cleaning up the mess left by the nuclear disaster.
中間貯蔵施設は、事故の後始末に不可欠なインフラだ。

Concerns have arisen that efforts to rebuild the shattered livelihoods and communities in Fukushima could be seriously hampered if no community would accept the facility.
どこかが受け入れないと、福島の生活再建や復興にも響く恐れがあった。

We welcome the decision by the three local governments as a first step toward building the facility.
施設建設に向けて動き出したことをまず、評価したい。

The process leading to this point, however, raises concerns about the future.
 しかし、これまでの経過を振り返ると、今後に向けて危惧も抱く。

The way the whole burden has been imposed on specific local communities makes us wonder if the implications of cleanup work and of continuing nuclear power generation can be shared by the entire nation.
負担を特定地域にまかせきって事故処理、さらには原発を持つことの意味を国民全体で共有できるだろうか、と。

Three years have passed since the central government called for the acceptance of the storage facility. In the end, the government offered more than 300 billion yen (about $2.9 billion) of grants to help local residents rebuild their lives and support the prefecture’s reconstruction efforts.
 政府の最初の受け入れ要請から3年。政府は最終的に、住民の生活再建や県の復興対策に3千億円超の交付金を提示した。

The prices at which the government buys land to build the facility will be based on current market prices, apart from compensation from Tokyo Electric Power Co, the nuclear plant’s operator. The prefectural government will subsidize the differences between the purchase prices and the pre-accident prices.
用地の買い取り価格も東京電力の賠償とは切り離して市場価格をもとに算定し、事故前との差額は県が相応分を支援する。

Given the heavy burden of hosting the storage facility, generous financial support to the landowners and the local governments is inevitable.
 受け入れを求める以上、地権者や自治体に手厚く補償するのは当然だ。

But money divides people.
しかし、お金は人を分断する。

When a certain area receives money in exchange for accepting a burden, people outside the area tend to pay little attention to the burden, saying, “They got the money.”
「お金をもらっているのだから」と多くが特定地域の負担に目を向けない。

Compensation for damage caused by the Fukushima disaster has created rifts based on complicated emotions between disaster-affected areas and other areas, between the evacuation zones and the rest of Fukushima Prefecture, and even between residents of the same communities because of differences in the amounts of money they have received.
被災地と被災地以外、福島県内の避難地区とそれ以外、さらには同じ町内でも金額の多寡で人々の間に複雑な感情をもたらした。

Such rifts emerged both when the nuclear power plant was built and after the accident when TEPCO decided on compensation to victims.
原発をつくるときも、事故後、東京電力の賠償金をめぐっても、繰り返されたことだ。

Money is not a silver bullet to solve these kinds of problems.
お金は万能の問題解決策ではない。

In addition, half a year after it asked for the acceptance of the storage facility, the government started negotiations focused on the two towns.
 さらに政府は要請から半年後には事実上、2町に的を絞って交渉を進めた。

Most parts of the two towns have high levels of radiation, making it effectively impossible for their residents to return home in the foreseeable future.
2町は線量が高く帰還困難区域が大半を占める。

Storing radioactive debris in areas with high radiation levels may be reasonable from the viewpoint of preventing the spread of polluted material. Even so, the government’s approach may have narrowed the scope of the problem to talks with specific areas.
汚染物を広げない意味で、線量が高いところで保管することに合理性があったとしても、問題を特定地域との交渉ごとに封じ込めることにならなかったか。

Essentially, the potential risks inherent in nuclear power generation and the burdens of dealing with its legacies are issues that should be considered by the whole nation.
 本来、原発の潜在的なリスクや後始末に伴う負担は国民全体が考えるべき問題だ。

During meetings to explain the intermediate storage facility to local residents, some participants expressed their wishes to see it located in Tokyo. Others argued that the burden should be shared with areas that consume electricity generated by nuclear power.
中間貯蔵施設を巡る住民説明会で「できれば東京に持っていってもらいたい」「電力消費地とで分かち合うべきだ」との声があがった。

These comments are natural responses to the proposal if the decision is based on the principle that the burden should be shared fairly by the beneficiaries.
負担を受益と見合う公平なものにしようと考えれば、当然の発言である。

We will face the same problem when we try to determine who should shoulder the burden from the disposal of aged nuclear reactors and spent nuclear fuel.
 今後私たちは、老朽化した原発や使用済み核燃料の後始末でも、誰が負担を引き受けるのか、今回と同じ問題に向き合わざるをえない。

It is crucial to seek a solution that won’t divide the people.
 分断を伴う解決ではない、別の道筋を模索すること。

Even if the proposed intermediate storage facility is built, many other challenges must be tackled.
中間貯蔵施設ができたとしても、挑戦すべき課題は残っている。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Sept. 2

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2014年9月 2日 (火)

แม่ค้าชาวเชียงใหม่ดวงเฮงถูกหวยรางวัลที่ 1

แม่ค้าชาวเชียงใหม่ดวงเฮงถูกหวยรางวัลที่ 1
チェンマイの女性商売人、宝くじで一等賞を射止める

words:
แม่ค้า mâe káa (female) vendor ; shopkeeper
ชาว chaao person
เชียงใหม่ chiang-mài Chiang Mai
ดวงเฮง duang hayng  fortunate fate
ถูกหวย tòok hŭay win the lottery
รางวัล raang-wan prize ; award ; trophy
ที่ têe to ; at ; that ; which ; who
1 nèung 1

เมื่อเวลา 08.00 น.วันที่ 2 ก.ย. พ.ต.อ.อนุ เนินหาด ผกก.สภ.ดอยหล่อ จ.เชียงใหม่ เปิดเผยว่า เมื่อช่วงเช้าที่ผ่านมา นางขันแก้ว อินตามูล อายุ 63 ปี อยู่บ้านเลขที่ 196 หมู่ 5 บ้านสองแคว ต.ดอยหล่อ ได้นำล็อตเตอรี่หมายเลข 856763 ซึ่งถูกรางวัลที่ 1 ประจำงวดวันที่ 1 ก.ย. 57 จำนวน 1 คู่ ได้รับเงินรางวัล 4 ล้านบาทมาลงประจำวันไว้เป็นหลักฐาน โดยนางขันแก้ว เปิดเผยว่า ตนมีอาชีพค้าขาย งวดที่ผ่านมาได้ซื้อสลากกินแบ่งรัฐบาลไว้ 1 ใบเพื่อเสี่ยงโชค ซึ่งตนทำเป็นปกติทุกเดือน โดยไม่ได้คาดหวังอะไรมากนัก กระทั่งมาทราบว่าถูกรางวัลที่ 1 รู้สึกตื่นเต้นดีใจมาก จึงรีบนำสลากกินแบ่งฯคู่ดังกล่าวมาแจ้งความเพื่อลงบันทึกระจำวันไว้เป็นหลักฐาน และเตรียมจะเข้ากรุงเทพฯ เพื่อนำสลากไปขึ้นเงิน

นอกจากนี้ผู้สื่อข่าวยังได้รับการเปิดเผยจาก พล.ต.ต.นิธิพัฒน์ พัฒนถาบุตร์ ผบก.อก.ภ.5 ซึ่งเหมาล็อตเตอรี่ เลขท้าย 22 จำนวน 519 ใบ ซึ่งตระเวนซื้อจากแหล่งขายหวยหลายแห่งใน จ.เชียงใหม่ ซึ่งปรากฏว่าถูกรางวัลเลขท้าย 2 ตัว ได้เงินรางวัลร่วม 1 ล้านบาท รับโชคก้อนโตในงวดนี้ โดย พล.ต.ต.นิธิพัฒน์ เปิดเผยว่า บิดาซึ่งเคยเป็น สส. 5 สมัย มีความรู้ด้านโหราศาสตร์วิเคราะห์ว่าหวยงวดนี้น่าจะมาเลขการเมือง เหมือน 2 งวดที่ผ่านมา จึงเสาะหาซื้อเลข 21 ซึ่งเป็นเลขวันเกิดนายกรัฐมนตรีคนใหม่ แต่หาซื้อไม่ได้ เนื่องจากชาวบ้านแห่เหมาซื้อตัดหน้ากันไปหมด เพราะเป็นเลขดัง เหลือแต่เลข 22 ประกอบกับความเชื่อที่ว่า หากเป็นเลขเด็ดที่ได้มาจากคนให้เพิ่มขึ้น 1 เลข จึงกวาดซื้อเลข 22 มาทั้งหมด กระทั่งได้รับโชคก้อนโต โดยก่อนหน้านี้ตนถูกรางงวัลมาแล้วถึง 2 งวดซ้อน โดยเมื่อวันที่ 1 ส.ค. ถูกเลขท้ายสองตัว 82 จำนวน 290 ใบ และงวดที่ 16 ส.ค. ถูกรางวัลเลขท้ายที่ 2 ตัวเลข 91 จำนวน 320 ใบ กระทั่งมาถูกอีกในงวดนี้รวมเป็น 3 งวดซ้อน.

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社説:防災の日 身を守る力を備えよう

September 01, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: National Disaster Prevention Day a reminder to be prepared
社説:防災の日 身を守る力を備えよう

Work is still under way to search for those missing after being hit by a series of mudslides in Hiroshima and to help the city recover from the disaster.
 広島市の大規模土砂災害は、今も懸命の捜索・復旧活動が続く。
   
Numerous questions have been raised over the huge damage caused by the tragedy, such as why the lives of more than 70 people were lost, why the local authorities were slow to issue an evacuation advisory and why little progress had been made before the disaster in designating vulnerable areas as caution zones under the Act on Promotion of Sediment Disaster Countermeasures for Sediment Disaster Prone Areas.
 なぜ70人を超える命が失われたのか。行政側の避難勧告の遅れや、土砂災害防止法に基づく警戒区域の指定が後手に回ったことなど、被害が拡大した要因が徐々に明らかになりつつある。

It is indispensable for both the national and local governments to assess their responses to the disaster in detail.
行政の対応のきめ細かな検証が今後、不可欠だ。

There are people who were killed by the disaster and those who survived even though they were in the same areas. It is also important to analyze the behavior of the disaster victims and survivors to ascertain the difference between life and death.
 一方、同じ現場にいながら助かった人と犠牲になった人がいる。生死を分けた要因は何か。被災者の行動を分析することも重要だ。

Sept. 1 has been designated by the central government as National Disaster Prevention Day. We must learn lessons from the Hiroshima mudslides and put them to good use as countermeasures against future disasters.
 きょうは「防災の日」だ。広島の災害から教訓をくみ取り、今後の防災対策に生かさねばならない。

 ◇宅地開発規制の議論を

Apart from mudslides there have been other serious water-related disasters such as floods and rivers overflowing in recent years. It is still fresh in people's memory that a powerful typhoon brought record rain to Izu Oshima Island south of Tokyo in October 2013, triggering large-scale mudslides and leaving 39 people dead or missing. Torrential rain that hit the Kii Peninsula in September 2011 -- half a year after the Great East Japan Earthquake -- also killed nearly 100 people.
 土砂災害に限らず、浸水害や河川の氾濫を含めた水害が近年、猛威を振るう。昨年10月、台風26号により東京都大島町で記録的な大雨が降り、土石流による死者・行方不明者が39人に上ったのは記憶に新しい。東日本大震災が起きた2011年9月の紀伊半島豪雨の犠牲者も100人近くに上った。

The annual amount of rainfall throughout the Japanese archipelago, situated in a rainy region, surpasses 1,700 millimeters on average, nearly twice the world average. Moreover, rainfall is concentrated in the rainy season from June to mid-July and in periods when the archipelago is hit frequently by typhoons.
 多雨地帯に位置する日本の年平均降水量は1700ミリを超え、世界平均の約2倍に上る。梅雨や台風の時期に雨が集中するのも特徴だ。

Rain not only brings essential water but also causes disasters. In recent years, localized torrential rain often dubbed as "guerrilla downpours," and large typhoons have hit Japan. Many areas in the rest of the world have been hit by floods triggered by large-scale hurricanes. Some experts have warned that the number of floods will increase because of the effects of global warming. It should be kept in mind that people across the world face growing risks of floods.
 雨は恵みをもたらすが、災害も引き起こす。しかも近年、ゲリラ豪雨と呼ばれる局地的な大雨や台風の大型化が目立つ。世界的にも大型ハリケーンなどによる水害が多発している。地球温暖化で洪水が今後増加するとの指摘もある。水害の危険はますます高まるとみるべきだ。

In implementing countermeasures against floods, particular attention should be focused on efforts to deal with urbanization, or population concentration in small areas.
 水害対策に当たってまず念頭に置くべきは、狭い地域に人口が密集する都市化への対応だ。

The Hiroshima mudslides are the consequence of a housing development that began in the central part of the city reaching areas just at the foot of a mountainous region. Housing developments have been conducted in a similar way in numerous areas throughout the archipelago. In Tokyo and ordinance-designated major cities alone, there are 28,000 areas prone to mudslides.
 広島の土砂災害は、都市部の宅地開発が山の近くにまで広がった結果として起きた。同じように宅地開発を進めた地域は全国いたるところにある。政令市と東京都だけで、土砂災害の恐れのある危険箇所は2万8000カ所を超える。

On the other hand, little progress has been made in efforts to restrict housing developments in such disaster-prone areas. There is a wide gap between areas in the degree of progress in designating areas prone to mudslides as caution zones. Little progress in such efforts has been made in not only Hiroshima but also other urban cities such as Sapporo, Sendai and Nagoya. Keiji Furuya, state minister for disaster prevention, has suggested that the government intends to seek revisions to the Act on Promotion of Sediment Disaster Countermeasures for Sediment Disaster Prone Areas to make it easier for prefectural governors to designate disaster-prone areas as caution zones at their own discretion.
 一方で、危険な場所での宅地開発規制は、なかなか進まない。土砂災害警戒区域の指定は政令市によって差があり、広島市以外も札幌、仙台、名古屋各市の低さが目立つ。古屋圭司防災担当相は、都道府県知事が区域指定をしやすくなるよう土砂災害防止法を改正する意向を示した。

However, making it easier to make such designations alone is insufficient. The Diet should hold in-depth debate on how to prevent people from moving into mudslide-prone areas and whether to consider relocating those living in areas vulnerable to such disasters, among other points of contention.
 指定をしやすくするだけでは十分でない。危険な場所に新たに人が移り住まないようにする手立てはどうするのか。真に危険な場所からは、住居の移転も検討すべきではないのか。さまざまな論点について、国会で議論を尽くしてほしい。

About 70 percent of the Japanese archipelago consists of mountains, while the remainder is hills and low-lying areas. About half of Japan's total population is concentrated in urban areas and other regions that face high risks of floods.
 日本の国土の約7割は山地で、残りが台地や低地だ。都市部を中心に洪水の可能性がある場所に人口の50%が集中している。

In 2010, a panel of experts on countermeasures against large-scale floods within the government's Central Disaster Management Council released a report under the radical title, "Floods in the metropolitan area -- measures that should be taken to lessen damage."
 中央防災会議の「大規模水害対策に関する専門調査会」が10年、報告書を公表した。副題は「首都圏水没〜被害軽減のために取るべき対策とは〜」と刺激的である。

In the worst-case scenario incorporated in the report, up to 6,300 people would die if the Tone River were to overflow and up to 3,500 people would lose their lives if the Arakawa River were to flood. In case a massive amount of water flows into underground spaces such as subway tunnels, the scale of floods would rapidly expand. Such floods would deal a serious blow to politics and the economy, just like a powerful earthquake occurring right below the Tokyo metropolitan area.
 大雨によって利根川が氾濫した場合、最悪で6300人、荒川で3500人の死者が出る想定だ。地下鉄など地下に張り巡らされた空間に水が流れ込めば、短時間で浸水が拡大する。首都直下地震が襲った時と同様、政治や経済への影響も甚大だ。

The Kansai and Nagoya regions face high risks of floods as their population is concentrated in areas at ground level and many typhoons pass these regions.
 首都圏に限らない。関西や名古屋地区も海抜ゼロメートル地帯に人口が集中し、台風の通り道でもあるため、極めて水害の危険が高い。

 ◇都市の水害危機は深刻

It goes without saying that it is important to step up flood-control measures, but the central and local governments must work closely to utilize land with the risk of floods in mind and consider how to reside in areas vulnerable to floods.
 治水対策の強化はもちろんだが、水害を想定した土地利用、さらには住まい方の工夫を政府、自治体一丸となって進めなければならない。

Although the accuracy of meteorological observations has been improving, it is still difficult to precisely and quickly predict localized torrential rain that lasts for only a short period of time. Such being the case, local government responses, such as issuing evacuation advisories, are called into question whenever a serious disaster occurs.
 気象観測の精度は上がっているが、局地的な短時間の大雨を的確かつタイムリーに予測するのは難しい。住民に避難を呼びかける行政対応が災害のたびに問題化する。

The Hiroshima Municipal Government has admitted that it was slow to issue an evacuation advisory at the time of the mudslides. The Cabinet Office has set guidelines that require local bodies to promptly issue evacuation advisories or orders without fear of being criticized for overreacting to disasters. However, many residents choose to stay home despite evacuation advisories and officials at local governments appear to often hesitate to issue such recommendations.
 広島の土砂災害でも、広島市が避難勧告の遅れを認めた。内閣府が、「空振り」を恐れずに勧告を出すよう指針を示したが、勧告を出しても住民が避難しない場合が多く、現場の判断も迷うことが多いようだ。

Regardless, local governments must not hesitate to call on residents to flee their homes if there is imminent danger. Therefore, the national and local governments should clarify the criteria for issuing such advisories by learning lessons from past disasters and by improving their practical measures to respond to disasters.
 それでも危険が迫れば、ためらわず避難を呼びかけるのが大前提だ。数々の災害の教訓を生かした発令基準の明確化など、行政は防災実務の一層の改善に取り組むべきだ。

At the same time, citizens should raise their awareness of the need to be prepared for serious natural disasters. In a column he wrote for the Japan Meteorological Agency's annual report for fiscal 2012, Gunma University professor Toshitaka Katada pointed out that citizens have failed to take proactive action to fully utilize information on natural disasters to protect their own lives.
"It is not necessarily true that improvement in the accuracy of disaster information directly leads to the enhancement of disaster countermeasures," he wrote.
 同時に住民の意識改革もまた必要である。群馬大学大学院の片田敏孝教授は、気象庁が刊行する「気象業務はいま」(12年版)のコラムで「災害情報の高度化が防災の向上に直結するのかと言えば必ずしもそうではない」と述べ、住民が災害情報を生かさず、自分の命を守ることへの主体性が欠落していると指摘した。

The phrase "normalcy bias" refers to the psychological tendency to underestimate the imminent danger people face even if they obtain information on the danger they actually face. Experts have pointed out that victims of tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake showed this mental state.
 「正常化の偏見」という言葉がある。危険が迫っていることを知らせる情報を得ても、自分の身にそんな事態が差し迫っていると考えない心理傾向を指す。東日本大震災の津波被害でも報告された。

Instead of simply relying on government organizations, all citizens should have enough knowledge of the areas they live in, and choose a location where they would take shelter or a location within their home where they would seek cover in case of a serious disaster.
 行政頼りでなく住んでいる地域を自ら知り、避難場所や屋内の逃げ場所を決めておきたい。

If they face an imminent disaster, people should proactively gather information to pay close attention to any warning signs.
いざ災害の可能性が現実化した場合は、情報を収集し、災害の前兆にも気を配る必要がある。

People have nobody but themselves to rely on to protect their own lives.
命を守る最後のとりでは自分自身だ。

Of course, regional communities as a whole must help the elderly and other residents who are vulnerable to disasters. もちろん、高齢者など災害弱者は、地域全体で助けねばならない。

With this fully in mind, all citizens should enhance their preparedness for powerful earthquakes, tsunami, volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters.
そうした姿勢で、地震や津波、火山の噴火などあらゆる自然災害への防災力を高めよう。

毎日新聞 2014年09月01日 02時30分

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:カジノ依存は手ごわい /東京

August 31, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Casino addiction is not to be taken lightly
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:カジノ依存は手ごわい /東京

Recently, estimates for the number of people in Japan with gambling addictions were released by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. They were calculated at around 5.36 million, or about 8.7 percent of the male population and 1.8 percent of the female population, high numbers compared to that seen in other countries.
 先ごろ、パチンコや競馬などの賭け事をやめられない「ギャンブル依存症」の疑いがある人の国内推定数が厚生労働省から発表された。その数およそ536万人。男性の8・7%、女性の1・8%という結果は、諸外国に比べても高い。

Meanwhile, there is debate in the government about legalizing casinos in Japan to attract foreign tourists.
 おりしも政府内では、海外からの観光客誘致の一環としてカジノ解禁の議論が進んでいる。

The health ministry, while not opposing the idea, is reportedly pushing to forbid Japanese citizens from using the casinos.
厚労省はカジノ整備には反対しないものの、日本人の利用を認めないよう求めていく方針とのことだ。

In response to this, some of those supporting the legalizing of casinos are arguing that addiction depends on individual personalities and lifestyles, and having casinos will not necessarily make more gambling addicts.
この動きに関して推進派からは「ギャンブル依存の原因はその人自身の特性や生活にあり、カジノができたからといって依存症が増加するわけではない」という声も上がっている。

However, those casino supporters surely cannot deny that increasing exposure and ease-of-use to the target of an addiction promotes the addiction and makes breaking away from the disease more difficult.
 しかし、依存する対象への接触や利用のしやすさが依存を促進し、いったんでき上がった依存からの脱却をしづらくするのは否定できないだろう。

For example, for recovering alcoholics, I recommend not going to social functions involving drinking at the first stages of the treatment, because it takes quite some time before they will be able to turn down a drink.
たとえばアルコール依存症に陥り、治療を受けて断酒を始めた患者さんには、初期の段階では「なるべく飲み会には行かないように」と伝える。宴会に出て酒を勧められても「私はお茶で」と断れるようになるまでには、かなりの時間が必要なのだ。

Regarding casinos, the biggest problem is that a much bigger amount of money is at stake than in other gambling forms like pachinko.
 何より問題なのは、カジノの場合、パチンコなどに比べて一度に動く金額が膨大になる可能性があるということだ。

The excitement, tension, pleasure and despair that comes with instantly making or losing hundreds of millions of yen is something that cannot be experienced at jobs or in other forms of recreation, a casino addict once told me.
一瞬にして何億ものお金がもうかったり消えてしまったりするときの興奮、緊張、そして快感や失望は、ほかの遊びや仕事などではとても味わえない、と依存症に陥った人が語ってくれたことがあった。

For other addictions, things like sports or farm work can take their place, but casino addiction is tougher to overcome. ほかの依存ならスポーツや農作業などで日常を充実させることで回復する可能性もあるが、カジノ依存は手ごわい。

Even if an addict returns to a healthy lifestyle, they often relapse because they cannot forget the thrill they experienced.
健康的な生活に戻っても「あのスリルが忘れられない」と再び手を染めてしまう人も少なくない。

Of course, if casinos were created in Japan, not everyone would become addicted.
 もちろん、日本にカジノができたからといって、利用者のすべてがどんどんのめり込むわけではなく、依存症にまでなるのはほんの一部だろう。

I personally am opposed to opening casinos in the country, but if they would attract tourists from around the world and bring wealth to the local communities, I can understand why some would hesitate to pass them up.
私は個人的にはカジノ整備には反対だが、実現したら多くの観光客が世界からやって来たり地域が潤ったりするのだとしたら、あえて見送るのはあまりに惜しいという気持ちもわかる。

However, those pushing for casinos should be prepared for gambling addictions to cause great problems for the addicts' families and workplaces, and possibly ruin the addicts' lives.
 ただ、いったんカジノ依存が生じた場合、家族や職場にも甚大な迷惑がかかり、本人も一生を棒に振る危険性があるということを、推進派はしっかり覚悟しておいたほうがよい。

The optimistic opinion that "that won't happen" doesn't apply, as is clear from many examples both in Japan and abroad.
「そんな人はいるはずないよ」という楽観論はこの場合、通用しないということは、国内外のたくさんのケースを見れば明らかだ。

(精神科医)
(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年08月26日 地方版

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STAP検証 実験を続ける意味があるのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can continued verification tests for STAP cells’ existence be worthwhile?
STAP検証 実験を続ける意味があるのか

The existence of STAP cells can now be considered extremely questionable.
 STAP細胞の存在は限りなく疑わしくなったと言えよう。

The government-backed RIKEN research institute, in an interim report announced Wednesday, said a raft of verification experiments it conducted to determine whether so-called STAP (stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency) cells exist failed to confirm even initial signs of their existence.
 理化学研究所は、STAP細胞の検証実験で、存在の兆候すらつかめないとする中間報告を発表した。

The verification tests faithfully followed the procedures described in articles on STAP cells, whose lead author was RIKEN researcher Haruko Obokata, by soaking cells of the spleens of mice in a mildly acidic solution to stimulate them. Twenty-two attempts were made to cause the cells to acquire pluripotency, capable of developing into any type of tissue, but all the attempts came to nothing, the RIKEN interim report said.
 小保方晴子ユニットリーダーが主著者となった論文の記載通り、マウスの脾臓ひぞうの細胞を弱酸性の溶液に浸して刺激を与え、多能性を持たせようとしたが、22回の実験は、いずれも失敗した。

RIKEN says it will continue with the experiments by changing test conditions, such as the way the cells are stimulated, until March next year. Methods different from that described in the papers in question will also be tested, according to RIKEN.
 刺激の方法などを変え、来年3月まで実験を続けるという。論文とは異なる手法も試す。

Apart from this, RIKEN is allowing Obokata to conduct verification experiments separately through the end of November this year.
 これとは別に、小保方氏にも、11月末まで実験させる。

The institute has been stressing it is determined to establish whether STAP cells exist to fulfill the institute’s accountability to the public.
 理研は、細胞の有無に決着をつけ、国民への説明責任を果たすと強調している。

RIKEN’s decision is highly questionable. After RIKEN’s verification tests started in April, the STAP papers were retracted in July, signifying that the STAP studies were entirely discredited. The scientific implication is that STAP cells “cannot exist.”
 疑問の多い判断である。検証実験は4月に始まったが、7月に論文が撤回され、研究は白紙に戻った。STAP細胞は、科学的に「存在しない」状況になった。

Given such a situation, can it be considered meaningful to spend public money to continue with the verification tests? The tests being implemented by RIKEN can be considered a “devil’s proof,” or an attempt to establish the nonexistence of something.
 こうした中で、公金を投じて検証実験を続ける意味はあるのか。理研が実施しているのは、「悪魔の証明」と呼ばれる不存在の証明実験とも言えるだろう。

Reducing CDB by half

The capture of an abominable snowman, for instance, would prove it’s existence. To substantiate the nonexistence of the snowman, however, would require a search of the whole world with a fine-tooth comb. The call by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan to stop the STAP experiments is reasonable.
 例えば、雪男を捕らえれば、その存在を証明できる。だが、存在しないことを証明するには、世界中をしらみ潰しに探す必要がある。日本分子生物学会が、実験凍結を求めたのは、もっともだ。

The STAP misconduct has badly damaged public trust in RIKEN. The institute must now work out and implement thorough measures to prevent a recurrence of research misconduct.
 STAP論文の不正で、理研の信頼は、大きく傷ついた。理研が今、取り組むべきは、研究不正を防ぐ対策の徹底である。

Based on a set of recommendations by an external panel of experts, RIKEN has drawn up action plans for organizational revamping. The plans envision refurbishing the institute’s organizational framework by halving the size of the Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, the RIKEN arm where the STAP studies were conducted.
 理研は、外部有識者による改革委員会の提言を基に、組織改革の行動計画をまとめた。STAP研究の舞台となった発生・再生科学総合研究センターの規模を半分に縮小し、体制を一新する。

Suspicions regarding STAP cells, which arose in February, have adversely affected CDB’s research activities. One tragic result was the suicide of Yoshiki Sasai, deputy chief of the CDB and one of the major coauthors of the STAP cell papers, in early August.
 STAP細胞の疑惑が2月に浮上して以降、センターの研究活動に悪影響が及んでいる。STAP細胞論文の主要著者である笹井芳樹副センター長の自殺という痛ましい出来事もあった。

The CDB has been the nation’s hub of regenerative medicine studies. Indeed, it is scheduled to carry out clinical research—the first of its kind—on implantation of retina cells generated from iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells.
 センターはこれまで、再生医療研究の主要拠点としての役割を担ってきた。今後も、iPS細胞(人工多能性幹細胞)から作った網膜細胞を移植する世界初の臨床研究が予定されている。

RIKEN should build an environment to ensure scientists there can concentrate on their studies, by enhancing transparency of its activities, including personnel affairs, through streamlining its organization.
 組織のスリム化により、人事などの透明性を向上させ、科学者が研究に集中できる環境を築いてもらいたい。

RIKEN’s leadership has decided to create a council on management strategy to improve its internal governance, but procedures for the selection of the council’s personnel have yet to be established. By making the most of views from outside, RIKEN must ramp up its crisis management capabilities.
 理研本部は、ガバナンス(組織統治)強化のため、経営戦略会議の新設を決めたが、人選はこれからだ。外部の目を生かし、危機管理能力を高めねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 31, 2014)Speech

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福島・吉田調書 「撤退」も命令違反もなかった

The Yomiuri Shimbun
No ‘full retreat,’ no disobedience in 2011 nuclear crisis response
福島・吉田調書 「撤退」も命令違反もなかった

The so-called “Yoshida file” has been brought to light in its entirety.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故を巡る「吉田調書」の全容が明らかになった。

The document is a collection of statements by Masao Yoshida, former manager of Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, that give his account of the facility’s crisis in March 2011. It was produced as a record based on a series of interviews he gave to a government committee tasked with investigating the disaster before his death.
 政府の事故調査・検証委員会が、吉田昌郎元所長から生前に聴取した証言の記録である。

Most of the facts revealed by Yoshida in the interview transcript were included in a report released by the investigative panel. Still, the Yoshida file is highly valuable in that his account attests to the great difficulties experienced by workers struggling to contain the nuclear crisis while vividly recounting his feelings after the disaster erupted in the wake of the catastrophic 2011 earthquake.
 事実関係のほとんどは、政府事故調の報告書に反映されている。とはいえ、事故対応に当たった作業員の苦労や、吉田氏の心情を生々しく伝える貴重な資料だ。

The onslaught of the tsunami generated by the Great East Japan Earthquake resulted in a power outage at the nuclear facility, meaning the loss of electricity needed to cool its reactors. Water had to be poured onto the reactors, which also had to be vented.
 津波により、原発冷却に必要な電源が失われた。原子炉に注水し、圧力も抜かねばならなかった。

As the situation was growing increasingly serious, Yoshida was issued a rapid series of instructions from then Prime Minister Naoto Kan and other top government officials as well as TEPCO’s head office in Tokyo. He was pressed to pour water onto the reactors and implement other measures to halt the escalation of the crisis.
 事態が切迫する中、当時の菅首相ら官邸サイドや、東電本店から、注水作業などを催促する指示が矢継ぎ早に来た。

Yoshida’s frustration and anger toward them is evident in the document, which quotes him as saying, “I still resent them for offering no effective support.”
 「効果的なレスキュー(支援)が何もないという、ものすごい恨みつらみが残っている」と、吉田氏は不満を口にしている。

His account states that Kan and other figures intervened despite their lack of accurate information about the disaster. This resulted in delays in the work to defuse the crisis and undermined the morale of the personnel. A grim lesson must be learned from this.
 現場の状況を踏まえぬ菅氏らの過剰介入が、作業を遅らせ、士気を損なった。重い教訓である。

Setting facts straight

The document also says Yoshida reacted angrily to Kan’s assertion that the prime minister greatly hindered TEPCO from “fully retreating” from the scene of the crisis. “I even want to say, ‘Who was talking about retreat?’” he is quoted as saying in the document. According to the records, Yoshida also said, “No worker assigned to the scene tried to run away.”
 菅氏が、東電の「全面撤退」を阻止したと主張している点についても、吉田氏は「誰が撤退なんて話をしているんだと言いたいぐらいだ」と反発し、「現場は逃げていない」とも述べている。

In its May 20 morning edition, The Asahi Shimbun said it had obtained a copy of the transcript, reporting that the workers had retreated to the Fukushima No. 2 nuclear power plant in violation of an order issued by Yoshida.
 吉田調書を入手したとする朝日新聞は、5月20日付朝刊で、作業員が吉田所長の命令に反し、第二原発に撤退したと報じている。

However, the transcript indicates that Yoshida never perceived his subordinates’ evacuation to the latter plant as disobedience of his orders.
 だが、調書を読む限り、吉田氏は、部下が指示に違反したとは認識していない。

He told the investigation panel that while his instructions were being conveyed to his subordinates, his remark, “I didn’t say, ‘Go to 2F,’” was interpreted differently from what he had meant. 2F refers to the Fukushima No. 2 power plant.
 吉田氏は、「2F(第二原発)に行けとは言っていない」が、指示が伝わる過程で解釈が変わったと説明している。

The record says Yoshida praised his subordinates’ decision to evacuate, quoting him as calling it “even more reasonable” for them to take refuge at the latter facility, though personnel needed to halt the crisis were excluded from those evacuees. The crippled plant was in a dangerous state due to high radiation levels.
 その上で、作業に必要な要員以外は「2Fに行った方がはるかに正しい」と、退避を選択した部下の判断を評価した。現場は、放射線量が高く危険な状況だった。

The circumstances surrounding the workers’ evacuation were also detailed in the investigation committee’s report. The Asahi’s report in question is confusing.
 退避の経緯は、政府事故調の報告書にも詳述されている。朝日新聞の報道内容は解せない。

Before his death, Yoshida had asked that the document not be publicly released. He believed the record could be misinterpreted by readers unless it was put into a proper context. However, his account has begun to take on a life of its own, partly due to the Asahi article.
 吉田氏は「文脈等をふまえなくては誤解を生む」と、調書の非公開を求めていた。しかし、朝日新聞の報道などを受け、証言は独り歩きを始めている。

The government reportedly intends to make the transcript available to the public, in the belief that the widely accepted perception of his account runs counter to the wishes of the late Yoshida.
政府は「かえって本人の遺志に反する」として、近く公開する方針だ。

The workers who fought the crisis have also been praised overseas. But a mistaken notion about Yoshida’s testimony has been spreading, as illustrated by an article in a leading U.S. newspaper based on the Asahi story. The U.S. report read: “[H]undreds of panicked employees abandoned the damaged plant despite being ordered to remain on hand.”
 作業員の奮闘は海外でも称賛されてきた。だが、朝日新聞の「撤退」報道に基づき、米紙が「作業員が命令に反して逃げた」と報じるなど誤解が広がっている。

The transcript quotes Yoshida as saying, “I was truly moved” by workers’ desperate efforts to defuse the crisis despite enormous danger. The government has good reason to publicize the document to defend their honor.
 吉田氏は、危険を顧みぬ作業員の事故対応に、「本当に感動した」と語っている。彼らの名誉のためにも公開は妥当な措置である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 31, 2014)Speech

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防衛予算 装備調達の効率化を徹底せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Procurement, maintenance of defense equipment must become more efficient
防衛予算 装備調達の効率化を徹底せよ

The methods of procuring the nation’s defense equipment must be completely revised to ensure that the limited defense budget can be utilized as efficiently as possible.
 限られた予算を最大限に有効活用するため、防衛装備の調達改革を本格化させねばならない。

The Defense Ministry has requested ¥5.05 trillion, up 3.5 percent from the previous year, in its budget estimate for fiscal 2015. It also disclosed a plan to cut procurement costs by ¥145 billion through such measures as bulk purchases.
 防衛省は2015年度予算の概算要求に、前年度比3・5%増の5兆545億円を計上した。防衛装備のまとめ買いなどで約1450億円を節減する方針も明らかにした。

When the ministry set the total cost of the Mid-Term Defense Program (fiscal 2014-fiscal 2018) at ¥24.67 trillion in December, it decided to secure financial sources for ¥700 billion of that amount by procuring defense equipment more efficiently. In fiscal 2014, it cut costs by ¥66 billion.
 昨年12月に中期防衛力整備計画(14~18年度)の総額を約24兆6700億円と決めた際、うち約7000億円は装備調達の効率化で財源を確保すると定めた。14年度の節減は約660億円だった。

Although Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s government has increased defense spending for two years in a row, the growth rate in fiscal 2014 was only slightly more than 2 percent.
 安倍政権は2年連続で防衛予算を増やしたが、14年度の伸びは2%台に過ぎない。

By comparison, the portion of China’s defense budget that it officially disclosed is nearly three times larger than Japan’s, and this budget is increasing more than 10 percent every year. The gap between defense spending between the two countries is certain to keep widening in the future.
 中国の国防予算は公表分だけで日本の3倍近くあるうえ、毎年10%以上増えている。今後、日中の差が拡大し続けるのは確実だ。

With the strained state of Japan’s fiscal condition, the country cannot be expected to boost its defense budget significantly. The need to procure defense equipment more efficiently is increasingly evident.
 日本の厳しい財政事情を踏まえれば、防衛予算の大幅な伸びは期待できない。装備調達の効率化の必要性は一段と高まっている。

The ministry plans to sign a seven-year contract with a manufacturer in fiscal 2015 to make a bulk purchase of 20 P-1 patrol planes for a total of ¥378.1 billion. This purchase reportedly will save as much as ¥40.3 billion, compared to the conventional method of buying five planes on four separate occasions.
 防衛省は15年度に、P1哨戒機20機を約3781億円で一括購入する7年間の契約を結ぶ方針だ。従来のように5機ずつ4回に分けて購入するのと比べて、約403億円も節減できるとされる。

Revise law promptly

To make this contract possible, the Public Finance Law, which limits long-term contracts to five years, has to be revised. Considering how efficient this is, work to amend the law must proceed immediately.
 長期契約を最大5年と定めている財政法の改正が必要となるが、効果の大きさを考えれば、法改正を進めるべきだろう。

The ministry also said it could save ¥33.3 billion by extending the intervals between regular maintenance of defense equipment, and ¥43.5 billion by using computers and other civilian equipment with lower price tags instead of equipment specially designed and manufactured for the Self-Defense Forces.
 このほか、装備の定期整備の間隔を延ばすことで約333億円、自衛隊専用の装備品の代わりに、コンピューターなど安価な民生品を活用することで約435億円の節減が可能になるという。

Such efforts to reduce procurement costs should be steadily made since defense equipment is becoming more costly with the advance of military technology.
 軍事技術の高度化に伴い、装備の高価格化が進む中、こうした節減努力を着実に拡大したい。

The ministry will reorganize its Internal Bureaus, equipment sections of Ground, Maritime and Air Staff Offices, Equipment Procurement and Construction Office, and other entities in fiscal 2015 to create a “defense equipment agency.” The new agency would manage development, procurement and maintenance of defense equipment in a unified manner.
 15年度には、内局と陸海空幕僚監部の装備部門や装備施設本部などを再編し、「防衛装備庁」を新設する。装備の開発から調達、維持までを一元管理するためだ。

Developing or procuring the most advanced defense equipment tends to inflate costs more than initially estimated. Particularly in the case of imported equipment, the ministry is often forced to pay whatever foreign manufacturers demand. It is important to suppress procurement costs by eliminating the harmful effects of bureaucratic sectionalism and sharpening negotiating skills.
 最新装備の開発・調達費は当初の見積もりより膨張しがちだ。特に、輸入品は外国メーカーの言い値をのまされる例も少なくない。組織の縦割りの弊害を排し、価格交渉力も磨いて、コストを抑制することは大切である。

Meanwhile, maintenance costs have soared recently, reducing funds needed to procure new equipment. This has caused such problems as reducing operating rates of aircraft and radar. Some equipment cannot be repaired because the ministry has failed to secure the necessary parts.
 近年は、装備の維持整備費が高騰し、新規調達費を圧迫している。部品が確保できず、修理できないため、航空機やレーダーの稼働率が低下する実害も出ている。

Defense authorities in the United States and Britain tend to sign more and more contracts that leave procurement of equipment parts and maintenance of defense equipment entirely to private companies, so the waiting time for necessary parts is shortened and the operating rates of defense equipment are improved. Japan should adopt this method more widely.
 米英では、部品待ちの時間を短縮し、装備の稼働率を高めるため、企業に部品調達・管理を一元的に委託する契約が増えている。日本もこの方式を広げるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 1, 2014)Speech

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子供の貧困対策 世代間の連鎖を断ち切りたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
End generational cycle of poverty to give children equal opportunity
子供の貧困対策 世代間の連鎖を断ち切りたい

A society must be realized in which all children, regardless of their parents’ income levels, will be given equal opportunities to carve out their own futures.
 すべての子供が、親の経済状況に関わりなく、将来を切り開いていける社会を実現したい。

The government on Friday announced a Cabinet decision on a policy outline containing details of countermeasures to combat the problem of child poverty. Based on the law for measures to counter child poverty that came into force in January, the outline specifies priority tasks to be undertaken by the government within the next five years.
 政府が、子供の貧困対策の具体的内容を定めた大綱を閣議決定した。1月に施行された「子どもの貧困対策法」に基づき、今後5年間の重点施策を示したものだ。

Japan’s child poverty rate stood at an all-time high of 16.3 percent in 2012. The figure represents the percentage of children living in households that earn less than half the national median income, translating into roughly one in six children. The nation’s child poverty rate is at a significantly high level among industrialized economies.
 日本の子供の貧困率は、2012年に過去最悪の16・3%に達した。所得が標準的な水準の半分に満たない世帯で暮らす子供の割合で、ほぼ6人に1人にあたる。先進国の中では高い水準だ。

Children from low-income households tend to find themselves in need even after they become adults. It is reasonable that the policy outline has adopted a basic principle with the aim of breaking the “generational cycle of poverty.”
 貧困家庭の子供は、成長した後、自らも経済的に困窮しやすい。大綱が「貧困の連鎖」の解消を基本理念としたのは妥当である。

Particular emphasis in the outline is placed on educational assistance measures for children living in poverty. Among the steps cited are expansion of interest-free scholarship loan programs and tutoring for needy children by volunteers. Envisioning schools as “platforms” for supporting children, the policy outline calls for an enormous increase in the number of school social workers who liaise with social welfare organizations.
 特に力点を置いたのが、教育の支援だ。無利子奨学金やボランティアによる学習支援の拡充などを挙げた。学校を支援の窓口と位置づけ、福祉機関とのつなぎ役となるスクールソーシャルワーカーを大幅に増員する。

To grasp the actual conditions of children living in poverty, the outline has chosen 25 indicators to evaluate the effects of child-support government measures, such as the percentages of children from households on welfare — those under the government’s public assistance system — who go on to higher education and secure employment.
 実態を把握するための指標として、生活保護世帯の子供の進学率や就職率など25項目を選び、対策の効果の検証に用いる。

Abandoning education

Many of the measures referred to in the outline have already been in place and lack innovation, but the fact that the government has worked out a comprehensive set of measures for tackling the problem of child poverty, the first of its kind, is fairly significant. The central government and local governments must work together closely for steady implementation of the support package.
 既存の施策が多く、目新しさには乏しいものの、政府が初めて総合的な対策を策定した意義は小さくない。国と自治体が連携し、着実に実施する必要がある。

Regarding the problem of child poverty, there are many conspicuous cases in which children are forced to abandon the prospect of higher education or find themselves unable to participate in such events as school trips and extracurricular activities. In some serious cases, children are unable to eat three proper meals a day or receive necessary medical treatment.
 子供の貧困を巡っては、進学を断念したり、修学旅行や部活動に参加できなかったりするケースが目立つ。3食を満足に食べられない、必要な医療を受けられないといった深刻な例もある。

Single-parent households, whose poverty rate has shot up to 54.6 percent, are in especially dire circumstances. A large majority of them are single-mother families.
 とりわけ苦境にあるのが、ひとり親世帯で、貧困率は54・6%に上る。その大半は母子家庭だ。

Eighty percent of single mothers work, but many of them have been unable to escape poverty. If they have children to take care of, they have fewer opportunities of attaining the status of regular employees, since many single mothers work in low-paying part-time and other nonregular jobs. The annual employment income of single-mother households is no more than ¥1.81 million on average.
 シングルマザーの8割は働いているが、なかなか貧困から抜け出せない。子供がいると正社員になりにくく、低賃金の非正規雇用で働く人が多いためだ。母子世帯の就労による年収は、平均181万円にとどまる。

Measures to help boost the income of such parents are vital. Employment support steps incorporated into the policy outline for single mothers and other low-income households must be improved further. In addition, a review must be made of the nation’s entire employment system with a view to remedying, as a matter of course, the working conditions of nonregular employees, and expanding their opportunities to become regular employees.
 親の所得アップは欠かせない。大綱に盛り込まれたシングルマザーなどへの就労支援を一層、充実させることが求められよう。非正規雇用の処遇改善はもちろん、正社員への転換促進など、雇用全体の見直しも必要だ。

The policy outline, however, fell short of including any numerical targets to lower the child poverty rate. This is a task the government should address in the future to heighten the effectiveness of measures to fight child poverty.
 大綱では、子供の貧困に関わる数値目標を設定しなかった。対策の実効性を高めるうえで、今後の検討課題だろう。

Situations in which children are deprived of opportunities to exercise their skills and abilities due to poverty is undoubtedly detrimental to the future of the country. The challenge of eliminating poverty must be addressed by society as a whole.
 貧困のため、子供が能力を発揮する機会を奪われるようでは、日本の将来にとって損失だ。貧困の解消は、社会全体で取り組まねばならない問題である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 1, 2014)Speech

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(社説)海の幸の保護 多様な手段で効果的に

September 01, 2014
EDITORIAL: Diverse efforts needed to protect marine resources
(社説)海の幸の保護 多様な手段で効果的に

International concern is growing over the dwindling populations of the Pacific bluefin tuna and the Japanese eel, or “nihon unagi,” but they are not the only fishes that need protection.
 保護が必要な魚は、国際問題になっているクロマグロやニホンウナギだけではない。

This autumn, the Fisheries Agency will introduce, on a trial basis, a system to allocate chub mackerel fishing quotas to individual fishery operators working in the Pacific.
 水産庁はこの秋、太平洋でのマサバ漁で、個々の漁業者に漁獲量を割り当てる「個別割り当て」制度を試験的に始める。

Japan has been imposing annual limits on total catches of each of seven different fishes, including the chub mackerel, or “masaba” in Japanese, which is also known as the Pacific mackerel.
 日本では、マサバを含む7魚種について、年間漁獲量の上限を設ける「漁獲可能量」制度を実施してきた。

This system is based on scientific estimates of maximum permissible catches made from the viewpoint of protecting the resources.
資源を守る観点から許される漁獲量を科学的に推計し、決める。

But such limits on overall catches by all fishing boats tend to spur competition among individual fishery operators based on the “first come, first served” principle.
 ただ、総枠だけでは「早く取った者勝ち」になりやすい。

The new quota system is designed to promote carefully planned fishing operations based on market forecasts while alleviating discontent among fishery operators about the system.
漁業者の不満を抑え、市況をにらみながら計画的な操業を促すのが、個別割り当ての狙いだ。

There is deep backlash among people working in the fisheries sector about the government’s move to enhance public control over their operations. That’s because many regional fishery operators’ groups and local fishermen’s cooperatives have been voluntarily controlling their total catches to protect stocks.
 漁業関係者には、役所がかかわる公的管理の強化への反発が根強い。地域や漁協ごとに自主的に操業を規制し、魚を守ってきた例が少なくないからだ。

Fishery operators are also concerned that they could be forced to decommission their ships and discontinue their businesses if regulatory restrictions on their operations are tightened progressively.
規制がどんどん強化されると減船や廃業に追い込まれかねない、との不安も背景にある。

In fact, experts have pointed out various benefits of the Japanese-style voluntary management of fishing operations. Self-imposed restrictions on catches are effective because they are based on agreements among fishery operators, experts say. They also argue that voluntary efforts to control catches are more cost-effective than public control, which requires officials in charge of monitoring and enforcement.
 実際、日本型の自主管理について、「合意があるからこそ守られる」「担当職員が必要な公的管理より安上がり」といった利点が指摘されている。

However, it is also true that, in the case of management by fishermen’s cooperatives, upper limits on catches tend to be decided based on whether the catches are rich or poor at that time and, as a result, lack scientific reasoning.
とはいえ、漁協中心の管理では、ときどきの豊漁・不漁で漁獲上限が決められるなど、科学的な根拠を欠きがちなのも事実だ。

The best approach to the problem would be a combination of self-imposed restrictions and public management for the most effective protection of valuable marine resources.
 自主規制と公的管理をうまく組み合わせ、効率的に水産資源を守る視点が重要だろう。

The planned trial of a mackerel quota for each fishery operator should be used to assess both the advantages and disadvantages of the system. After the test, the government should act swiftly to decide on measures to conserve stocks of other fishes that need to be protected more effectively.
 まずは、マサバの個別割り当てを通じてその利点と問題点を見極めたい。

Among the operations that should be better controlled are walleye pollack fishing in northern areas of the Sea of Japan and Japanese puffer fishing in wide areas involving 20 prefectures.
その上で、日本海北部でのスケトウダラ漁や、関係府県が20に及ぶトラフグ漁など、マサバと同様に保護の強化が必要な魚種でどんな対策をとるか、早急に検討すべきだ。

It should not be forgotten that restricting catches is only a small part of efforts needed to ensure sustainable consumption of limited marine resources and stable income for fishery operators.
 限られた「海の幸」を保護しつつ食べ、漁業者も安定した所得を得るために、漁獲量の制限は必要な対策のごく一部にすぎないことも忘れてはなるまい。

Various other steps are needed to tackle the raft of challenges confronting the nation’s fisheries sector. They include improving the environment for fishes through measures like developing seaweed beds and expanding aquaculture by taking advantage of latest knowledge in various areas. It is also important to increase the income of workers in the sector by promoting businesses that not only catch fishes but also process them and sell tasty and easy-to-eat seafood products.
 藻場の整備など魚が住みやすい環境を整える。さまざまな分野の知見を生かして養殖を強化する。漁業者は魚を取るだけでなく、消費者が手軽に食べられるよう加工し、販売まで手がける「6次産業化」によって所得を増やす。課題は山積みだ。

As for Pacific bluefin tuna, Japan, the largest consumer of the fish, has decided to halve its catch of immature fish that weigh less than 30 kilograms. The Japanese government also plans to propose halving the international catch of young Pacific bluefin tuna during an international conference in September.
 太平洋でのクロマグロ漁では、最大の消費国であるわが国が30キロ未満の未成魚の漁獲量をかつての半分に減らすことを決め、9月の国際会議で同様の対策を呼びかける。

The listing of the Japanese eel on the Red List of Threatened Species, released by the International Union for Conservation of Nature on June 12, could lead to a future international ban on trade in the fish.
「絶滅危惧種」に指定されたニホンウナギは将来、国際的な商取引が禁止されかねない状況だ。

Delays in responding to such issues often make it necessary to take drastic, large-scale measures to deal with them later. The risk that the measures are too late will also increase.
 後手に回ると対策は大がかりになり、手遅れになる恐れも高まる。

Quick actions are vital for protecting important ingredients of the Japanese diet.
食卓を守るためにも早め早めに動くことが大切だ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 31

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