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2014年9月 2日 (火)

(社説)海の幸の保護 多様な手段で効果的に

September 01, 2014
EDITORIAL: Diverse efforts needed to protect marine resources
(社説)海の幸の保護 多様な手段で効果的に

International concern is growing over the dwindling populations of the Pacific bluefin tuna and the Japanese eel, or “nihon unagi,” but they are not the only fishes that need protection.
 保護が必要な魚は、国際問題になっているクロマグロやニホンウナギだけではない。

This autumn, the Fisheries Agency will introduce, on a trial basis, a system to allocate chub mackerel fishing quotas to individual fishery operators working in the Pacific.
 水産庁はこの秋、太平洋でのマサバ漁で、個々の漁業者に漁獲量を割り当てる「個別割り当て」制度を試験的に始める。

Japan has been imposing annual limits on total catches of each of seven different fishes, including the chub mackerel, or “masaba” in Japanese, which is also known as the Pacific mackerel.
 日本では、マサバを含む7魚種について、年間漁獲量の上限を設ける「漁獲可能量」制度を実施してきた。

This system is based on scientific estimates of maximum permissible catches made from the viewpoint of protecting the resources.
資源を守る観点から許される漁獲量を科学的に推計し、決める。

But such limits on overall catches by all fishing boats tend to spur competition among individual fishery operators based on the “first come, first served” principle.
 ただ、総枠だけでは「早く取った者勝ち」になりやすい。

The new quota system is designed to promote carefully planned fishing operations based on market forecasts while alleviating discontent among fishery operators about the system.
漁業者の不満を抑え、市況をにらみながら計画的な操業を促すのが、個別割り当ての狙いだ。

There is deep backlash among people working in the fisheries sector about the government’s move to enhance public control over their operations. That’s because many regional fishery operators’ groups and local fishermen’s cooperatives have been voluntarily controlling their total catches to protect stocks.
 漁業関係者には、役所がかかわる公的管理の強化への反発が根強い。地域や漁協ごとに自主的に操業を規制し、魚を守ってきた例が少なくないからだ。

Fishery operators are also concerned that they could be forced to decommission their ships and discontinue their businesses if regulatory restrictions on their operations are tightened progressively.
規制がどんどん強化されると減船や廃業に追い込まれかねない、との不安も背景にある。

In fact, experts have pointed out various benefits of the Japanese-style voluntary management of fishing operations. Self-imposed restrictions on catches are effective because they are based on agreements among fishery operators, experts say. They also argue that voluntary efforts to control catches are more cost-effective than public control, which requires officials in charge of monitoring and enforcement.
 実際、日本型の自主管理について、「合意があるからこそ守られる」「担当職員が必要な公的管理より安上がり」といった利点が指摘されている。

However, it is also true that, in the case of management by fishermen’s cooperatives, upper limits on catches tend to be decided based on whether the catches are rich or poor at that time and, as a result, lack scientific reasoning.
とはいえ、漁協中心の管理では、ときどきの豊漁・不漁で漁獲上限が決められるなど、科学的な根拠を欠きがちなのも事実だ。

The best approach to the problem would be a combination of self-imposed restrictions and public management for the most effective protection of valuable marine resources.
 自主規制と公的管理をうまく組み合わせ、効率的に水産資源を守る視点が重要だろう。

The planned trial of a mackerel quota for each fishery operator should be used to assess both the advantages and disadvantages of the system. After the test, the government should act swiftly to decide on measures to conserve stocks of other fishes that need to be protected more effectively.
 まずは、マサバの個別割り当てを通じてその利点と問題点を見極めたい。

Among the operations that should be better controlled are walleye pollack fishing in northern areas of the Sea of Japan and Japanese puffer fishing in wide areas involving 20 prefectures.
その上で、日本海北部でのスケトウダラ漁や、関係府県が20に及ぶトラフグ漁など、マサバと同様に保護の強化が必要な魚種でどんな対策をとるか、早急に検討すべきだ。

It should not be forgotten that restricting catches is only a small part of efforts needed to ensure sustainable consumption of limited marine resources and stable income for fishery operators.
 限られた「海の幸」を保護しつつ食べ、漁業者も安定した所得を得るために、漁獲量の制限は必要な対策のごく一部にすぎないことも忘れてはなるまい。

Various other steps are needed to tackle the raft of challenges confronting the nation’s fisheries sector. They include improving the environment for fishes through measures like developing seaweed beds and expanding aquaculture by taking advantage of latest knowledge in various areas. It is also important to increase the income of workers in the sector by promoting businesses that not only catch fishes but also process them and sell tasty and easy-to-eat seafood products.
 藻場の整備など魚が住みやすい環境を整える。さまざまな分野の知見を生かして養殖を強化する。漁業者は魚を取るだけでなく、消費者が手軽に食べられるよう加工し、販売まで手がける「6次産業化」によって所得を増やす。課題は山積みだ。

As for Pacific bluefin tuna, Japan, the largest consumer of the fish, has decided to halve its catch of immature fish that weigh less than 30 kilograms. The Japanese government also plans to propose halving the international catch of young Pacific bluefin tuna during an international conference in September.
 太平洋でのクロマグロ漁では、最大の消費国であるわが国が30キロ未満の未成魚の漁獲量をかつての半分に減らすことを決め、9月の国際会議で同様の対策を呼びかける。

The listing of the Japanese eel on the Red List of Threatened Species, released by the International Union for Conservation of Nature on June 12, could lead to a future international ban on trade in the fish.
「絶滅危惧種」に指定されたニホンウナギは将来、国際的な商取引が禁止されかねない状況だ。

Delays in responding to such issues often make it necessary to take drastic, large-scale measures to deal with them later. The risk that the measures are too late will also increase.
 後手に回ると対策は大がかりになり、手遅れになる恐れも高まる。

Quick actions are vital for protecting important ingredients of the Japanese diet.
食卓を守るためにも早め早めに動くことが大切だ。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 31

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