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2014年10月11日 (土)

日米防衛指針 切れ目ない共同対処を可能に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
New defense guidelines must enable seamless, effective joint cooperation
日米防衛指針 切れ目ない共同対処を可能に

It is extremely important for the new defense guidelines to enable the Self-Defense Forces and U.S. forces to act jointly and seamlessly in line with changing circumstances from peacetime to contingencies.
 平時から有事へ、危機の進展に応じて、自衛隊と米軍が切れ目のない共同対処ができる仕組みにすることが肝要だ。

The Japanese and U.S. governments on Wednesday released an interim report on revision of the Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation. The revisions focus on better enabling swift, flexible and effective bilateral defense cooperation between the two countries, while eventually eliminating the three classifications of circumstances — peacetime, contingencies Japan may face and contingencies in areas surrounding Japan — stipulated under the present guidelines.
 日米両政府が、日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)見直しの中間報告を公表した。平時、日本有事、周辺有事という現指針の3分類はなくす方向で、より迅速、柔軟で実効性ある日米協力を可能にすることが柱である。

Enacted in 1999 on the basis of the current guidelines that were adopted in 1997, the law concerning the nation’s response to contingencies in areas surrounding Japan is a landmark in security legislation that has established the various forms of cooperation that Japan can extend to U.S. forces, ranging from supplies to transportation, in preparation for a contingency on the Korean Peninsula.
 1997年の現指針に基づいて99年に成立した周辺事態法は、朝鮮半島有事を念頭に、補給、輸送など様々な対米支援を定めた歴史的な安全保障法制だ。

As there are strict criteria for the recognition of circumstances as a contingency in areas surrounding Japan, it can hardly be denied that the law is difficult to invoke.
だが、周辺事態の認定のハードルは高く、活用しづらいのは否めない。

Experts have also pointed out such problems as the fact that the nation cannot supply fuel even to U.S. military vessels on joint alert with the Maritime Self-Defense Force over a ballistic missile launch by North Korea.
 北朝鮮の弾道ミサイル発射を、海上自衛隊とともに警戒中の米軍艦船にさえ給油できない、といった問題点も指摘されていた。

What is urgently needed is an enhanced bilateral security system allowing the SDF and U.S. forces to cooperate closely and respond effectively to so-called gray-zone situations — which are deemed neither peacetime incidents nor contingencies — such as the occupation of remote islands by armed groups.
 武装集団による離島占拠など、平時でも有事でもないグレーゾーン事態の発生時に、自衛隊と米軍が緊密に連携し、効果的に対応する制度を整えることが急務だ。

It is important that the interim report has stipulated that “protection of assets (including equipment)” should be included in the revised guidelines as a specific type of cooperation.
 中間報告が具体的な協力として「アセット(装備品等)防護」を明記したのは重要である。

SDF scope expanded

This stipulation is based on the government’s new interpretation of the Constitution, adopted in July, which allows the SDF to protect U.S. vessels under armed attacks in gray-zone situations, in addition to enabling the nation to exercise, within a limited range, the right of collective self-defense.
 7月の新政府見解が集団的自衛権の行使の限定容認に加え、グレーゾーン事態での米艦防護を盛り込んだのを踏まえたものだ。

The use of weapons, as permitted under such a scenario as MSDF vessels coming under armed attacks, stipulated in Section 95 of the Self-Defense Forces Law, is to be applied to the protection of U.S. military vessels.
海自艦船が攻撃された時と同様の自衛隊法95条に基づく武器使用を、米艦防護にも適用させる。

This should be recognized as an effective move that will facilitate Japan-U.S. joint warning and surveillance activity in areas surrounding Japan, and enhance bilateral relations of trust.
 日本周辺での日米共同の警戒監視活動を円滑にし、双方の信頼関係を高めると評価できる。

Details related to the use of the right of collective self-defense are not included in the interim report. The matter has been put off until the final report, which both governments plan to decide on at the year-end. As the issue constitutes a core element of strengthening the deterrent power of the Japan-U.S. alliance, the new guidelines need to stipulate them clearly and specifically.
 集団的自衛権の行使に関する詳細は中間報告に盛り込まれず、年末の策定を目指す最終報告に先送りされた。日米同盟の抑止力を強化するための中核的要素であり、新指針では、明確かつ具体的に記述する必要がある。

Also included in the interim report are the reinforcement of joint Japan-U.S. cooperation in Asia and in the world, and the promotion of trilateral and multilateral security and defense cooperation with regional allies and partners, with an eye on Australia and South Korea.
 中間報告は、アジアと世界における日米協力の強化や、豪州や韓国を念頭に、地域の同盟国やパートナーとの3か国・多国間の安保協力の推進も盛り込んだ。

Since the current guidelines were worked out, security cooperation between Japan and the United States has expanded on a global scale, ranging from refueling in the Indian Ocean, postwar reconstruction assistance to Iraq, measures to deal with pirates and natural disaster relief efforts.
 現指針の策定後、日米の安保協力は、インド洋での給油、イラク復興支援、海賊対処、災害救援など、世界規模に拡大している。

Reflecting the current state of bilateral ties and diversifying international peacekeeping cooperation in the new guidelines will be significant, as it will strengthen the value of the Japan-U.S. alliance as “a public good” that contributes to regional peace and stability.
 新指針にこの実態を反映し、さらに多様な国際平和協力活動を打ち出すことは、地域の平和と安定に貢献する日米同盟の「公共財」的性格を強める意義を持とう。

Before releasing the interim report, the United States briefed South Korea on the contents and sought its understanding. It is quite an appropriate step. Japan, for its part, must explain in a careful manner to its neighboring countries what the nation intends to do with the guidelines and its policy for developing related legislation so as to enhance transparency in their revision.
 米国は中間報告発表に先立って韓国に内容を説明し、理解を求めた。適切な対応だ。日本も、日本側の意図や法整備方針を周辺国に丁寧に説明し、指針改定の透明性を高めることが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Oct. 9, 2014)Speech

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