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2014年12月25日 (木)

大学入試改革 山積する課題を克服できるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Preparation needed before implementing new university entrance examinations
大学入試改革 山積する課題を克服できるか

Using college entrance examination reform as leverage for improving high school and university education is a reasonable idea, but a vast number of hurdles must be cleared before achieving this goal.
 大学入試の見直しをテコに、高校・大学教育を充実させる。掲げる理念はもっともだが、実現に向けて克服すべき課題はあまりに多い。

The Central Council for Education has complied a report on reforming the university entrance examination system, including the abolition of the National Center Test for University Admissions and the introduction, instead, of a test to assess applicants’ scholastic achievements, mainly their abilities to think and express themselves.
 中央教育審議会が、大学入試改革に関する答申をまとめた。
 現行の大学入試センター試験を廃止し、思考力や表現力を中心に評価する「大学入学希望者学力評価テスト」を導入する。

In addition to reviewing test results, each university would gauge applicants’ abilities to act and think on their own and to cooperate with others through such multifaceted methods as interviews and group debates.
各大学は、その成績に加え、面接や集団討論など多面的な手法で受験生の主体性や協調性も見極めるという。

The report is in line with a report released in autumn last year by the government’s Education Rebuilding Implementation Council.
 昨秋に政府の教育再生実行会議が出した提言に沿った内容だ。

It is difficult to adequately face various problems in society by merely memorizing textbooks, and the entrance examinations thus far have undeniably put too much emphasis on gauging applicants’ abilities to study.
 教科書を暗記するだけでは、社会の様々な問題に適切に対処するのは難しい。従来の入試が知識偏重だったことは否めない。

The report pointed out that the entrance examination system needs to go through a sweeping transformation if Japan wants to cultivate people who have flexible ways of thinking and abilities to solve problems, and who are capable of contributing to society. In some respects, we understand the council’s stance.
 柔軟な発想と問題解決能力を備え、社会に貢献できる人材を育成するには、入試の在り方の大胆な転換が必要だ、という答申の指摘には理解できる面がある。

However, the report lacks specifics on the new assessment test the council wants to introduce, including how it will gauge applicants’ ability to think and make judgments.
 しかし、肝心の学力評価テストの具体像は見えない。どんな問題で思考力や判断力を測るのか。

According to the report, the new test will pose questions assessing students’ knowledge on more than one subject as well as comprehensive questions that are not bound by the frameworks of subjects. High schools, however, give instructions subject by subject. High school students preparing for entrance examinations will surely be baffled by such an overhaul.
 答申は、複数の教科にまたがる「合教科・科目型」や、教科の枠にとらわれない「総合型」の問題も出すとしている。だが、高校は教科ごとの学習が中心だ。高校生は入試の準備に戸惑うだろう。

Subjective yardstick

The test results would be roughly shown using several ranks, not a point score. We wonder if eliminating the objective yardstick of point scores will be troublesome for universities in screening applicants, or if it will be accepted by society.
 学力評価テストの成績は「1点刻み」ではなく、大まかなランクの段階別に表示する方向だ。点数という客観的な物差しをなくすことで、大学の選考作業に不都合は生じないか。また、社会的な理解は得られるだろうか。

It is unclear, at best, whether each university would be able to adequately select applicants on its own as only a small number of universities possess the know-how to interview applicants and conduct group debates. If their yardsticks to screen applicants are ambiguous, their fairness will come under scrutiny. Also, it is almost impossible for large universities to conduct interviews of all examinees.
 各大学の個別選抜の行方も不透明だ。面接や集団討論のノウハウを持つ大学は少ない。評価基準があいまいなら、選抜の公平性が疑われる。大規模な大学が全受験生を面接するのは不可能に近い。

Some top-notch universities are opposed to the proposals and said they want to gauge whether applicants have broad knowledge and high academic achievements using their own tests.
 難関大学からは、幅広い知識や学力の習得を個別試験で確認したいという異論も出ている。

The report also proposed introducing basic achievement tests for second- and third-year high school students, designed to grasp the scholastic achievements they have acquired. The tests are regarded as high school versions of the nationwide achievement tests for primary and middle school students. Their results would be used as reference material for college entrance examinations.
 答申は、高校2、3年生を対象にした「高等学校基礎学力テスト」の導入も提言した。学力の定着度の把握が目的で、小中学校の全国学力テストの「高校版」だ。入試の参考資料にも使うという。

The new tests for high school students would be held several times a year. Many high schools are strongly concerned that students will be so immersed in taking and preparing for tests that schools may not be able to secure enough time for school events and club activities.
 両方の新テストは、年に各複数回の実施を想定している。生徒が「テスト漬け」にならないか、学校行事や部活動の時間を確保できるか、高校側には懸念が強い。

The report called for starting the new college entrance examination system in the 2020 academic year. However, the nation must not begin implementation without due preparation.
 答申は新たな入試の2020年度からの実施を求めているが、拙速は避けねばならない。

The Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry must carefully study if the council’s proposals are viable to avert any confusion schools might face from examination reform.
教育現場に混乱をもたらさないよう、文部科学省は、実現性を考慮し、慎重に検討を進めるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 24, 2014)Speech

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